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X-SAMPA - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The E x t e n d e d S p e e c h A s s e s s m e n t Me t h o d s P h o n e t i c A l p h a b e t (X S A MP A ) is a variant of SAMPA developed in 1995 by John C. Wells, professor of phonetics at the University of London. It is designed to unify the individual language SAMPA alphabets, and extend SAMPA to cover the entire range of characters in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). The result is a SAMPA-inspired remapping of the IPA into 7-bit ASCII. SAMPA was devised as a hack to work around the inability of text encodings to represent IPA symbols. Later, as Unicode support for IPA symbols became more widespread, the necessity for a separate, computerreadable system for representing the IPA in ASCII decreased. On the other hand, X-SAMPA is still useful as the basis for an input method for true IPA.

C o n t e n t s
1 Summary 1.1 Notes 1.2 Lower case symbols 1.3 Capital symbols 1.4 Other symbols 1.5 Diacritics 2 Charts 2.1 Consonants 2.2 Vowels 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

S u m m a r y
N o t e s
The IPA symbols that are ordinary lower-case letters have the same value in X-SAMPA as they do in the IPA. X-SAMPA uses backslashes as modifying suffixes to create new symbols. For example Ois a distinct sound from O \ , to which it bears no relation. Such use of the backslash character can be a problem, since many programs interpret it as an escape character for the character following it. For example, you cannot use such X-SAMPA symbols in EMU (http://emu.sourceforge.net/), therefore you need to replace backslash with some other symbol (e.g. an asterisk: '*') when adding phonemic transcription to an EMU speech database. X-SAMPA diacritics follow the symbols they modify. Except for ~for nasalization, =for syllabicity, and `for retroflexion and rhotacization, diacritics are joined to the character with the underscore character _ . The underscore character is also used to encode the IPA tiebar. The numbers _ 1to _ 6are reserved diacritics as shorthand for language-specific tone numbers.




X-SAMPA - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

L o w e r c a s e s y m b o l s
a b b _ < c d d ` d _ < e f g g _ < h h \ i j j \ k l l ` l \ m n n ` o

I P A a b c d e f h i j k l m n o

I P A i m a g e

D e s c r i p t i o n open front unrounded vowel voiced bilabial plosive voiced bilabial implosive

E x a m p l e s French da me [d a m ], Spanish pa dre [" p a D 4 e ] English b ed [b E d ], French b on [b O ~ ] Sindhi a r [b _ < a r U ]

voiceless palatal plosive Hungarian lat y ak [" l Q c Q k ] voiced alveolar plosive English d ig [d I g ], French d oigt [d w a ] voiced retroflex plosive Swedish hor d [h u : d ` ] voiced alveolar implosive close-mid front unrounded vowel voiceless labiodental fricative voiced velar plosive voiced velar implosive Sindhi a r [d _ < a r U ] French se s [s e ], English me t [m e t ] (AusE and NZE) English f ive [f a I v ], French f emme [f a m ] English g ame [g e I m ], French long u e [l O ~ g ] Sindhi r o[g _ < @ r o ] Czech hrad [h \ r a t ] English be [b i : ], French oui [w i ], Spanish si [s i ] English y es [j E s ], French y eux [j 2 ] Greek [j \ a ] English sc at [s k { t ], Spanish c arro [" k a r : o ] English l ay [l e I ], French mal [m a l ] Svealand Swedish sor l [s o : l ` ] Japanese r akuten [l \ a k M _ 0 t e N \ ] English m ouse [m a U s ], French hom m e [O m ] English n ap [n { p ], French n on [n O ~ ] Swedish hr n [h 2 : n ` ] French gro s [g R o ]

voiceless glottal fricative English h ouse [h a U s ] voiced glottal fricative close front unrounded vowel palatal approximant voiced palatal fricative voiceless velar plosive alveolar lateral approximant retroflex lateral approximant alveolar lateral flap bilabial nasal alveolar nasal retroflex nasal close-mid back rounded vowel



X-SAMPA - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

p q r s t u v w x y z

voiceless bilabial plosive voiceless bilabial fricative alveolar trill retroflex flap alveolar approximant retroflex approximant voiceless alveolar fricative voiceless retroflex fricative voiceless alveolopalatal fricative voiceless alveolar plosive voiceless retroflex plosive close back rounded vowel voiced labiodental fricative

