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Solutions for Selected Problems b. A plane contains the two intersecting lines

l1: r (5, 4, 2) t(4, 2, 1) and

l2: r (7, 4, 7) s(3, 1, 4).

Exercise 8.1

Since the plane contains both lines, two directions

7. Vector equations of planes: of the plane will be a (4, 2, 1) and b (3,

1, 4). Any point on l1 or l2 can be used, therefore

a. Through A(4, 5, 1), parallel to vectors a (3,

parametric equations of the plane are

5, 3) and b (2, 1, 5). A vector equation is x 5 4t 3s

r (4, 5, 1) s(3, 5, 3) t(2, 1, 5). y 4 2t s

z 2 t 4s.

b. Contains two intersecting lines l1: r (4, 7, 3)

t(1, 4, 3) and l2: r (1, 4, 6) s(1, 1, 3). c. Contains the line r (1, 3, 1) t(2, 2, 5) and

A point on the plane is A(4, 7, 3) and two the point A(8, 3, 5). A direction is a (2, 2, 5),

directions are a (1, 4, 3) and b (1, 1, 3). a second point is B(3, 5, 6), (when t 1),

(5, 2, 11).

therefore another direction is BA

A vector equation of the plane is

r (4, 7, 3) s(1, 4, 3) t(1, 1, 3). An equation is x 8 5s 2t, y 3 2s 2t,

z 5 11s 5t.

c. Contains the line r (3, 4, 6) t(5, 2, 3)

and the point A(8, 3, 5). A second point on the d. Contains two parallel lines l1: r (3, 2, 2) t(9,

plane is B(3, 4, 6). Two directions are a (5, 6, 6) and l2: r (1, 6, 6) s(6, 4, 4). Two

2, 3) and BA (11, 1, 1). A vector equation points in the plane are A(3, 2, 2) and B(1, 6, 6).

is r (8, 3, 5) s(5, 2, 3) t(11, 1, 1). Two directions are a (3, 2, 2) and BA

(2, 4, 8) 2(1, 2, 4). Parametric equations are

d. Contains parallel lines l1: r (0, 1, 3) t(6,

x 3 s 3t, y 2 2s 2t, z 2 4s 2t.

3, 6) and l2: r (4, 5, 4) s(4, 2, 4).

A direction of the parallel lines is a (2, 1, 2). e. Contains the three points A(2, 6, 5), B(3, 1, 4),

Two points on the plane are A(0, 1, 3) and B(4, 5, C(6, 2, 2). From 7e, parametric equations are

(4, 4,

4), therefore a second direction is BA x 2 5s 4t, y 6 5s 8t, z 5

7). A vector equation is r (0, 1, 3) s(2, 1, 2) s 7t.

t(4, 4, 7). 9. a. A plane parallel to the yz-plane has directions

e. Contains the three points A(2, 6, 5), B(3, 1, a (0, 1, 0) and b (0, 0, 1). This plane passes

(5, 5,

4), C(6, 2, 2). Two directions are BA through the point A(6, 4, 2). A vector equation is

(4, 8, 7). Choosing any of the

1) and AC r (6, 4, 2) s(0, 1, 0) t(0, 0, 1).

three points, a vector equation is r (2, 6, 5) b. A plane passes through O(0, 0, 0), A(3, 3, 3), and

s(5, 5, 1) t(4, 8, 7). (3, 3, 3)

B(8, 1, 1). Two directions are OA

(8, 1, 1). An equation is

3(1, 1, 1) and OB

8. Parametric equations of planes:

r s(1, 1, 1) t(8, 1, 1).

a. Through A(7, 5, 2), parallel to vectors a (4,

1, 1) and b (3, 4, 4). Parametric equations

are x 7 4s 3t, y 5 s 4t, z 2 s

4t.

c. A plane contains the x-axis and the point A(1, r a s(a b) t(a c)

4, 7). Two points on the x-axis are O(0, 0, 0) (1 s t)a bs ct

(1, 4, 7)

and B(1, 0, 0). Two directions are AO or r pa sb tc where p 1 s t

(1, 0, 0). An equation is r s(1, 0, 0)

and OB or p s t 1.

t(1, 4, 7).

b. r (1 s t)a

sb tc, 0 s 1, 0 t 1.

Now if s t 0, r a

10. a. The three points A(2, 3, 1), B(8, 5, 5), and

(6, 2, 4) s 0, t 1, r c

C(1, 2, 1) give directions AB

(3, 1, 2) 1(3, 1, 2). s 1, t 0, r b

2(3, 1, 2) and AC

2AC

, A, B, and C are collinear and s t 1, r a b c.

Since AB

Now a b c c a b

three collinear points do not define a unique plane.

CD

OC , CD a b

b. The point P(8, 7, 5) is on the line r (4, 9, 3) .

OD

t(1, 4, 2), (t 4). Collinear points do not a b AB

CD , therefore ABCD is a

define a unique plane. parallelogram and the fourth vertex D has position

a b c. Hence the region in the

vector OD

11. The plane contains the line x 7 t, y 2t,

plane is all points in and on the parallelogram

z 7 t. A point on the plane will be A(7, 0, 7),

whose vertices have position vectors a, b, a b

(t 0), and a direction is a (1, 2, 1) 1(1,

c, and c.

2, 1). Since the plane does not intersect the z-axis,

B

the z-axis will be parallel to the plane, hence a second →

b D

direction will be b (0, 0, 1). A vector equation of →

a+

→

b

the plane is r (7, 0, 7) s(0, 0, 1) t(1, 2, 1). →

a+

A

Parametric equations are x 7 t, y 2t, z 7

s t. C → →

c – a + b→

→

→ →

→ → =a + b + c

12. A plane has equations r (a, b, c) s(d, e, f) →

a b c

t(a, b, c). If s 0 and t 1, r (0, 0, 0), hence

the plane passes through the origin.

13. a. B

A

14. a. → l

→ d

a

→

b R

C

→

c

O

Q

→

A, B, and C are three points on the plane. Let two r0

→

directions be q

AB a b and

O

AC a c.

A line l has equation r r0 td. r0 is the position

With point A, the vector equation of the plane

vector of point R on the line. Q is a point not on l

containing A, B, and C is

and has position vector q. Two directions of the

plane are d and RQ

r q.

0

1, 2), the two planes are distinct. Hence the

The vector equation of this plane will be two planes are parallel and distinct.

r r l (r q) td

0 0

(2, 1, 1).

b. 1: 2x y z 3 0, n 1

(1 l)r0 lq td 2: 6x 2y 2z 9 0, n2 (6, 2, 2)

r kr lq td, 1 l k

0 2 (3, 1, 1).

or k l 1. Since n2 kn1, the two planes are distinct and they

b. r kr0 lq td

, k l 1 intersect.

r kr0 (1 k)q td, 0 k 1. (3, 3, 1)

c. 1: 3x 3y z 2 0, n 1

k 0 gives the line r q td. The line passes 2: 6x 6y 2z 4 0, n2 (6, 6, 2)

through Q and has direction d. 2(3, 3, 1). Since n 2n , the planes are

2 1

k 1 gives the line r r td. The line passes

0 parallel. Now (6, 6, 2, 4) 2(3, 3, 2, 2).

through R and has direction d. Therefore 2 21 and the planes are coincident.

Therefore the region of the plane determined by

(2, 4, 2)

d. 1: 2x 4y 2z 6 0, n

0 k 1 is the region between and including the 1

2(1, 2, 1).

two parallel lines through R and Q with direction d.

2: 3x 6y 3z 9 0, n2 (3, 6, 3)

3(1, 2, 1).

Exercise 8.2 2

n2 n1, therefore the planes are parallel.

3

8. A plane contains the x-axis and the point A(4, 2, 1).

(3, 6, 3, 9) 3(1, 2, 1, 3)

O(0, 0, 0) is on the x-axis, therefore a direction is

(4, 2, 1). A second direction is the direction (2, 4, 2, 6) 2(1, 2, 1, 3)

OA

î n 2

of the xaxis, î (1, 0, 0). A normal is OA 2 1, therefore the planes

3

(0, 1, 2). P(x, y, z) is a point on the plane, hence

are coincident.

· n 0. The plane has equation

AP

(x 4, y 2, z 1) · (0, 1, 2) 0 11. a. : 2x y 3z 24 0. Let x s, z t.

y 2z 0.

Therefore y 24 2s 3t. A vector equation

9. A plane contains the intersecting lines is r (0, 24, 0) s(1, 2, 0) t(0, 3, 1).

3

x2 y z3 x2 y z3 b. : 3x 5z 15 0. Solve for z: z 3 x.

and . 5

1 2 3 3 4 2

Let x 5s, y t, z 3 3s. A vector equation is

The common point is A(2, 0, 3). Two directions are r (0, 0, 3) s(5, 0, 3) t(0, 1, 0).

a (1, 2, 3) and b (3, 4, 2). A normal to the

plane is n a b (10, 11, 10) (10, 11, 12. : 4x y z 10 10. A normal to is

10). The scalar equation is AP · n 0 n (4, 1, 1).

