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Chapter 8 • Equations of Planes

Solutions for Selected Problems b. A plane contains the two intersecting lines
l1: r  (5, 4, 2)  t(4, 2, 1) and
l2: r  (7, 4, 7)  s(3, 1, 4).
Exercise 8.1
Since the plane contains both lines, two directions
7. Vector equations of planes: of the plane will be a  (4, 2, 1) and b  (3,
1, 4). Any point on l1 or l2 can be used, therefore
a. Through A(4, 5, 1), parallel to vectors a  (3,
parametric equations of the plane are
5, 3) and b  (2, 1, 5). A vector equation is x  5  4t  3s
r  (4, 5, 1)  s(3, 5, 3)  t(2, 1, 5). y  4  2t  s
z  2  t  4s.
b. Contains two intersecting lines l1: r  (4, 7, 3)
 t(1, 4, 3) and l2: r  (1, 4, 6)  s(1, 1, 3). c. Contains the line r  (1, 3, 1)  t(2, 2, 5) and

A point on the plane is A(4, 7, 3) and two the point A(8, 3, 5). A direction is a (2, 2, 5),
directions are a  (1, 4, 3) and b  (1, 1, 3). a second point is B(3, 5, 6), (when t  1),
  (5, 2, 11).
therefore another direction is BA
A vector equation of the plane is
r  (4, 7, 3)  s(1, 4, 3)  t(1, 1, 3). An equation is x  8  5s  2t, y  3  2s  2t,
z  5  11s  5t.
c. Contains the line r  (3, 4, 6)  t(5, 2, 3)
and the point A(8, 3, 5). A second point on the d. Contains two parallel lines l1: r  (3, 2, 2)  t(9,

plane is B(3, 4, 6). Two directions are a  (5, 6, 6) and l2: r  (1, 6, 6)  s(6, 4, 4). Two
2, 3) and BA  (11, 1, 1). A vector equation points in the plane are A(3, 2, 2) and B(1, 6, 6).
is r  (8, 3, 5)  s(5, 2, 3)  t(11, 1, 1). Two directions are a  (3, 2, 2) and BA
 
(2, 4, 8)  2(1, 2, 4). Parametric equations are
d. Contains parallel lines l1: r  (0, 1, 3)  t(6,
x  3  s  3t, y  2  2s  2t, z  2  4s  2t.
3, 6) and l2: r  (4, 5, 4)  s(4, 2, 4).
A direction of the parallel lines is a  (2, 1, 2). e. Contains the three points A(2, 6, 5), B(3, 1, 4),

Two points on the plane are A(0, 1, 3) and B(4, 5, C(6, 2, 2). From 7e, parametric equations are
  (4, 4,
4), therefore a second direction is BA x  2  5s  4t, y  6  5s  8t, z  5 
7). A vector equation is r  (0, 1, 3)  s(2, 1, 2) s  7t.
 t(4, 4, 7). 9. a. A plane parallel to the yz-plane has directions

e. Contains the three points A(2, 6, 5), B(3, 1, a  (0, 1, 0) and b  (0, 0, 1). This plane passes
  (5, 5,
4), C(6, 2, 2). Two directions are BA through the point A(6, 4, 2). A vector equation is
  (4, 8, 7). Choosing any of the
1) and AC r  (6, 4, 2)  s(0, 1, 0)  t(0, 0, 1).
three points, a vector equation is r  (2, 6, 5)  b. A plane passes through O(0, 0, 0), A(3, 3, 3), and
s(5, 5, 1)  t(4, 8, 7).   (3, 3, 3)
B(8, 1, 1). Two directions are OA
  (8, 1, 1). An equation is
 3(1, 1, 1) and OB
8. Parametric equations of planes:
r  s(1, 1, 1)  t(8, 1, 1).
a. Through A(7, 5, 2), parallel to vectors a  (4,
1, 1) and b  (3, 4, 4). Parametric equations
are x  7  4s  3t, y  5  s  4t, z  2  s
 4t.

Chapter 8: Equations of Planes 109

c. A plane contains the x-axis and the point A(1, r  a  s(a  b)  t(a  c)
4, 7). Two points on the x-axis are O(0, 0, 0)  (1  s  t)a  bs  ct
  (1, 4, 7)
and B(1, 0, 0). Two directions are AO or r  pa  sb  tc where p  1 s  t
  (1, 0, 0). An equation is r  s(1, 0, 0) 
and OB or p  s  t  1.
t(1, 4, 7).
b. r  (1 s  t)a
  sb  tc, 0  s  1, 0  t  1.
Now if s  t  0, r  a
10. a. The three points A(2, 3, 1), B(8, 5, 5), and
  (6, 2, 4)  s  0, t  1, r  c
C(1, 2, 1) give directions AB
  (3, 1, 2)  1(3, 1, 2). s  1, t 0, r  b
2(3, 1, 2) and AC
  2AC
, A, B, and C are collinear and s  t  1, r  a  b  c.
Since AB
Now a  b  c  c  a  b
three collinear points do not define a unique plane.
  CD
 OC , CD  a  b
b. The point P(8, 7, 5) is on the line r  (4, 9, 3) .
 OD
 t(1, 4, 2), (t  4). Collinear points do not   a  b  AB
CD , therefore ABCD is a
define a unique plane. parallelogram and the fourth vertex D has position
  a  b  c. Hence the region in the
vector OD
11. The plane contains the line x  7  t, y  2t,
plane is all points in and on the parallelogram
z  7  t. A point on the plane will be A(7, 0, 7),
whose vertices have position vectors a, b, a  b
(t  0), and a direction is a  (1, 2, 1)  1(1,
 c, and c.
2, 1). Since the plane does not intersect the z-axis,
B
the z-axis will be parallel to the plane, hence a second →
b D
direction will be b  (0, 0, 1). A vector equation of →
a+
 →
b
the plane is r  (7, 0, 7)  s(0, 0, 1)  t(1, 2, 1). →
a+
A 
Parametric equations are x  7  t, y  2t, z  7 
s  t. C → →
c – a + b→

→ →
→ → =a + b + c
12. A plane has equations r  (a, b, c)  s(d, e, f)  →
a b c
t(a, b, c). If s  0 and t  1, r  (0, 0, 0), hence
the plane passes through the origin.

13. a. B
A

14. a. → l
→ d
a

b R
C

c
O
Q

A, B, and C are three points on the plane. Let two r0

directions be q

AB  a  b and
O

AC  a  c.
A line l has equation r  r0  td. r0 is the position
With point A, the vector equation of the plane
vector of point R on the line. Q is a point not on l
containing A, B, and C is
and has position vector q. Two directions of the

110 Chapter 8: Equations of Planes

plane are d and RQ
  r  q.
0
1, 2), the two planes are distinct. Hence the
The vector equation of this plane will be two planes are parallel and distinct.
r  r  l (r  q)  td
0 0
  (2, 1, 1).
b. 1: 2x  y  z  3  0, n 1
 (1  l)r0  lq  td 2: 6x  2y  2z  9  0, n2  (6, 2, 2) 
r  kr  lq  td, 1  l  k
0 2 (3, 1, 1).
or k  l  1. Since n2  kn1, the two planes are distinct and they
b. r  kr0  lq  td
, k  l  1 intersect.
r  kr0  (1  k)q  td, 0  k  1.   (3, 3, 1)
c. 1: 3x  3y  z  2  0, n 1
k  0 gives the line r  q  td. The line passes 2: 6x  6y  2z  4  0, n2  (6, 6, 2)
through Q and has direction d.  2(3, 3, 1). Since n  2n , the planes are
2 1
k  1 gives the line r  r  td. The line passes
0 parallel. Now (6, 6, 2, 4)  2(3, 3, 2, 2).
through R and has direction d. Therefore 2  21 and the planes are coincident.
Therefore the region of the plane determined by
  (2, 4, 2)
d. 1: 2x  4y  2z  6  0, n
0  k  1 is the region between and including the 1
 2(1, 2, 1).
two parallel lines through R and Q with direction d.
2: 3x  6y  3z  9  0, n2  (3, 6, 3)
 3(1, 2, 1).
Exercise 8.2 2
n2  n1, therefore the planes are parallel.
3
8. A plane contains the x-axis and the point A(4, 2, 1).
(3, 6, 3, 9)  3(1, 2, 1, 3)
O(0, 0, 0) is on the x-axis, therefore a direction is
  (4, 2, 1). A second direction is the direction (2, 4, 2, 6)  2(1, 2, 1, 3)
OA
  î  n 2
of the xaxis, î  (1, 0, 0). A normal is OA 2  1, therefore the planes
3
 (0, 1, 2). P(x, y, z) is a point on the plane, hence
are coincident.
 · n  0. The plane has equation
AP
(x  4, y  2, z  1) · (0, 1, 2)  0 11. a. : 2x  y  3z  24  0. Let x  s, z  t.
y  2z  0.
Therefore y  24  2s  3t. A vector equation
9. A plane contains the intersecting lines is r  (0, 24, 0)  s(1, 2, 0)  t(0, 3, 1).
3
x2 y z3 x2 y z3 b. : 3x  5z  15  0. Solve for z: z  3  x.
     and     . 5
1 2 3 3 4 2
Let x  5s, y  t, z  3 3s. A vector equation is
The common point is A(2, 0, 3). Two directions are r  (0, 0, 3)  s(5, 0, 3)  t(0, 1, 0).
a  (1, 2, 3) and b  (3, 4, 2). A normal to the
plane is n  a  b  (10, 11, 10)  (10, 11, 12. : 4x  y  z  10  10. A normal to  is
10). The scalar equation is AP  · n  0 n  (4, 1, 1).
(x  2, y, z  3) · (10, 11, 10)  0
a. r  (3, 0, 2)  t(1, 2, 2). A direction of the line
10x  11y  10z  50  0.
is d  (1, 2, 2) since d · n  4  2  2  0.
  (1, 3, 1).
10. a. 1: x  3y  z  2  0, n The line is parallel to the plane. A point on the line
1
2: 2x  6y  2z  8  0, n2  (2, 6, 2)  is A(3, 0, 2). Since A satisfies the equation of ,
2(1, 3, 1). Since n  2n , the planes are parallel.
2 1
the point is on the plane, hence the line lies on
Since (2, 6, 2, 8)  2(1, 3, 1, 4)  2(1, 3, the plane.

