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1999-01-0559

S. H. Nasser

Department of Aerospace, Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB, UK.

B. B. Playfoot

400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001 U.S.A. Tel: (724) 776-4841 Fax: (724) 776-5760

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1999-01-0559

S. H. Nasser

Department of Aerospace, Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB, UK.

B. B. Playfoot

Copyright 1999 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.

ABSTRACT

A variable turbine vane angles turbocharger selection model was developed. The model, which is based on a single entry fixed vanes angle turbocharger matching model developed in earlier study, is of a modular structure and designed to run on a personal computer. It is based on the principles of conservation of mass, energy and momentum in one dimension. A heat transfer submodel was incorporated to account for the exhaust manifold losses and to overcome undesirable turbine-inlet temperature profile. Non-isentropic flow was assumed through the compressor using one-dimensional, semiempirical loss calculation formula to improve the prediction accuracy of the model at the compressor exit. The model was verified by comparing the calculated results with the test data of a Rover 2.4 litter direct injection diesel engine fitted with a 3K-K24 type single entry turbocharger. The engine was coupled to an Eddy-current dynamometer and provided with facilities to assess its performance under various running conditions. The verification procedure revealed substantial improvements in the models accuracy, as compared with the previous model, and a more definitive understanding of its limitations. The benefit of modeling the heat losses from the exhaust manifold was clearly demonstrated. Comparison of the predicted and measured results also revealed that the model could provide a valuable tool in predicting the performance of a variable geometry turbocharger. This in turn confirmed the viability of the improved model and strongly indicated to its suitability in the initial stages of turbocharger matching and design.

European vehicles emission legislation proposed for the year 2000 to be closely followed by further legislation in 2005 (2). This in turn has increased the pressure to develop and produce more fuel-efficient engines and vehicles. One of the most successful ways of combating harmful emission and reducing fuel consumption as well as improving engines, and ultimately the vehicles, performance is by increasing the air available for fuel combustion (3). This can be achieved by fitting the engine with a turbocharger. Although very effective, some characteristics of the turbocharged engines remain unsatisfactory and matching an engine to a turbocharger to achieve efficient turbocharger operation over a wide range of engines speed is a difficult and often a compromising process. As an example, matching a large flow turbine to an engine improves the performance at high engine speed. However at low engine speed, the exhaust gas pressure will be insufficient to operate the turbine at high enough speed to provide the charge required for full fuel combustion. This can lead to poor combustion resulting in a high specific fuel consumption and poor transient response. Consequently, the overall engine performance is significantly reduced at such speeds. Matching a low flow turbine to an engine improves the performance at low engine speeds and results in excessively high boost pressure at high engine speeds. Bypassing excess gas flow by fitting a waste-gate prevents over-boosting. However, bypassed gases represent energy waste and consequently the turbine operates in a low efficiency range. At high speeds, the waste-gate turbocharger is restrictive to the flow. Consequently, the exhaust manifold pressure becomes greater than the boost pressure, leading to poor cylinder scavenging and high fuel consumption. To overcome the inadequacy in performance, both the compressor and turbine flow range capability were improved by two methods. On the compressor side, development of the backswept and raked impeller (depicted in Fig. 1) has been successful in obtaining efficient operation over a flow range broad enough to encompass the engine speed range. On the turbine side, 1

INTRODUCTION

Rapidly diminishing fossil fuels and increased public interest in the impact of their use on the human health, environment, ecology and global climate brought about progressively stringent vehicles emission legislation since the early sixties (1). More recently, the pressure to reduce CO2 emission has produced the first stage of the

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a fix geometry design that achieves efficient operation over a wide enough speed range cannot be achieved, resulting in a compromise between high or low speed performance. By varying the turbine area, a variable geometry turbine is an effective way of providing efficient operation over a wide flow range. Matching a compressor-turbine combination to an engine is a time consuming and expensive process. Models for calculating the performance of various turbochargerengine configurations enable a close to the optimum turbocharger match to be found. Such models are in common use and range from simple mathematical representation to extremely complicated and costly computational flow dynamics, requiring the use of threedimensional CAD models. The current work expands the function of an existing Microsoft Excel based analytical model (4 5) to enable matching of latest generation of Variable Geometry Turbochargers to direct injection diesel engine. The accuracy of the fundamental thermodynamics and fluid mechanics concepts employed in the model are investigated and improved where necessary. In particular, consideration is given to two aspects of the previous model. The first is the heat transfer through the exhaust manifold. This was assumed to be negligible in the previous study (4 5). However, a considerable amount of heat loss is reported to occur through the exhaust manifold wall (6 7). Therefore an analysis is presented to ascertain the change in the turbine inlet temperature due to heat loss with the aim of improving the models accuracy. The second is the overall compressor isentropic efficiency, which was assigned a certain value in the previous study. Hence, the loss in useable energy due to fluid friction and the rise in aerodynamic losses at off-design conditions were neglected. This resulted in an over calculated compressor pressure ratio and was replaced in the current study by a semi-empirical expression accounting for the overall compressor losses.

