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B&W

Atmospheric Fluidised Bed Combustion Boilers for Firing Solid Fuels

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR POWER GENERATION


Historically, Babcock & Wilcox has maintained an ongoing program to develop advanced technologies which offer the potential for more efficient, cost effective and reliable steam generation. One of these advanced technologies is Atmospheric Fluidised Bed Combustion (AFBC), which promises to provide a viable alternative to conventional coal fired and other solid fuel fired boilers for utility and industrial applications. B & W began investigating various aspects of the AFBC process in the mid -70s and has become the technological leader among boiler manufacturers in AFBC development for utility and industrial use.

Atmospheric Fluidised Bed Combustion Boilers (AFBC)

Secondary Over Fire Air Arrangement

Flow Modelled Fuel Feed System

110 TPH AFBC Control Room

Combustor Components

Fuel Feed Mixing Nozzles

Studded Carbon Steel Inbed Evaporator and Stainless Steel Inbed Superheater Tubes

SALIENT FEATURES OF TBW AFBC BOILER


Secondary overfire air is provided from both sides of furnace to ensure complete combustion, resulting in minimum unburnt, reduced carbon monoxide and improving efficiency.

Shop assembled, machine welded membrane panels allow for less refractory and make a gas tight enclosure resulting in less leakage and improved efficiency.

B&W design two stage steam separating equipment inside the drum ensures turbine quality steam. Guaranteed 99.99 % steam purity even under conditions of rapid load changes.

In line, spaced bed evaporator tubes for better access to bed plate. Pin studs welded on inbed surfaces and furnace walls eliminate tube erosion completely. Distributor plate 16 mm thick carbon steel.

Boiler Furnace

Hot Air

Hot Bed Ash

Underbed fuel feed system using drag chain feeders for smooth flow of high moisture fuel to furnace. Hot air for transport of fuel inside combustor for smooth flow of fuel in the feed lines. No bends on fuel transport lines improves availability.

Inclined airholes prevent bed material re-entry eliminating back shifting. Stainless steel air (Bubble Cap) nozzles for primary air are designed for higher pressure drop to achieve higher turndown ratios. The entire nozzle including the shaft pipe is made of stainless steel.

Cold Ash Drain

Cold Air

Fluid bed ash coolers for cooling bed ash. Air is used to cool ash. Flue gas sent back to the air heater to recover sensible heat resulting in further improvement in efficiency.

TBW TECHNOLOGY : HIGH AVAILABILITY & EFFICIENCY


The challenge of the AFBC process is to burn fuel in an environmentally acceptable manner yet showing economic promise. The AFBC Boiler achieves this by carrying out combustion in a bed of crushed refractory / sand which is suspended by an upward stream of air, fluidising it and facilitating a significant higher degree of combustion completeness. In addition to this inherent advantage of the fluidised bed combustion process, design and operating characteristics of TBW AFBC boilers offer a number of advantages for industrial steam and power generation. Combustion temperatures of the AFBC process are maintained below the fuel ash softening temperature, so lowgrade fuels can be burned without the risk of slagging and fouling in the boiler. The lower temperatures also limit the formation of nitrogen oxides. Fuels like coal, washery rejects, lignite (Kutch, Neyveli), petcoke, rice husk, DOB, bark, effluent sludge from paper mills, sludge from viscose plant, coffee waste etc. can be effectively burnt in TBW AFBC Boilers. Due to lower operating temperatures, the TBW AFBC boiler design is less dependent on fuel and fuel ash characteristics than conventional boilers. SOx control is achieved by limestone addition.

Boiler Availability*
120
Plant Shutdown 100 98.11 100 99.44 100 100 93.82 Planned Capacity Enhancement Shutdown 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 90.5 100 100 100 94.4 100 100

100

80
71.5

% AVAILABILITY

60

59

40

20

0 FEB 02 DEC 02 FEB 03 MAR 02 MAR 03 APR 02 APR 03 AUG 02 NOV 02 AUG 03 MAY 02 MAY 03 NOV 03 90 DEC 03 100 OCT 02 OCT 03 JAN 02 SEP 02 JAN 03 JUN 02 JUN 03 SEP 03 80 JUL 02 JUL 03 70

MONTHS
* Based on actual observations at an operating unit.

Load Vs Efficiency
88 87 86

Fuel : Coal with 45% ash

EFFICIENCY

85 84 83 82 30 40 50 60 110

LOAD % MCR

ATMOSPHERIC FLUID BED COMBUSTION BOILER


(Underbed & Overbed feed system design)

STEAM DRUM FUEL BUNKER 1

FUEL BUNKER 2

ACCESS DOOR ON L,H, SIDE

GROUND

ASH DRAIN PIPES P A FAN

Designed and manufactured to the legendary Babcock & Wilcox quality incorporating the latest advances in boiler and control technology, making it the most efficient and reliable boiler for combustion of diverse range of difficult fuels. Capacity Range Pressure Temperature Fuel : Up to 300 TPH : Up to 135 Kg/cm2g : Up to 540 C : Coal / Lignite / Petcoke / Rice Husk / Pith /Oil / Agricultural Waste / Washery Rejects / Char / Biomass / Spent Coffee Waste / Spent Tea Waste, etc., Sawdust, DOB : Top or bottom supported, Single or Bi-drum design boilers suitable for firing low calorific value fuels. Suspension burning of fuel - higher combustion efficiency. Coal Size 6 mm Bubbling Bed Ash Coolers Stainless Steel Inbed Superheater Stainless Steel Fluidizing Nozzles Boiler Bank without Baffles High Steam Purity Membrane Wall Furnace Start-up by Oil / Charcoal

Design Feature

HOPPER BOTTOM (FLUID BED)

Salient Features
! Combustor does not have any moving parts thus reducing maintenance in the furnace. ! Uniform Temperature distribution in the bed and agitating characterstic of fluid bed ensures optimum combustion. ! Low excess air requirement resulting in higher efficiency. ! Lower NOx and CO emissions. ! Low SOx emission with limestone addition. ! Low temperature operation minimises the biomass fuel ash agglomeration and fouling tendency. ! Continuous slow draining of bed ash which aids: = Easy settling and disposal of large sized particles which hamper fluidisation. = Maintaining alkali concentration below acceptable levels. = Avoiding accumulation of denser particles in bed in maintaining uniform bed density across the entire bed. ! Under bed / over bed fuel feeding for proper distribution of fuel.