Chapter 8: Equations of Planes 111

b. x  3t, y  5  2t, z  10t. A direction of   (1, 4, 2)
b. : x  4y  2z  7  0, n
the line is d  (3, 2, 10). d · n  0  4  4  0, the line is parallel to the
d · n  12  2  10  0, therefore the line 7
plane. The z-intercept of the plane is .
is parallel to the plane. A point on the line is 2
Therefore the line lies above the plane.
A(0, 5, 0), (t  0). Since A does not satisfy the
equation of the plane, the line is not on the plane.
15. a. P(x, y, z) is equidistant from A(1, 2, 3) and
x1 y6 z   BP
B(4, 0, 1) therefore AP  and AP
2  BP
2
c.     . A direction of the line is
4 1 1 therefore (x  1)2  (y  2)2  (z  3)2 

d  (4, 1, 1). (x  4)2  y2  (z  1)2. Squaring and collecting

to the plane, hence it must intersect the plane at 2x  1  4y  4  6z  9  8x  16  2z  1

6x  4y  4z  3  0.
some point.
b. 6x  4y  4z  3  0 is a plane that has normal
13. a. 1: 2x  3y  z  9  0, n1  (2, 3, 1).  and passes through the
coincident with AB
2: x  2y  4  0, n2  (1, 2, 0).   (3, 2, 2),
midpoint of AB, i.e., AB
The angle between n1 and n2 is where
n  (6, 4, 4)  2(3, 2, 2). n  2AB
. The
n1 · n2  n1n2 cos
 
5
midpoint of AB is M , 1, 2
2

2  6  4
91 1
 4 cos 5
6   4(1)  4(2)  3  15  4  8  3  0.
2
8
cos   M satisfies 6x  4y  4z  3  0 therefore the
14
 5
plane passes through the midpoint of AB.
 17
.
The angle between the planes is approximately 17
.
16. a. B
b. 1: x  y  z  1  0, n   (1, 1, 1). →
n
1

 : 2x  3y  z  4  0, n  (2, 3, 1).
2 2

n1 · n2  2  3  1  0, therefore n1 ⊥ n2 and the

angle between the planes is 90
. P
C
14. a. l: x  0, y  t, z  2t, d  (0, 1, 2) A
: 2x  10y  5z  1  0, n  (2, 10, 5)
The line intersects the z-axis at (0, 0, 0). → →
r b
1
The z-intercept is . →
a →
5 c
 
Since d · n  0  10  10  0, the line is parallel
to the plane and since the z-intercept of the line is 0 O
1
and of the plane is , the line lies below the plane.
5

112 Chapter 8: Equations of Planes

a, b, and c are position vectors of points A, B, and 18. The distance from P1(x1, y1, z1) to the plane Ax  By
C. ABC defines a plane with two directions  Cz  D  0 is given by
  a  b
AB Ax1  By1  Cz1  D
d   .
  a  c.
and AC  A2  B2
 C2
A normal to the plane is The distance from the origin to the plane is
  AC
AB   (b  a)  (c  a)
D
 b  c  b  a  a  c  a  a. d  .

A  B2
2
 C2
But a  a  0 hence a normal is n  b  c  b
 a  a  c. P(x, y, z) is a point on the plane and If n  (A, B, C) is a unit vector, 
A2  B2
 C2  1

r is the position vector of P. AP   a  r. Since and d  D.

 is in the plane and n is perpendicular to the
AP Therefore if the coefficients A, B, and C are the
 · n  0.
plane, AP components of a unit normal, D will represent the
distance from the origin to the plane.
(r  a) · (b  c  b  a  a  c)  0
but b  a  a  b, a  c  c  a, 19. a, b, and c are the x-, y-, and z-intercept of a plane.
therefore the scalar equation of the plane through These intercepts correspond to the points A(a, 0, 0),
B(0, b, 0) and C(0, 0, c). Two directions of this plane
A, B, and C is
  (a, b, 0) and CA
are BA   (a, 0, c).
(r  a) · (a  b  b  c  c  a)  0.
A normal is BA  CA  n  (bc, ac, ab).
b. A(8, 4, 3), B(5, 6, 1), C(4, 1, 2). The position The scalar equation is AP · n
vectors of A, B, and C are a (8, 4, 3), (x  a, y, z) · (bc, ac, ab)  0
bcx  acy  abz  abc  0
b  (5, 6, 1),
x y z
c  (4, 1, 2). divide by abc:       1.
a b c
b  c  (13, 14, 19) The distance from the origin to this plane is
b  a  (14, 23, 68) 1
d  ––––––––––––––––
a  c  (11, 4, 24),
r  a  (x  8, y  4, z  3).
From 16a

a
1
b
1
c
1
2  2  2

(x  8, y  4, z  3) · (38, 33, 111)  0

38x  33y  111z  304  132  333  0
38x  33y  111z  103  0.
1
or  
d 
1
a 1
c
1
    
2
b 2 2

17. : 2x  3y  kz  0. The plane intersects the 1 1 1 1

xy-plane when z  0. Therefore 2x  3y  0. or 2  2  2  2 .
d a b c
Let x  3t, y  2t.
The line of intersection of the plane in the xy-plane is 20. The scalar equation of the plane with x-, y-, and
the line x  3t, y  2t, z  0. This line passes z-intercepts a, b, and c from question 19 is
through the origin (i.e., t  0 gives the point (0, 0, 0)). x y z
      1. Developing this equation using the
Since the equation of the line is independent of k, all a b c
planes 2x  3y  kz  0, k R, intersect the results of question 16:
xy-plane in this line and the plane rotates about this
line as k varies.

Chapter 8: Equations of Planes 113

Let the position vectors of the three intercepts be (ii) To intersect the y-axis, x  z  0 therefore
a  (a, 0, 0), b  (0, b, 0), c  (0, 0, c). 2s  7t  6 ➀
7s  3t  3 ➁
Now a  b  (0, 0, ab), b  c  (bc, 0, 0),
3  ➀  7  ➁: 55s  3,
c  a  (0, ac, 0).
3
a  b  b  c  c  a  (bc, ac, ab) s  ,
55
r  a  (x  a, y, z) 48 56
and (r  a) · (a  b  b  c  c  a)  0 t  , and y  .
55 55

 
(x  a, y, z) · (bc, ac, ab)  0 56
The plane intersects the y-axis at 0, , 0 .
55
bcx  acy  abz  abc  0
x y z (iii) To intersect the z-axis, x  y  0 therefore
Divide by abc:       1  0 2s  7t  6 ➀
a b c
2s  3t  2 ➁
x y z
      1 1 7
or
a b c ➀  ➁: 4x  4, t  1, s  , and z  .
2 2
represents the equation of the plane having a, b, and c as 7
The plane intersects the z-axis at (0, 0, ).
x-, y-, and z-intercepts respectively. 2
b. (i) For an intersection with the xy-plane, z  0.

Exercise 8.3 7
Therefore 3  7s  3t  0, t  1  s.
3
4. a. The plane r  (6, 4, 3)  s(2, 4, 7)  t(7, 6, 3) Let s  3k then t  1  7k. Substitute for x and
has parametric equations y, hence
x  6  2s  7t x  6  6k  7  49k
y  4  4s  6t x  1  55k;
z  3  7s  3t. y  4  12k  6  42k
(i) To intersect the x-axis, y  0, z  0 therefore y  2  54k.
4s  6t  4 ➀ The intersection with the xy-plane is the line
7s  3t  3 ➁ r  (1, 2, 0)  k(55, 54, 0).
➀ 2  ➁: 9s  1
(ii) An intersection with yz-plane, x  0. Therefore
1 20
s  , t   7
9 27 6  2s  7t  0, s  3  t.
2 140 2
x  6     Let t  2p, s  3  7p. Substitute for y and z
9 27
y  4  12  28p  12p
162  6  140
  y  8  16p;
27
z  3  21  49p  6p
28 z  24  55p.
x  .
27 The intersection with the yz-plane is the line
 
28 r  (0, 8, 24)  p(0, 16, 55).
The plane intersects the x-axis at , 0, 0 .
27

114 Chapter 8: Equations of Planes

(iii)An intersection with the xz-plane, y  0. 8. The plane 4x  2y  5z  18  0 has normal
3 n  (4, 2, 5). A line through (6, 2, 2) with
Therefore 4  4s  6t  0, s  1  t. direction n has equation x  6  4t, y  2  2t,
2
Let t  2u then s  1  3u. z  2  5t. Solve with the plane
Substitute for x and z 4(6  4t)  2(2  2t)  5(2  5t)  18  0
x  6  2  6u  14u 24  16t  4  4t  10  25t  18  0
x  4  8u; 45t  36
z  3  7  21u  6u 4
t  5.
z  10  27u.
The intersection with the xz-plane is the line
 
14 2
r  (4, 0, 10)  u(8, 0, 27). The point of intersection is , , 6 .
5 5

5. A line r  (6, 10, 1)  t(3, 4, 1) has parametric 9. a. 12x  3y  4z  12  0. The x-, y-, and
equations z-intercepts are 1, 4, and 3 respectively.
x  6  3t
z
y  10  4t
z  1  t.
a. The line meets the xy-plane when z  0. Therefore
t  1 and x  9, y  14. The point is (9, 14, 0). 3

b. The line meets the xz-plane at y  0. Therefore

5 3 7
t   and x  , z  . y
2 2 2 1
4

 
3 7
The point is , 0,  .
2 2
c. The line meets the yz-plane at x  0. Therefore x
t  2 and y  2, z  3. The point is (0, 2, 3).
b. x  2y  z  5  0. The x-, y-, and z-intercepts are
6. a. A line parallel to the x-axis will intersect a plane
perpendicular to the x-axis in one point. 5
5, , and 5 respectively.
2
b. A line parallel to the y-axis could intersect a plane
parallel to the y-axis in an infinite number of points z
or in no points.
c. A line perpendicular to the z-axis could intersect a
plane parallel to the z-axis is in one point, an
infinite number of points, or in no points.

