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Chapter 5 • Algebraic Vectors and Applications

Solutions for Selected Problems 15. If two unit vectors are the sides of an equilateral
triangle then their sum as well as their difference
could be a unit vector.
Exercise 5.1

13. c.   (9, 12)


OG → →
c b
2  (9)2  (12)2
OG
 81  144
 225 60º

OG   5 →
a
12
tan   .
9 If a  
b  c where a  
b  1 and the angle
Since G is in the second quadrant
between a and b is 120 then c  1. Also c  
  b  a
 ≅ 180  53
 ≅ 127. where as above a  
b  c  1.

16. a. a  (2, 3, 2)


5 ,  5 
 2 6
e. OJ
a2  4  9  4
2  4  6
OJ a  17
.
5 5
2 b.
a  
1 a  2, 3,  2
17 17
 17
 
  2
OJ
     
2 2 3 2 2 2
Now 1
17
 17
 17

6
tan    . 1
2 therefore  a is a unit vector.
a

Since J is in the fourth quadrant,
 ≅ 360  51 17. a. v  2î 3ĵ 6k̂
 ≅ 309.  (2, 3, 6)
v2  4  9  36
14. a. If a  (12, 4, 6)  49
then a2  144  16  36 therefore v  7.
 196
a  14. b. A unit vector in the direction of v is
1
14 22 7 v   v
c.

If c  , , 
27 27 27  v 
2 3 6
196  484  49 v  î  ĵ  k̂
then c  
2 7 7 7
729
1
c  1.
 2 3 6
v  , ,  .
7 7 7 
18. 
v  (3, 4, 12)
v2  9  16  144
 169
v  13.
A unit vector in a direction opposite to

 
3 4 12
v is , ,  .
13 13 13

Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications 53


19. Let a be a vector in two dimensions making an angle 23.
C c
 with the x-axis. Now a in component form is
,b,c)
 
a  a cos , a sin  . A unit vector in the P (a

1
direction of a is  a  (cos , sin ) therefore any O
a
 b
unit vector in two dimensions can be written as a
(cos , sin ). A B

21. a. u  (a, b, c) In ∆OAB, ∠OAB  90 therefore OB2  OA2  AB2.
In ∆OBP, ∠OBP  90 therefore OP2  OB2  BP2.
z
Hence OP2  OA2  OB2  BP2 but OA  a,
OB  b, BP  OC  c.
  a
Therefore OP 2
 b 2
 c 2.

24. A vector in R4, u  (4, 2, 5, 2) might have a


magnitude of u2  42  22  (5)2  22
y

u u2  16  4  25  4
α
u  
49, u  7.
a It is very tempting to think that a geometric
interpretation can be given. Mathematically we wish
x to consider vectors with n elements, n any integer, and
a geometric interpretation is not possible for n ≥ 4.
a
cos α  , since α is acute, a is positive.
u
Exercise 5.2
b. u  (a, b, c)

z 8. a. Given the points P(15, 10), Q(6, 4), R(12, 8)


  (9, 6), PR
PQ   (27, 18)
 3( 9, 6).
  3PQ
Since PR , P, Q, and R are

u ß collinear.
b
y
b. D(33, 5, 20), E(6, 4, 16), F(9, 3, 12)
  (27, 9, 36), EF
DE   (e, 1, 4)
x
 9(3, 1, 4)
.
 9EF
  9EF
Since DE , D, E, and F are collinear.
b
cos β   since β is obtuse, b is negative.
u

22. Since the direction angles α, β, and γ are all equal, say
 then cos2   cos2   cos2   1
1
cos2   
3

11 1
cos    or cos   
3 3
 ≅ 55  ≅ 125
The direction angles are 55 or 125.

54 Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications


9. b. A(0, 1, 0), B(4, 0, 1), C(5, 1, 2), D(2, 3, 5) Let P2 (a2, b2) be a vertex of parallelogram AP2CB.
  (4, 1, 1), CD
AB   (3, 2, 3)   BC
Now AP  and (a  5, b 3)  (2, 10)
2 2 2
  k  CD
Since AB , k  R, AB is not parallel
therefore a2  3, b2  7.
to CD.
P3(a3, b3) is a vertex of parallelogram ABP3C.
  
AB 16  1
1   AC
Now BP  and (a 5, b 2)  (12, 11)
3 3 3
 18  therefore a3  17, b3  9.
 32
The possible coordinates of the fourth vertex are
  
CD 94
9 P1(7, 9), P2(3, 7) and P3(17, 9).
 22
 12. P Q
 CD
AB .
C(4, 0, –1)
S
10. PQRS is a parallelogram. The coordinates are in cyclic R
B(3, 6, 1)
  SR
order therefore PQ . If R has coordinates (a, b)
  (10, 1) and SR
PQ   (a  3, b  4). O(0, 0, 0) A(2, 4, –2)
  SR
Since PQ , a  3  10, a  13
b  4  1, b  5 Opposite faces of a parallelepiped are congruent
The coordinates of S are (13, 5). parallelograms.
Now OP  OC
  OB 
y
 (4, 0, 1)  (3, 6, 1)