of relatively complex and expensive variable geometry is uninteresting for all but the highest performance applications [8, 9]. 2. THE VARIABLE GEOMETRY TURBINE The variable nozzle turbine (VNT) has been exploited for many years. It consists of a number of guide vanes, equally distributed around the diffuser ring. By varying blade angle both the effective turbine area and the rotor inlet gas angle can be controlled. Reducing the turbine flow area at low engine speeds enables the gas flow to be kept high and the turbine speed fast. This allows more efficient utilisation of exhaust energy than is possible at low speeds with a conventional turbocharger. The gas flow is also directed by the vanes, enabling a greater amount of the tangential velocity component to be utilised at low speeds. As a result, higher boost pressure is available at low speeds, improving torque and reducing smoke. At high engine speeds, the turbine area opens, to control the gas velocity and prevent over-boosting. The VNT concept requires a relatively complicated drive mechanism with many intricate components and parts. Other variable geometry turbine concepts are sometimes preferred over the VNT concept for their simplicity. However, the VNT has a favorable turndown ratio (ratio of maximum to minimum areas) and a more direct control over the tangential gas velocity component and hence turbine torque. The VNT is widely used in the automotive application and, therefore, was chosen as the basic design in the current study. 3. ELEMENTARY THEORY OF A VARIABLE NOZZLE TURBINE By carrying out a one-dimensional analysis on the gas flow through the turbine, the torque produced by the turbine and consequently the power to drive the compressor can be determined. The torque (TQ) produced by the turbine is determined by considering the conservation of angular momentum as follows: Rate of change of angular momentum = Sum of the moments of the external forces Angular momentum = Moment of linear momentum Hence,

( r4 C 4 r5 C 5 ) TQ = m

THEORITICAL CONSIDERATION

1. THE VARIABLE GEOMETRY COMPRESSOR T h e addition of vanes to a compressor diffuser enables better diffusion by reducing the tangential component of velocity more rapidly. Consequently, higher pressure-ratio can be achieved. However, the increased blockage increases the gas velocity, which in turn lowers the flow capacity required for choke conditions (when the flow reaches the speed of sound). At low flow rates the incidence angle of the gas at the diffuser blades (due to off-design conditions) can have an adverse effect on the surge condition. Employing a variable geometry diffuser enables the incidence angle to be eliminated at low flow rates and the throat blockage minimised at high flow rates. However, compressor designs using non-shrouded impellers are already available with efficiencies above ninety per cent. The advent of backswept impellers has made the efficient operating band of a compressor wide enough to cope with the engine operating range. Consequently, the use 2

(1)

Where denotes the tangential component of velocity and subscripts 4 and 5 denote the rotor inlet and exit respectively. In the previous study [4-5] the turbine had a vaneless diffuser and the tangential component of velocity, C4 was determined by considering the conservation of momentum of the gas between the volute and the rotor inlet. This theory can be expanded to include the effect of the variable nozzle diffuser on the inlet gas flow, as explained hereafter. The volute, depicted schematically in Fig. 1(a), guides the exhaust gases in an inward spiral pattern to the

diffuser inlet. For incompressible flow the continuity equation relates the flow between the volute throat and the nozzle inlet:

= A C = AC V 0 0 1 1

4. HEAT LOSSES 4.1 Exhaust manifold heat transfer modeling The thermal inertia of the exhaust system upstream of the turbine must be taken into account, in order to ensure an optimized turbocharger match. The manifold under consideration is a single walled, cast iron construction of the Rover 2.4L SD Turbo. Forced convection occurs between the exhaust gas and the pipe wall, followed by heat conduction through the wall to the connecting surfaces. In the stationary test bed environment, natural convection occurs between the outer surface and the surrounding atmosphere. Radiation from the pipe surface also becomes significant at surface temperatures above 400 o C. Proper modeling of the overall heat transfer results in a precise prediction of the turbine inlet temperature and, hence, enables an accurate assessment of the effects of the manifold geometry and material on the turbocharger performance. In the following steady-state analysis, an average exhaust gas mass flow rate is employed. 4.2 Component interior heat transfer The exhaust gas flow through the manifold is often lower than that required for the laminar turbulent transition (Re = 2300). However, the flow is always turbulent due to the constant restriction of the exhaust valve and the unsteady flow pulsation effects of the reciprocating engine. Consequently, the effect of forced convection is considerably greater than might be expected for such flow. The heat transfer due to forced convection is related to the heat transfer coefficient, as follows: -