English sp eak [s p i k ], French p ose [p o z ], Spanish p erro [" p e r : o ] Japanese f uku [p \ M _ 0 k M ]

p \ q r r ` r \ r \ ` s s `

voiceless uvular plosive Arabic q asbah [" q Q s _ G b a ] Spanish per r o [" p e r : o ]

English r ed [r \ E d ] Malayalam [" v 6 r \ ` i ] English s eem [s i : m ], French s es s ion [s e " s j O ~ ] Swedish mar s [m a s ` ] Polish wierszcz [s \ v ' e r S t S ] English st ew [s t j u : ], French rat [R a " t e ], Spanish t uyo [" t u j o ] Swedish mr t [m 2 t ` ] English bo o m [b u : m ], Spanish su [s u ] English v est [v E s t ], French v oix [v w a ]

s \

t t ` u v v \(or P ) w x x \ y z z ` z \

labiodental approximant Dutch w est [v \ E s t ]/[P E s t ] labial-velar approximant English w est [w E s t ], French o u i [w i ] voiceless velar fricative voiceless palatal-velar fricative close front rounded vowel Scots loc h [l O x ] or [5 O x ]; German Buc h , Dac h ; Spanish caj a, g estin Swedish s j al [x \ A : l ] French tu [t y ] German ber [" y : b 6 ]

voiced alveolar fricative English z oo [z u : ], French az ote [a " z O t ] voiced retroflex fricative Mandarin Chinese r ang [z ` a N ] voiced alveolo-palatal fricative Polish rebak [" z \ r E b a k ]

C a p i t a l s y m b o l s



X-SAMPA - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


I P A or

i m a g e

D e s c r i p t i o n open back unrounded vowel voiced bilabial fricative bilabial trill voiceless palatal fricative voiced dental fricative open-mid front unrounded vowel labiodental nasal voiced velar fricative voiced uvular plosive voiced uvular implosive labial-palatal approximant voiceless epiglottal fricative near-close nearfront unrounded vowel English ki t [k I t ]

E x a m p l e English fa ther [" f A : D @ (r \ )] (RP and Gen.Am.) Spanish lav ar [l a " B a 4 ] Reminiscent of shivering ("brrr") German ic h [I C ], English h uman [" C j u m @ n ] (broad transcription uses [h j -]) English t h en [D E n ] French m me [m E m ], English me t [m E t ] (RP and Gen.Am.) English em phasis [" E F f @ s I s ] (spoken quickly, otherwise uses [E m f -]) Greek [G o " n i a ], Danish vlg e [" v E l G @ ] Inuktitut nir ivvik [n i G \ i v v i k ] Mam a[G \ _ < a ] French hu it [H i t ]

A B B \ C D E F G G \ G \ _ < H H \

I \ J J \ J \ _ < K K \

near-close central Polish ry ba [r I \ b A ] unrounded vowel palatal nasal voiced palatal plosive voiced palatal implosive voiceless alveolar lateral fricative voiced alveolar lateral fricative palatal lateral approximant Italian famig l i a [f a " m i L L a ], Castilian l l amar [L a " m a r ], English mil l i on [" m I L @ n ] (broad transcription uses [- l j 4/11

Spanish a o [" a J o ], English can y on [" k { J @ n ] (broad transcription uses [- n j -]) Hungarian eg y [E J \ ] Sindhi a r o[J \ _ < a r o ] Welsh l l aw [K a U ]



approximant or velar lateral approximant

X-SAMPA - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


L \

M M \ N N \ O O \ P(or v \ )

close back unrounded vowel



velar approximant Spanish fueg o [" f w e M \ o ] velar nasal uvular nasal open-mid back rounded vowel bilabial click labiodental approximant open back rounded vowel voiced uvular fricative uvular trill voiceless postalveolar fricative voiceless dental fricative near-close nearback rounded vowel Dutch w est [P E s t ]/[v \ E s t ], allophone of English phoneme / r \ / RP lo t [l Q t ] German r ein [R a I n ] French r oi [R \ w a ] English s h ip [S I p ] English t h in [T I n ] English fo o t [f U t ] English thin g [T I N ] Japanese san [s a N \ ] RP tho u ght [T O : t ], American English o ff [O : f ]