(x 2, y, z 3) · (10, 11, 10) 0

a. r (3, 0, 2) t(1, 2, 2). A direction of the line

10x 11y 10z 50 0.

is d (1, 2, 2) since d · n 4 2 2 0.

(1, 3, 1).

10. a. 1: x 3y z 2 0, n The line is parallel to the plane. A point on the line

1

2: 2x 6y 2z 8 0, n2 (2, 6, 2) is A(3, 0, 2). Since A satisfies the equation of ,

2(1, 3, 1). Since n 2n , the planes are parallel.

2 1

the point is on the plane, hence the line lies on

Since (2, 6, 2, 8) 2(1, 3, 1, 4) 2(1, 3, the plane.

b. x 3t, y 5 2t, z 10t. A direction of (1, 4, 2)

b. : x 4y 2z 7 0, n

the line is d (3, 2, 10). d · n 0 4 4 0, the line is parallel to the

d · n 12 2 10 0, therefore the line 7

plane. The z-intercept of the plane is .

is parallel to the plane. A point on the line is 2

Therefore the line lies above the plane.

A(0, 5, 0), (t 0). Since A does not satisfy the

equation of the plane, the line is not on the plane.

15. a. P(x, y, z) is equidistant from A(1, 2, 3) and

x1 y6 z BP

B(4, 0, 1) therefore AP and AP

2 BP

2

c. . A direction of the line is

4 1 1 therefore (x 1)2 (y 2)2 (z 3)2

d (4, 1, 1). (x 4)2 y2 (z 1)2. Squaring and collecting

6x 4y 4z 3 0.

some point.

b. 6x 4y 4z 3 0 is a plane that has normal

13. a. 1: 2x 3y z 9 0, n1 (2, 3, 1). and passes through the

coincident with AB

2: x 2y 4 0, n2 (1, 2, 0). (3, 2, 2),

midpoint of AB, i.e., AB

The angle between n1 and n2 is where

n (6, 4, 4) 2(3, 2, 2). n 2AB

. The

n1 · n2 n1n2 cos

5

midpoint of AB is M , 1, 2

2

2 6 4

91 1

4 cos 5

6 4(1) 4(2) 3 15 4 8 3 0.

2

8

cos M satisfies 6x 4y 4z 3 0 therefore the

14

5

plane passes through the midpoint of AB.

17

.

The angle between the planes is approximately 17

.

16. a. B

b. 1: x y z 1 0, n (1, 1, 1). →

n

1

: 2x 3y z 4 0, n (2, 3, 1).

2 2

angle between the planes is 90

. P

C

14. a. l: x 0, y t, z 2t, d (0, 1, 2) A

: 2x 10y 5z 1 0, n (2, 10, 5)

The line intersects the z-axis at (0, 0, 0). → →

r b

1

The z-intercept is . →

a →

5 c

Since d · n 0 10 10 0, the line is parallel

to the plane and since the z-intercept of the line is 0 O

1

and of the plane is , the line lies below the plane.

5

a, b, and c are position vectors of points A, B, and 18. The distance from P1(x1, y1, z1) to the plane Ax By

C. ABC defines a plane with two directions Cz D 0 is given by

a b

AB Ax1 By1 Cz1 D

d .

a c.

and AC A2 B2

C2

A normal to the plane is The distance from the origin to the plane is

AC

AB (b a) (c a)

D

b c b a a c a a. d .

A B2

2

C2

But a a 0 hence a normal is n b c b

a a c. P(x, y, z) is a point on the plane and If n (A, B, C) is a unit vector,

A2 B2

C2 1

is in the plane and n is perpendicular to the

AP Therefore if the coefficients A, B, and C are the

· n 0.

plane, AP components of a unit normal, D will represent the

distance from the origin to the plane.

(r a) · (b c b a a c) 0

but b a a b, a c c a, 19. a, b, and c are the x-, y-, and z-intercept of a plane.

therefore the scalar equation of the plane through These intercepts correspond to the points A(a, 0, 0),

B(0, b, 0) and C(0, 0, c). Two directions of this plane

A, B, and C is

(a, b, 0) and CA

are BA (a, 0, c).

(r a) · (a b b c c a) 0.

A normal is BA CA n (bc, ac, ab).

b. A(8, 4, 3), B(5, 6, 1), C(4, 1, 2). The position The scalar equation is AP · n

vectors of A, B, and C are a (8, 4, 3), (x a, y, z) · (bc, ac, ab) 0

bcx acy abz abc 0

b (5, 6, 1),

x y z

c (4, 1, 2). divide by abc: 1.

a b c

b c (13, 14, 19) The distance from the origin to this plane is

b a (14, 23, 68) 1

d ––––––––––––––––

a c (11, 4, 24),

r a (x 8, y 4, z 3).

From 16a

a

1

b

1

c

1

2 2 2

38x 33y 111z 304 132 333 0

38x 33y 111z 103 0.

1

or

d

1

a 1

c

1

2

b 2 2

xy-plane when z 0. Therefore 2x 3y 0. or 2 2 2 2 .

d a b c

Let x 3t, y 2t.

The line of intersection of the plane in the xy-plane is 20. The scalar equation of the plane with x-, y-, and

the line x 3t, y 2t, z 0. This line passes z-intercepts a, b, and c from question 19 is

through the origin (i.e., t 0 gives the point (0, 0, 0)). x y z

1. Developing this equation using the

Since the equation of the line is independent of k, all a b c

planes 2x 3y kz 0, k R, intersect the results of question 16:

xy-plane in this line and the plane rotates about this

line as k varies.

Let the position vectors of the three intercepts be (ii) To intersect the y-axis, x z 0 therefore

a (a, 0, 0), b (0, b, 0), c (0, 0, c). 2s 7t 6 ➀

7s 3t 3 ➁

Now a b (0, 0, ab), b c (bc, 0, 0),

3 ➀ 7 ➁: 55s 3,

c a (0, ac, 0).

3

a b b c c a (bc, ac, ab) s ,

55

r a (x a, y, z) 48 56

and (r a) · (a b b c c a) 0 t , and y .

55 55

(x a, y, z) · (bc, ac, ab) 0 56

The plane intersects the y-axis at 0, , 0 .

55

bcx acy abz abc 0

x y z (iii) To intersect the z-axis, x y 0 therefore

Divide by abc: 1 0 2s 7t 6 ➀

a b c

2s 3t 2 ➁

x y z

1 1 7

or

a b c ➀ ➁: 4x 4, t 1, s , and z .

2 2

represents the equation of the plane having a, b, and c as 7

The plane intersects the z-axis at (0, 0, ).

x-, y-, and z-intercepts respectively. 2

b. (i) For an intersection with the xy-plane, z 0.

Exercise 8.3 7

Therefore 3 7s 3t 0, t 1 s.

3

4. a. The plane r (6, 4, 3) s(2, 4, 7) t(7, 6, 3) Let s 3k then t 1 7k. Substitute for x and

has parametric equations y, hence

x 6 2s 7t x 6 6k 7 49k

y 4 4s 6t x 1 55k;

z 3 7s 3t. y 4 12k 6 42k

(i) To intersect the x-axis, y 0, z 0 therefore y 2 54k.

4s 6t 4 ➀ The intersection with the xy-plane is the line

7s 3t 3 ➁ r (1, 2, 0) k(55, 54, 0).

➀ 2 ➁: 9s 1

(ii) An intersection with yz-plane, x 0. Therefore

1 20

s , t 7

9 27 6 2s 7t 0, s 3 t.

2 140 2

x 6 Let t 2p, s 3 7p. Substitute for y and z

9 27

y 4 12 28p 12p

162 6 140

y 8 16p;

27

z 3 21 49p 6p

28 z 24 55p.

x .

27 The intersection with the yz-plane is the line

28 r (0, 8, 24) p(0, 16, 55).

The plane intersects the x-axis at , 0, 0 .

27

(iii)An intersection with the xz-plane, y 0. 8. The plane 4x 2y 5z 18 0 has normal

3 n (4, 2, 5). A line through (6, 2, 2) with

Therefore 4 4s 6t 0, s 1 t. direction n has equation x 6 4t, y 2 2t,

2

Let t 2u then s 1 3u. z 2 5t. Solve with the plane

Substitute for x and z 4(6 4t) 2(2 2t) 5(2 5t) 18 0

x 6 2 6u 14u 24 16t 4 4t 10 25t 18 0

x 4 8u; 45t 36

z 3 7 21u 6u 4

t 5.

z 10 27u.

The intersection with the xz-plane is the line

14 2

r (4, 0, 10) u(8, 0, 27). The point of intersection is , , 6 .

5 5

5. A line r (6, 10, 1) t(3, 4, 1) has parametric 9. a. 12x 3y 4z 12 0. The x-, y-, and

equations z-intercepts are 1, 4, and 3 respectively.

x 6 3t

z

y 10 4t

z 1 t.

a. The line meets the xy-plane when z 0. Therefore

t 1 and x 9, y 14. The point is (9, 14, 0). 3

5 3 7

t and x , z . y

2 2 2 1

4

3 7

The point is , 0, .