 
7. The plane 3x  2y  7z  31  0 has normal n y
(3, 2, 7), which is the direction of the line through
the origin. An equation of the line is x  3t, y  2t,
z  7t. Solving with the plane gives
1 5
9t  4t  49t  31  0, t   x
2

 
3 7
and the point of intersection is , 1,  .
2 2

Chapter 8: Equations of Planes 115

c. 2x  y  z  8  0. The x-, y-, and z-intercepts 10. a. x  y  4  0. The x-intercept is 4. The
are 4, 8, and 8 respectively. y-intercept is 4. The intersection with the
xy-plane:
z
x  u, y  4  u, z  0
xz-plane: x  4, y  0, zs
yz-plane: x  0, y  4, z  t.
z

4

y
8

x y
4

4
8
x

d. 4x  y  2z  16  0. The x-, y-, and z-intercepts b. x  3  0.

are 4, 16, and 8 respectively. The x-intercept is 3.
z The intersection with the
xy-plane: x  3, y  t, z  0
xz-plane: x  3, y  0, z  s.

8 z

y
16
y
4
3

x x

1
c. 2y  1  0. The y-intercept is .
The intersection with the 2

1
xy-plane: x  t, y  , z  0
2
1
yz-plane: x  0, y  , z  s.
2

z z

y
 –1
2

f. x  y  z  0. Thex x-, y-, and z-intercepts are 0.

x
The intersection with the
xy-plane: x  t, y  t, z  0
d. 3x  z  6  0.
xz-plane: x  s, y  0, z  s
The x-intercept is 2.
yz-plane: x  0, y  u, z  u.
The z-intercept is 6.
The intersection with the z
xy-plane: x  2, y  t, z  0
xz-plane: x  u, y  0, z  6  3u
yz-plane: x  0, y  s, z  6.
z

6 y

y
xk y4 z6
2 11. Given the line l:      and the
3 2 1

plane : x  4y  5z  5  0. The parametric

x equations of the line are: x  k  3t, y  4  2t,
z  6  t. Substitute into the equation of the plane:
e. y  2z  0.
k  3t  16  8t  30  5t  5  0
The y-intercept is 0. 0t  9  k.
The z-intercept is 0.
The intersection with the xy- and xz-plane is the a. No value of k will give a unique value to t. Note
x-axis: x  t, y  0, z  0; the intersection with that the direction vector of the line is d  (3, 2, 1),
the yz-plane is x  0, y  2u, z  u. the normal of the plane is n  (1, 4, 5) and
n · d  3  8  5  0. Since the direction of the
line is perpendicular to the normal, the line is
parallel to the plane.
b. If k  9, t R and there will be an infinite number
of points. In this case the line is on the plane.
c. If k  9, there will be no points of intersection.

Chapter 8: Equations of Planes 117

Exercise 8.4 6. a. The augmented matrix of the system is

11

2 7 4 1 2 7
4
3 3 1 . R2  R1 0 1 4 3

4. a. 3x  7y  z  12

310 .
x  y  2z   3
The augmented matrix is
R1  2  R2 1
0 0 15
1 4

31 71 21
312 . The final matrix corresponds to the equations
x  15z  10 or x  10  15z
b. 4x  3y  2z  4 y  4z  3 y  3  4z.
2y  5z  5 The parametric equations of the line of intersection
The augmented matrix is result when z is set equal to t. They are x  10 
15t, y  3  4t, z  t. The vector equation is
40 3 2 4

2 5 5 .
r  (10, 3, 0)  t(15, 4, 1).
b. The augmented matrix of the system is

c. x  4z  16 12 4 3
1 6

50 . 2  R  R 10 49 30
105 .
y  8z  2 1 2

The augmented matrix is The final matrix corresponds to the equations

1 0 4 16

0 1 8 2 . x  4y  3z  5, 9y  10, y  .
10
9
Substituting into the first equation and setting
d. 5y  2z  6x  4
3z  5y  2x  4 40 5
z  t, x    3t  5, x    3t.
The augmented matrix, with the coefficients of 9 9
x, y, and z in the first, second, and third columns The parametric equation of the line of intersection
respectively, is
5 10
is x    3t, y  , z  t. The vector
6 5 2 4

2 5 3 4 .
9 9


5 10

equation is r  , , 0  t(3, 0, 1).
9 9

5. a.
10 01 64
94 represents the system c. The augmented matrix of the system is

x  4z  9, 21 8 2
4 1
73 . R  2  R 20
1 2
8 2
0 4
71 .
y  6z  4.
The final matrix corresponds to the equations
b.
82 2
6
3
6
69 represents the system 1
2x  8y  2z  7, 4z  1, z  .
4
8x  2y  3z  6, Substituting into the first equation and letting y  t
2x  6y  6z  9. 1 13
2x  9t    7, x    4t.
2 4
c.
50 3 4

0 10 8
6
represents the system The vector equation of the line of intersection is

 
13 1
5x  10z  8, r  , 0,   t(4, 1, 0).
4 4
3y  4z  6.

d.
10 0 4
1 9
00 represents the system
x  4z  0,
y  9z  0.

118 Chapter 8: Equations of Planes

d. The augmented matrix of the system is The final matrix corresponds to the equations
2x  z  3, y  0.
34 8 3
6 1
26 . Substituting x  t into the first equation,
2t  z  3, z  3  2t.

106 .
The vector equation of the line of intersection is
4 8 3
3  R1  4  R2 0 0 5 r  (0, 0, 3)  t(1, 0, 2).
The final matrix corresponds to the equations

4x  8y 3z  6, 5z  10, z  2. 7. a. 2 6 2 5
Substituting into the first equation and letting 6 5 1 5
y  t, 4x  8t  6  6, x  2t. 2 3 4 3 .
The vector equation of the line of intersection is
r  (0, 0, 2)  t(2, 1, 0).
e. The augmented matrix of the system is

3  R1  R2
R1  R2
2 6 2 5
0 13 7 20

3 2 6

5 0 9 6 2 .
2 3 9 10 .

3 2 6
2  R1  3  R2 0 5 15
540 .
9  R2  13  R3

2 6 2 5
0 13 7 20

0 0 15 154 .
3 2 6
R2 (5) 0 1 3
35 . 154 106 253
z  , y  , x  .
15 15 30
R1  2  R2 3 0 0
0 1 3
21
8 . The three planes intersect at the point
The final matrix corresponds to the equations
3x  21, y  3z  8, x  7. 253 106 154
3
0
, , .
15 15
Substituting z  t into the second equation,
y  8  3t. The vector equation of the line of
intersection is r  (7, 8, 0)  t(0, 3, 1).

b. 1 8 5 1 8 5
4 3 2 4  R1  R2 0 35 22
f. The augmented matrix of the system is 3 2 2 3  R1  R3 0 22 17 .

159 .

106 8 3
2 5 1 8 5
22
0 35
22  R2  35  R3 0 0 111 .

5  R1  3  R2 6 8 3
0 46 0

9
0 . The three lines in R2 are not concurrent.

R2 46 0 1
6 8 3
0

90 . c.

6 3 4 10
3 6
8 7
5
4 22
1 15
2 5 9

R1  8  R2 6 0 3

90 .

0 1 0
6 3 4 10
R1  2  R2 0 15 12 34

R1 3 2 0 1
0 1 0

30 . 48  R1  3  R3
5  R1  6  R4
0 33 19
0 3
5
104
10

Chapter 8: Equations of Planes 119

b. The equation of the family of planes passing

through the line of intersection of the given planes
6 3 4 10
is 3x  4y  7z  2  k(2x  3y  4)  0. Since
0 15 12 34
the required plane contains the origin, then (0, 0, 0)
11  R2  5  R3 0 0 37 349
must satisfy the equation. Therefore, substituting
R2  5  R4 0 0 62 554
(x, y, z)  (0, 0, 0), we get
2  4k  0,
1

k  .
2
6 3 4 10
0 15 12 34 Substituting into the family
1  R3 0 0 37 349 1
3x  4y  7z  2  (2x  3y  4)  0
R4 (2) 0 0 31 277 2
4x  5y  14z  0.