(2)

Where, subscripts 0 and 1 (labelled in Fig. 1b) represent the volute throat and nozzle inlet, respectively. Considering the conservation of angular momentum between the same points yields the nozzle inlet gas angle:

A0 1 = cot 1 2r b 0 1

(3)

Therefore, the nozzle inlet gas angle is a function of throat area (A0), the radius of the centroid at the volute throat (r0), and the nozzle inlet width (b 1) as depicted in Fig. 1(b). At the nozzle throat, the total mass flow rate can be expressed in terms of the throat aperture (L TH2), the nozzle throat width (b2), the number of rotor blade (z2), and the gas velocity at the throat (C2).

= 2C2b2 LTH 2 z 2 m

(4)

Hence, C 2 can be found for a given engine speed and turbine geometry. The exit gas flow angle (3), depicted in Fig. 2, is predicted using common steam turbine theory [10]:

LTH 2 3 = cos 1 Sp 3

And

(5)

Q = h cv ,i Ai Tln

(8)

m C3 = A 3

(6)

A vaneless space between the turbine rotor and the diffuser blades helps the flow to develop, reduces noise and aids manufacturing. Applying the conservation of momentum and continuity equations across the space enables the rotor inlet gas angle (4) to be determined:

Where hcv,i denotes the internal heat transfer coefficient due to convection, Ai is the internal surface area and Tln is the logarithmic mean temperature difference. This measure of temperature difference assumes that the internal surface is at constant temperature and the temperature difference decays exponentially in the flow direction. The convective heat transfer coefficient, hcv, is determined from the Nusselt number, Nu, with the following relationship:

(7)

hi di Nui = k i

(9)

Where 3 is the diffuser exit angle in radians, r3 is the diffuser exit radius, b4 is the rotor inlet blade width, b2 is the diffuser throat width and z2 is the number of rotor blades. As a result of calculating the rotor inlet gas angle, all the other associated parameters such as turbine speed, power and incidence loss can also be calculated.

Where di represents the internal diameter and ki, the average exhaust gases thermal conductivity. Numerous equations have been developed using experimental correlation, that express the Nusselt number as a function of Reynolds number (Re) and Prandtls number (Pr). The accuracy of the relationships varies from application to application depending on the assumptions made. By averaging the dimensions of each runner, the manifold

can be modelled by a single representative runner. As a result, the model consists of a bend from the exhaust port, leading to a straight pipe followed by a final bend to the turbine interface. Modelling the manifold in this way enables the proximity of the exhaust valve to be included. The model can also be altered to suit different manifolds without requiring too much information. For steady flow in a straight, circular pipe the interior Nusselt number can be calculated from the Seider-Tate relationship, [12-13]:

the exhaust manifold [12]; more exact value can be obtained by experimentation. The convective augmentation factor is defined as:

CAF =

Nueffective Nutheoretical

(15)

(10)

Initially, an internal surface temperature must be assumed in order to determine the film temperature at which the exhaust gas properties (such as Re, Pr, C P, , , etc.) are calculated. The temperature difference between the centre line gas and the wall is usually greater than 100C. Equation (10) should therefore be factored by the following relationship to take into account for differences in dynamic viscosity:

Considerable heat loss occurs as the exhaust gas passes through the cylinder head. This is caused mainly by (a) water cooling in the cylinder head and (b) highly turbulent flow in close proximity to the exhaust valves. No conclusive information has been found regarding this component of heat loss. However, the loss is largely dependent on the gas mass flow rate and it is therefore a reasonable factorise the overall heat transfer. 4.3 Component Exterior Heat Transfer For stationary applications such as the engine test bed, the external convection is natural. The Nusselt number is expressed by the following equation:

Cvisc

bulk = skin

0.14

(11)

8 / 27

(16)

Where bulk and skin are the gas dynamic viscosity at the bulk gas and pipe surface temperatures, respectively. Badly separated flow at the manifold inlet results from the entrance effect of the exhaust valve. A factor, which takes into account the separation effect, is defined as follows:

Raamb

Where:

(17)

(12)