2 2

c. The line meets the yz-plane at x 0. Therefore x

t 2 and y 2, z 3. The point is (0, 2, 3).

b. x 2y z 5 0. The x-, y-, and z-intercepts are

6. a. A line parallel to the x-axis will intersect a plane

perpendicular to the x-axis in one point. 5

5, , and 5 respectively.

2

b. A line parallel to the y-axis could intersect a plane

parallel to the y-axis in an infinite number of points z

or in no points.

c. A line perpendicular to the z-axis could intersect a

plane parallel to the z-axis is in one point, an

infinite number of points, or in no points.

7. The plane 3x 2y 7z 31 0 has normal n y

(3, 2, 7), which is the direction of the line through

the origin. An equation of the line is x 3t, y 2t,

z 7t. Solving with the plane gives

1 5

9t 4t 49t 31 0, t x

2

3 7

and the point of intersection is , 1, .

2 2

c. 2x y z 8 0. The x-, y-, and z-intercepts 10. a. x y 4 0. The x-intercept is 4. The

are 4, 8, and 8 respectively. y-intercept is 4. The intersection with the

xy-plane:

z

x u, y 4 u, z 0

xz-plane: x 4, y 0, zs

yz-plane: x 0, y 4, z t.

z

4

y

8

x y

4

4

8

x

are 4, 16, and 8 respectively. The x-intercept is 3.

z The intersection with the

xy-plane: x 3, y t, z 0

xz-plane: x 3, y 0, z s.

8 z

y

16

y

4

3

x x

1

c. 2y 1 0. The y-intercept is .

The intersection with the 2

1

xy-plane: x t, y , z 0

2

1

yz-plane: x 0, y , z s.

2

z z

y

–1

2

x

The intersection with the

xy-plane: x t, y t, z 0

d. 3x z 6 0.

xz-plane: x s, y 0, z s

The x-intercept is 2.

yz-plane: x 0, y u, z u.

The z-intercept is 6.

The intersection with the z

xy-plane: x 2, y t, z 0

xz-plane: x u, y 0, z 6 3u

yz-plane: x 0, y s, z 6.

z

6 y

y

xk y4 z6

2 11. Given the line l: and the

3 2 1

x equations of the line are: x k 3t, y 4 2t,

z 6 t. Substitute into the equation of the plane:

e. y 2z 0.

k 3t 16 8t 30 5t 5 0

The y-intercept is 0. 0t 9 k.

The z-intercept is 0.

The intersection with the xy- and xz-plane is the a. No value of k will give a unique value to t. Note

x-axis: x t, y 0, z 0; the intersection with that the direction vector of the line is d (3, 2, 1),

the yz-plane is x 0, y 2u, z u. the normal of the plane is n (1, 4, 5) and

n · d 3 8 5 0. Since the direction of the

line is perpendicular to the normal, the line is

parallel to the plane.

b. If k 9, t R and there will be an infinite number

of points. In this case the line is on the plane.

c. If k 9, there will be no points of intersection.

Exercise 8.4 6. a. The augmented matrix of the system is

11

2 7 4 1 2 7

4

3 3 1 . R2 R1 0 1 4 3

4. a. 3x 7y z 12

310.

x y 2z 3

The augmented matrix is

R1 2 R2 1

0 0 15

1 4

31 71 21

312. The final matrix corresponds to the equations

x 15z 10 or x 10 15z

b. 4x 3y 2z 4 y 4z 3 y 3 4z.

2y 5z 5 The parametric equations of the line of intersection

The augmented matrix is result when z is set equal to t. They are x 10

15t, y 3 4t, z t. The vector equation is

40 3 2 4

2 5 5 .

r (10, 3, 0) t(15, 4, 1).

b. The augmented matrix of the system is

c. x 4z 16 12 4 3

1 6

50. 2 R R 10 49 30

105.

y 8z 2 1 2

1 0 4 16

0 1 8 2 . x 4y 3z 5, 9y 10, y .

10

9

Substituting into the first equation and setting

d. 5y 2z 6x 4

3z 5y 2x 4 40 5

z t, x 3t 5, x 3t.

The augmented matrix, with the coefficients of 9 9

x, y, and z in the first, second, and third columns The parametric equation of the line of intersection

respectively, is

5 10

is x 3t, y , z t. The vector

6 5 2 4

2 5 3 4 .

9 9

5 10

equation is r , , 0 t(3, 0, 1).

9 9

5. a.

10 01 64

94 represents the system c. The augmented matrix of the system is

x 4z 9, 21 8 2

4 1

73. R 2 R 20

1 2

8 2

0 4

71.

y 6z 4.

The final matrix corresponds to the equations

b.

82 2

6

3

6

69 represents the system 1

2x 8y 2z 7, 4z 1, z .

4

8x 2y 3z 6, Substituting into the first equation and letting y t

2x 6y 6z 9. 1 13

2x 9t 7, x 4t.

2 4

c.

50 3 4

0 10 8

6

represents the system The vector equation of the line of intersection is

13 1

5x 10z 8, r , 0, t(4, 1, 0).

4 4

3y 4z 6.

d.

10 0 4

1 9

00 represents the system

x 4z 0,

y 9z 0.

d. The augmented matrix of the system is The final matrix corresponds to the equations

2x z 3, y 0.

34 8 3

6 1

26. Substituting x t into the first equation,

2t z 3, z 3 2t.

106.

The vector equation of the line of intersection is

4 8 3

3 R1 4 R2 0 0 5 r (0, 0, 3) t(1, 0, 2).

The final matrix corresponds to the equations

4x 8y 3z 6, 5z 10, z 2. 7. a. 2 6 2 5

Substituting into the first equation and letting 6 5 1 5

y t, 4x 8t 6 6, x 2t. 2 3 4 3 .

The vector equation of the line of intersection is

r (0, 0, 2) t(2, 1, 0).

e. The augmented matrix of the system is

3 R1 R2

R1 R2

2 6 2 5

0 13 7 20

3 2 6

5 0 9 6 2 .

2 3 9 10 .

3 2 6

2 R1 3 R2 0 5 15

540.

9 R2 13 R3

2 6 2 5

0 13 7 20

0 0 15 154 .

3 2 6

R2 (5) 0 1 3

35. 154 106 253

z , y , x .

15 15 30

R1 2 R2 3 0 0

0 1 3

21

8 . The three planes intersect at the point

The final matrix corresponds to the equations

3x 21, y 3z 8, x 7. 253 106 154

3

0

, , .

15 15

Substituting z t into the second equation,

y 8 3t. The vector equation of the line of

intersection is r (7, 8, 0) t(0, 3, 1).

b. 1 8 5 1 8 5

4 3 2 4 R1 R2 0 35 22

f. The augmented matrix of the system is 3 2 2 3 R1 R3 0 22 17 .

159.

106 8 3

2 5 1 8 5

22

0 35

22 R2 35 R3 0 0 111 .

5 R1 3 R2 6 8 3

0 46 0

9

0 . The three lines in R2 are not concurrent.

R2 46 0 1

6 8 3

0

90. c.

6 3 4 10

3 6

8 7

5

4 22

1 15

2 5 9

R1 8 R2 6 0 3

90.

0 1 0

6 3 4 10

R1 2 R2 0 15 12 34

R1 3 2 0 1

0 1 0

30. 48 R1 3 R3

5 R1 6 R4

0 33 19

0 3

5

104

10

b. The equation of the family of planes passing

through the line of intersection of the given planes

6 3 4 10

is 3x 4y 7z 2 k(2x 3y 4) 0. Since

0 15 12 34

the required plane contains the origin, then (0, 0, 0)

11 R2 5 R3 0 0 37 349

must satisfy the equation. Therefore, substituting

R2 5 R4 0 0 62 554

(x, y, z) (0, 0, 0), we get

2 4k 0,

1

k .

2

6 3 4 10

0 15 12 34 Substituting into the family

1 R3 0 0 37 349 1

3x 4y 7z 2 (2x 3y 4) 0

R4 (2) 0 0 31 277 2

4x 5y 14z 0.

The equation of the required plane is

6 3 4 10 4x 5y 14z 0.

0 15 12 34 c. The line with equation x 2y 3z can be written

0 0 37 349

31 R3 37 R4 x y 3

0 0 0 570 . as . Therefore a direction is d (6, 3, 2).

6 3 2

The four planes are not concurrent. The equation of the family of planes passing

through the intersection of the given planes is

8. 1: A1x B1y C1z D1 0. 4x 3y 5z 10 k(4x y 3z 15) 0

(4 4k)x (3 k)y (5 3k)z 10 15k

2: A2x B2y C2z D2 0. 0.

1 and 2 are two nonparallel planes in space. Now Each plane of the family has normal n (4 4k,

A1x B1y C1z D1 k(A2x B2y C2z D2) 3 k, 5 3k). Since the line is parallel to the

0 ➀ required plane, d ⊥ n and d · n 0,

can be written as (A1 kA2)x (B1 kB2)y (6, 3, 2) · (4 4k, 3 k, 5 3k) 0

(C1 kC2)z D1 kD2 0, which is of the form of 24 24k 9 3k 10 6k 0

15k 5

a plane. Any point P1(x1, y1, z1) that satisfies the

1

equation of 1 and also 2 will be on the line of k .