The equation of the required plane is
6 3 4 10 4x  5y  14z  0.
0 15 12 34 c. The line with equation x  2y  3z can be written
0 0 37 349
31  R3  37  R4 x y 3
0 0 0 570 . as     . Therefore a direction is d  (6, 3, 2).
6 3 2
The four planes are not concurrent. The equation of the family of planes passing
through the intersection of the given planes is
8. 1: A1x  B1y  C1z  D1  0. 4x  3y  5z  10  k(4x  y  3z  15)  0
(4  4k)x  (3 k)y  (5  3k)z  10  15k
2: A2x  B2y  C2z  D2  0.  0.
1 and 2 are two nonparallel planes in space. Now Each plane of the family has normal n  (4  4k,
A1x  B1y  C1z  D1  k(A2x  B2y  C2z  D2) 3  k, 5  3k). Since the line is parallel to the
0 ➀ required plane, d ⊥ n and d · n  0,
can be written as (A1  kA2)x  (B1  kB2)y  (6, 3, 2) · (4  4k, 3  k, 5  3k)  0
(C1  kC2)z  D1  kD2  0, which is of the form of 24  24k  9  3k  10  6k  0
15k  5
a plane. Any point P1(x1, y1, z1) that satisfies the
1
equation of 1 and also 2 will be on the line of k  .
3
intersection of 1 and 2; i.e., A1x1  B1y1  C1z1  Substituting, we get
1
D1  0 and A2x1  B2y1  C2z1  D2  0. Also P1 4x  3y  5z  10  (4x  y  3z  15)  0
3
satisfies ➀ since substituting gives 12x  9y  15z  30  4x  y  3z  15  0
8x  8y  12z  15  0
L.S.  A1x1  B1y1  C1z1  D1  k(A2x1  B2y1 
Therefore, the equation of the required plane is
C2z1  D2) 8x  8y  12z  15  0.
 0  k(0)
0 9. Given the plane : r  (2, 1, 3)  s(5, 2, 2) 

 R.S. t(1, 0, 1). Two directions of  are a  (5, 2, 2)
Therefore all members of the family of planes and b  (1, 0, 1). A normal to this plane is a  b
represented by ➀ will also pass through the line of  (2, 3, 2)  1(2, 3, 2). Since the line l: r 
intersection of 1 and 2. (9, 1, 5)  p(2, 2, 2) is on the required plane, a
Note: If k  0, we get the plane 1; however, no value second direction will be (2, 2, 2)  2(1, 1, 1).
of k gives 2.

120 Chapter 8: Equations of Planes

A normal to the required plane is (2, 3, 2)  (1, 1, 1) Interchange
 (5, 0, 5)  5(1, 0, 1).
A point on the required plane is any point on the given
R2 and R3

2 6 4
0 42 18
0 0 4

11
45
25 .
line (9, 1, 5).
The required plane has equation
(x  9, y  1, z  5) · (1, 0, 1)  0
x  z  14  0.
2 6 4
R2 3 0 14 6
R3 (1) 0 0 4

11
15
25 .

Exercise 8.5 The final matrix corresponds to the equations

25
5. The matrix forms of the given systems are: 4z  25, z  
4
14y  6z  15
a.

5 2
3
1 5
1
1 5
2

5
12
3
2x  6y  4z  11
25
 
Substituting gives 14y  6   15,
4
b.

2 1 3
1 5 0
0
8
6
15
y  4

   
0 3 2 15 25 27
2x  6   4   11, x  .

4 4 4

c. 0 4 3 12
2 5 0 15 The planes intersect in the point

15 25
4 0 6 10
4

8. a. The augmented matrix of the system is

6. The systems of equations from the given matrices are:

a. x  8

1 2 1 12
y  6 2 1 1 5
z3 3 1 2 1 .
b. x  6z  4
y  5z  5 Now

0z  0

1 2 1 12
c. x  0 2  R1  R2 0 5 1 19
y0 3  R1  R3 0 5 5 35 .
0z  1

7. The augmented matrix of the given system is

1 2 1

12

0 5 1 19

2 6 4 11 R2  R3 0 0 4 16 .
1 3 4 7
8 18 2 1 . The final matrix corresponds to the equations
4z  16, z4
Now 5y  z  19, 5y  4  19, y  3

R1  2  R2
R3  4  R1

2 6
0 0 4
4

0 42 18

11
25
45 .
x  2y  z  12, x  6  4  12, x  2
The three planes intersect in the point (2, 3, 4). The
solution is unique.

Chapter 8: Equations of Planes 121

b. The augmented matrix of the system is Each row represents the same equation, x  2y 
3z  1, hence the three planes are coincident and

1 1 2
2 2 4
3 3 6

4
7
11 .
there are an infinite number of solutions.
e. The augmented matrix of the system is

Now

1 1 2

2

1 1 2 5

1 1 2 4
3 3 6 5 .
2  R1  R2 0 0 0 1
3  R1  R3 0 0 0 1 .
Now

1 1 2 2
There are no values satisfying the equation from R3, R1  R2 0 2 4 3
i.e., 0z  1. Therefore the three planes do not 3  R1  R3 0 0 0 1 .
intersect. Note that the normals,
1 1 The third row corresponds to the equation 0x  0y
n1  2n2  3n3, are collinear and the three planes  0z  1 or 0z  1. There are no values for the
variable that will satisfy the equation, therefore
are parallel and distinct. there are no solutions to the system of equations.
c. The augmented matrix of the system is The planes x  y  2z  2 and 3x  3y  6z  5

are parallel and distinct; the plane x  y  2z  5

1 1 1 5 intersects these two planes.
2 2 4 6
1 1 2 3 . f. The augmented matrix of the system is

Now
1 3 5
2 6 10
10
18

1 3 5 9 .

1 1 1 5
2  R1  R2 0 0 2 4
R1  R3 0 0 1 2 . Now

R2 2 0 0

1 1 1
1
5
2
2  R1 R2
R2  2  R3

1 3 5
0 0 0
0 0 0

10
2
0 .
R2  2  R3 0 0 0 0 .
There is no solution to the system. The two planes
The final matrix corresponds to the equations 2x  6y  10z  18 and x  3y  5z  9 are
xyz 5 coincident. The other plane, x  3y  5z  10, is
z 2 distinct and parallel to the coincident planes.
and 0x  0y  0z  0. g. The augmented matrix of the system is
Substituting z  2 into the first equation and letting
y  t gives x  t  2  5, x  7  t. The three
planes intersect in a line with vector equation
r  (7, 0, 2)  t(1, 1, 0). There are an infinite

1 3 2
1 11
2 8
5
3

9
5
4 .
number of solutions.
Now
d. The augmented matrix of the system is
R2  R1

1 3 2

9
14

0 14 7

2 4 6 2 R3  2  R1 0 14 7 14 .
4 8 12 4

1 2 3 1 .

1 3 2 9
R2 7 0 2 1 2
Now

R2  R3 0 0 0 0 .

1 2 3 1
R1 (1) 1 2 3 1
R2 4 1 2 3 1 .

122 Chapter 8: Equations of Planes

The final matrix corresponds to the equations 9. The three planes 1: x  2y  z  0
x  3y  2z  9 2: x  9y  5z  0
2y  z  2 3: kx  y  z  0.
0z  0, z  2t.
Substitute into the second equation We find the line of intersection between 1 and 2.
2y  2t  2, y  1  t Subtracting these equations gives 11y  4z  0,
and x  3(1  t) 2(2t)  9 4z
y 1
x  3  3t  4t  9, x  6  t. 1.
There is an infinite number of solutions. The three Let z  11t, then y  4t. Substitute to find x:
x  2(4t)  (11t)  0, x  19t. 1 and 2 intersect in
planes intersect in a line with equation r  (6, 1,
a line with equation x  19t, y  4t, z  11t. For the
0)  t(1, 1, 2). planes to intersect in a line, this line must lie on 3.
h. The augmented matrix of the system is Therefore k(19t)  4t  11t  0
19kt  7t

1 1 2
1 1 4
3 5 12

6
2
27 .
7
k  , t  0.
19
7
The planes intersect in a line when k   . The
 1 9
Now equation of this line is r  t(19, 4, 11).

R1  R2
3  R1  R3

1
0
1
2
2
6
0 2 6

6
8
9 .
Review Exercise

1. a. The line with equation x  z, y  0 has direction

1 1 2 6
R2 2 0 1 3 4 vector d  (1, 0, 1). A plane perpendicular to the
R2  R3 0 0 0 1 . x-axis has normal n  (1, 0, 0). If the plane
contains the line then the direction of the line will
There is no solution. Since no two planes are be perpendicular to the normal, i.e., d · n  0. But
parallel, their intersection forms a triangular prism.
d · n  (1, 0, 1) · (1, 0, 0)  1 ≠ 0. Therefore a

i. The augmented matrix is

2 1 1
1 2 3
3 2 4

0
0
0 .
plane perpendicular to the x-axis cannot contain
the line x  z, y  0.

b. A plane parallel to the yz-coordinate plane will

Now have normal parallel to the x-axis, n  (1, 0, 0).

R1  2  R2
3  R1  2  R3

2
0
1 1
5 7
0 1 5

0
0
0 .
Equation of the plane passing through A(4, 0, 5)
with normal n is (x  4, y, z  5) · (1, 0, 0)  0;
x  4  0 is a plane parallel to the yz-coordinate

R2  5  R3

2 1
0 5
1
7
0 0 18

0
0
0 .
plane and containing the point (4, 0, 5).

2. a. The plane passes through A(1, 1, 2) and is

parallel to the plane r  (2, 1, 0)  s(5, 4, 2) 

2 1 1
0 5 7
R3 (18) 0 0 1

0
0
0 .
t(0, 0, 1). Two directions of the plane are (5, 4, 2)
and (0, 0, 1). The vector equation of the plane is
r  (1, 1, 2)  s(5, 4, 2)  t(0, 0, 1).
The final matrix corresponds to the equations
Parametric equations are
z  0, 5y  z  0, 5y  0, y  0
2x  y  z  0, 2x  0, x  0 x  1  5s,
There is a unique solution. The three planes y  1  4s,
intersect in a single point, the origin, (0, 0, 0).
z  2  2s  t.