= Characteristic length (pipe diameter), m g = Gravitational acceleration, m/s2 = Coefficient of volume expansion for the ambient air, 1/K = Kinematic Viscosity, m2/s The external heat transfer coefficient, hcv,o, can therefore be obtained using the relationship described in equation 9. Convection and radiation occur simultaneously at the outer surface. Assuming a reasonable ambient air temperature, the radiation heat transfer coefficient, hrad, can be expressed as:

Where L, is the entrance length. Hence, the product of equations 10-12 can be used to calculate the total ideal flow interior Nusselt number:

(13)

The effect of a bend is determined by factoring the Nusselt number of an equivalent straight pipe to take into account the increased turbulence at the bend:

(14) The turbulent boundary layer inside the manifold are not fully developed because of pulsation in the exhaust pressure and the effect of wall curvature. Consequently, the Nusselt number is observed to be considerably higher than the ideal-flow prediction. The Convective Augmentation Factor (CAF) is used to quantify this increase [1213]. CAF values between 2.5 & 3.0 are appropriate for Where;

= Radiation emissivity factor s = Stefan-Boltzmann constant, W/m2K4

(18)

The outside surface temperature, Ts,o, is initially calculated using standard pipe conduction theory and the approximated internal pipe surface temperature.

5. EXHAUST MANIFOLD EXIT TEMPERATURE Assuming the temperatures of the internal surface, external surface and surrounding air are constant along the manifold length, the exit gas temperature (Te) can be determined by:

(iv) Re-circulation losses due to clearance, facilitated by; (a) flow across the tip of the impeller from the pressure side to the suction side and (b) the backflow of air along the shroud from the impeller tip to the inducer. (v) Disc friction losses due to the shearing of air between the back face of the impeller and the stationary housing. (vi) Shock losses, associated with sonic flow at the inducer entry under high-pressure ratio operation. Cumpsty [14] suggested that the losses in good impellers cannot be very high because the efficiencies close to the optimum specific speed are very high. For non-shrouded impellers with an inducer, isentropic efficiencies as high as 93 per cent are attainable. This is possible since much or even most of the static pressure rise comes from the centripetal force imparted on the air, which is independent of fluid losses and depends only on the impeller blade speed at inlet and outlet. Diffusion in the impeller passage contributes the remaining static pressure rise and depends on fluid flow. This free static pressure rise due to centripetal effects is very fortunate because the narrow flow path through the impeller channel is very conducive to high losses. 6.2.1 Fluid friction losses Application of the energy and momentum equations to pipe flow with surface friction shows that the energy loss, due to surface friction in the impeller channels [9,15], can be calculated:

.C p ) U . .L ( m

(19)

Where Ts is the internal surface temperature, Tin is the manifold inlet temperature, and L represents the mean section length. The total heat transfer coefficient is represented by U and is defined by Equation 20:

(20)

Using equations 920, the turbine inlet temperature can be determined. The total heat loss can then be determined by the Equation 21:

=m .C P (Tin Te ) Q

(21)

Using equation (8), an improved approximation of the internal surface temperature can be obtained. Employing this iterative process, a complete steady state model incorporating all the heat transfer components is produced. 6. NON-ISENTROPIC FLOW THROUGH THE RADIAL FLOW COMPRESSOR The flow through the centrifugal compressor is highly turbulent and three-dimensional. Consequently, the loss modelled using one-dimensional analysis is very reliant upon experimental data. Energy losses within the compressor stage can be broadly divided into aerodynamic loss, disc friction loss, leakage loss and mechanical losses. 6.1 Inlet Casing Losses In an automotive turbocharger with inboard bearings, the pressure loss through the air filter is far greater than that occurring in the inlet casing. Consequently, the small aerodynamic losses that are present during this stage can be neglected [10]. 6.2 Impeller Losses The impeller, depicted in Fig. 3, imparts a swirling motion on the air, which leaves the impeller tip at high velocity. Work transfer takes place in the impeller and the static pressure of the air increases from the inducer to the impeller tip due to centripetal acceleration and diffusion. Watson and Janota [10] divided the losses in the impeller into: (i) Fluid friction losses. (ii) Diffusion and blade loading losses due to boundary layer growth, separation and mixing. (iii) Blade incidence loss due to off-design angles of the inlet gas at the inducer.

h =

Or

4l L W12 =4f D 2 D

(22)

h = Ch

Where:

L W1 D 2

(23)

Ch = f = L = D = W =

Surface friction loss coefficient Friction factor Mean channel length, m Mean hydraulic channel diameter, m Mean relative velocity at inlet, m/s

The surface friction loss coefficient, Ch, is an empirical constant that contains a factor for blade loading and diffusion losses as well as for surface friction. This is possible since the pressure ratios common in most automotive turbochargers are not enough to make blade loading and diffusion losses dominant. An advantage of this method is that it does not imply an accurate knowledge of the component losses in the impeller, which are impossible to separate experimentally.