OP  (7, 6, 0).
P(4, 2)    AR
OQ  OA   
RQ
Q(–6, 1)
  OB
 OA   OC

x
 (2, 4, 2)  (3, 6, 1)  (4, 0, 1)
 (9, 10, 2).
R(a, b)  
OR  OA  OB 
S(–3, –4)
 (2, 4, 2)  (3, 6, 1)

OR  (5, 10, 1)
11. Let the three vertices be A(5, 3), B(5, 2), C(7, 8).
  OA
OS   OC

There will be 3 possible positions for the fourth
vertex. Let one position be P1(a1, b1) for  (2, 4, 2)  (4, 0, 1)
parallelogram ACBP1. 
OS  (6, 4, 3)
  BP
CA  and (12, 11)  (a  5, b 2). The other 4 coordinates are (7, 6, 0), (9, 10, 2),
1 1 1
Therefore a1  7, b1  9. (5, 10, 1), and (6, 4, 3).

A(–5, 3)
B(5, 2)
x

C(7, –8)

Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications 55


1
13. Let the midpoint in each case be M and the position b. 2(x, 1, 4) 3(4, y, 6) (4, 2, z)  (0, 0, 0)
.
vector OM 2
Expanding and equating components
a. A(5, 2), B(13, 4) 2x  12 2  0
x  5,
  OB
OA 
  
OM  2 3y  1  0
2
1
(5, 2)  (13, 4) y  ,
  3
2
1
  (4, 3). 8 18 z  0
OM 2
z  20.
b. C(3, 0), D(0, 7)

  OD
OC  15. Given points X(7, 4, 2) and Y(1, 2, 1)
  
OM 
2   (6, 2, 3).
XY
1  is XY
The magnitude of XY    36  4
9
 (3, 7)
2
 7.
OM 
2 2 
  3, 7 . A unit vector in a direction opposite to XY has

c. E(6, 4, 2), F(2, 8, 2)


6 2 3
components , , and , or YX
7 7 7 
ˆ  6, 2, 3 .
7 7 7 
  OF
OE 
  
OM  16. a. A point on the y-axis has coordinates P(0, a, 0).
2
Since it is equidistant from A(2, 1, 1) and
1
 (4, 12, 0) B(0, 1, 3)
2
  BP
AP  or AP
2  BP
2

OM  (2, 6, 0).
therefore 4  (a  1)2  1  (a  1)2  9
d. G(0, 16, 5), H(9, 7, 1) a2  2a  6  a2  2a  10
4a  4

OG  OH 
  
OM  a  1.
2 The point on the y-axis equidistant from A and B is
1
 (9, 9, 6) (0, 1, 0).
2


  9, 9, 3 .
OM
2 2  b. The midpoint of AB is the point Q(1, 0, 2) which is
not on the y-axis and is equidistant from A and B.
14. a. 3(x, 1) 2(2, y)  (2, 1)
17. a. A(2, –3, –4)
(3x, 3)  (4, 2y)  (2, 1) 2
(3x 4, 3 2y)  (2, 1)
Equating components
3x  4  2, 3  2y  1
x2 y  1. G

B(3, –4, 2)
C(1, 3, –7) M

Since AM is a median of ∆ABC, M will be the


midpoint of BC. Therefore the coordinates of M

 1
2
5

are 2, ,  .
2

56 Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications


d. O(0, 0, 0), I(1, 0, 0), J(0, 1, 0), K(0, 0, 1)
Now AM 
  0, 2, 3
2    1 (1, 1, 1)
OG
4
 
and AM
4 9
 
4
5
 .
2
5
OG
4 4 4 
  1, 1, 1 .
The length of median AM is .
The centroid is , , .
2 1 1 1
b. Let G be the centroid of ∆ABC. 4 4 4
2 5 2(0, 0)  3(4, 1)  5(1, 7)  1(11, 9)
Since AG:GM  2:1 AG  AM  .   
19. a. OG
3 3 2351
5
The distance from A to the centroid is .
3 (12  5  11, 3  35  9)
 
11
18. In each case let the centroid be G with position
.
vector OG
a. A(1, 2), B(4, 1), C(2, 2)
OG
11 
  18, 
41
 .
11 
OG
  O
OA
  

3


B  OC 8 41
The centre of mass is ,  .
11 11  
1
 (1  4  2, 2  1  2) 1(1, 4, 1)  3(2, 0, 1)  7(1, 3, 10)
3   
b. OG
137
 
  1, 1 .
OG
3
1
  (1  6  7, 4  21, 1  3  70)
11
1

The centroid is 1,  . 
3
b. I(1, 0, 0), J(0, 1, 0), K(0, 0, 1)
OG
11 17 72
  2, ,  .
11 11 
OG
  O
OI
  

3


J  OK 2 17 72

The centre of mass is , ,  .
11 11 11 
OG 
3 3 3 
  1, 1, 1 . Exercise 5.3

The centroid is , , .


1 1 1 7. b. c  (1, 2, 3), d  (4, 2, 1)
3 3 3
c · d  cd cos 
c. A1(3, 1), A2(1, 1), A3(7, 0), A4(4, 4)
  1 (OA
OG   OA
  OA
  OA
 ) c · d  4  4  3  3
4 1 2 3 4

1 c  14 9
  (3  1  7  4, 1  1  4)
4  14
.
d  16

15
 , 1 .
4    4
1
 21
.
15

The centroid is , 1 .
4  cos   
3
14 21

cos  ≅ 0.1750.

Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications 57


8. c. î  (1, 0, 0); î   1 10. u  3ĵ  4k̂  (0, 3, 4)
v  2î  (2, 0, 0).
m  (1, 1, 1); m
  3
  (a, b, c).
  1
î · m Let w
 ⊥ u, w
Since w  · u  0, and 3b  4c  0
  î m
î · m  cos 
 ⊥ u, w
w  · v  0, and 2a  0.
1
cos    Solving these equations, we have a  0 and if
3 b  4, c  3.
 ≅ 55
 is 55. A possible vector w  is (0, 4, 3).
The angle between vectors î and m

d. 
p  (2, 4, 5);  
p  
4  16
 25  45
 11. Since a  (2, 3, 4) and b
  (10, y, z) are

 
q  (0, 2, 3); q   4
 9  13
 perpendicular a · b  0. Therefore 20  3y  4z  0
4 20

p · q  8  15  7 and y  z  .
3 3

p · q  
pq cos    (1, 5, 8), v  (1, 3, 2).
12. u
7
cos     · v
a. LS  u

45 13
  1  15  16
 ≅ 73
 2
The angle between vectors p and q is 73. RS  v · u
 1  15  16
9. a  (2, 3, 7); b
  (4, y, 14)  2
therefore u · v  v · u.
a. a and b
 are collinear if a  kb, k  R

therefore (2, 3, 7)  k (4, y, 14)  · u


b. LS  u
 1  25  64
2  4k, 3  ky, 7  14k  90
RS  u2
1 1
k   k  
2 2
 1  25  64
1
Since k  , y  6, a and b will be collinear.  90
2
therefore u · u  u2.
 · b  0
b. If the vectors are perpendicular a
LS  v · v
8  3y  98  0 194
3y  106  14
RS  v2
106
y  . 194
3
 14
106
If y  , a and b will be perpendicular. therefore v · v  v2.
3
  v) · (u  v)
c. LS  (u
 (0, 8, 6) · (2, 2, 10)
 16  60
 76
RS  u2  v 2
 90  14
 76
therefore (u  v ) · (u  v )  u2 v 2.

58 Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications


d. LS  u  
v  · u  v  15. a. (3a  4b) · (5a  6b)

 (0, 8, 6) · (0, 8, 6)  15a · a  38a · b  24b · b


 64  36  15a2  38a · b  24b2.
 100
RS  u2  2 u · v v  2 b. (2a  b) · (2a  b)

 90  2 (2)  14  4a · a  b · b


 90  4  14  4a2  b2.
 100
therefore (u  v ) · (u  v )  u2  2 u · v v 2. 16. a  î  3ĵ  k̂, b  2î  4ĵ  5k̂
 (1, 3, 1)  (2, 4, 5)
e. (2u) · v  
3a  b  (3, 9, 3)  (2, 4, 5)
 (2, 10, 16) · (1, 3, 2)
 (1, 5, 2)
 2  30  32
 
2b  4a  (4, 8, 10)  (4, 12, 4)
 4
u · (2v)  (8, 20, 14)
 (1, 5, 8) · (2, 6, 4) (3a  b) · (2b  4a)  (1, 5, 2) · (8, 20, 14)
 
 2  30  32  8  100  28
 4    
(3a  b) · (2b  4a )  80.
z(u · v )
 2 (2) 17. Since 2a  b is perpendicular to a  3b,
 4 (2a  b) · (a  3b)  0
therefore (u) · v  u · (2v)  2(u · v ).
therefore 2a2  5a · b  3b2  0
13. u  (2, 2, 1),  v  (3, 1, 0), w   (1, 7, 8)
2a2  5ab cos   3b2  0.
LS  u · (u  w )
 (2, 2, 1) · (4, 6, 8) But a  2b.
 8  12  8 Substituting gives 8b2  10b2 cos   3b2  0
 12
10 cos   5
RS  u · v  u · w
1
 6  2  2  14  8 cos   
 12 2
  60.
therefore u · v  w   u · v  u · w
.
The angle between a and b is 60.
14. a. (4î  ĵ ) · ĵ  4î · ĵ  ĵ · ĵ
18. Since â and b̂ are unit vectors, â  b̂  1.
 0   ĵ  2
a. (6â  b̂) · (â  2b̂) 6â2  11âb̂ cos   2b̂2
 1.
 6  11 cos   2
b. k̂ · (ĵ  3k̂)  k̂ · ĵ  3k̂ · k̂  4  11 cos .
 0  3(1) But   60 therefore 4  11 cos   4  11 cos 60
 3. 11
 4  
2
c. (î  4k̂) · (î  4k̂)  î · î  8î · b̂  16k̂ · k̂ 3
 1  0  16  
2
 17.
3
(6â  b̂) · (â 2b̂)  .
2

Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications 59


b. 20. a. B C

ˆb → →
b̂ â + b


b

b
a →+

180º – 

O → A
a
Let  be the angle between the unit vectors â and b.
From the cosine law
  A
OA , OB
  AC
  b, OC
  a  b.
â  b̂2  â2  b̂2  2âb̂ cos(180  ).
Since a is perpendicular to b ∠OAC  90.