Chapter 8: Equations of Planes 123

b. The plane passes through A(1, 1, 0) and B(2, 0, b. The plane passes through the points A(3, 2, 3),

3) and is parallel to the y-axis. The direction of the B(4, 1, 2), and C(1, 3, 2). Two directions of the
    (4, 1, 1) and BC
  (3, 2, 0). A
y-axis is î  (0, 1, 0). A second direction is BA plane are CA
  BC
  (2, 3, 11).
(3, 1, 3). A vector equation of this plane is r  normal to the plane is CA
(1, 1, 0)  s(0, 1, 0)  t(3, 1, 3). Parametric The scalar equation is
equations are x  1  3t, y  1  s  t, z  3t. (x  3, y  2, z  3) · (2, 3, 11)  0
2x  3y  11z  33  0.
c. The plane has x-, y-, and z-intercepts 2, 3, and
c. The plane passes through the point A(0, 0, 6) and
4 respectively. Therefore three points that the plane
parallel to the plane y  z  5. The family of
passes through are A(2, 0, 0), B(0, 3, 0), and
  planes parallel to y  z  5 is y  z  D. Since
C(0, 0, 4). Two directions of the plane are AB
  (2, 0, 4)  2(1, 0, 2). A A(0, 0, 6) lies on this family, substituting gives
(2, 3, 0) and AC
0  6  D, D  6. The required plane has
vector equation of the plane is r  (0, 0, 4) 
equation y  z  6 or y  z  6  0.
s(2, 3, 0)  t(1, 0, 2) and parametric equations
are x  2s  t, y  3s, z  4  2t. d. The plane contains the point A(3, 3, 0) and the
line x  2, y  3  t, z  4  2t. The direction
d. The plane contains the point A(1, 1, 1) and the line
of the line, d  (0, 1, 2), is also a direction of the
x y z
    . Since the plane contains the line, the plane. A point on the line, B(2, 3, 4), gives a
3 4 5
  (1, 6, 4). A normal to the
second direction BA
direction of the line, (3, 4, 5), is also a direction of
plane is d  BA
  (8, 2, 1). The equation of
the plane. A point on the line is B(0, 0, 0), hence a
  (1, 1, 1). A vector the plane is (x  3, y  3, z) · (8, 2, 1)  0
second direction is BA
8x  2y  z  18  0.
equation of the plane is r  s(1, 1, 1)  t(3, 4, 5)
and parametric equations are x  s  3t, y  s  e. The plane contains the line r  (2, 1, 7)  s(0, 1,
4t, z  s  5t. 0). Therefore a point it passes through is A(2, 1, 7)
and a direction is a  (0, 1, 0). Since it is parallel
e. The plane contains the two intersecting lines
to the line r  (3, 0, 4)  t(2, 1, 0), a second
r  (3, 1, 2)  s(4, 0, 1) and r  (3, 1, 2) 
direction is b  (2, 1, 0). A normal to the plane
t(4, 0, 2). Since the plane contains these lines, the
is a  b  (0, 0, 2). The equation of the plane is
direction of the lines, (4, 0, 1) and (2, 0, 1), will be
(x  1, y  1, z  7) · (0, 0, 1)  0; z  7  0.
the direction of the plane. A point on both lines is
(3, 1, 2). A vector equation of the plane is r  f. The plane contains the points A(6, 1, 0) and B(3, 0,
(3, 1, 2)  s(4, 0, 1)  t(2, 0, 1) and parametric   (3, 1, 2). It is also
2). One direction is BA
equations are x  3  4s  2t, y  1, z  parallel to the z-axis, therefore a second direction is
2  s  t. 
k̂  (0, 0, 1). A normal to the plane will be k̂  BA
 (1, 3, 0) and the scalar equation is (x  6,
3. a. The plane passes through A(1, 7, 9) and has normal
y  1, z) · (1, 3, 0)  0, x  3y  3  0.
n  (1, 3, 5). The scalar equation is AP
 · n  0,
(x  1, y  7, z  9) · (1, 3, 5)  0 4. Given the planes 1: 3x  ky  z  6  0 with
x  3y  5z  67  0. normal n1  (3, k, 1) and 2: 6x  (1  k)y  2z  9
 0 with normal n  (6, 1  k, 2).
2

124 Chapter 8: Equations of Planes

a. If the planes are parallel, the normals will be scalar   6k̂  (0, 0, 6) and
7. A plane is parallel to vectors a
multiples and n1  an2. b  î  2ĵ  3k̂  (1, 2, 3). a and b will be two
Therefore (3, k, 1)  a(6, 1  k, 2) directions of the plane and a normal will be a  b 
3  6a, k  a(1  k), 1  2a (12, 6, 0)  6(2, 1, 0). The plane passes through
1 1 A(1, 2, 3), therefore the scalar equation will be
a   a  
2 2 (x  1, y  2, z  3) · (2, 1, 0)  0
1 1
Since a  2, k  2(1  k) 2x  y  0.
2k  1  k
8. A line passes through the origin, O(0, 0, 0), and the
1
k  3. point A(1, 3, 2). Since the line is perpendicular to
1   (1, 3, 2). The
the plane, a normal will be OA
The planes are parallel for k  3.
plane passes through A, therefore (x  1, y  3,
b. If the planes are perpendicular, their normals will
z  2) · (1, 3, 2)  0 and the scalar equation of the
be perpendicular. Since n1 ⊥ n2, n1 · n2  0,
plane is x  3y  2z  14  0.
(3, k, 1) · (6, 1  k, 2)  0
18  k  k2  2  0
x1 y1 z1 
9. Two lines, l1:     , direction d
k2  k  20  0 2 3 1 1

(k  5)(k  4)  0 x1 y1 z1

 (2, 3, 1) and l2:     , direction
k  5 or k  4. 1 5 4
The planes are perpendicular for k  5 or 4. 
d  (1, 5, 4) intersect at the point A(1, 1, 1). A
2
normal to the plane containing l1 and l2 is d1  d2 
5. A plane contains the parallel lines
(17, 7, 13). Now (x  1, y  1, z  1) · (17, 7,
y3 3 y5 z3
l1: x  1,    and l2: x  5,   . 13)  0 and the scalar equation of the plane
4 2 2 1
containing the intersecting lines l1 and l2 is 17x  7y
A point on l1 is A(1, 3, 0) and on l2 is B(5, 5, 3).
 13z  23  0.
A and B are also on the required plane, hence one
  (4, 8, 3). Since both
direction of the plane is AB 10. The line r  (4, 3, 1)  t(2, 8, 3) passes
lines are on the plane, a second direction of the plane through the point A(2, 21, 8) (t  3 will give the point
A). A point and two non-collinear directions define a
is the direction of the line, d  (0, 2, 1). A normal to
unique plane. Since A is on the given line, only one
the plane is d  AB
  (14, 4, 8)  2(7, 2, 4). direction is known, hence the equation of a plane
The scalar equation of the required plane is cannot be determined.
(x  1, y  3, z) · (7, 2, 4)  0
11. The distance from a point P1(x1, y1, z1) to a plane
7x  2y  4z  13  0. Ax  By  Cz  D  0 is given by
Ax1  By1  Cz1  D
6. Since the required plane is perpendicular to : x  2y d  .
 z  3  0, the normal n  (1, 2, 1) will be a
 A2  B2 C2

direction vector. Since it passes through the origin,

O(0, 0, 0), and A(2, 3, 2), a second direction is
  (2, 3, 2). A vector equation of the required
OA
plane is r  s(1, 2, 1)  t(2, 3, 2).

Chapter 8: Equations of Planes 125

a. The distance from the point P1(7, 7, 7) to the 12. The scalar equation of the plane having x-intercept
plane by z  5  0 is 1, y-intercept 2, and z-intercept 3 is
x y z
0(7)  6(7)  1(7)  5       1 or 6x  3y  2z  6  0.
1 2 3
d  

02  6
2
2
 (1) The distance from A(1, 2, 2) to this plane is
54 6646
D  . 22
37
 d    7.

36  9
4
b. Point P1(3, 2, 1) and the plane : 3x  2y  z 
10. The distance from P1 to  is 13. A normal to the plane : 4x  2y  5z  9  0 is
n  (4, 2, 5). An equation of a line through the
9  4  1  10 4
d    . origin with direction n will be x  4t, y  2t, z 
9  41 14

5t. Substituting into  gives 16t  4t  25t  9  0,
c. The line l: r  (1, 3, 2)  t(1, 2, 1) has direction 9 1
t    . The normal through the origin intersects
d  (1, 2, 1). The plane : y  2z  5 has
1
45 5
normal n  (0, 1, 2). Since d1 · n  0, the line is
parallel to the plane. The distance between the line
4 2
 at the point , , 1 .
5 5 
l and the plane  will be the distance from a point 14. The x-, y-, and z-intercepts of the plane : 4x 
on l, A(1, 3, 2) to the plane. 5y  z  20  0 are 5, 4, and 20 respectively.
z
3  4  5 2
Therefore d    . 20
14 5
2
The distance between the line and the plane is .
5
d. The plane 1: x  2y  5z  10  0 has normal
5
n1  (1, 2, 5) and the plane 2: 2x  4y  1z
y
 17  0 has normal n  (2, 4, 10)  2(1, 2,
2
4
5). Since n2  2n1, the planes are parallel, hence
the distance between the planes is the distance
from a point on 1, say A(10, 0, 0), and 2.
x
20  17 3 3
d      
4
  16 100 
21 4 .
25 230
3
The distance between the planes is .
230

126 Chapter 8: Equations of Planes

15. a. 2x  y  z  3  0. d. r  (4, 5, 0)  s(12, 9, 8)  t(8, 7, 8).
3
The x-, y-, and z-intercepts are , 3, and 3, Two directions are a  (12, 9, 8)
2
respectively.
and b  (8, 7, 8).
z
A normal is n  a  b  (16, 32, 12)
 4(4, 8, 3)
3 (x  4, y  5, z) · (4, 8, 3)  0
4x  8y  3z  24  0
x-, y-, and z-intercepts are 6, 3, and 8
respectively.
y
3
z
3–
2
8

x
–6
b. 3y  4z  24  0.
The y-intercept is 8, the z-intercept is 6.