3

intersection of 1 and 2; i.e., A1x1 B1y1 C1z1 Substituting, we get

1

D1 0 and A2x1 B2y1 C2z1 D2 0. Also P1 4x 3y 5z 10 (4x y 3z 15) 0

3

satisfies ➀ since substituting gives 12x 9y 15z 30 4x y 3z 15 0

8x 8y 12z 15 0

L.S. A1x1 B1y1 C1z1 D1 k(A2x1 B2y1

Therefore, the equation of the required plane is

C2z1 D2) 8x 8y 12z 15 0.

0 k(0)

0 9. Given the plane : r (2, 1, 3) s(5, 2, 2)

R.S. t(1, 0, 1). Two directions of are a (5, 2, 2)

Therefore all members of the family of planes and b (1, 0, 1). A normal to this plane is a b

represented by ➀ will also pass through the line of (2, 3, 2) 1(2, 3, 2). Since the line l: r

intersection of 1 and 2. (9, 1, 5) p(2, 2, 2) is on the required plane, a

Note: If k 0, we get the plane 1; however, no value second direction will be (2, 2, 2) 2(1, 1, 1).

of k gives 2.

A normal to the required plane is (2, 3, 2) (1, 1, 1) Interchange

(5, 0, 5) 5(1, 0, 1).

A point on the required plane is any point on the given

R2 and R3

2 6 4

0 42 18

0 0 4

11

45

25 .

line (9, 1, 5).

The required plane has equation

(x 9, y 1, z 5) · (1, 0, 1) 0

x z 14 0.

2 6 4

R2 3 0 14 6

R3 (1) 0 0 4

11

15

25 .

25

5. The matrix forms of the given systems are: 4z 25, z

4

14y 6z 15

a.

5 2

3

1 5

1

1 5

2

5

12

3

2x 6y 4z 11

25

Substituting gives 14y 6 15,

4

b.

2 1 3

1 5 0

0

8

6

15

y 4

0 3 2 15 25 27

2x 6 4 11, x .

4 4 4

c. 0 4 3 12

2 5 0 15 The planes intersect in the point

15 25

4 0 6 10

4

6. The systems of equations from the given matrices are:

a. x 8

1 2 1 12

y 6 2 1 1 5

z3 3 1 2 1 .

b. x 6z 4

y 5z 5 Now

0z 0

1 2 1 12

c. x 0 2 R1 R2 0 5 1 19

y0 3 R1 R3 0 5 5 35 .

0z 1

1 2 1

12

0 5 1 19

2 6 4 11 R2 R3 0 0 4 16 .

1 3 4 7

8 18 2 1 . The final matrix corresponds to the equations

4z 16, z4

Now 5y z 19, 5y 4 19, y 3

R1 2 R2

R3 4 R1

2 6

0 0 4

4

0 42 18

11

25

45 .

x 2y z 12, x 6 4 12, x 2

The three planes intersect in the point (2, 3, 4). The

solution is unique.

b. The augmented matrix of the system is Each row represents the same equation, x 2y

3z 1, hence the three planes are coincident and

1 1 2

2 2 4

3 3 6

4

7

11 .

there are an infinite number of solutions.

e. The augmented matrix of the system is

Now

1 1 2

2

1 1 2 5

1 1 2 4

3 3 6 5 .

2 R1 R2 0 0 0 1

3 R1 R3 0 0 0 1 .

Now

1 1 2 2

There are no values satisfying the equation from R3, R1 R2 0 2 4 3

i.e., 0z 1. Therefore the three planes do not 3 R1 R3 0 0 0 1 .

intersect. Note that the normals,

1 1 The third row corresponds to the equation 0x 0y

n1 2n2 3n3, are collinear and the three planes 0z 1 or 0z 1. There are no values for the

variable that will satisfy the equation, therefore

are parallel and distinct. there are no solutions to the system of equations.

c. The augmented matrix of the system is The planes x y 2z 2 and 3x 3y 6z 5

are parallel and distinct; the plane x y 2z 5

1 1 1 5 intersects these two planes.

2 2 4 6

1 1 2 3 . f. The augmented matrix of the system is

Now

1 3 5

2 6 10

10

18

1 3 5 9 .

1 1 1 5

2 R1 R2 0 0 2 4

R1 R3 0 0 1 2 . Now

R2 2 0 0

1 1 1

1

5

2

2 R1 R2

R2 2 R3

1 3 5

0 0 0

0 0 0

10

2

0 .

R2 2 R3 0 0 0 0 .

There is no solution to the system. The two planes

The final matrix corresponds to the equations 2x 6y 10z 18 and x 3y 5z 9 are

xyz 5 coincident. The other plane, x 3y 5z 10, is

z 2 distinct and parallel to the coincident planes.

and 0x 0y 0z 0. g. The augmented matrix of the system is

Substituting z 2 into the first equation and letting

y t gives x t 2 5, x 7 t. The three

planes intersect in a line with vector equation

r (7, 0, 2) t(1, 1, 0). There are an infinite

1 3 2

1 11

2 8

5

3

9

5

4 .

number of solutions.

Now

d. The augmented matrix of the system is

R2 R1

1 3 2

9

14

0 14 7

2 4 6 2 R3 2 R1 0 14 7 14 .

4 8 12 4

1 2 3 1 .

1 3 2 9

R2 7 0 2 1 2

Now

R2 R3 0 0 0 0 .

1 2 3 1

R1 (1) 1 2 3 1

R2 4 1 2 3 1 .

The final matrix corresponds to the equations 9. The three planes 1: x 2y z 0

x 3y 2z 9 2: x 9y 5z 0

2y z 2 3: kx y z 0.

0z 0, z 2t.

Substitute into the second equation We find the line of intersection between 1 and 2.

2y 2t 2, y 1 t Subtracting these equations gives 11y 4z 0,

and x 3(1 t) 2(2t) 9 4z

y 1

x 3 3t 4t 9, x 6 t. 1.

There is an infinite number of solutions. The three Let z 11t, then y 4t. Substitute to find x:

x 2(4t) (11t) 0, x 19t. 1 and 2 intersect in

planes intersect in a line with equation r (6, 1,

a line with equation x 19t, y 4t, z 11t. For the

0) t(1, 1, 2). planes to intersect in a line, this line must lie on 3.

h. The augmented matrix of the system is Therefore k(19t) 4t 11t 0

19kt 7t

1 1 2

1 1 4

3 5 12

6

2

27 .

7

k , t 0.

19

7

The planes intersect in a line when k . The

1 9

Now equation of this line is r t(19, 4, 11).

R1 R2

3 R1 R3

1

0

1

2

2

6

0 2 6

6

8

9 .

Review Exercise

1. a. The line with equation x z, y 0 has direction

1 1 2 6

R2 2 0 1 3 4 vector d (1, 0, 1). A plane perpendicular to the

R2 R3 0 0 0 1 . x-axis has normal n (1, 0, 0). If the plane

contains the line then the direction of the line will

There is no solution. Since no two planes are be perpendicular to the normal, i.e., d · n 0. But

parallel, their intersection forms a triangular prism.

d · n (1, 0, 1) · (1, 0, 0) 1 ≠ 0. Therefore a

2 1 1

1 2 3

3 2 4

0

0

0 .

plane perpendicular to the x-axis cannot contain

the line x z, y 0.

Now have normal parallel to the x-axis, n (1, 0, 0).

R1 2 R2

3 R1 2 R3

2

0

1 1

5 7

0 1 5

0

0

0 .

Equation of the plane passing through A(4, 0, 5)

with normal n is (x 4, y, z 5) · (1, 0, 0) 0;

x 4 0 is a plane parallel to the yz-coordinate

R2 5 R3

2 1

0 5

1

7

0 0 18

0

0

0 .

plane and containing the point (4, 0, 5).

parallel to the plane r (2, 1, 0) s(5, 4, 2)

2 1 1

0 5 7

R3 (18) 0 0 1

0

0

0 .

t(0, 0, 1). Two directions of the plane are (5, 4, 2)

and (0, 0, 1). The vector equation of the plane is

r (1, 1, 2) s(5, 4, 2) t(0, 0, 1).

The final matrix corresponds to the equations

Parametric equations are

z 0, 5y z 0, 5y 0, y 0

2x y z 0, 2x 0, x 0 x 1 5s,

There is a unique solution. The three planes y 1 4s,

intersect in a single point, the origin, (0, 0, 0).

z 2 2s t.

b. The plane passes through A(1, 1, 0) and B(2, 0, b. The plane passes through the points A(3, 2, 3),

3) and is parallel to the y-axis. The direction of the B(4, 1, 2), and C(1, 3, 2). Two directions of the

(4, 1, 1) and BC

(3, 2, 0). A

y-axis is î (0, 1, 0). A second direction is BA plane are CA

BC

(2, 3, 11).