Now â  b̂  3 and cos(180  )  cos 
2  OA
In ∆OAC, OC 2  AC
2
therefore 3  1  1  2âb̂ cos 
1  2â · b̂ i.e., a  b2  a2  b2.
1 The usual name of this result is the Pythagorean
â · b̂  .
2 Theorem.
Now (2â  5b̂) · (b̂  3â)  13â · b̂  6â2  5b̂2
b. B
13
   6  5 → →
c=a –b
→ →

2 b
11
(2â  5b̂ ) · (b̂  3â)  . 
2 O →
a A
19. a  3î  4ĵ  k̂  (3, 4, 1)
b  2î  3ĵ  6k̂  (2, 3, 6)   a, OB
From ∆OAB, OA   b
a · b  6  12  6    
BA  c  a  b and ∠BOA  .
 0. 2  OA
Now BA 2  OB
2  2OA
OB
 cos 
Since a · b  0, a ⊥ b and the parallelogram will be
c2  a2  b2  2 a b cos .
a rhombus.
The result here is called the Cosine Law.
Let u and v be the sides of the rhombus.
u  v  a  (3, 4, 1) 21.
a, b 3x – y = 5
u  v  b  (2, 3, 6) y

Add: 2v  (5, 1, 7)



b
Subtract: 2u  (1, 7, 5)
The angle between u and v is the same as the angle x

between 2u and 2v. a


Therefore (2u) · (2v)  2u2v cos  c

5  7  35  (1  49  25) cos 
23
cos    In questions such as this a specific example can
75
 ≅ 108. illustrate the desired result. Suppose a  (3, 1)
The angles between the sides of the rhombus are 108 and b  (3, 4) then a · b  5
and 72. Now, for c  (p, q), if a · c  a · b
53 3p  q  5.
Now 2u   75  53, u   There is an infinite number of possibilities for c, one
2
of which is b.
53
the lengths of the sides of the rhombus are .
2

60 Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications


However, others such as (1, 2) have c ≠ b.   b) · (a
25. a. Since (a  b)  0, (a
  b) ⊥ (a  b).
In fact c is any vector having its end point on the line 
a  b and a  b represent the diagonals of a
3x  y  5. parallelogram having sides  a and b . Since
the diagonals are perpendicular to each other, the
22. Given vector a  4î  3ĵ  k̂ parallelogram is a rhombus with  a  b .
 (4, 3, 1)
A vector parallel to the xy-plane has the form b. Since u  v  u  v, u  v2  u  v2.
u  (p, q, 0).
But (u  v) · (u  v)  u  v2
Since a ⊥ u, a · u  0 and 4p  3q  0.
Choosing p  3 and q  4 gives vector u  (3, 4, 0) which and (u  v) · (u  v)  u  v2
is perpendicular to a. therefore (u  v) · (u  v)  (u  v) · (u  v)
Now u   9  16  5 therefore a unit vector in the u · u  2u · v  v · v  u · v  2u · v  v · v
3 4
xy-plane perpendicular to a is u  , , 0 .
5 5   4u · v  0
u · v  0.
23. Given that x  y  z  0 and x  2, y  3, z  4.
Therefore u ⊥ v.
Now (x  y  z) · (x  y  z)  o · o  0.
u and v represent the sides of a rectangle whereas
Therefore x · x  y · y  z · z  2x · y  2x · z  2y · z  0
a and b were the sides of a rhombus.
x2  y2  z2  2(x · y  x · z  y · z)  0
 · b  
26. Since a a b cos  and cos  ≤ 1
4  9  16  2(x · y  x · z  y · z)  0 a · b ≤ a b.
29
and x · y  x · z  y · z  . Equality holds when cos   1; i.e., 
a and b
2
are collinear.
24. z If a  a1, a2 and b  b1, b2  
C(0, 0, 1) Q(0, 1, 1)
then a1b1  a2b2 ≤ 
a12  
a22 
b12  
b22.

P(1, 1, 1) If a  a1, a2, a3 and b  b1, b2, b3

then a1b1  a2b2  a3b3


O B(0, 1, 0)
y ≤  a12   a22  
a32 b12  b22  
b32.
For a general solution to the Cauchy-Schwarz
A(1, 0, 0) inequality refer to Exercise 12.2 question 18.
x

  (1, 1, 1) and
Two body diagonals of the cube are OP Exercise 5.4

AQ  (1, 1, 1).
7. î  (1, 0, 0), ĵ  (0, 1, 0), k̂  (0, 0, 1)
 · AQ
Now OP   OP
AQ
 cos  where  is an angle a. î ĵ  (0, 0, 1)  k̂.
between the body diagonals. b. k̂ ĵ  (1, 0, 0)  î.
 · AQ
OP   1  1  1  1
8. a. Let u  (u1, u2, u3)
  3,
OP   3.
AQ v  (v1, v2, v3)
1
Therefore cos    and  ≅ 71 v  (v1, v2, v3)
3
u v  (u2v3  v2u3, v1u3 u1v3, u1v2  v1u2)
The body diagonals of a cube make angles of 71 and 119
to each other.  v u  (v2u3  u2v3,  u1v3  v1u3,  v1u2
 u1v2)
 u v.

Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications 61


b. If u and v are collinear, u
  kv. 12. →
→ b
Let v  (a, b, c) then u  (ka, kb, kc)
→ →
n=a b
u v  (kbc  bkc, akc  kac, kbc  bkc)
 (0, 0, 0) →
a
u v  0.

 · 
9. (a a)(b · b)  (a · b)2

 
a2 b2  (
ab cos )2 → → →
(a b) a
 
a2 b2 (1  cos2 )
a b is a vector that is perpendicular to both a and
 
a2 b2 sin2  b. Let n  a b. Now n a is a vector that is
therefore RS  
a2b2 
sin2  perpendicular to both n and a. Therefore n a, n and
a are perpendicular to each other; i.e., (a b) a,
 
absin .
a b and a are mutually perpendicular.
But 0 ≤  ≤ 180 therefore sin  ≥ 0

and RS  ab sin  13. Let u  (u1, u2, u3), v  (v1, v2, v3), and

 a b   (w , w , w ).
w 1 2 3

ab  
therefore  a)(
 · 
(a b · b)  · b)2.
(a Now v w
  (v w  w v , w v  v w ,
2 3 2 3 1 3 1 3

v1w2 w1v2)
10. 
a  (2, 1, 0), b  (1, 0, 3), c  (4, 1, 1) u · (v w
)  u v w  u w v  u w v  u v w
1 2 3 1 2 3 2 1 3 2 1 3
 b · c  (3, 6, 1) · (4, 1, 1)
a. a
 u3v1w2  u3w1v2.
 12  6  1
Also u v  (u2v3  v2u3, v1u3  u1v3, u1v2  v1u2)
 19.
and (u v) · w
  w u v  w v u  w v u
b. b c · 
a  (3, 13, 1) · (2, 1, 0) 1 2 3 1 2 3 2 1 3

 19.  w2u1v3  w3u1v2  w3v1u2

c. c 
a · b  (1, 2, 6) · (1, 0, 3)  u · (v w
).
 19.
  (3, 1, 2), b  (1,
14. a. We show this by choosing a
 b) c  (3, 6, 1) (4, 1, 1)
d. (a 1, 1), and c  (p, q, r). Now a b  (3, 5, 2)
 (5, 1, 21). and a c  (r 2q, 2p  3r, 3q  p).
 c) 
e. (b a  (3, 13, 1) (2, 1, 0) If a b  a c then r  2q  3 ➀
 (1, 2, 23). 2p  3r  5 ➁
3q  p  2 ➂
f. (c 
a) b  (1, 2, 6) (1, 0, 3)
Choose q  k, from ➀ r  2k  3, from ➂
 (6, 3, 2).
p  3k  2. These values for r and k satisfy ➁.
11. Let u  v  (a, b, c) and w
  (p, q, r) This shows that there are an infinite number of
v w  (br  qc, pc  ar, aq  bp) possibilities for c. For one such value choose
u (v w )  [b(aq  bp)  c(pc  ar), k  2.
c(br  qc)  a(aq bp), a(pc  ar)  b(br  qc)] r  1, p  4, q  2, and
u v  (0, 0, 0); (u v) w   (0, 0, 0) c  (4, 2, 1)
hence u (v w ) ≠ (u v) w. a b  a c (3, 5, 2) and b ≠ c.


62 Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications



b. b Exercise 5.5


a b 5. a. z


c A(1, 1, 1)

a

O y
15. a. Given a  (1, 3, 1), b
  (2, 1, 5), v  (3, y, z),
and a v  b.
x B(1, 0, 0)
a v  (3z  y, 3  z, y  a)  (2, 1, 5)
Equating components gives y  4, z  2, and A body diagonal is OA  (1, 1, 1); an edge is OB
3z  y  6  4  2.  is
 î  (1, 0, 0). The projection of î onto OA
Therefore v  (3, 4, 2).
A O
A
b. Let v  (a, b, c). î · O (1, 0, 0) · (1, 1, 1) (1, 1, 1)
  ·    · 
  
OA  OA 3 3
Now a v  (3c  b, a  c, b  3a)
 (2, 1, 5). 1
 (1, 1, 1)
Equating components gives 3c  b  2 ➀ 3
a  c  1 ➁
b  3a  5. ➂ 1 1 1
 (, , ).
From ➀ and ➁ we have b  2  3c and 3 3 3
a  1  c. b. The projection of a body diagonal onto an edge is
b  3a  2  3c  3 (1  c)  5 which  onto î which is î  (1, 0, 0).
the projection of OA
satisfies ➂.
This shows that choosing any value for c in ➀, 6. a. a  (1, 2, 2)
substituting to find b and a from ➀ and ➁ will b  (1, 3, 0)
satisfy ➂ hence giving another vector v. Let The area of the parallelogram is
c 2, from ➀ b  8 and from ➁ a  1. a b.
Therefore v  (1, 8, 2) is another vector so that
a b  (6, 2, 5)
a v  b.
therefore a b  
36  4
 25  65

c. We see from part b that c is any real number, hence
there will be an infinite number of vectors v. b. c  (6, 4, 12)  2(3, 2, 6)
d  (9, 6, 18)  3(3, 2, 6).
2
Since c  d, c and d are collinear therefore no
3
parallelogram is formed, hence its “area” is zero.