z
y
3
6

x
y
8
16. The line l: x  5  3t, y  3  4t, z  1  5t
passes through the point A(5, 3, 1) and has direction
d  (3, 4, 5). The plane : 2x  y  2z  5  0
has normal n  (2, 1, 2). Since d · n  6  4  10
 0, d ⊥ n, hence the line is parallel to the plane.
x Since 2(5)  3  2(1)  5  0, the point A is on
the plane. Since a point of the line is on the plane
c. 3z  9  0.
The z-intercept is 3, and the plane is parallel to and the line is parallel to the plane, the line lies
the xy-plane. on the plane.

z
17. The plane 1: 2x  6y  4z  3  0 has normal
n1  (2, 6, 4)  2(1, 3, 2) and the plane 2:
3x  9y  6z  k  0 has normal n  (3, 9, 6) 
2
3(1, 3, 2).
y
2
Since n1  3n2, the planes are parallel.
3 9
31  22  0, therefore 9  2k  0, k  2.
x

Chapter 8: Equations of Planes 127

a. Since the planes are parallel, they will not intersect 19. Plane 1: x  2y  7z  3  0 has normal n1 
9
for k  2. (1, 2, 7), and plane 2: x  5y  4z  1  0 has
normal n  (1, 5, 4). A direction of the line of
2
b. The planes will never intersect in a line.
intersection of the two planes is n1  n2 
9
c. If k  , the two planes are coincident, hence (17, 11, 7)  1(27, 11, 7). A plane through
2
intersect in a plane. A(3, 0, 4) perpendicular to the line of intersection of
 and  has n  n as a normal. Therefore
1 2 1 2
18. A plane passes through the points A(1, 0, 2), (x  3, y, z  4) · (27, 11, 7)  0
27x  11y  7z  53  0
B(1, 1, 0), and has a direction a  (1, 1, 1).
is the equation of the plane through A(3, 0, 4)
  (2, 1, 2) and a
a. A second direction is BA and perpendicular to the line of intersection of the
given planes.
normal to the plane is a  BA
  (3, 4, 1).
Now (x  1, y, z  2) · (3, 4, 1)  0 20. a. The family of planes passing through the line of
3x  4y  z  1  0. intersection of the planes x  y  z  1  0
The scalar equation of the plane is and 2x  3y  z  2  0 is x  y  z  1 
3x  4y  z  1  0. k(2x  3y  z  2)  0. To find the particular
member that passes through the origin set (x, y, z)
b. A line through Q(0, 3, 3) perpendicular to the plane  (0, 0, 0).
has direction n  (3, 4, 1). Now 1  2k  0
1
An equation of this line is k  2.
r  (0, 3, 3)  t(3, 4, 1).
The particular plane is
c. The parametric equations of the line are x  3t, 1
y  3  4t, z  3  t. Solve by substituting these x  y  z  1  2(2x  3y  z  2)  0
values into the equation of the plane.
2x  2y  2z  2  2x  3y  z  2  0
3(3t)  4(3  4t)  (3  t)  1  0
4x  y  z  0.
4
t     
13 . The perpendicular through Q intersects b. A normal to the plane 4x  y  z  0 is n 1
12 23 43

the plane at A 1  
3 , 13 , 13 .  (4, 1, 1) and a normal to the plane x  z  0 is
n  (1, 0, 1). The angle between the planes
2
d. The distance from A to the plane is given by is the angle between the normals. Therefore
n · n   n  n  cos
3   4    1
12 23 43 1 2 1 2

d 
9
13
 16
1
13 13 4  1  16
  1
 1 2 cos
3 1
cos  6  2

36  92  43 13
 
13
 60

 and the angle between the planes is 60

.
26

d  0.
The distance from A to the plane is 0, implies that
A is on the plane.

128 Chapter 8: Equations of Planes

21. Plane 1: r  (4, 0, 3)  t(8, 1, 9)  u(1, 5, 7) e. 1: x  y  3z  4, n1  (1, 1, 3).
has directions a1  (8, 1, 9), b1  (1, 5, 7) and 2: x  y  2z  2, n2  (1, 1, 2).
normal n  a  b  (52, 65, 39)  13(4, 5, 3).
1 1 1
 : 3x  y  7z  9, n  (3, 1, 7).
3 3
The scalar equation is (x  4, y, z  3) · (4, 5, 3)  0 Since no two normals are collinear, no two planes
4x  5y  3z  7  0. are parallel.
➀  ➁: 2x  5z  6 ➃
Plane  : r  (14, 12, 1)  p(1, 1, 3)  q(2, 1, 1),
2 ➀  ➂: 4x  10z  13 ➄
has directions a2  (1, 1, 3), b2  (2, 1, 1) and 2  ➃  ➄: 0z  1
normal n  a  b  (4, 5, 3)  1(4, 5, 3).
2 2 2
There is no solution and the planes intersect to form
a triangular prism.
The scalar equation is
(x  14, y  12, z  1) · (4, 5, 3)  0 f. 1: x  3y  3z  8
4x  5y  3z  56  60  3  0 2: x  y  3z  4
4x  5y  3z  7  0
Since the scalar equations of both planes is the same, the 3: 2x  6y  6z  16
planes are coincident. Since 2  1  3  0, 1 and 3 are coincident.
1  2: 4y  4, y  1 Substitute into 2
22. a. x  5y  8 ➀
5x  7y  8 ➁ x  1  3z  4
5  ➀  ➁: 32y  48 x  5  3z.
3 1 Let z  t, x  5  3t.
y  2, x  2.

 
1 3 The planes intersect in the line with equation
The two lines in R2 intersect in the point 2, 2 .
r  (5, 1, 0)  t(3, 0, 1).
  (2, 2, 4)  2(1, 1, 2).
b. 1: 2x  2y  4z  5, n g. The augmented matrix of the system is
1
2: x  y  2z  2, n2  (1, 1, 2).
Since n  2 n , the planes are parallel. Since
1 2
1  2  2  1  0 the two planes will be distinct.
1
1
2
7
1 3
4 13
2 1 1 4 .

c. 1: 3x  2y  4z  1 ➀
Now

2: 2x  y  z  3 ➁

1 2 1 3
➀  2  ➁: 7x  6z  7 R1  R2 0 5 3 10
6 2  R1  R2
x  1  7z 0 5 3 10 .

Let z  7t, x  1  6t. Substitute into ➁

2  12t  y  7t  3
y  1  5t.
1  R2
R2  R3

1
0
0

2 1 3
5 3 10
0 0 0 .
The two planes intersect in a line with equation
r  (1, 1, 0)  t(6, 5, 7). The last row corresponds to the equation
d. x  2y  3z  11 ➀ 0z  0. Let z  5t (to avoid fractions)
2x  y  7 ➁ 3
3x  6y  8z  32 ➂ then 5y  3z  10, y  2  5z, y  2  3t.
2  ➀  ➁: 3y  6z  15, y  2z  5.
3  ➀  ➂: z  1, z  1, y  3, x  2. x  2y  z  3, x  4  6t  5t   3,
The three planes intersect at the point (2, 3, 1). x  1  t.
Letting t  0, y   2, x  1, z  0
r  (1, 2, 0)  t(1, 3, 5).

Chapter 8: Equations of Planes 129

h. 1: 3x  3z  12. 3. Three planes intersect in a point A.

2: 2x  2z  8.
3: x  z  4.
The three planes are coincident with the plane
x  z  4. A
i. 1: x  y  z   3.
2: x  2y  2z  4.
3: 2x  2y  2z  5.
1 and 3 are parallel and distinct. 2 intersects
both 1 and 3 in two parallel lines.
line of
intersection
Chapter 8 Test

1. a. Two planes, with normals satisfying n1 · n2  0,

will be perpendicular to each other and intersect in
a line.
b. Two planes, with normals satisfying n1  n2  0, Three planes intersect in a line.
will be parallel.
c. Three planes, with normals satisfying n  n · n
1 2 3 1
 0, will be parallel to each other. 2
2. The plane : 4x  y  z  10  0 has normal
3
n  (4, 1, 1)

a. The line l: x  3t, y  5  2t, z  10t has

direction d  (3, 2, 10). Since d · n  12
The three planes are coincident, thus intersect in
 2  10  0, the line is parallel to the plane. A a plane.
point on the line, A(0, 5, 0), (t  0) does not
satisfy the equation of the plane, therefore the line
3
does not coincide with the plane.

x2 y2 z
1
b. The line      has direction
4 1 1 2
d  (4, 1, 1) and passes through the point A(2, 2,
0). Since A satisfies the plane, and d  n, the line line of intersection
intersects the plane, at right angles, at the point
A(2, 2, 0). Two planes are coincident and the third plane
intersects them in a line.

130 Chapter 8: Equations of Planes

4. The plane r  (0, 0, 5)  s(4, 1, 0)  t(2, 0, 2) has c. A plane Ax  By  Cz  D  0 divides R3 into
parametric equation three regions. All points P1(x1, y1, z1) satisfying the
x  4s  2t
ys inequality Ax1  By1  C1  D 0 lie on the
z  5  2t. same side of the plane. Those satisfying Ax1  By1
a. For an intersection with the x-axis, y  z  0,  D 0 lie on the other side of the plane, and
5 those satisfying Ax1  By1  Cz1  D  0 lie on
therefore s  0, t   and x  5 and the point is
2 the plane. Since the sign of Ax1  By1  Cz1  D
(5, 0, 0).
is positive for P and negative for the origin, P does
b. An intersection with the xz-coordinate plane, y  0,
and the line of intersection, will be r  (0, 0, 5)  not lie on the same side of the plane as the origin.
t(1, 0, 1).