R R \

U \ V W X

near-close central English eu phoria [j U \ " f O @ r \ i @ ] rounded vowel open-mid back unrounded vowel voiceless labialvelar fricative voiceless uvular fricative voiceless pharyngeal fricative near-close nearfront rounded vowel RP English stru t [s t r \ V t ] Scots w h en [W E n ] Klallam s a q a [s X a ? q _ w a ? ] Arabic <>h a [X \ A : ]

X \

German h bsch [h Y p S ]



X-SAMPA - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


postalveolar fricative

English vis ion [" v I Z @ n ]

O t h e r s y m b o l s
. " % '(or _ j ) : : \ @ @ \ { } 1 2 3 3 \ 4 5 6 7 8

I P A .

I P A i m a g e

D e s c r i p t i o n syllable break primary stress secondary stress palatalized long half long separator

E x a m p l e

Estonian differentiates three vowel lengths Polish t r z y [t S 1 ] vs. c z y [t S 1 ] (affricate) English a rena [@ " r \ i : n @ ] English tra p [t r \ { p ] Swedish sju [x \ } : ]; AuE/NZE bo o t [b } : t ] Welsh tu [t 1 ], American English rose ' s [" r \ o U z 1 z ] Danish kbe [" k 2 : b @ ], French de u x [d 2 ] English nu r se [n 3 : s ] (RP) or [n 3 ` s ] (Gen.Am.) Irish to m h a il[t 3 \ : l ' ] Spanish per o [" p e 4 o ], American English bet t er [" b E 4 @ ` ] English mil k [m I 5 k ], Portuguese l ivro [" 5 i v 4 u ] German besse r [" b E s 6 ], Australian English mu d [m 6 d ] Estonian k ik [k 7 i k ], Vietnamese m [m 7 _ M ] Swedish bu ss [b 8 s ]


close-mid central unrounded vowel Paic k [k @ \ _ M 4 @ \ _ M ] near-open front unrounded vowel close central rounded vowel close central unrounded vowel close-mid front rounded vowel open-mid central unrounded vowel open-mid central rounded vowel alveolar flap velarized alveolar lateral approximant; also see _ e near-open central vowel close-mid back unrounded vowel close-mid central rounded vowel



X-SAMPA - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

open-mid front rounded vowel open front rounded vowel glottal stop voiced pharyngeal fricative undefined escape character, SAMPA's "conjunctor" indeterminacy in French vowels begin nonsegmental notation (e.g., SAMPROSA)

French ne u f [n 9 f ], Danish dr mme [d R 9 m @ ] Swedish sk rd [x \ & d ` ] Danish std [s d 2 ? ], Cockney English bot t le [" b Q ? l ] Arabic `( ayn) [? \ A j n ]

& ? ? \ * / < < \ > > \ ^ ! ! \ | | \ | | | \ | \ = \ \

voiced epiglottal fricative end nonsegmental notation epiglottal plosive upstep downstep postalveolar click minor (foot) group dental click major (intonation) group alveolar lateral click palatal click linking mark

D i a c r i t i c s
_ " _ + _ _ / _ 0 _ < =(or _ = )


I P A i m a g e centralized advanced retracted rising tone voiceless

D e s c r i p t i o n

implosive (IPA uses separate symbols for implosives) syllabic




X-SAMPA - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

_ > _ ? \ _ \ _ ^ _ } ` ~(or _ ~ ) _ A _ a _ B _ B _ L _ c _ d _ e < F > _ F _ G _ H _ H _ T _ h _ j(or ' ) _ k _ L _ l _ M _ m _ N _ n _ O _ o _ q

ejective pharyngealized falling tone non-syllabic no audible release rhotacization in vowels, retroflexion in consonants (IPA uses separate symbols for consonants, see t `for an example) nasalization advanced tongue root apical extra low tone low rising tone less rounded dental velarized or pharyngealized; also see 5 global fall falling tone velarized high tone high rising tone aspirated palatalized creaky voice low tone lateral release mid tone laminal linguolabial nasal release more rounded lowered retracted tongue root


10/07/13 _ q

X-SAMPA - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia retracted tongue root