7. a. A triangle with vertices A(7, 3, 4), B(1, 0, 6) and


C(4, 5, 2).
  (6, 3, 2)
Two sides are defined by AB
  (3, 2, 6)
and AC
 AC
AB   (14, 42, 21)
 7(2, 6, 3)
 AC
AB   7
4  36
9
 49
1  
the area of ∆ABC  AB AC 
2
49
 .
2
Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications 63
b. A triangle with vertices P(1, 0, 0), Q(0, 1, 0),   110 N, d  300 m,   6, W  110
12. Since F
R(0, 0, 1). 300 cos 6
Now two sides are PQ  (1, 1, 0) ≅ 32819.
  (1, 0, 1)
and PR The work done is 32819 J.
 PR
PQ   (1, 1, 1), PQ
 PR  3
. →
13. |d| = 3
3
The area of ∆PQR is .
2 78.4 cos 70º
70º
8. Given a parallelepiped defined by a  (2, 5, 1) 20º
b  (4, 0, 1)
8 kg ≅ 78.4 N
c  (3, 1, 1).
Now b c  (1, 7, 4). W  78.4 3 cos 70
The volume of the parallelepiped is a · (b c) ≅ 80.
The work done against gravity is approximately 80 J.
 (2, 5, 1) · (1, 7, 4)
 2  35  4 14. F F
 29. 20º
20º
 · d  F
d cos  12º
9. Work W  F

a. W  220 15 cos 49


Consider the “same” force as a force acting at 20 to
≅ 2165 J.
the direction of motion. The work done dragging
b. W  4.3 2.6 cos 85 the trunk up the ramp is 90(10) cos 20. The work
done dragging the trunk horizontally is 90(15) cos 20.
≅ 1.0 J.
Total work done is 900 cos 20  1350 cos 20
c. W  14 6 cos 110 ≅ 2114 J.
≅ 29 J.   2î
15. a. F d  5î  6ĵ
d. F  4000 kN  (2, 0)  (5, 6)
WF  · d
 4 106 N
W  10.
d  5 km   4î  ĵ
b. F d  3î  10ĵ
 5 103 m  (4, 1)  (3, 10)
d cos 90
W  F  · d
WF
 0 J.  12  12
W  22.
 must have
10. To overcome friction, the applied force F
  (800, 600)
c. F d  (20, 50)
magnitude greater than 150 N.   0, cos   1.
WF  · d
d cos 
Therefore W > F
 16000  30000
W > 150 1.5 1 W  46000.
W > 225.
  12î  5ĵ  6k̂
d. F d  2î  8ĵ  4k̂
The work done is greater than 225 J.
 (12, 5, 6)  (2, 8, 4)
  30 9.8  294 N.
11. F WF  · d
d cos 
W  F  24  40  24
W  88.
 294 40 cos 52°
≅ 7240.
The work done is 7240 J.

64 Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications


16. A 10 N force acts in the direction of a vector (1, 1). F  50 N r  20 cm  0.2 m

2 , 2  therefore   30


 is 1 1
A unit vector along F
T  r F
2 , 2   (52, 52)
  10 1 1
F
T  r F
the displacement vector is d  PQ
  (7, 5).
 rF
 sin 
 
W  F · d  352  252
 0.2 50 sin 30
 602.
The work done is 602 N. T  5
The torque on the bolt is 5 N.
17.

  rF
b. Since T  sin , maximum torque can be
a
achieved when sin  is a maximum. This maximum
is 1 when   90. Therefore T  rF
  10
A(2, 1, 5) B(3, –1, 2) and the maximum torque that can be achieved is
10 J.
The 30 N force acts along a  (2, 1, 5)
 onto v)  Proj(v onto u) is a true statement
a  
41
 25  30
 19. a. Proj(u
when
2
â  

, 1, 5 .
30 30
 30  i) u  v or
  30â
The force vector F ii) u ⊥ v, in which case the projection vector is O
.

 onto v)  Proj(v onto u) is a true


b. Proj(u
  (230
F , 30
, 530
)
statement when
The displacement d  AB
  (1, 2 3)
i) u ⊥ v in which case the projection has
 · d
Therefore W  F magnitude 0.
 230
 230
  1530
 ii) when u  v and the angle between u and v
is 45 or 135
 1930
.
iii) when u  v or u  v.
The work done in moving the object from A to B is
1930
 J.
18. a.

F

30º

Bolt r→

Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications 65


Review Exercise 10. u has direction angles α1, β1, γ1. A unit vector along u
is û  (cos α1, cos β1, cos γ1). Similarly a unit vector
7. Given a  6î  3ĵ  2k̂,
along v is v̂  (cos α2, cos β2, cos γ2). Since u ⊥ v,
a  (6, 3, 2) û ⊥ v̂ and u · v  0 therefore cos α1 cos α2  cos β1
b  2î  pĵ  4k̂, cos β2  cos γ1 γ2  0.
b  (2, p, 4)
11. x  y2  (x  y) · (x  y)
4
and cos   ,  is the angle between a and b.
21  x · y  2 x · y  y · y