(3, 1, 3). A vector equation of this plane is r normal to the plane is CA

(1, 1, 0) s(0, 1, 0) t(3, 1, 3). Parametric The scalar equation is

equations are x 1 3t, y 1 s t, z 3t. (x 3, y 2, z 3) · (2, 3, 11) 0

2x 3y 11z 33 0.

c. The plane has x-, y-, and z-intercepts 2, 3, and

c. The plane passes through the point A(0, 0, 6) and

4 respectively. Therefore three points that the plane

parallel to the plane y z 5. The family of

passes through are A(2, 0, 0), B(0, 3, 0), and

planes parallel to y z 5 is y z D. Since

C(0, 0, 4). Two directions of the plane are AB

(2, 0, 4) 2(1, 0, 2). A A(0, 0, 6) lies on this family, substituting gives

(2, 3, 0) and AC

0 6 D, D 6. The required plane has

vector equation of the plane is r (0, 0, 4)

equation y z 6 or y z 6 0.

s(2, 3, 0) t(1, 0, 2) and parametric equations

are x 2s t, y 3s, z 4 2t. d. The plane contains the point A(3, 3, 0) and the

line x 2, y 3 t, z 4 2t. The direction

d. The plane contains the point A(1, 1, 1) and the line

of the line, d (0, 1, 2), is also a direction of the

x y z

. Since the plane contains the line, the plane. A point on the line, B(2, 3, 4), gives a

3 4 5

(1, 6, 4). A normal to the

second direction BA

direction of the line, (3, 4, 5), is also a direction of

plane is d BA

(8, 2, 1). The equation of

the plane. A point on the line is B(0, 0, 0), hence a

(1, 1, 1). A vector the plane is (x 3, y 3, z) · (8, 2, 1) 0

second direction is BA

8x 2y z 18 0.

equation of the plane is r s(1, 1, 1) t(3, 4, 5)

and parametric equations are x s 3t, y s e. The plane contains the line r (2, 1, 7) s(0, 1,

4t, z s 5t. 0). Therefore a point it passes through is A(2, 1, 7)

and a direction is a (0, 1, 0). Since it is parallel

e. The plane contains the two intersecting lines

to the line r (3, 0, 4) t(2, 1, 0), a second

r (3, 1, 2) s(4, 0, 1) and r (3, 1, 2)

direction is b (2, 1, 0). A normal to the plane

t(4, 0, 2). Since the plane contains these lines, the

is a b (0, 0, 2). The equation of the plane is

direction of the lines, (4, 0, 1) and (2, 0, 1), will be

(x 1, y 1, z 7) · (0, 0, 1) 0; z 7 0.

the direction of the plane. A point on both lines is

(3, 1, 2). A vector equation of the plane is r f. The plane contains the points A(6, 1, 0) and B(3, 0,

(3, 1, 2) s(4, 0, 1) t(2, 0, 1) and parametric (3, 1, 2). It is also

2). One direction is BA

equations are x 3 4s 2t, y 1, z parallel to the z-axis, therefore a second direction is

2 s t.

k̂ (0, 0, 1). A normal to the plane will be k̂ BA

(1, 3, 0) and the scalar equation is (x 6,

3. a. The plane passes through A(1, 7, 9) and has normal

y 1, z) · (1, 3, 0) 0, x 3y 3 0.

n (1, 3, 5). The scalar equation is AP

· n 0,

(x 1, y 7, z 9) · (1, 3, 5) 0 4. Given the planes 1: 3x ky z 6 0 with

x 3y 5z 67 0. normal n1 (3, k, 1) and 2: 6x (1 k)y 2z 9

0 with normal n (6, 1 k, 2).

2

a. If the planes are parallel, the normals will be scalar 6k̂ (0, 0, 6) and

7. A plane is parallel to vectors a

multiples and n1 an2. b î 2ĵ 3k̂ (1, 2, 3). a and b will be two

Therefore (3, k, 1) a(6, 1 k, 2) directions of the plane and a normal will be a b

3 6a, k a(1 k), 1 2a (12, 6, 0) 6(2, 1, 0). The plane passes through

1 1 A(1, 2, 3), therefore the scalar equation will be

a a

2 2 (x 1, y 2, z 3) · (2, 1, 0) 0

1 1

Since a 2, k 2(1 k) 2x y 0.

2k 1 k

8. A line passes through the origin, O(0, 0, 0), and the

1

k 3. point A(1, 3, 2). Since the line is perpendicular to

1 (1, 3, 2). The

the plane, a normal will be OA

The planes are parallel for k 3.

plane passes through A, therefore (x 1, y 3,

b. If the planes are perpendicular, their normals will

z 2) · (1, 3, 2) 0 and the scalar equation of the

be perpendicular. Since n1 ⊥ n2, n1 · n2 0,

plane is x 3y 2z 14 0.

(3, k, 1) · (6, 1 k, 2) 0

18 k k2 2 0

x1 y1 z1

9. Two lines, l1: , direction d

k2 k 20 0 2 3 1 1

(2, 3, 1) and l2: , direction

k 5 or k 4. 1 5 4

The planes are perpendicular for k 5 or 4.

d (1, 5, 4) intersect at the point A(1, 1, 1). A

2

normal to the plane containing l1 and l2 is d1 d2

5. A plane contains the parallel lines

(17, 7, 13). Now (x 1, y 1, z 1) · (17, 7,

y3 3 y5 z3

l1: x 1, and l2: x 5, . 13) 0 and the scalar equation of the plane

4 2 2 1

containing the intersecting lines l1 and l2 is 17x 7y

A point on l1 is A(1, 3, 0) and on l2 is B(5, 5, 3).

13z 23 0.

A and B are also on the required plane, hence one

(4, 8, 3). Since both

direction of the plane is AB 10. The line r (4, 3, 1) t(2, 8, 3) passes

lines are on the plane, a second direction of the plane through the point A(2, 21, 8) (t 3 will give the point

A). A point and two non-collinear directions define a

is the direction of the line, d (0, 2, 1). A normal to

unique plane. Since A is on the given line, only one

the plane is d AB

(14, 4, 8) 2(7, 2, 4). direction is known, hence the equation of a plane

The scalar equation of the required plane is cannot be determined.

(x 1, y 3, z) · (7, 2, 4) 0

11. The distance from a point P1(x1, y1, z1) to a plane

7x 2y 4z 13 0. Ax By Cz D 0 is given by

Ax1 By1 Cz1 D

6. Since the required plane is perpendicular to : x 2y d .

z 3 0, the normal n (1, 2, 1) will be a

A2 B2 C2

O(0, 0, 0), and A(2, 3, 2), a second direction is

(2, 3, 2). A vector equation of the required

OA

plane is r s(1, 2, 1) t(2, 3, 2).

a. The distance from the point P1(7, 7, 7) to the 12. The scalar equation of the plane having x-intercept

plane by z 5 0 is 1, y-intercept 2, and z-intercept 3 is

x y z

0(7) 6(7) 1(7) 5 1 or 6x 3y 2z 6 0.

1 2 3

d

02 6

2

2

(1) The distance from A(1, 2, 2) to this plane is

54 6646

D . 22

37

d 7.

36 9

4

b. Point P1(3, 2, 1) and the plane : 3x 2y z

10. The distance from P1 to is 13. A normal to the plane : 4x 2y 5z 9 0 is

n (4, 2, 5). An equation of a line through the

9 4 1 10 4

d . origin with direction n will be x 4t, y 2t, z

9 41 14

5t. Substituting into gives 16t 4t 25t 9 0,

c. The line l: r (1, 3, 2) t(1, 2, 1) has direction 9 1

t . The normal through the origin intersects

d (1, 2, 1). The plane : y 2z 5 has

1

45 5

normal n (0, 1, 2). Since d1 · n 0, the line is

parallel to the plane. The distance between the line

4 2

at the point , , 1 .

5 5

l and the plane will be the distance from a point 14. The x-, y-, and z-intercepts of the plane : 4x

on l, A(1, 3, 2) to the plane. 5y z 20 0 are 5, 4, and 20 respectively.

z

3 4 5 2

Therefore d . 20

14 5

2

The distance between the line and the plane is .

5

d. The plane 1: x 2y 5z 10 0 has normal

5

n1 (1, 2, 5) and the plane 2: 2x 4y 1z

y

17 0 has normal n (2, 4, 10) 2(1, 2,

2

4

5). Since n2 2n1, the planes are parallel, hence

the distance between the planes is the distance

from a point on 1, say A(10, 0, 0), and 2.

x

20 17 3 3

d

4

16 100

21 4 .

25 230

3

The distance between the planes is .

230

15. a. 2x y z 3 0. d. r (4, 5, 0) s(12, 9, 8) t(8, 7, 8).

3

The x-, y-, and z-intercepts are , 3, and 3, Two directions are a (12, 9, 8)

2

respectively.

and b (8, 7, 8).

z

A normal is n a b (16, 32, 12)

4(4, 8, 3)

3 (x 4, y 5, z) · (4, 8, 3) 0

4x 8y 3z 24 0

x-, y-, and z-intercepts are 6, 3, and 8

respectively.

y

3

z

3–

2

8

x

–6

b. 3y 4z 24 0.