6.2.2 Blade incidence loss Blade incidence loss, also termed shock loss, takes into account the flow separation caused by off-design inlet gas angles at the impeller eye. Consequently, the loss at the design speed is zero and the further away from the design speed, the greater the angle of incidence and therefore the greater the loss. It is assumed that the fluid approaching the impeller blade instantaneously changes direction, from 1 to 1b , to comply with the blade angle, as can be seen in Fig. 4. Ca1 is the incoming gas, which is assumed to be perpendicular to the impeller eye (no pre-whirl). W 1 is the velocity of the incoming gas relative to the impeller eye tip velocity, U1. As depicted in Fig. 4, W 1 can be resolved into a component W1b in the direction of the impeller vane (1b) and a component W1 in a direction tangential to the impeller eye. A simple loss model is to assume that the kinetic energy associated with the tangential component, W1, must be destroyed when the gas instantaneously changes direction. Hence, the energy loss due to incidence is given by Equation 24:

small clearance flow alters the main flow in such a way that the overall flow is improved [10]. Controlling the clearance in automotive turbocharger compressors is extremely difficult and large clearances are common due to the requirement for long life at very high rotational speeds. Consequently, the efficiency of such compressors is likely to drop by several per cent due to tip clearance losses. The impeller back flow loss is a result of the work input required to re-process fluid that has been re-injected into the impeller due to pressure gradients existing at the impeller tip. The loss depends on the impeller exit Mach number, exit swirl and the number and proximity of diffuser vanes to the impeller tip. No mathematical model currently exists that fully describes the back flow loss, which should be considered as another aerodynamic design parameter. However, an empirical correlation for back flow loss was developed by Coppage et al, as follow [10]:

2 = 0.02(C 2 /Cr 2 )1/2 Df 2U 2

h =

W21 2

(24) Where:

(26)

It is important to note that the term shock loss is misleading since nothing akin to shock occurs in practice. The term originates from the approximation above because the fluid approaching the inducer blade is assumed to experience an instantaneous change of velocity. 6.2.3 Re-circulation Losses Re-circulation losses are normally caused by two mechanisms. The first is the flow of air along the shroud from the impeller tip to the inducer, due to tip clearance as depicted in Fig.5. The second is the backflow of air across the blade tip from the pressure side of the vanes to the suction side. Several methods of predicting the loss in efficiency due to tip clearance have been developed using experimental data. The effect is conventionally expressed as a loss in efficiency, / . According to Cumpsty, [14] remarkably good predictions of tip clearance loss for a number of compressors have been produced using a very simple model developed by Senoo and Ishida in 1987. The reduction in efficiency was found almost proportional to the ratio of clearance-to-blade height at the impeller outlet, provided the ratio is less than 0.1. The relationship is expressed in Equation 25:

C 2 = Cr2 = Df = U2 =

Tangential velocity at the impeller exit, m/s Radial velocity at the impeller exit, m/s Diffusion factor Tangential velocity at the impeller tip m/s

6.2.4 Disc Friction Losses When a disc is rotated in a fluid there is a resistive torque generated by the tangential shear component between the disc and the fluid. An estimation of the power input necessary to overcome the friction at the external surfaces of the impeller can be made from research considering the resistive power of plane discs enclosed in casings. The resulting relationship is defined as follows:

C m 3 .(r25 r15 ) 2

(27)

1 t 4 bl

Where:

Where Cm is a non-dimensional torque coefficient obtained from experimentation and is a function of the disc Reynolds number and the disc-casing spacing ratio (s/r2) depicted in Figure 5. Ferguson [15] presented results correlating the variation of the torque coefficient with Reynolds number and the disc-spacing ratio for smooth discs. 6.2.5 Shock Losses The diffusion processes in the impeller are related to the flow mach number. It is desirable to establish conditions that lead to a minimum relative mach number at the impeller inlet and a minimum absolute mach number at the impeller outlet in order to achieve maximum diffusion. The tip of the inducer eye is the point where the highest relative Mach number occurs. Careful consideration 6

(25)