Now a · b  ab cos .  x2  2 x · y  y2

Therefore 2x · y  x  y2  x2  y2


12  3p  8 
4
1

therefore x · y   x  x2  x2  y2 .
2


36  9
 4 
4  p2
 16 
21 12. Given ∆ABC with vertices A(1, 3, 4), B(3, 1, 1),
4 and C(5, 1, 1).
3p  4   · 7 
p2  20
21   (4, 4, 3), AC
  (6, 2, 3), and
a. AB
  (2, 2, 0).
9p  12  4 
p2  20 ➀ BC
 · BC
Since AB   0, AB
 ⊥ BC, and ∠ABC  90
Squaring both sides:
therefore ∆ABC is a right-angled triangle.
81p2  216p  144  16p2  320
65p2  216p  176  0 b. Since ∆ABC has a right angle at B, the area of
(p  4)(65p  44)  0 1  
∆ABC   AB BC .
44 2
p  4 or p   .
65
  
Now AB 16  1
69
44
We see that p    does not satisfy ➀ and 41

65
p  4 does; therefore the only value for p is 4.   
BC 44
 22
8. Let a  î  ĵ  k̂  (1, 1, 1)
1
b  λ2î  2λĵ  k̂  (λ2, 2λ, 1) ∆ABC   41
 22
2
Since a ⊥ b, a · b  0
  82
therefore λ2  2λ  1  0
the area of ∆ABC is 82
.
(λ  1)2  0
λ1  
c. AC 
36  4
9
If a ⊥ b then λ  1. 7
The perimeter of ∆ABC is AB  AC  BC 
9. If x  3, y  4 and the angle between x and y is 41  7  22 ≅ 16.2.
60 then
d. Let the fourth vertex to complete the rectangle be
(4x  y) · (2x  3y)  8x2  10 x · y  3 y2 D(a, b, c)
  BA and (a  5, b  1, c  1)  (4, 4, 3)
 72  10xy cos 60  48 CD
equating components, a  1, b  5, c  4, and the
 24  10(3)(4)  
1
2 coordinates of the fourth vertex are (1, 5, 4).
(4x  y) · (2x  3y)  84.

66 Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications


  (17, 3, 8).
13. Given the vector u D will be the foot of the perpendicular from the
fourth vertex E to D. Let the coordinates of E be
a. The projection of u onto each of the coordinate

area will be 17î, 3ĵ and 8k̂.
63 , 12, a.
b. The projection of u  (17, 3, 8) onto the xy
plane is (17, 3, 0), onto the xz plane is (17, 0, 8),   1
Now OE
and onto the yz plane is (0, 3, 8). 3 1
and     a 2  1
36 4
14. Since the vertices lie in the xy plane, the coordinates
24 2
in R3 will be A(7, 3, 0), B(3, 1, 0), and C(2, 6, 0). a2    
36 3
Now AB  (10, 2, 0)
  (9, 9, 0) 2
AC a 

3
 AC
  (0, 0, 72).  
and AB
1  
the fourth vertex has coordinates 63 , 12, 36 
Area of ∆ABC   AB AC   
2
1
  72
or 63 , 12, 36 .
2
The coordinates of the fourth vertices are
 36.

The area of ∆ABC is 36. O(0, 0, 0), A(0, 1, 0), B 63 12, 0 and
 
15. a. Consider the base of the tetrahedron as a triangle in
the xy-plane with O(0, 0, 0), A(0, 1, 0).
E 63 , 12, 36 .
O(0, 0, 0) A(0, 1, 0) b. The x-component of the centroid will be
y
3 3 3
D
1
4 
 0  0      
2 6 6

1 1
2 
1
2
1
the y-component is  1      
4 2 
C B( 32 , 12 ,0) 6 6
1

the z-component is    .
4 3 12

x The coordinates of the centroid are
 
Now ∆OBC is a 30, 60, 90 triangle with OB  1 G 63 , 12, 126 .
3 1
therefore OC   and CB  
2 2
c. The distance from each vertex to the centroid will
3 1

hence the coordinates of B are ,, 0 .
6 2  .
be the same, say OG

The centroid of ∆ABC is D



63 ,12, 0.
 
OG

3  1  6
36 4 144



12
1
1    1
4 24



3

8

Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications 67


6  AC
 is a vector perpendicular to the plane of
 . Since AB
4
∆ABC, the height of the tetrahedron will be the magnitude
6  on (AB
of the projection of AD  AC
)
The centroid is  units from each vertex.
4
AD
 · (A C )
B A
therefore h   .
16. a. a b
 is a vector that is perpendicular to all AB AC

vectors in the plane of a and b. Let n  a b.
1 1   AD
 · (A C )
B A
Now The volume V    AB AC   
3 2   
AB AC 
n c is a vector perpendicular to both n and c.
Since n c is perpendicular to n, as are a and b, 1   
V   AD · (AB AC ).
6
n c  (a b) c, a and b will be coplanar;
Now AB AC
  (19, 26, 42), AD   (2, 4, 6)
i.e., (a b) c lies in the plane of a and b.
where D is the fourth vertex, D (1, 5, 8)
b. Let a  (a1, a2, a3), b
  (b , b , b ), and
1 2 3
 · (AB
AD  AC)  38  104  252
c  (c1, c2, c3).  394
Now 1
V   294
6
a b  (a2b3  a3b2, b1a3  a1b3, a1b2  a2 b1)
and LS  (a b) c 197
 
3
 (c3b1a3  c3a1b3  c2a1b2  c2a2b1, 197
The volume of the tetrahedron is .
c1a1b2  c1b1a2  c3a2b3  c3b2a3, 3

c2a2b3  c2a3b2  c1b1a3  c1a1b3)


Chapter 5 Test
a · c  a1c1  a2c2  a3c3
(a · c)b  [(a1c1  a2c2  a3c3)b1, 1. a. If u · v  0 then u is perpendicular to v.

