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Learning Styles

CCPH Summer Service-Learning Institute July 24-27, 2009

Bobby Gottlieb Karen Yoder

Concrete Experience Feeling/ Sensing

How we think about things

Activists (Accommodator) feel & do

Reflectors

Perception Continuum

(Diverger) feel & watch

Active Experimentation Doing/Planning

Processing How we
Pragmatists (Converger) think & do

Continuum do things
Theorists (Assimilator) think & watch

Reflective Observation Watching/Reviewing

Abstract Conceptualization Thinking/Concluding


Adapted from Alan Chapman 2005

Learning Styles Inventory


Instructions
There are nine sets of four words listed below. Rank order each set of four words assigning a: 4 to the word which BEST characterizes your learning style 3 to the word which NEXT BEST characterizes your learning style 2 to the NEXT MOST characteristic word and, 1 to the word which is LEAST characteristic of you as a learner. BE SURE TO ASSIGN A DIFFERENT RANK NUMBER TO EACHOF THE FOUR WORDS IN EACH SET. DO NOT MAKE TIES.
1. ___ 2. ___ 3. ___ 4. ___ 5. ___ 6. ___ 7. ___ 8. ___ 9. ___ discriminating receptive feeling accepting intuitive abstract present-oriented experience intense ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ tentative relevant watching risk-taker productive observing reflecting observation reserved ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ involved analytical thinking evaluative logical concrete future-oriented conceptualization rational ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ practical impartial doing aware questioning active pragmatic experimentation responsible

CE ________________

RO ____________

AC _______________

AE _______________

234589 136789 SCORING THE LEARNING STYLE INVENTORY To obtain your score on the four dimensions measured by the inventory, Concrete Experience (CE), Reflective Observation (RO), Abstract Conceptualization (AC), and Active Experimentation (AE), sum each column using only those words whose item number appears under the place for the total score. For example, for CE total the ranks you gave for words 2,3,4,5, 7 and 8 in the first column. For RO, total the ranks you gave for words 1,3,6,7, 8, and 9 in the second column, and so on for AC and AE. Ignore non-scored words in each column. Transfer the four raw scores to the Learning Style Profile on the next page by placing a mark next to the number you scored on each of the four dimensions. Connect these four marks with straight lines.

234578

136789

Four Types of Learning Styles


Reflector (Diverger) Theorist (Assimilator) Pragmatist (Converger) Activist (Accommodator)

REFLECTOR
Ponders experiences and observes Seeks data and considers thoroughly Postpones decision making until all information is collected Watches and listens before offering an opinion

THEORIST
Approaches problems using vertical, step by step approach Pulls together disparate fact into coherent theories Seeks perfection Dislikes flippancy and uninformed decision-making

PRAGMATIST
Displays practical problem-solving and decision-making skills Sees problems as opportunities Acts quickly and confidently to implement ideas Dislikes ruminating and openended discussion

ACTIVIST
Acts first, considers the consequences later Focuses on the present Ill try anything once philosophy Tackles problems by brainstorming Thrives on challenges; bored by implementation

Learning to ride a bike

Reflectors think about riding and watch others ride Theorists want a clear grasp of the concept of riding a bike Pragmatists Seek practical tips from a biking expert Activists Leap on the bike and give it a try

Concrete Experience Feeling/ Sensing

How we think about things

Activists (Accommodator) feel & do

Reflectors

Perception Continuum

(Diverger) feel & watch

Active Experimentation Doing/Planning

Processing How we
Pragmatists (Converger) think & do

Continuum do things
Theorists (Assimilator) think & watch

Reflective Observation Watching/Reviewing

Abstract Conceptualization Thinking/Concluding


Adapted from Alan Chapman 2005

Using the Kolb Learning Cycle in Service-learning


Barbara Gottlieb Borrowing heavily from Elizabeth Armstrong and Ramin Pars-Parsi

Kolbs Four Basic Learning Styles


Kolb, DA. Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ Prentice Hall, 1984; 42

activist

reflector

pragmatist

theorist

Working through all 4 quadrants


Learners prefer to learn by working in their own strongest style Teachers and educational experiences should encourage students to work through all 4 quadrants Learning begins in quadrant 1 and moves through the cycle

Curriculum Planning Framework Armstrong and Parsa-Parsi


Academic Medicine, volume 80, No. 7, July 2005 pp680-684.