A small amount of clearance can actually increase the overall efficiency of the impeller stage. This is because a

should therefore be made on the diameter of the inducer eye. A method of determining the inducer eye diameter at which the minimum relative mach number occurs was discussed by Adams in the previous study [16]. When the flow velocity reaches the speed of sound at some cross section, the flow chokes. For a stationary passage, such as the diffuser, this means that no further increase in mass flow through the compressor is possible. The speed in the rotating impeller channels is relative to the blade speed. Consequently, as the impeller speed increases, the compressor can accept a greater mass flow before choking, unless choking occurs in a stationary area. 6.3 Vaneless Diffuser The air leaves the impeller tip at a high absolute velocity and normally at a large inclined angle to the radial direction. In order that the pressure rise and efficiency of the compressor are acceptable, the diffuser must decelerate the flow. The diffuser must cope with the highly turbulent flow from the impeller. The combination of three dimensional boundary layers and unsteady inlet flow makes the flow through the diffuser extremely difficult to predict. By considering one-dimensional viscous flow, an estimation of the friction losses can be made to help the engineer at the preliminary design stage. Japikse (1984) recommended the following expression for use with one-dimensional analysis, where Cf is the coefficient of friction and K is an empirical constant.

flow in the impeller and vaneless diffuser [10]. The resulting non-uniformity of flow may be evident upstream of the impeller and because of this; compressors often surge at a higher flow rate than under uniform flow conditions. The flow in the volute is slow enough that friction is not likely to have a major effect. Most of the loss comes from the kinetic energy associated with the radial velocity ( cr5) being destroyed as the flow is constricted by the volute wall. According to Cumpsty (10), better efficiency can be achieved by reducing the volute area by 10 to 15 per cent of that suggested by the conservation of angular momentum. This results in the radial flow component being turned towards the circumferential direction by creating a gradient in static pressure along the volute length. However, the resulting non-uniformity of flow in the volute disturbs the flow throughout the entire compressor making the losses extremely difficult to predict. The actual work required to drive the compressor can therefore be calculated, and the corresponding compressor efficiency determined.

MODEL DEVELOPMENT

Three new modules have been added to the original Excel based model to facilitate: Nozzle exit gas angle calculation in the Variable Nozzle Turbine. Heat loss calculations in the exhaust manifold. Compressor loss calculation. The integration of the modules and their interaction with the other components can be seen in Figure 6. Modules 1, 2 and 3 are the core components and are almost unchanged from the previous model. Modules 4 to 6 contain the theory explained in previous sections. As can be seen from the Figure 6, there are four main loops in the model where data is iterated. Equations in the iterative loops are linked using circular references so that no manual iteration is necessary. Equations tend to crash if one of its input values changes too much between iterations. To ensure numerical stability, a method of controlling the rate at which a value converges has been introduced.

(28)

The value of K varies between 0.025 and 0.0074, indicating the inaccuracy or incompleteness of the equation. By considering the effective hydraulic diameter of the diffuser an expression for enthalpy loss can be derived using non-circular duct theory. Hence,

3 flc 4 2 y h = 4A

Where

(29)

l = Diffuser length, m C4 = Mean velocity, m/s y = Mean wetted perimeter, m A = Mean flow area of diffuser, m2

6.4 Volute Down-stream of the diffuser is the Volute (or scroll), that collects the flow and decelerates it further. By considering the continuity equation and conservation of angular momentum, the volute can be designed so that there is no incidence between the gas flow angle and the angle of the volute [10,17]. However, at mass flow rates other than those at the design conditions, an angle of incidence will exist causing quite serious effects on the 7

(30)

Where subscripts 1 and 2 denote 1st and 2nd iterations respectively and K is a factor that controls the speed of convergence. As a result of introducing Equation (30), the model is completely stable, with no maximum engine speed limit. A separate module was added to the model specifically for data acquisition and contains simple logic commands that record all the major parameters for the entire engine speed range.