Cumulative Review Chapters 4–8

5. The line x  y, z  0 has direction d  (1, 1, 0) and
passes through the origin, O(0, 0, 0). The required plane
 2 
1 1
passes through A(2, 5, 4), therefore a second 1. Choose two unit vectors, â  , , 0
2
  (2, 5, 4) and a normal
direction of the plane is OA
is d  OA
  (4, 4, 7)  1(4, 4, 7). The scalar
1 1 1
and b̂  , ,  .
3 3 3

equation of the plane is 4x  4y  7z  0. 1
6  1
Now â  b̂  , , 0
6 
6. Given the system of equations x  2y  z  3 ➀


1 1 1
x  7y  4z  13 ➁ â  b̂       
2x  y  z  4 ➂ 6 6 3  1.
➀  ➂: 3x  y  1 ➃ Therefore the cross product of unit vectors is not
➁  4  ➂: 9x  3y  3, 3x  y  1. necessarily a unit vector.
Let x  t, y  1  3t and from ➀
t  2  6t  z  3 2. Question as posed in first printing of textbook is
z  5  5t meaningless. Use (u  v)  v.
The three planes intersect in a line with equation
r  (0, 1, 5)  t(1, 3, 5).
3. ∆ABC has coordinates A(2, 4), B(0, 0), C( 2, 1). To
7. a. The distance from the origin, O(0, 0, 0) to the plane :   (2, 4) and BC
find the cos ∠ABC, we need BA  
3x  2y  z  14  0 is  · BC
(2, 1). Now BA   4  4  0. Therefore

14 14  ⊥ BC
BA , ∠ABC  90
and cos ∠ABC  0.
d      14.
9
 41 14

4. The vector (0, 8) is a linear combination of (2, 4) and
b. The distance from the point P(10, 10, 10) to the plane (2, 1). Therefore (0, 8)  m(2, 4)  n(2, 1).
3x  2y  z  14  0 is Equating components 2m  2n  0 ➀
and 4m  n  8 ➁
30  20  10  14 26 Solve for m and n: ➀ 2  ➁: 5m  8,
d    .
14 14
 8 8
m  , n  
5 5
8 8
and (0, 8)  (2, 4)  (2, 1).
5 5

Chapter 8: Equations of Planes 131

1 1 2 2
5. Given four points A(2k, 0, 0), B(0, 2k, 0), C(0, 0, 2k), Now md d  (1  k)c  kc  (1  m)d
and D(2l, 2l, 2l). 2 2 5 5
1 2 2 1 1 2
The midpoint of AB is W(k, k, 0)
The midpoint of BC is X(0, k, k) 2 5 5
d m     m  c   k  k
2 2 5
The midpoint of CD is Y(l, l, l  k)
5m  10  d  2  10 kc.
7 9 1 9
and of DA is Z(l  k, l, l).

Now WX  (k, 0, k)  k(1, 0, 1)
Since c and d are linearly independent,
  (k, o, k)  k(1, 0, 1)
ZY 7 9 1 9
  ZY
and WX . m    0 and   k  0
5 10 2 10
  ZY
Since WX , W, X, Y, and Z are four points of a 9 5
m , k  .
parallelogram, hence the four points W, X, Y, and Z are 14 9
5
coplanar. Therefore, if k  9, BQR is a straight line.

6. A 7. P7

→ P6
→ kc
5b

d R P5
m)
Q (l –

(l – k) c Y
→ →

md 2b B P4
B → →
C
a P a
A
P3
  PC
In ∆ABC, let BP   a, P1
X
P2
  5b, QP
AQ   2b.
Extend BQ to meet AC at R. BQR is a straight line.
  md, QR
  (1  m)d, AC
  c, therefore Place the polygon in the Cartesian plane so that P1 is
Let BQ
  kc and RC
  (1  k)c. at the origin and P
P is along the positive x-axis. The
1 2
AR
interior angles of the polygon as 150
.
In ∆BQP: md  a  2b.
∠AP2P1  90
, therefore ∠AP2P3  60
and ∠AP3P2
In ∆BRC: 2a  d  (1  k)c,
 30
. Let the magnitude of each side of the polygon
1 1
therefore md  2d  2(1  k)c  2 b. be 2, therefore in ∠AP2P3, P2P3  2, AP2  1, and
AP  3 . Now PP  (3 , 1). Similarly in
In ∆AQR: 5b  kc  (1  m)d 3 2 3

2 2 ∆BP4P3, P3P4  2, P3B  3, BP4  1, and P

P 
3 4
and 2b  5kc  5(1  m)d. (1, 3
).
Similarly, we have the following:
P
P  (2, 0), P
1 2
P  (0, 2), P
4 5
P  (1, 3
5 6
),
P
P  (3
6 7
, 1).

132 Chapter 8: Equations of Planes

a. P
P  y, P
1 3
P  x.
1 2
, 
8. a b, and c are three linearly independent vectors. If
   2b
  c, v  2a  4c, and w
  a   3b

In ∆P1P2P3, P
P  x  y.
2 3
u 3a
 kc are coplanar then one of u, v, or w can be
b. P
P  P
P  P
P  P
P  mx  ny.
1 4 1 2 2 3 3 4 written as a linear combination of the other two.
Now x  P
P  (2, 0), y  P
1 2
P  P
1 2
P
2 3 Say w  pu
  qv.
 (2, 0)  (3
, 1)   3b
Now a   kc  p(3a
  2b
  c) 
y  (2  3
, 1). q(2a   4c)
  (3  2p)b   (k  p  4q)c  0
P
P  (2, 0)  (3
1 4
, 1)  (1, 3
)  m(2, 0)  (1  3p  2q)a

n(2  3
, 1). Since a, 
b, and c are linearly independent

Equating components: 1  3p  2q  0 ➀, 3  2p  0 ➁, and

2  3
  1  2m  (2  3
)n ➀ k  p  4q  0. ➂
3
1  3
 n ➁ From ➁, p  .
2
Substitute in ➁: 9
3  3
  2m  (2  3
)(1  3
) Substituting in ➀, 1  2  2q  0
3  3
  2m  2  33
3 11
q  4.
2m  23  2
3
m  1  3 Substituting for p and q in ➂: k  2  11  0,
therefore P
P  (1  3
1 4
)x  (1  3
)y. 19
k  2.
c. P
P  P
3 4
P  P
3 4
P  P
4 5
P  P
5 6
P  mx  ny
6 7 19
(1, 3
)  (0, 2)  (1, 3
)  (3
, 1)  If k  2 then u, v, and w
 will be coplanar.

m(2, 0)  n(2  3
, 1). →
9. A b B
, 23  3)  m(2, 0)  n(2  3
(3 , 1).
m
Equating components: → →
a a
2m  (2  3
)n  3 ➀ E n
n  23
3 ➁
D → C
Substitute in ➀: b
2m  (2  3)(3  23
)  3
2m  6  73
  6  3 ABCD is a parallelogram with
  CB
  a
2m  12 83
 DA
  AB
  b.
m  6 43  DC

therefore P P  (6 43 
)x  (3  23)y. Diagonals DB and AC intersect at E and E divides
3 7
AC in the ration m:n.
Since E divides AC in the ratio m:n,
n m
   a   b.
DE
mn mn

Chapter 8: Equations of Planes 133

n m
   BA
Also BE    BC
 Similarly in ∆ADB, PM AB
mn mn
DP DM PM SM
n
   AB
m
   CB
 and       . ➁
EB DA DB AB SR
mn mn

EB
n
   b   a.
n
MQ
AB
PM
AB
SM
From ➀ and ➁    both equal 
SR

mn mn
  kEB
. and MQ  PM
Since D, E, and B are collinear, DE
and M is the midpoint of PQ.
n m n m
 a   b  k b  k a
mn mn mn mn 11. A
n km m kn
mn mn mn mn 
   a     b  0.  ✓ ✓
But a and b are linearly independent, therefore
n km m kn
    0 and     0
mn mn mn mn
n  km  0 ➀ m  kn  0 ➁
➀  ➁: m  n  k(m  n)  0 and k  1.
  EB
Since k  1, DE  and E is the midpoint of DB. B D C

Substitute k  1 into ➀: n  m  0, m  n. Since ABC is an isosceles triangle with AB  AC. Apex

m  n, E divides AC in the ration m:m  1:1 and E is angle BAC is bisected by DA therefore ∠BAD 
∠CAD. We are to show that AD ⊥ BC. In ∆ABD and
the midpoint of AC. Therefore the diagonals of a ∆ADC,
parallelogram bisect each other. AB  AC
10. A R B DA is common, therefore ∆ABD  ∆ACD
and ∠ACD  ∠ADC  x
P Q ∠BDC  180

M
therefore 2x  180

x  90

and AD ⊥ BC, hence the bisector of the apex angle of

D C
S an isosceles triangle is perpendicular to the base.
ABCD is a quadrilateral with AB DC. AC and DB
intersect at M. A line through M parallel to AB meets x8 y4 z2
12. Two lines l1:     has direction
AD and BC at P and Q respectively. Draw RMS 1 3 1
perpendicular to AB. Since AB DC, RMS will also be
perpendicular to DC. d1  (1, 3, 1), and l2: (x, y, z)  (3, 3, 3)  t(4, 1, 1)
In ∆ABC, MQ AB. Therefore has direction d  (4, 1, 1).
2
CQ CM MQ
    . a. Since d1 · d2  0, the two lines are perpendicular.
CB CA AB
Since SR is an altitude of ∆ABC, M divides SR in the
same ratio.
CQ CM MQ SM
Therefore        ➀
CB CA AB SR

134 Chapter 8: Equations of Planes

30 4 40
b. From l1: x 8  s, y  4  3s, z  2  s 3  ➃  ➄: 30  11s  0, s  , t  s  .
11 3 11
l2: x  3  4t, y  3  t, z  3  t.
Equating components and rearranging gives the
following equations