Quadrant 1 WHY?
Personal meaning and motivation

What are some teaching/learning activities that accomplish this?


Activate prior knowledge Ask for goals Bio-sketches learn about one another Encourage reflection Create an experience, analyze the experience for its personal meaning

Quadrant 2 What?
Acquisition of new knowledge and concepts

What are some teaching/learning strategies that accomplish this?


Select a specific problem/issue & present data Consider alternative solutions Lecture Journal reading Observations, debriefs Collect data,use data to build theory

Quadrant 3 How?
Practical application

What are some teaching/learning strategies that accomplish this?


Planning activities Simulations Role plays Case discussions Activities in the real world Evaluate consequences of specific strategies and solutions

Quadrant 4 If?
Synthesis and extension

What are some teaching/learning strategies that accomplish this?


Implementation plans Plans for next steps

Applying this to service learning


Curriculum planning Faculty development Student reflections

Exercise
Consider the following student reflections While each reflection may suggest several learning styles, decide which learning style dominates Imagine a response/reflection back to the student.
How would you acknowledge the learning style that you identify? How would you move him or her around the cycle?

Students reflections - 1
In participating in this experience. 2 things struck me about myself that I think will be important to be cognizant of in the future. The first is that I am very taskfocused. I like getting things done. With a large ongoing project like this it is important for me to break down what needs to be done into smaller pieces that I can identify as being completed and mentally check off for myself to indicate progress. Psychologically, this keeps me from feeling overwhelmed and motivates me to be happy with working consistently toward a larger goal. While it is important to do this to keep my motivation high it is equally important for me not to lose sight of the larger goal that we are striving for by being bogged down in details and tasks. Also, interaction with community members became a clearly important motivator for me. While I know that there is a balance that needs to be struck between direct involvement with the community and more systems/administratively focused work in many job positions it is clear to me that my happiness is linked to the proportion of community involvement staying high. It is not just an ideal that I hold to, but also a key part of who I am, what I am good at, and what makes me happy.

Student 1, part 2
Equally important for me to know about myself are the areas in which I really need to grow and develop in order to be most effective. First, is that I need to be more patient with the process. In many ways related to being task focused, I can become easily frustrated and disheartened when things are not moving forward as quickly as I would like them to. Building patience with the process is something that I think I can continue to work on especially if I use my commitment to quality and the importance of inclusion of many stakeholders as the motivators. I also think I need to continue to work towards trusting in ways that literature can truly be a useful guide to practical work when synthesized appropriately

Students reflections - 2
One pretty great thing about this project is that I find myself reflecting personally on my own attitudes and body image more throughout the day after working a shift at ---. Even though I consider myself to have a fairly positive body image, I have actually had situations since starting this practicum when I think to myself, for example, Am I being assertive, passive or aggressive in this situation? If this real life situation were a role-play for the boys, what would be the correct way to handle this? I know it sounds kind of silly, but spending so much time thinking about the positive messages we ant to teach the students has helped to reinforce some positive traits in myself.

Students reflections - 3
I think that this project is challenging in the sense that there is a lot of information that I will need to collect from non-traditional sources and synthesize in order to complete my work. I am hopeful that with enough patience, time and focus I will be able to accomplish all that is required of me. Although it is difficult, I appreciate the process that I am going through because I am learning how to be resourceful and think outside of the box, which are skills that cant be taught in my traditional med school courses. It is for this reason that I am appreciative of this project and the challenges that I face. I believe that I will grow tremendously as I continue through the next couple of months.

Students reflections - 4
It was somewhat frustrating to realize how difficult it would be to navigate the political subtleties of this organization. There are not a few hidden landmines that may be difficult to see before steeping no them. In working with --- a collaboration of different non-profit agencies working for domestic violence victims I have been impressed by the challenges presented by the asymmetry of different working groups. I had anticipated that the differences in perspective would present the most daunting challenges for example, when worldviews or purposes conflict. However, those differences are often remediable by common ground and practicality. Leadership can present clear choices, elucidate conflicts, and offer reasoning that enlists the support of different partners in realizing a commonly beneficial goal.

Discussion Topic
How does awareness of personal primary and secondary learning style contribute to moving through the learning cycle?