RESULTS

MODEL CHARACTERISTICS 1. Variable Nozzle Turbine The effect of changing the nozzle angle and the control the turbine effective flow area on the compressor boost pressure ratio (termed arbitrarily as P2/P1) is clearly shown in Figure 7. The ability of variable geometry to limit boost at high engine speeds and maximise boost at low speeds is clearly evident. 2. Manifold Heat Transfer In order to provide a direct comparison with the results of the previous model, fixed turbine geometry was considered in the calculation of both the heat transfer and compressor losses. Figure 8 shows the change in the exhaust manifold heat transfer with the mass flow parameter (MFP). The MFP was calculated from gas flow rate normalised by the turbine inlet area, exhaust gas specific heat at constant pressure and exhaust gas stagnation pressure and temperature. It corresponds to an engine speed range of 1000 to 6000 rev/ min. The increase in the overall heat transfer with MFP was predominantly caused by an increase in the internal heat transfer coefficient. This, in turn, was a direct consequence of higher turbulence level in the exhaust gas generated mainly by higher gas mass flow. The contribution of the radiation losses to the overall heat transfer also increased marginally, due to the increase in the manifold surface temperature. 3. Compressor Losses The variation in the impeller channel friction loss with the compressor mass fraction parameter (MFP) is shown in Figure 9. The compressor MFP was calculated from the gas mass flow rate normalised by the appropriate parameters at the inlet conditions. As can be seen, the surface friction loss coefficient (Ch) has a considerable effect on the channel friction loss. Unfortunately, no material in the literature has been found that suggests suitable values for this coefficient. A coefficient such as this must be employed because no one-dimensional technique is available to analyse the losses associated with the coefficient. Minimum incidence angle loss can be achieved by considering the inducer eye blade angle at the design stage. Figure 10 shows the loss for an impeller designed for maximum efficiency at 4000 rev/min. The remaining loss components follow simple exponential and linear relationships as was shown in the relevant equations. The change in the total compressor efficiency with the mass flow parameter is shown in Figure 11. Despite the consideration of the design speed it would appear that the optimum efficiency occurs at the maximum speed. Unfortunately, this can not be the case since there is considerable fluid friction and offdesign aerodynamic losses at high speeds. The impeller geometry is also optimised for the mid engine speed range [16].

MODEL ACCURACY 1. Variable geometry turbine In order to determine the predictive accuracy of the variable geometry, turbine characteristic charts are required indicating the change in expansion ratio with turbine speed for various nozzle settings. Such material is available but no dimensional information is included. A non-dimensional analysis is not appropriate because dimensions such as nozzle angle, width and length determine the turbine characteristics. Consequently, no direct comparison has been made regarding the accuracy of the variable geometry within this paper. However, the qualitative nature of Figure 7 is encouraging. 2. Heat transfer Comparison of the predicted results from the current model with experimental data and analytical results of the old model (16) is depicted in Figures 12-14. The increase in the prediction accuracy of the turbine inlet temperature of the current model is clearly demonstrated in Figure 12. 3. Compressor Losses Many of the relationships are accurate when applied at the design speed; however, the flow at off-design conditions becomes considerably more complex. Turbulence created in one part of the compressor effects the flow down-stream and this has not been taken into account in the model. The flow at the inlet to the diffuser from the impeller tip is highly unsteady and non-uniform. Furthermore, at high-pressure ratios the flow will be highly swirling, turbulent and boundary layer separation will be significant. This complex and highly three-dimensional flow cannot be accurately modelled using one-dimensional analysis. Consequently, the current model is useful for initial design purposes but is potentially misleading for detailed flow analysis. As Figure 15 shows, the compressor pressure ratio prediction, is considerably less accurate when using onedimensional loss analysis. The values rapidly diverge towards the higher engine speeds. This would appear to be caused by the losses in the compressor build up far quicker than predicted by the model. This would also explain the compressor efficiency result depicted in Figure 11. At high engine speeds, the poor pressure ratio prediction severely effects the manifold temperature calculation. Mass flow rates, fuel consumption and engine power are all related to the induction pressure and are therefore also detrimentally effected.

CONCLUSIONS

(i) An existing Excel based analytical model has been improved to facilitate comparative performance predictions of a Variable Nozzle turbine. No direct comparison of the variable geometry turbine predictive accuracy has been made due to a lack in supportive data.

(ii) The addition of a manifold heat transfer analysis has reduced the maximum turbine inlet temperature calculation error from 63% to 14%. A further improvement could be obtained by adding a more extensive combustion analysis to the program. (iii) The flow through the compressor is highly complex and three-dimensional. This study has shown that a one-dimensional, empirically based loss analysis cannot provide the accuracy required. An increase in the pressure ratio prediction error from 10% to 24% was observed. (iv) The model enables comparative performance predictions for different Variable Geometry Turbocharger configurations. The effect of turbine nozzle position on performance can be predicted enabling a preliminary control strategy to be established before testing commences. (v) The previous model enabled the effect of compressor and turbine geometry to be established, allowing the optimum configuration to be determined. By considering heat loss through the exhaust manifold the accuracy of these predictions is considerably improved.