7 4
11 11
 3 6 27

The points are A , , 3 and B , ,  .
11 11 11

s  4t  11 ➀
3s  t  7 ➁
16. The sphere (x  1)2  (y  2)2  (z  3)2  9 has
st1 ➂
➁  ➂: 2s  6, s  3 and t  2. Substitute in centre C(1, 2, 3). The plane tangent to the sphere at
➀: 3  4(2)  11  R.S. The lines intersect at A(2, 4, 5), a point at one end of a diameter, will have
the point (5, 5, 5).   (1, 2, 2) as normal.
CA
Therefore (x  2, y  4, z  5) · (1, 2, 2)  0
13. Given four points: O(0, 0, 0), P(1, 1, 3), Q(1, 2, x  2y  2z  20  0 is the
  (1, 1, 3), OQ
5), and R(5, 1, 1). Now OP   required plane.
  (5, 1, 1). OP
(1, 2, 5), OR   OQ
 
17. The line l: x  1  t, y  3  2t, z  t interests
  OQ
(1, 8, 3) and OP  · OR
  5  8 3  0,
each of the following planes.
 , OQ
therefore OP , and OR
 are coplanar, hence O(0,
a. 1: x  y  z  2  0.
0, 0) lies on the plane that passes through P, Q, and R. Substituting for x, y, and z:
1  t  3  2t  t  2  0
14. A plane , passes through P(6, 1, 1), has z-intercept 0t  2.
4 therefore passes through the point A(0, 0, 4),
There is no intersection. The direction of the line is
x2 y1 z
and is parallel to the line     . d  (1, 2, 1), a normal to the plane is n 
3 3 1 1 1

  (6, 1, 3) and the (1, 1, 1), d1 · n1  0, hence the line is parallel
Two directions of  will be AP
to the plane and distinct from the plane.
direction of the line,
b. 2: 4x  y  2z  7  0.
d  (3, 3, 1). A normal to the plane is d  AP
 
Substituting for x, y, and z:
(14, 21, 21)  7(2, 3, 3). The scalar equation
4  4t  3  2t  2t  7  0
of the plane is (x, y, z  4) · (2, 3, 3)  0 0t  0, t R.
or 2x  3y  3z  12  0. Note that the plane has normal n2  (4, 1, 2)
and d · n  0, the line is parallel to the plane; in
15. The coordinates of a point on the line (x, y, z)  (3, 2

4, 3)  t(1, 1, 0) is A(3  t, 4  t, 3) and on the fact, the line is on the plane. The intersection will be
line (x, y, z)  (3, 6, 3)  s(1, 2, 2) is B(3  s, r  (1, 3, 0)  t(1, 2, 1).
6  2s, 3  2s).
  (6  t  s, 2  t  2s, 6  2s) c. 3: x  4y  3z  7  0.
AB
 is parallel to m
  (2, 1, 3), therefore AB
  km
 Substituting for x, y, and z:
AB
1  t  12  8t  3t  7  0
and 6  t  s  2k ➀ 12t  18
2  t  2s  k ➁ 3
 6  2s  3k ➂ t  .
2
We solve for s and t:
➀  2  ➁: 10  t  5s  0 ➃ 
5 3
The line intersects the plane at the point , 0,  .
2 2 
3  ➁  ➂:  3t  4s  0 ➄

Chapter 8: Equations of Planes 135

18. Given the planes 1: 4x  2y  z  7 20. a. To determine the line of intersection of the
two planes
and 2 : x  2y  3z  3.
1: 3x  y  4z  6 and
Solve to find the line of intersection.
2: x  2y  z  5, we solve.
Add 1  2: 5x  2z  10
2 2  1  2: 7x  7z  7, x  z  1.
x  2  z. Let z  t, x  1  t substitute into 1
5
Let z  5t, x  2  2t. 3  3t  y  4t  6
From 2: 2  2t  2y  15t  3 y3t
The parametric equations of the two planes are
1 13
y    t. x  1  t, y  3  t, z  t.
2 2
The parametric equation of the line of intersection is b. To intersect the xy-plane, z  0 therefore t  0 and
the point is A(1, 3, 0).
1 13 To intersect the xz-plane, y  0 therefore t  3
x  2  2t, y    t, z  5t.
2 2 and the point is B(2, 0, 3).
For the intersection with the xy-plane, z  0. Therefore To intersect the yz-plane, x  0 therefore t  1
and the point is C(0, 2, 1).
 
1
t  0 and the point of intersection is 2, , 0 .
2 c. The distance between the xy- and xz-intercepts is
. AB
AB   (3, 3, 3), AB
  33
.
19. A plane 1 passes through A(2, 0, 2), B(2, 1, 1), and
C(2, 2, 4). Two directions of  are
  (0, 1, 1) 21. Since Q is the reflection of P(7, 3, 0) in the plane
AB
  (0, 2, 2)  2(0, 1, 1). : 3x  y  z  12, PQ will be perpendicular to the
and AC
plane and the plane will bisect PQ. Let this midpoint
A normal to the plane will be n  (0, 1,  1)  (0, 1, 1)
be R. A normal to the plane is n  (3, 1, 1). The
 (2, 0, 0)
line passing through PQ will have direction n and
 2(1, 0, 0).
The equation of the plane  is parametric equations x  7  3t,
(x  2, y, z  2) · (1, 0, 0)  0 y  3  t,
x  2  0. z  t.
A line l through P(3, 2, 1), Q(1, 3, 4) has direction
  (2, 1, 3) and parametric equations
QP Q
x  3  2t, y  2  t, z  1  3t. Solving the line
with the plane gives 3  2t  2  0 

1 n
t   .
2 R
The coordinates of the point of intersection of the line

 5 5

with the plane is 2, ,  .
2 2
P (7, 3, 0)

Solving with the plane gives

21  9t  3  t  t  12
30
t  .
11
This gives the coordinates of the midpoint of PQ,

 
13 63 30
R , ,  .
11 11 11

136 Chapter 8: Equations of Planes

Let Q have coordinates (a, b, c). Since R is the l2 intersects  at R. Solving l2 and  gives
midpoint of PQ,
3a  9s  10s  2a  2s  0
a7 13 b  3 63 c 30 s  5a.
  ,   ,   
2 11 2 11 2 11 The point R has coordinates (14a, 10a, 4a)
  (16a, 12a, 6a).
RQ
103 93 60
a  , b  , c  
11 11 11 Since RQ
  3 we have


(16a)2
 (
12a)2 
(6a)2  3
103

93 60
and the coordinates of Q will be , ,  .
11 11 11  256a2  144a2  36a2  9
22. Two planes 3x  4y  9z  0 and 2y  9z  0 9
a2  
intersect in a line. From the second plane we have 436
3
9 a   
y  z. Let z  2t, then y  9t, substituting in the 436

2
3
first plane gives 3x  36t  18t  0   .
x  6t. 
2109

Parametric equations of the line of intersection are The distance between Q and R will be 3 if
x  6t, y  9t, z  2t. A direction of this line is 3 3
a   or a  .
2109 2109
d  (6, 9, 2). Now d  36
1  8 4
 121
 24. Two lines L1: (x, y, z)  (2, 0, 0)  t(1, 2, 1)
d  11. L2 : (x, y, z)  (3, 2, 3)  s(a, b, 1).

 
6 9 2 To determine the intersection of L1 and L2 we equate
A unit vector along d is d̂  , ,  . components then solve.
11 11 11
A vector of length 44 that lies on this line of x  2  t  3  sa, t  sa  1 ➀
intersection will be y  2t  2  sb, 2t  sb  2 ➁
z  t  3  s, t  s  3 ➂

6 9 2
44d̂  44 , , 
11 11 11  ➂  ➀: s  sa  4
s(1  a)  4
44d̂  (24, 36, 8). 4
s  
1a
23. The line through P(a, 0, a) with direction 4
Substitute in ➂: t   3
d1  (1, 2, 1) has equation l1: x  a  t 1a
y  2t 4
t    3
z  a  t. 1a
l1 intersects the plane : 3x  5y  2z  0 at Q. 1  3a
t  
1a
Solving l1 and  gives
Substitute for s and t into ➁:
3a  3t  10t  2a  2t  0
2  6a 4b
5t  5a     2
1a 1a
t  a.
2  6a  4b  2  2a
The point Q has coordinates (2a, 2a, 2a). 8a  4b
The line through P(a, 0, a) with direction 1
a  b
d  (3, 2, 1) has equation
2
2
1
l2: x  a  3s L1 and L2 will intersect whenever a  b.
2
y  2s
z  a  s.

Chapter 8: Equations of Planes 137

25. x  2y  3z  1 ➀
2x  5y  4z  1 ➁
3x  5y  z  3 ➂
2  ➀  ➁: y  10z  1
3  ➀  ➂: 8z  0
z0
y  1
Substitute into ➀: x  2  1, x  3.
The solution to the system is x  3, y  1, z  0.

26. 2x  y  z  k  1 ➀
kx  z  0 ➁
y  kz  0 ➂
➀  ➂: 2x  z  kz  k  1 ➃
2  ➁  k  ➃: 2z  kz  k2z  k(k  1)
(k2  k  2)z   k(k  1)
(k  2)(k  1)z  k(k  1).
a. (i) If k  2, 0z  4 and there will be no solution.
k
(ii) If k  2, k  1, z   and the system
k2
will have exactly one solution.
(iii) If k  1, 0z  0 and there will be an infinite
number of solutions.
b. Since 0z  0, let z  t, back substituting will give
from ➂: y  z  0, y  t, and from ➁:  x  z 
0, x  t. The solution set is (x, y, z)  (t, t, t),
which is the equation of a line passing through the
origin with direction (1, 1, 1).