The y-intercept is 8, the z-intercept is 6.

z

y

3

6

x

y

8

16. The line l: x 5 3t, y 3 4t, z 1 5t

passes through the point A(5, 3, 1) and has direction

d (3, 4, 5). The plane : 2x y 2z 5 0

has normal n (2, 1, 2). Since d · n 6 4 10

0, d ⊥ n, hence the line is parallel to the plane.

x Since 2(5) 3 2(1) 5 0, the point A is on

the plane. Since a point of the line is on the plane

c. 3z 9 0.

The z-intercept is 3, and the plane is parallel to and the line is parallel to the plane, the line lies

the xy-plane. on the plane.

z

17. The plane 1: 2x 6y 4z 3 0 has normal

n1 (2, 6, 4) 2(1, 3, 2) and the plane 2:

3x 9y 6z k 0 has normal n (3, 9, 6)

2

3(1, 3, 2).

y

2

Since n1 3n2, the planes are parallel.

3 9

31 22 0, therefore 9 2k 0, k 2.

x

a. Since the planes are parallel, they will not intersect 19. Plane 1: x 2y 7z 3 0 has normal n1

9

for k 2. (1, 2, 7), and plane 2: x 5y 4z 1 0 has

normal n (1, 5, 4). A direction of the line of

2

b. The planes will never intersect in a line.

intersection of the two planes is n1 n2

9

c. If k , the two planes are coincident, hence (17, 11, 7) 1(27, 11, 7). A plane through

2

intersect in a plane. A(3, 0, 4) perpendicular to the line of intersection of

and has n n as a normal. Therefore

1 2 1 2

18. A plane passes through the points A(1, 0, 2), (x 3, y, z 4) · (27, 11, 7) 0

27x 11y 7z 53 0

B(1, 1, 0), and has a direction a (1, 1, 1).

is the equation of the plane through A(3, 0, 4)

(2, 1, 2) and a

a. A second direction is BA and perpendicular to the line of intersection of the

given planes.

normal to the plane is a BA

(3, 4, 1).

Now (x 1, y, z 2) · (3, 4, 1) 0 20. a. The family of planes passing through the line of

3x 4y z 1 0. intersection of the planes x y z 1 0

The scalar equation of the plane is and 2x 3y z 2 0 is x y z 1

3x 4y z 1 0. k(2x 3y z 2) 0. To find the particular

member that passes through the origin set (x, y, z)

b. A line through Q(0, 3, 3) perpendicular to the plane (0, 0, 0).

has direction n (3, 4, 1). Now 1 2k 0

1

An equation of this line is k 2.

r (0, 3, 3) t(3, 4, 1).

The particular plane is

c. The parametric equations of the line are x 3t, 1

y 3 4t, z 3 t. Solve by substituting these x y z 1 2(2x 3y z 2) 0

values into the equation of the plane.

2x 2y 2z 2 2x 3y z 2 0

3(3t) 4(3 4t) (3 t) 1 0

4x y z 0.

4

t

13 . The perpendicular through Q intersects b. A normal to the plane 4x y z 0 is n 1

12 23 43

the plane at A 1

3 , 13 , 13 . (4, 1, 1) and a normal to the plane x z 0 is

n (1, 0, 1). The angle between the planes

2

d. The distance from A to the plane is given by is the angle between the normals. Therefore

n · n n n cos

3 4 1

12 23 43 1 2 1 2

d

9

13

16

1

13 13 4 1 16

1

1 2 cos

3 1

cos 6 2

36 92 43 13

13

60

.

26

d 0.

The distance from A to the plane is 0, implies that

A is on the plane.

21. Plane 1: r (4, 0, 3) t(8, 1, 9) u(1, 5, 7) e. 1: x y 3z 4, n1 (1, 1, 3).

has directions a1 (8, 1, 9), b1 (1, 5, 7) and 2: x y 2z 2, n2 (1, 1, 2).

normal n a b (52, 65, 39) 13(4, 5, 3).

1 1 1

: 3x y 7z 9, n (3, 1, 7).

3 3

The scalar equation is (x 4, y, z 3) · (4, 5, 3) 0 Since no two normals are collinear, no two planes

4x 5y 3z 7 0. are parallel.

➀ ➁: 2x 5z 6 ➃

Plane : r (14, 12, 1) p(1, 1, 3) q(2, 1, 1),

2 ➀ ➂: 4x 10z 13 ➄

has directions a2 (1, 1, 3), b2 (2, 1, 1) and 2 ➃ ➄: 0z 1

normal n a b (4, 5, 3) 1(4, 5, 3).

2 2 2

There is no solution and the planes intersect to form

a triangular prism.

The scalar equation is

(x 14, y 12, z 1) · (4, 5, 3) 0 f. 1: x 3y 3z 8

4x 5y 3z 56 60 3 0 2: x y 3z 4

4x 5y 3z 7 0

Since the scalar equations of both planes is the same, the 3: 2x 6y 6z 16

planes are coincident. Since 2 1 3 0, 1 and 3 are coincident.

1 2: 4y 4, y 1 Substitute into 2

22. a. x 5y 8 ➀

5x 7y 8 ➁ x 1 3z 4

5 ➀ ➁: 32y 48 x 5 3z.

3 1 Let z t, x 5 3t.

y 2, x 2.

1 3 The planes intersect in the line with equation

The two lines in R2 intersect in the point 2, 2 .

r (5, 1, 0) t(3, 0, 1).

(2, 2, 4) 2(1, 1, 2).

b. 1: 2x 2y 4z 5, n g. The augmented matrix of the system is

1

2: x y 2z 2, n2 (1, 1, 2).

Since n 2 n , the planes are parallel. Since

1 2

1 2 2 1 0 the two planes will be distinct.

1

1

2

7

1 3

4 13

2 1 1 4 .

c. 1: 3x 2y 4z 1 ➀

Now

2: 2x y z 3 ➁

1 2 1 3

➀ 2 ➁: 7x 6z 7 R1 R2 0 5 3 10

6 2 R1 R2

x 1 7z 0 5 3 10 .

2 12t y 7t 3

y 1 5t.

1 R2

R2 R3

1

0

0

2 1 3

5 3 10

0 0 0 .

The two planes intersect in a line with equation

r (1, 1, 0) t(6, 5, 7). The last row corresponds to the equation

d. x 2y 3z 11 ➀ 0z 0. Let z 5t (to avoid fractions)

2x y 7 ➁ 3

3x 6y 8z 32 ➂ then 5y 3z 10, y 2 5z, y 2 3t.

2 ➀ ➁: 3y 6z 15, y 2z 5.

3 ➀ ➂: z 1, z 1, y 3, x 2. x 2y z 3, x 4 6t 5t 3,

The three planes intersect at the point (2, 3, 1). x 1 t.

Letting t 0, y 2, x 1, z 0

r (1, 2, 0) t(1, 3, 5).

h. 1: 3x 3z 12. 3. Three planes intersect in a point A.

2: 2x 2z 8.

3: x z 4.

The three planes are coincident with the plane

x z 4. A

i. 1: x y z 3.

2: x 2y 2z 4.

3: 2x 2y 2z 5.

1 and 3 are parallel and distinct. 2 intersects

both 1 and 3 in two parallel lines.

line of

intersection

Chapter 8 Test

will be perpendicular to each other and intersect in

a line.

b. Two planes, with normals satisfying n1 n2 0, Three planes intersect in a line.

will be parallel.

c. Three planes, with normals satisfying n n · n

1 2 3 1

0, will be parallel to each other. 2

2. The plane : 4x y z 10 0 has normal

3

n (4, 1, 1)

direction d (3, 2, 10). Since d · n 12

The three planes are coincident, thus intersect in

2 10 0, the line is parallel to the plane. A a plane.

point on the line, A(0, 5, 0), (t 0) does not

satisfy the equation of the plane, therefore the line

3

does not coincide with the plane.

x2 y2 z

1

b. The line has direction

4 1 1 2

d (4, 1, 1) and passes through the point A(2, 2,

0). Since A satisfies the plane, and d n, the line line of intersection

intersects the plane, at right angles, at the point

A(2, 2, 0). Two planes are coincident and the third plane

intersects them in a line.

4. The plane r (0, 0, 5) s(4, 1, 0) t(2, 0, 2) has c. A plane Ax By Cz D 0 divides R3 into

parametric equation three regions. All points P1(x1, y1, z1) satisfying the

x 4s 2t

ys inequality Ax1 By1 C1 D 0 lie on the

z 5 2t. same side of the plane. Those satisfying Ax1 By1

a. For an intersection with the x-axis, y z 0, D 0 lie on the other side of the plane, and

5 those satisfying Ax1 By1 Cz1 D 0 lie on

therefore s 0, t and x 5 and the point is

2 the plane. Since the sign of Ax1 By1 Cz1 D

(5, 0, 0).

is positive for P and negative for the origin, P does

b. An intersection with the xz-coordinate plane, y 0,

and the line of intersection, will be r (0, 0, 5) not lie on the same side of the plane as the origin.

t(1, 0, 1).