AFBC INSTALLATIONS
CLIENT Mysore Paper Mills Central Pulp Mills BILT for Sewa Paper Mills Mysore Paper Mills Nestle India Ltd. JK Corporation Servall Engineering GHCL L&T Vardhaman Acrylic Ltd. L&T for Usha Martin Jocil Ltd. JCT Ltd. Khanna Paper Mills Ltd. India Glycols Ltd. Oswal Chemical & Fertilisers Ltd. Saro Power & Infrastructure Ltd. Shree Cements Ltd. Nestle, Thailand. Nova Petrochemicals Ltd. Nav Bharat Ferro Alloys Ltd. Sangam Spinners Chaddha Papers Ltd. Bhushan Ltd. Sree Rayalseema Alkalies & Allied Chemicals Ltd. Gujarat Ambuja Cements Ltd. Nestle Russia Ltd. Khanna Paper Mills Ltd. West Coast Paper Mill Chettinad Cement Ltd. Madras Cement Ltd. Nestle Philippines Inc. ITC, Dakshin Bhushan Ltd. South Pacific Viscose NOS 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 Cap, (TPH) 60 50 45 60 14 60 44 90 95 42 110 30 35 70 45 110 35 80 15 47 65 50 50 75 100 45 18 100 65 68 76 24.95 60 165 45 Kg/cm2g 63 42 42 63 24 37 13 105 66 45 66 66 44 66 34 63 66 65 18.5 47 93 66 65 88 100 67 22 66 43.5 87 89 18 64 88 45 Deg C 460 440 440 460 Sat 410 209 505 495 420 495 485 420 485 400 485 495 495 Sat 495 515 495 490 520 525 495 Sat 500 415 515 515 D&S 485 520 450 Coal Coal/Lignite Coal Coal Spent Coffee Grounds, Coal, Coconut Shell, Spent Tea Coal Lignite Lignite/Coal Coal/Washery Middlings Coal Coal Rice Husk, Coal, Cotton Stalk, Julia Fora Coal. Rice Husk Rice Husk/Padtal Rice Husk/Coal/Bio-Gas Coal Coal/Rice Husk, Cotton Stalk, Julia Fora Imported Coal, Petcoke, Lignite Spent Coffee Ground Imported Coal, Petcoke, Lignite, Indian Coal, Sawdust/GN Shell Coal/Washery/Petcoke K. Lignite/Petcoke Coal/Rice Husk/Petcoke Washery Rejects/Char Coal Rice Husk/Coal/Petcoke Spent Coffee Ground/Natural Gas & Diesel Petcoke/Rajasthan Lignite Paper Sludge & Plastic waste Coal Imported Coal, Indian Coal, Neveyli Lignite Imported Coal, Petcoke, Lignite Spent Coffee Ground, Green Coffee Residue, Roasted, Roasted Chaffs & HFO Lignite, Sawdust, DOB Washery Rejects/Char Coal/Viscose Sludge FUEL YEAR 1991 1992 1992 1993 1994 1995 1995 1996 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2000 2000 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2002 2002 2002 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2004 2004 2004 2004

AFBC INTALLATIONS / FEATURES

Usha Martin Industries Ltd.


Jamshedpur Capacity : 110 TPH Fuel Used : Coal

Research & Development

Shot Blasting Machine

Furnace Panels in Shop Floor

OTHER PRODUCTS & AFBC FEATURES

CFBC Boiler
Installation at Kanoria Chemicals Capacity : 105 TPH Fuel used : Coal

Membrane Welding

Inbed Evaporator Assembly at Shop

Stainless Steel Dense Studs for Inbed Tubes

B&W

Thermax Babcock & Wilcox Limited


Pune D-1 Block, Plot No 7/2, R.D. Aga Road, M.I.D.C, Chinchwad, Pune 411 019, India. Tel: 91-20-4126464 Fax: 91-20-27479200 Email: tbw@vsnl.com Mumbai Dhanrajmahal 2nd floor, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Marg, Near Gateway of India, Colaba, Mumbai 400 039, India. Tel: 91-22-22045391, 22045324, Fax: 91-22-22040859 Delhi 9, Community Centre, Basant Lok, New Delhi 110 057, India. Tel: 91-11-26145319, 26145326, Fax: 91-11-26148679 Chennai Fatima Akthar Court, 3rd floor, 312 Anna Salai, Teynampet, Chennai 600 018, India. Tel: 91-44-24353831, 24353834, Fax: 91-44-24353841 Kolkata Azimganj House, 5th Floor, 7 Camac Street, Kolkata 700 017, India. Tel: 91-33-22826711/2/3, Fax: 91-33-22826796 Hyderabad 6-3-649 Nalanda Complex Somaji Guda, Hyderabad 500 082 India. Tel: 91-40-23310254, 23312013, 23396820 Fax: 91-40-23312335 w w w. t b w i n d i a . c o m

Synergy Design / Sangam / 05.04.1000