11. Watson, N. and Banisoleiman, K., A variable-geometry turbocharger control system for high output diesel engines, SAE 880118, 1988. 12. Wendland, W. D., Automobile exhaust system steady state heat transfer, SAE 931085,1993. 13. Konstantinidis, P . A., Koltsakis, G. C., and Stamatelos, A. M., Transient heat transfer modeling in automotive exhaust systems, C11395, 1997. 14. Cumpsty, N. A., Compressor aerodynamics, Longman Scientific & Technical, 1989. 15. Ferguson, T. B., The centrifugal compressor stage, Butterworths, 1963. 16. Adams, P . W., Turbocharger matching technique on diesel engine, Project report, Department of Aerospace, Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Hertfordshire, 1995. 17. Dixon, S, L., Fluid mechanics, thermodynamics of turbomachinary, 1966.

NOMENCLATURE

Symbols and units

REFERENCES

1. Degobert, P ., Automobile and Pollution, SAE publications, 1995. 2. OECD, Motor vehicle pollution; reduction strategies beyond 2010, 1995. 3. SAE, Emission processes and control technologies in diesel engines, 1995. 4. Nasser, S. H. and Adams, P. W., A simple analytical/mathematical model for turbocharger matching, Paper No. 96VR017, 29th ISATA Conference on Simulation/Diagnosis and Virtual Reality in the Automotive Industry, Florence, Italy, June 1996. 5. Nasser, S. H. and Adams, P . W., A Simple mathematical model for turbo-charger matching, 1st ATA International Conference on Control and Diagnostics in Automotive Applications, Genoa, Italy, October 1996. 6. Wendland, W. D., Automobile exhaust-system steady state heat transfer, SAE 931085, 1993. 7. Konstantinidis, P. A., Koltsakis, G. C. and Stamatelos, A. M., Transient heat transfer modelling in automotive exhaust systems, C11395, 1997. 8. Okazaki, Y., Matsudaira, N. and Hishikawa, A., A case of variable geometry turbocharger development, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers 1986-4, (C111/86), 1986. 9. Watson, N., Turbocharging Developments on Vehicle Diesel Engines, SAE 850315, 1985. 10. Watson, N. and Janota, M. S. Turbocharging the internal combustion engine, MacMillan, 1982.

A: Surface area (m2) b: Diffuser width (m) bl: Impeller blade width (m) C: Velocity (m/s) Ch: Surface friction loss coefficient Cm: Torque Coefficient CP: Specific heat (kJ/(kg.K)) D: Mean hydraulic diameter (m) d: Diameter (m) Df: Diffusion factor f: Friction factor g: Gravitational acceleration (m/s2) h: Heat transfer coefficient (W/(m2.K)) i: Incidence angle (radians) K: Empirical constant k: Conductivity (W/(m.K)) L: Length (m) LTH: Throat aperture (m) : Mass flow rate (kg/s) m MFP: Mass flow parameter Pr: Prandtl number r: Radius (m) Ra: Rayleigh number Re: Reynolds number SP3: Blade pitch (m) t: Blade tip clearance (m) U: Blade tip velocity (m/s) U : Heat transfer Coefficient (W/(m2.K))

: Volumetric flow rate (m3/s) V : Power (kW ) W

W: Relative velocity (m/s) x: Length (m) y: Wetted perimeter (m) z: Number of rotor blades 9

Thermal expansion coefficient (1/K)

: Characteristic length (m) : Increment : Emisivity factor : Efficiency : Dynamic viscosity (kg/(m.s)) : Density (kg/m3)

Stefan-Boltzmann constant

Subscripts 0 : Volute Throat 1 : Nozzle Inlet, impeller eye 2 : Nozzle Throat, compressor impeller exit 3 : Nozzle Exit, compressor diffuser inlet

4 : Rotor Inlet, compressor volute 5 : Rotor Exit a: axial b: Gas flow angle in direction of blade amb: ambient bulk: Conditions at bulk gas temperature cv: convection e: Manifold exit i: inner in: manifold inlet ln: logarithmic mean o: outer r: radial rad: Radiation s: Manifold surface skin: Conditions at manifold skin temperature steady: Steady state Free stream conditions

: Tangential

Figure 1a. Schematic diagram of the Variable Nozzle Turbine (VNT) concept

10

11

12

13

Figure 8. The relationship between manifold heat loss and the exhaust gas mass flow parameter

14

Figure 9. Change in impeller channel friction loss with engine speed and friction loss coefficient

15

Figure 12. Improvement in turbine inlet temperature achieved by the heat losses modelling

16

17

Figure 15. Poor pressure ratio prediction of new model due to inaccurate compressor loss prediction away from design conditions

18

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