5. The line x y, z 0 has direction d (1, 1, 0) and

passes through the origin, O(0, 0, 0). The required plane

2

1 1

passes through A(2, 5, 4), therefore a second 1. Choose two unit vectors, â , , 0

2

(2, 5, 4) and a normal

direction of the plane is OA

is d OA

(4, 4, 7) 1(4, 4, 7). The scalar

1 1 1

and b̂ , , .

3 3 3

equation of the plane is 4x 4y 7z 0. 1

6 1

Now â b̂ , , 0

6

6. Given the system of equations x 2y z 3 ➀

1 1 1

x 7y 4z 13 ➁ â b̂

2x y z 4 ➂ 6 6 3 1.

➀ ➂: 3x y 1 ➃ Therefore the cross product of unit vectors is not

➁ 4 ➂: 9x 3y 3, 3x y 1. necessarily a unit vector.

Let x t, y 1 3t and from ➀

t 2 6t z 3 2. Question as posed in first printing of textbook is

z 5 5t meaningless. Use (u v) v.

The three planes intersect in a line with equation

r (0, 1, 5) t(1, 3, 5).

3. ∆ABC has coordinates A(2, 4), B(0, 0), C( 2, 1). To

7. a. The distance from the origin, O(0, 0, 0) to the plane : (2, 4) and BC

find the cos ∠ABC, we need BA

3x 2y z 14 0 is · BC

(2, 1). Now BA 4 4 0. Therefore

14 14 ⊥ BC

BA , ∠ABC 90

and cos ∠ABC 0.

d 14.

9

41 14

4. The vector (0, 8) is a linear combination of (2, 4) and

b. The distance from the point P(10, 10, 10) to the plane (2, 1). Therefore (0, 8) m(2, 4) n(2, 1).

3x 2y z 14 0 is Equating components 2m 2n 0 ➀

and 4m n 8 ➁

30 20 10 14 26 Solve for m and n: ➀ 2 ➁: 5m 8,

d .

14 14

8 8

m , n

5 5

8 8

and (0, 8) (2, 4) (2, 1).

5 5

1 1 2 2

5. Given four points A(2k, 0, 0), B(0, 2k, 0), C(0, 0, 2k), Now md d (1 k)c kc (1 m)d

and D(2l, 2l, 2l). 2 2 5 5

1 2 2 1 1 2

The midpoint of AB is W(k, k, 0)

The midpoint of BC is X(0, k, k) 2 5 5

d m m c k k

2 2 5

The midpoint of CD is Y(l, l, l k)

5m 10 d 2 10 kc.

7 9 1 9

and of DA is Z(l k, l, l).

Now WX (k, 0, k) k(1, 0, 1)

Since c and d are linearly independent,

(k, o, k) k(1, 0, 1)

ZY 7 9 1 9

ZY

and WX . m 0 and k 0

5 10 2 10

ZY

Since WX , W, X, Y, and Z are four points of a 9 5

m , k .

parallelogram, hence the four points W, X, Y, and Z are 14 9

5

coplanar. Therefore, if k 9, BQR is a straight line.

6. A 7. P7

→ P6

→ kc

5b

→

d R P5

m)

Q (l –

→

(l – k) c Y

→ →

md 2b B P4

B → →

C

a P a

A

P3

PC

In ∆ABC, let BP a, P1

X

P2

5b, QP

AQ 2b.

Extend BQ to meet AC at R. BQR is a straight line.

md, QR

(1 m)d, AC

c, therefore Place the polygon in the Cartesian plane so that P1 is

Let BQ

kc and RC

(1 k)c. at the origin and P

P is along the positive x-axis. The

1 2

AR

interior angles of the polygon as 150

.

In ∆BQP: md a 2b.

∠AP2P1 90

, therefore ∠AP2P3 60

and ∠AP3P2

In ∆BRC: 2a d (1 k)c,

30

. Let the magnitude of each side of the polygon

1 1

therefore md 2d 2(1 k)c 2 b. be 2, therefore in ∠AP2P3, P2P3 2, AP2 1, and

AP 3 . Now PP (3 , 1). Similarly in

In ∆AQR: 5b kc (1 m)d 3 2 3

P

3 4

and 2b 5kc 5(1 m)d. (1, 3

).

Similarly, we have the following:

P

P (2, 0), P

1 2

P (0, 2), P

4 5

P (1, 3

5 6

),

P

P (3

6 7

, 1).

a. P

P y, P

1 3

P x.

1 2

,

8. a b, and c are three linearly independent vectors. If

2b

c, v 2a 4c, and w

a 3b

In ∆P1P2P3, P

P x y.

2 3

u 3a

kc are coplanar then one of u, v, or w can be

b. P

P P

P P

P P

P mx ny.

1 4 1 2 2 3 3 4 written as a linear combination of the other two.

Now x P

P (2, 0), y P

1 2

P P

1 2

P

2 3 Say w pu

qv.

(2, 0) (3

, 1) 3b

Now a kc p(3a

2b

c)

y (2 3

, 1). q(2a 4c)

(3 2p)b (k p 4q)c 0

P

P (2, 0) (3

1 4

, 1) (1, 3

) m(2, 0) (1 3p 2q)a

n(2 3

, 1). Since a,

b, and c are linearly independent

2 3

1 2m (2 3

)n ➀ k p 4q 0. ➂

3

1 3

n ➁ From ➁, p .

2

Substitute in ➁: 9

3 3

2m (2 3

)(1 3

) Substituting in ➀, 1 2 2q 0

3 3

2m 2 33

3 11

q 4.

2m 23 2

3

m 1 3 Substituting for p and q in ➂: k 2 11 0,

therefore P

P (1 3

1 4

)x (1 3

)y. 19

k 2.

c. P

P P

3 4

P P

3 4

P P

4 5

P P

5 6

P mx ny

6 7 19

(1, 3

) (0, 2) (1, 3

) (3

, 1) If k 2 then u, v, and w

will be coplanar.

m(2, 0) n(2 3

, 1). →

9. A b B

, 23 3) m(2, 0) n(2 3

(3 , 1).

m

Equating components: → →

a a

2m (2 3

)n 3 ➀ E n

n 23

3 ➁

D → C

Substitute in ➀: b

2m (2 3)(3 23

) 3

2m 6 73

6 3 ABCD is a parallelogram with

CB

a

2m 12 83

DA

AB

b.

m 6 43 DC

therefore P P (6 43

)x (3 23)y. Diagonals DB and AC intersect at E and E divides

3 7

AC in the ration m:n.

Since E divides AC in the ratio m:n,

n m

a b.

DE

mn mn

n m

BA

Also BE BC

Similarly in ∆ADB, PMAB

mn mn

DP DM PM SM

n

AB

m

CB

and . ➁

EB DA DB AB SR

mn mn

EB

n

b a.

n

MQ

AB

PM

AB

SM

From ➀ and ➁ both equal

SR

mn mn

kEB

. and MQ PM

Since D, E, and B are collinear, DE

and M is the midpoint of PQ.

n m n m

a b k b k a

mn mn mn mn 11. A

n km m kn

mn mn mn mn

a b 0. ✓ ✓

But a and b are linearly independent, therefore

n km m kn

0 and 0

mn mn mn mn

n km 0 ➀ m kn 0 ➁

➀ ➁: m n k(m n) 0 and k 1.

EB

Since k 1, DE and E is the midpoint of DB. B D C

m n, E divides AC in the ration m:m 1:1 and E is angle BAC is bisected by DA therefore ∠BAD

∠CAD. We are to show that AD ⊥ BC. In ∆ABD and

the midpoint of AC. Therefore the diagonals of a ∆ADC,

parallelogram bisect each other. AB AC

∠BAD ∠CAD.

10. A R B DA is common, therefore ∆ABD ∆ACD

and ∠ACD ∠ADC x

P Q ∠BDC 180

M

therefore 2x 180

x 90

D C

S an isosceles triangle is perpendicular to the base.

ABCD is a quadrilateral with ABDC. AC and DB

intersect at M. A line through M parallel to AB meets x8 y4 z2

12. Two lines l1: has direction

AD and BC at P and Q respectively. Draw RMS 1 3 1

perpendicular to AB. Since ABDC, RMS will also be

perpendicular to DC. d1 (1, 3, 1), and l2: (x, y, z) (3, 3, 3) t(4, 1, 1)

In ∆ABC, MQAB. Therefore has direction d (4, 1, 1).

2

CQ CM MQ

. a. Since d1 · d2 0, the two lines are perpendicular.

CB CA AB

Since SR is an altitude of ∆ABC, M divides SR in the

same ratio.

CQ CM MQ SM

Therefore ➀

CB CA AB SR

30 4 40

b. From l1: x 8 s, y 4 3s, z 2 s 3 ➃ ➄: 30 11s 0, s , t s .

11 3 11

l2: x 3 4t, y 3 t, z 3 t.

Equating components and rearranging gives the

following equations

7 4

11 11

3 6 27

The points are A , , 3 and B , , .

11 11 11

s 4t 11 ➀

3s t 7 ➁

16. The sphere (x 1)2 (y 2)2 (z 3)2 9 has

st1 ➂

➁ ➂: 2s 6, s 3 and t 2. Substitute in centre C(1, 2, 3). The plane tangent to the sphere at

➀: 3 4(2) 11 R.S. The lines intersect at A(2, 4, 5), a point at one end of a diameter, will have

the point (5, 5, 5). (1, 2, 2) as normal.

CA

Therefore (x 2, y 4, z 5) · (1, 2, 2) 0

13. Given four points: O(0, 0, 0), P(1, 1, 3), Q(1, 2, x 2y 2z 20 0 is the

(1, 1, 3), OQ

5), and R(5, 1, 1). Now OP required plane.

(5, 1, 1). OP

(1, 2, 5), OR OQ

17. The line l: x 1 t, y 3 2t, z t interests

OQ

(1, 8, 3) and OP · OR

5 8 3 0,

each of the following planes.

, OQ

therefore OP , and OR

are coplanar, hence O(0,

a. 1: x y z 2 0.

0, 0) lies on the plane that passes through P, Q, and R. Substituting for x, y, and z:

1 t 3 2t t 2 0

14. A plane , passes through P(6, 1, 1), has z-intercept 0t 2.

4 therefore passes through the point A(0, 0, 4),

There is no intersection. The direction of the line is

x2 y1 z

and is parallel to the line . d (1, 2, 1), a normal to the plane is n

3 3 1 1 1

(6, 1, 3) and the (1, 1, 1), d1 · n1 0, hence the line is parallel

Two directions of will be AP

to the plane and distinct from the plane.

direction of the line,

b. 2: 4x y 2z 7 0.

d (3, 3, 1). A normal to the plane is d AP

Substituting for x, y, and z:

(14, 21, 21) 7(2, 3, 3). The scalar equation

4 4t 3 2t 2t 7 0

of the plane is (x, y, z 4) · (2, 3, 3) 0 0t 0, t R.

or 2x 3y 3z 12 0. Note that the plane has normal n2 (4, 1, 2)

and d · n 0, the line is parallel to the plane; in

15. The coordinates of a point on the line (x, y, z) (3, 2

4, 3) t(1, 1, 0) is A(3 t, 4 t, 3) and on the fact, the line is on the plane. The intersection will be

line (x, y, z) (3, 6, 3) s(1, 2, 2) is B(3 s, r (1, 3, 0) t(1, 2, 1).

6 2s, 3 2s).

(6 t s, 2 t 2s, 6 2s) c. 3: x 4y 3z 7 0.

AB

is parallel to m

(2, 1, 3), therefore AB

km

Substituting for x, y, and z:

AB

1 t 12 8t 3t 7 0

and 6 t s 2k ➀ 12t 18

2 t 2s k ➁ 3

6 2s 3k ➂ t .

2

We solve for s and t:

➀ 2 ➁: 10 t 5s 0 ➃

5 3

The line intersects the plane at the point , 0, .

2 2

3 ➁ ➂: 3t 4s 0 ➄

18. Given the planes 1: 4x 2y z 7 20. a. To determine the line of intersection of the

two planes

and 2 : x 2y 3z 3.

1: 3x y 4z 6 and

Solve to find the line of intersection.

2: x 2y z 5, we solve.

Add 1 2: 5x 2z 10

2 2 1 2: 7x 7z 7, x z 1.

x 2 z. Let z t, x 1 t substitute into 1

5

Let z 5t, x 2 2t. 3 3t y 4t 6

From 2: 2 2t 2y 15t 3 y3t

The parametric equations of the two planes are

1 13

y t. x 1 t, y 3 t, z t.

2 2

The parametric equation of the line of intersection is b. To intersect the xy-plane, z 0 therefore t 0 and

the point is A(1, 3, 0).

1 13 To intersect the xz-plane, y 0 therefore t 3

x 2 2t, y t, z 5t.

2 2 and the point is B(2, 0, 3).

For the intersection with the xy-plane, z 0. Therefore To intersect the yz-plane, x 0 therefore t 1

and the point is C(0, 2, 1).

1

t 0 and the point of intersection is 2, , 0 .

2 c. The distance between the xy- and xz-intercepts is

. AB

AB (3, 3, 3), AB

33

.

19. A plane 1 passes through A(2, 0, 2), B(2, 1, 1), and

C(2, 2, 4). Two directions of are

(0, 1, 1) 21. Since Q is the reflection of P(7, 3, 0) in the plane

AB

(0, 2, 2) 2(0, 1, 1). : 3x y z 12, PQ will be perpendicular to the

and AC

plane and the plane will bisect PQ. Let this midpoint

A normal to the plane will be n (0, 1, 1) (0, 1, 1)

be R. A normal to the plane is n (3, 1, 1). The

(2, 0, 0)

line passing through PQ will have direction n and

2(1, 0, 0).

The equation of the plane is parametric equations x 7 3t,

(x 2, y, z 2) · (1, 0, 0) 0 y 3 t,

x 2 0. z t.

A line l through P(3, 2, 1), Q(1, 3, 4) has direction

(2, 1, 3) and parametric equations

QP Q

x 3 2t, y 2 t, z 1 3t. Solving the line

with the plane gives 3 2t 2 0

→

1 n

t .

2 R

The coordinates of the point of intersection of the line

5 5

with the plane is 2, , .

2 2

P (7, 3, 0)

21 9t 3 t t 12

30

t .

11

This gives the coordinates of the midpoint of PQ,

13 63 30

R , , .

11 11 11

Let Q have coordinates (a, b, c). Since R is the l2 intersects at R. Solving l2 and gives

midpoint of PQ,

3a 9s 10s 2a 2s 0

a7 13 b 3 63 c 30 s 5a.

, ,

2 11 2 11 2 11 The point R has coordinates (14a, 10a, 4a)

(16a, 12a, 6a).

RQ

103 93 60

a , b , c

11 11 11 Since RQ

3 we have

(16a)2

(

12a)2

(6a)2 3

103

93 60

and the coordinates of Q will be , , .

11 11 11 256a2 144a2 36a2 9

22. Two planes 3x 4y 9z 0 and 2y 9z 0 9

a2

intersect in a line. From the second plane we have 436

3

9 a

y z. Let z 2t, then y 9t, substituting in the 436

2

3

first plane gives 3x 36t 18t 0 .

x 6t.

2109

Parametric equations of the line of intersection are The distance between Q and R will be 3 if

x 6t, y 9t, z 2t. A direction of this line is 3 3

a or a .

2109 2109

d (6, 9, 2). Now d 36

1 8 4

121

24. Two lines L1: (x, y, z) (2, 0, 0) t(1, 2, 1)

d 11. L2 : (x, y, z) (3, 2, 3) s(a, b, 1).

6 9 2 To determine the intersection of L1 and L2 we equate

A unit vector along d is d̂ , , . components then solve.

11 11 11

A vector of length 44 that lies on this line of x 2 t 3 sa, t sa 1 ➀

intersection will be y 2t 2 sb, 2t sb 2 ➁

z t 3 s, t s 3 ➂

6 9 2

44d̂ 44 , ,

11 11 11 ➂ ➀: s sa 4

s(1 a) 4

44d̂ (24, 36, 8). 4

s

1a

23. The line through P(a, 0, a) with direction 4

Substitute in ➂: t 3

d1 (1, 2, 1) has equation l1: x a t 1a

y 2t 4

t 3

z a t. 1a

l1 intersects the plane : 3x 5y 2z 0 at Q. 1 3a

t

1a

Solving l1 and gives

Substitute for s and t into ➁:

3a 3t 10t 2a 2t 0

2 6a 4b

5t 5a 2

1a 1a

t a.

2 6a 4b 2 2a

The point Q has coordinates (2a, 2a, 2a). 8a 4b

The line through P(a, 0, a) with direction 1

a b

d (3, 2, 1) has equation

2

2

1

l2: x a 3s L1 and L2 will intersect whenever a b.

2

y 2s

z a s.

25. x 2y 3z 1 ➀

2x 5y 4z 1 ➁

3x 5y z 3 ➂

2 ➀ ➁: y 10z 1

3 ➀ ➂: 8z 0

z0

y 1

Substitute into ➀: x 2 1, x 3.

The solution to the system is x 3, y 1, z 0.

26. 2x y z k 1 ➀

kx z 0 ➁

y kz 0 ➂

➀ ➂: 2x z kz k 1 ➃

2 ➁ k ➃: 2z kz k2z k(k 1)

(k2 k 2)z k(k 1)

(k 2)(k 1)z k(k 1).

a. (i) If k 2, 0z 4 and there will be no solution.

k

(ii) If k 2, k 1, z and the system

k2

will have exactly one solution.

(iii) If k 1, 0z 0 and there will be an infinite

number of solutions.

b. Since 0z 0, let z t, back substituting will give

from ➂: y z 0, y t, and from ➁: x z

0, x t. The solution set is (x, y, z) (t, t, t),

which is the equation of a line passing through the

origin with direction (1, 1, 1).

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