< R > _ R _ R _ F _ r _ T _ t _ v _ w _ X _ x

global rise rising tone rising falling tone raised extra high tone breathy voice voiced labialized extra-short mid-centralized

C h a r t s
C o n s o n a n t s
C o n s o n a n t s ( p u l m o n i c )
P lace of articulation Manner of articulation

L a b i a l B i l a b i a l L a b i o d e n t a l

C o r o n a l D e n t a l A l v e o l a r P o s t R e t r o a l v e o l a r f l e x P a l a t a l

D o r s a l V e l a r U v u l a r

R a d i c a l P h a r y n g e a l E p i g l o t t a l

( n o n e ) G l o t t a l

N a s a l

m pb p\ B B_o B\ *

F p_d b_d fv v\ *

n td TD sz r\ r 4 K K\ l l\ *


N kg

N\ q G\ R R\ X\ ?\ >\ H\ ?

P l o s i v e

t` d` c J\

F r i c a t i v e A p p r o x i ma n t T r i l l T a po r F l a p L a t e r a l F r i c a t i v e L a t e r a l A p p r o x i ma n t L a t e r a l F l a p

S Z s` z` C j\ x G X r\` * r` * l` * L * * L\ * j M\

<\ h h\ * *

Daggers () mark IPA symbols that have recently been added to Unicode. Since April 2008, this is the case of the labiodental flap, symbolized by a right-hook v in the IPA: A dedicated symbol for the labiodental flap does not yet exist in X-SAMPA.




X-SAMPA - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

C o a r t i c u l a t e d

W Voiceless labialized velar approximant w H s\ z\ x\

Voiced labialized velar approximant Voiced labialized palatal approximant Voiceless palatalized postalveolar (alveolo-palatal) fricative Voiced palatalized postalveolar (alveolo-palatal) fricative Voiceless "palatal-velar" fricative

A f f r i c a t e s a n d d o u b l e a r t i c u l a t i o n

ts voiceless alveolar affricate dz voiced alveolar affricate tS voiceless postalveolar affricate dZ voiced postalveolar affricate ts\ voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate dz\ voiced alveolo-palatal affricate tK voiceless alveolar lateral affricate kp voiceless labial-velar plosive gb voiced labial-velar plosive Nm labial-velar nasal stop
C o n s o n a n t s ( n o n p u l m o n i c ) C l i c k s I m p l o s i v e s E j e c t i v e s

O\ Bilabial |\
Laminal alveolar ("dental")

b_< Bilabial

_> For example: t_> Alveolar k_> Velar s_> Alveolar fricative

d_< Alveolar p_> Bilabial g_< Velar G\_< Uvular

\ Apical (post-) alveolar ("retroflex") J\_< Palatal =\ Laminal postalveolar ("palatal") |\|\ Lateral coronal ("lateral") V o w e l s
F r o n t N e a r f r o n tC e n t r a lN e a r b a c k B a c k C l o s e N e a r c l o s e C l o s e m i d Mi d O p e n m i d



X-SAMPA - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

N e a r o p e n

i y e2

1} I Y I\ U\ U @\ 8 @ E9 { a& 3 3\ 6

M u 7o VO AQ

O p e n

S e e a l s o
CXS, an unofficial, extended version of X-SAMPA used for language construction International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) International Phonetic Alphabet for English Kirshenbaum and WorldBet, similar systems. List of phonetics topics SAMPA, a language-specific predecessor of X-SAMPA. SAMPA chart for English WorldBet

R e f e r e n c e s E x t e r n a l l i n k s
Computer-coding the IPA: A proposed extension of SAMPA (http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/sampa/x-sampa.htm) Translate English texts into IPA phonetics with PhoTransEdit. (http://www.photransedit.com) This free software tool allows to export transcriptions to X-SAMPA. Online converter between IPA and X-Sampa (http://www.theiling.de/ipa/) Web-based translator for X-SAMPA documents. (http://www.let.rug.nl/~kleiweg/xsampa/) Produces Unicode text, XML text, PostScript, PDF, or LaTeX TIPA. Z-SAMPA (http://www.kneequickie.com/kq/Z-SAMPA), an extension of X-SAMPA sometimes used for conlangs Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=X-SAMPA&oldid=559308869" Categories: SAMPA This page was last modified on 10 June 2013 at 23:37. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.