(a1c1  a2c2  a3c3)b2, b. If u · v  uv then cos   1,   0 and u and v
will have the same direction, i.e., u  kv, k > 0.
(a1c1  a2c2  a3c3)b3]
c. If u v  
0 then u and v are collinear,
and (b · c)a  [(b1c1  b2c2  b3c3)a1, i.e., u  kv, k > R.
(b1c1  b2c2  b3c3)a2, d. If u v  uv then sin   1,   90 and
(b1c1  b2c2  b3c3)a3] u ⊥ v.

RS  (a · c)b  (b · c)a e. If (u v) · u  0, no conclusion can be made about u
and v since u v is perpendicular to both u and v and
 (a2c2b1  a3c3b1  b2c2a1  b3c3a1, a1c1b2
the dot product of perpendicular vectors is zero.
 a3c3b2  b1c1a2  b3c3a2, a1c1b3  a2c2b3
 b1c1a3  b2c2a3). f. If (u v) u  
0 then u v and u are collinear. But
u v is perpendicular to both u and v. This
Since LS  RS, (a b) c  (a · c)b  (b · c)a.
is true only if u v  0 in which case u and v
17. The volume of a tetrahedron is given by the formula are collinear.
1 1
v  (area of the base)(height)   Ah.
3 3
Consider the base to be the triangle with vertices
A(1, 1, 2), B(3, 4, 6), C(7, 0, 1)
  (2, 5, 4) and AC
now AB   (8, 1, 3)

1  
the area of the base will be A   AB AC .
2

68 Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications


2. Given u  6î  3ĵ  2k̂  (6, 3, 2) 4. a. C
v  3î  4ĵ  k̂  (3, 4, 1)
B
a. 4u  3 v  (24, 12, 8)  (9, 12, 3)
 (33, 0, 5)
 33î  5k̂ .

b. u · v  (6, 3, 2) · (3, 4, 1) D


 18  12  2
A
 4.
ABCD is a parallelogram with coordinates
c. u v  (5, 12, 33) A(1, 2, 1), B(2, 1, 3), C(p, q, r),
 5î  12ĵ  33k̂. D(3, 1, 3).
Now AB  DC
d. u v  
25  1 
44  1089
therefore (3, 3, 4)  (p  3, q  1, r  3) and
 1258
. p  0, q  2, r  1 and the coordinates of C are
A unit vector perpendicular to both u and v is (0, 2, 1).

5 12 b. To determine the angle at A we use the dot product




, 
1258 
, 33 .
1258 
1258   · AD
AB   AB
AD
 cos A

AB  (3, 3, 4)
3. a. z   
AB 99
 16
A
 34

P(3, –2, 5)
  (2, 1, 2)
AD
  
AD 41
4
y
O 3
B 3
 · AD
AB   6  3  8
x  11
11
cos A  
334

A ≅ 129
 is the position vector of point P(3, 2, 5)
i) OP
The angle at A is approximately 129.
 onto the z-axis is
ii) the projection of OP
  (0, 0, 5)  AD
c. The area of parallelogram ABCD  AB 
OA
 onto the xy plane is
iii) the projection of OP  AD
AB   (10, 2, 9)
  (3, 2, 0).
OB  AD
AB   
100 
4  81
  5
b. OA
  185
  
OB 9  4  13
. The area of parallelogram ABCD is 185.


Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications 69


5. → c.
F →
F

30º
35º

d

r
A force F  acting at a direction of 35 to the horizontal
has magnitude F  75 N moves a box a distance 1
Since sin 30   a force applied at an angle of
2
d  16 m.
The work done is 30 will produce half the maximum torque

W  F d cos 
T  rF sin 30
 75 16 cos 35. 1
 0.18 50 
2

F T  4.5 J.

15º d 7. B C
20º

20º b 

The same force acting at 35 to the horizontal has a A →


D
a
  75 N and acts at an angle of 15
magnitude of F
  a  b
to the line of motion where d  8 m. Diagonal AC
  a  b.
and BD
The work done is W  75 8 cos 15.
 and BD
Let the angle between AC  be .
Total work done is
Now AC BD
  AC
BD
 cos 
75 16 cos 35  75 8 cos 15
≅ 1562.5 J.  · BD
AC   (a  b) · (a  b)
 a2  b2

6. →
F T
  
AC a2  
b2

  
BD a2  
b2

r
therefore a2  b2

a. The force should act at right angles to the wrench  


a2  
b2 
a2  b
2 cos 
to produce maximum torque.
  r F
 a2  b2  (a2  b2) cos 
b. T
T  r F  rF sin . a2  b2
If   90, maximum torque is and cos    2 
 .
a   b2
T  0.18 50  9 J.
The direction of T  is perpendicular to the plane a2  b2
of r and F so that r, F
, and r F
 form a right- For 0 <  < 90, cos     for a2 > b2.
a2  b2
handed system.

70 Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications