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LTE-Advanced Design and Test Challenges - Carrier Aggregation

Presented by: Martha Zemede, Agilent Technologies

2012 Agilent Technologies

Agenda
Overview of carrier aggregation Carrier aggregation modes

Operating bands
Cell configuration Deployment scenarios Layer 1 and 2 structure Resource scheduling

Design challenges
Test challenges Agilent solutions Resources

2012 Agilent Technologies 2

Release 10 and Beyond Proposals Radio aspects


1. Carrier aggregation 2. Enhanced uplink multiple access
a) Clustered SC-FDMA b) Simultaneous Control and Data

Rel 10 LTE-A proposed to ITU

3. Enhanced multiple antenna transmission


a) Downlink 8 antennas, 8 streams b) Uplink 4 antennas, 4 streams

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Coordinated Multipoint (CoMP) Relaying Home eNB mobility enhancements Customer Premises Equipment Heterogeneous network support Self Optimizing networks (SON)

Other Release 10 and beyond

2012 Agilent Technologies 3

What is Carrier Aggregation?


Extends the maximum transmission bandwidth, up to 100 MHz, by aggregating up to five LTE carriers also known as component carriers (CCs) Lack of sufficient contiguous spectrum forces use of carrier aggregation to meet peak data rate targets: 1 Gbps in the downlink and 500 Mbps in the uplink

Motivation:
Achieve wide bandwidth transmissions

Facilitate efficient use of fragmented spectrum


Efficient interference management for control channels in heterogeneous networks

Resource block

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Carrier Aggregation Modes


Component Carrier (CC)

up to 20 MHz BW
Resource block

f
Band A

Intra -band contiguous allocation

Band A

Resource block

f
Band A

Intra-band non-contiguous allocation

Resource block

Band B

Inter-band non-contiguous allocation

2012 Agilent Technologies 5

Carrier Aggregation for Release 10


Backward compatible with LTE Release 8 / 9
Each component carrier (CC) appears as Release 8/9 carrier to LTE UE Can be operated stand-alone as a single carrier or as part of carrier aggregation

Deployment will be limited to the use of two CCs; signalling supports up to 5 CCs FDD downlink
Supports both intra-band contiguous and inter-band aggregation PUCCH

TDD downlink
Supports intra-band contiguous aggregation

PUSCH

PUSCH
Frequency

FDD & TDD uplink


Supports intra-band contiguous aggregation

Example of contiguous aggregation of two uplink CCs

2012 Agilent Technologies 6

Carrier Aggregation Operating Bands for Release 10


Intra-band contiguous CA: Bands 1 and 40 are supported:
15 and 20 MHz carrier bandwidths for Band 1 10, 15 and 20 MHz bandwidth in Band 40
Band E-UTRA Band 1 40 Uplink (UL) operating band BS receive / UE transmit FUL_low FUL_high 1920 MHz 1980 MHz 2300 MHz 2400 MHz Downlink (DL) operating band Duplex Mode BS transmit / UE receive FDL_low FDL_high FDD 2110 MHz 2170 MHz 2300 MHz 2400 MHz TDD

CA_1 CA_40

Inter-band non-contiguous CA: Bands 1 and 5 for 10 MHz CCs, one CC per band
Band E-UTRA Band 1 5 Uplink (UL) operating band BS receive / UE transmit FUL_low FUL_high 1920 MHz 1980 MHz 824 MHz 849 MHz Downlink (DL) operating band BS transmit / UE receive FDL_low FDL_high 2110 MHz 2170 MHz 869 MHz 894 MHz Duplex Mode

CA_1-5

FDD

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Rel-11 Carrier Aggregation Combinations

Band
CA-B3_B7
CA-B4_B17 CA-B4_B13 CA-B4_B12 CA-B20_B7 CA-B2_B17 CA-B4_B5

Lead company
TeliaSonera
AT&T Ericsson (Verizon) Cox Communications Huawei (Orange) AT&T AT&T

Uplink
1710 - 1785
1710 1755 1710 1755 1710 1755 832 862 1850 1910 1710 1755

Downlink
1805 - 1880
2110 - 2155 2110 - 2155 2110 - 2155 791 - 821 1930 - 1990 2110 - 2155

Uplink
2500 - 2570
704 716 777 - 787 698 716 2500 - 2570 704 716 824 849

Downlink
2620 - 2690
734 - 746 746 - 756 728 - 746 2620 - 2690 734 - 746 869 - 894

Mode
FDD
FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD

CA-B5_B12
CA-B5_B17 CA-B20_B3 CA-B20_B8

US Cellular
AT&T Vodafone Vodafone

824 849
824 849 832 862 832 862

869 - 894
869 - 894 791 - 821 791 - 821

698 716
704 716 1710 - 1785 880 915

728 - 746
734 - 746 1805 - 1880 925 - 960

FDD
FDD FDD FDD

CA-B3_B5
CA-B7 CA-B1_B7 CA-B4_B7 CA-B25_25 CA-B38 CA-B43

SK Telecom
China Unicom China Telecomm Rogers Wireless Sprint Huawei (CMCC) Clearwire

1710 - 1785
2500 - 2570 1920 - 1980

1805 - 1880
2620 - 2690 2110 - 2170

824 849
2500 - 2570 2500 - 2570

869 - 894
2620 - 2690 2620 - 2690

FDD
FDD FDD

1710 1755
1850 - 1915 2570 - 2620 3600 - 3800

2110 - 2155
1930 - 1995 2570 - 2620 3600 - 3800

2500 - 2570
1850 - 1915 2570 - 2620 3600 - 3800

2620 - 2690
1930 - 1995 2570 - 2620 3600 - 3800

FDD
FDD TDD TDD

2012 Agilent Technologies 8

Carrier AggregationCell Configuration


PCell (Primary Serving Cell): handles the RRC connection establishment/re-establishment
PCC (Primary Component Carriers): uplink and downlink CCs corresponding to the PCell

Uplink
PCC SCC

SCell (Secondary Serving Cell): configured after connection establishment, to provide additional radio resources
SCC (Secondary Component Carriers): uplink and downlink CCs corresponding to the SCell

PCell:
PDCCH/PDSCH/PUSCH/PUCCH can be transmitted Measurement and mobility procedure are based on PCell Random access procedure is performed over PCell Can not be deactivated DL PCell and UL PCell are linked via SIB2

Downlink
PCC SCC SCC

SCell:
PDCCH/PDSCH/PUSCH can be transmitted (not PUCCH) MAC layer based dynamic activation/deactivation procedure is supported for SCell for UE battery saving Can be cross scheduled

Examples of primary and secondary component carriers for uplink and downlink

2012 Agilent Technologies 9

Carrier Aggregation Deployment Scenarios (1 of 2)


Scenario #1:
F1 and F2 cells are co-located and overlaid, providing same coverage. Likely scenario when F1 and F2 are of the same band.
F1 F2

Scenario #2:
F1 and F2 cells are co-located and overlaid, but F2 has smaller coverage

Only F1 provides sufficient coverage and F2 is used to improve throughput.


Likely scenario when F1 and F2 are of different bands

Scenario #3:
F1 and F2 cells are co-located but F2 antennas are directed to the cell boundaries of F1 so that cell edge throughput is increased.
F1 provides sufficient coverage but F2 potentially has holes

Likely scenario when F1 and F2 are of different bands

2012 Agilent Technologies 10

Carrier Aggregation Deployment Scenarios (2 of 2)


Scenario #4:
F1 provides macro coverage and on F2 Remote Radio Heads (RRHs) are used to improve throughput at hot spots. Likely scenario when F1 and F2 are of different bands,

Scenario #5:
Similar to scenario #2, but frequency selective repeaters are deployed to extend coverage for one of the frequencies.

In Release 10, scenarios 1, 2 & 3 are supported for UL when F1 & F2 are in same band. For DL, all scenarios are supported

2012 Agilent Technologies 11

Layer 2 Structure for Carrier Aggregation


Data aggregation happens in MAC layer, the multi-carrier nature of carrier aggregation not visible to core network The MAC layer divides the data between different CCs and separate HARQ processes for each CC

Radio Bearers ROHC PDCP Security Security Security Security ROHC ROHC ROHC
PDCP Security Security ROHC ROHC

Radio Bearers

RLC

Segm. ARQ etc

...

Segm. ARQ etc Logical Channels

Segm. ARQ etc

...

Segm. ARQ etc

RLC

Segm. ARQ etc

...

Segm. ARQ etc Logical Channels

Scheduling / Priority Handling

Independent HARQ per CC


Multiplexing UEn
MAC

Scheduling / Priority Handling

MAC

Multiplexing UE1

Multiplexing

HARQ

...

HARQ Transport Channels

HARQ

...

HARQ

HARQ

...

HARQ Transport Channels

CC1

...

CCx

CC1

...

CCy

CC1

...

CCx

Layer 2 Structure for the DL


(3GPP TR 36.912 V10.0.0, Figure 5.2.1--1)

Layer 2 Structure for the UL


(3GPP TR 36.912 V10.0.0, Figure 5.2.1-2)

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MAC to Physical Layer Mapping for Carrier Aggregation


There is one transport block, up to two in case of spatial multiplexing, and one HARQ entity per scheduled component carrier A UE can be scheduled over multiple component carriers simultaneously, but one random access procedure at any time

TrBlk 1
Channel coding

TrBlk 2
Channel coding

HARQ
modulation Resource mapping
CC1

HARQ
modulation Resource mapping
CC2

One UE

2012 Agilent Technologies

Resource Scheduling Downlink Control Signaling


Resources can be assigned to a UE in two ways:
Same-carrier scheduling separate PDCCH for each CC
Reusing Release 8/9 PDCCH structure and DCI formats
CC1: PCell 1 ms subframe

PDCCH PDCCH

PDSCH

Cross-carrier scheduling common PDCCH for multiple CCs.


Reusing Release 8 /9 PDCCH structure New 3-bit Carrier Indicator Field (CIF) added to Release 8 DCI Main motivation: Load balancing Interference management for control channels in heterogeneous networks
CC2: SCell

Same-carrier scheduling

1 ms subframe CC1: PCell

PDSCH

PDSCH
scheduled by PDCCH from PCell

PCell can not be cross scheduled, it is always scheduled through its own PDCCH

Cross-carrier scheduling (3-bit CIF included in DCI)

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Cross-Carrier Scheduling:
Interference management for control channels in heterogeneous networks

Macro Cell
CC2 for Macro Cell CC1 for Macro Cell

Cross-carrier scheduling provides interference management for control channels known as InterCell Interference Coordination (ICIC) for PDCCH.

Pico Cell
CC1 Low Power
CC2 Low Power

In this example, CC1 of Macro Cell would cause high interference to CC1 of pico cell, therefore pico cell uses CC2 for PDCCH messages to schedule PDSCH transmission on CC1 Macro cell uses CC1 to schedule PDSCH transmission on both CC1 and CC2

Macro Cell CC1

Pico Cell CC1

PDCCH

PDSCH

PDSCH
scheduled by PDCCH from CC2

CC2

PDSCH
scheduled by PDCCH from CC1

PDCCH

CC2

PDSCH

Cross-carrier scheduling avoids control channel interference

2012 Agilent Technologies 15

Updates to Uplink Control Signaling


Uplink control signaling must be extended to work across multiple carriers Release 8 PUCCH was not designed to carry large numbers of ACK/NACK bits PUCCH format 1b with channel selection for up to 4 ACK/NACK bits, 2 CCs Similar way to Release 8 TDD
New PUCCH format 3 for full range of ACK/NACK

PUCCH: uplink control

Transmits large number of ACK/NACK bits:


Up to 10 ACK/NACK bits for FDD Up to 20 ACK/NACK bits for TDD Not based on Zadoff-Chu sequences, uses similar to PUSCH transmissions (DFT-S-OFDM) QPSK modulation

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Agenda
Overview of carrier aggregation Carrier aggregation modes

Operating bands
Cell configuration Deployment scenarios Layer 1 and 2 structure Resource scheduling

Design challenges
Test challenges Agilent solutions Resources

2012 Agilent Technologies 17

UE Transmitter Architecture for Various Intra-Band Aggregation Scenarios


Scenario A
L1

RF filter

IFFT D/A Multiplex 1 and 2 BB

RF PA

Scenario C
Multiplex 1 BB IFFT
D/A L1

Single (baseband + IFFT + DAC + mixer + PA) Aggregation Scenario: Intra-band contiguous

Scenario B
Multiplex 2 BB Multiplex 1 BB IFFT
D/A
L1

RF PA

RF filter

IFFT

D/A L2

RF PA L2

RF filter

Multiplex 2 BB

IFFT

D/A

Multiple (baseband + IFFT + DAC + mixer), lowpower combiner @ RF, and single PA Aggregation Scenarios: Intra-band contiguous and non-contiguous

Multiple (baseband + IFFT + DAC), single (stage-1 IF mixer + combiner @ IF + stage-2 RF mixer + PA) Aggregation Scenarios: Intra-band contiguous and noncontiguous

Reference: 3GPP TR 36.912 v.10.0.0. Figure 11.3.2.1-1

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UE Receiver Architecture
Rx Characteristics Intra Band aggregation Option Description (Rx architecture) Single (RF + FFT + baseband) with BW>20MHz Multiple (RF + FFT + baseband) with BW20MHz Contiguous (CC) Non contiguous (CC)

Inter Band aggregation Non contiguous (CC)

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Option A Single wideband-capable (i.e., >20MHz) RF front end (i.e., mixer, AGC, ADC) and a single FFT, or alternatively multiple "legacy" RF front ends (<=20MHz) and FFT engines.

Option B In the case non adjacent Inter band separate RF front end are necessary.
Reference: 3GPP TR 36.912 v.10.0.0.

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SystemVue LTE-Advanced Carrier Aggregation


Scenario number 1 2 Deployment scenario Transmission BWs of LTE-A carriers # of LTE-A component carriers Bands for LTE-A carriers Duplex modes

Single-band contiguous spec. UL: 40 MHz alloc. @ 3.5GHz band for FDD DL: 80 MHz Single-band contiguous spec. 100 MHz alloc. @ Band 40 for TDD

UL: Contiguous 2x20 MHz CCs DL: Contiguous 4x20 MHz CCs Contiguous 5x20 MHz CCs UL: Non-contiguous 1x20 + 1x20 MHz CCs DL: Non-contiguous 2x20 + 2x20 MHz CCs

3.5 GHz band Band 40 (2.3 GHz) 3.5 GHz band

FDD TDD

Single-band, non-contiguous spec. alloc. @ 3.5GHz band for FDD

UL: 40 MHz

DL: 80 MHz

FDD

20MHzC Cs
11010
H AR Q _Bi ts U E1_PM I SC _St at us U E1_C hannel Bi ts

LTE_A
U E1_D at a

DL

U E1_M odSym bol s

11010

Src

f r m _FD

Im

Fre q Ph a s e Q

QUAD OUT

f r m _TD

Mod
Re
I Am p OUT

CCDF

LTE_A_DL_Src_1 UserDefinedAntMappingMatrix=NO UEs_n_SCID=0;0;0;0;0;0 [[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]]

WoCA Start=0s Stop=10ms

CCDF

11010

H AR Q _Bi ts

U E1_PM I SC _St at us

CCDF_CA Start=0s Stop=10ms

U E1_C hannel Bi ts

LTE_A
U E1_D at a U E1_M odSym bol s

DL
f r m _FD

11010

Src
f r m _TD

Im

Fre q Ph a s e Q

QUAD OUT OUT

Mod
Re
I Am p

LTE_A_DL_Src_2 UserDefinedAntMappingMatrix=NO UEs_n_SCID=0;0;0;0;0;0 [[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]]

11010

H AR Q _Bi ts

U E1_PM I SC _St at us

U E1_C hannel Bi ts

Fc Change
Env
Fre q Ph a s e Q

Spect r um A nal yzer

LTE_A
U E1_D at a U E1_M odSym bol s

DL

2012 Agilent Technologies

20

f r m _FD

11010

Src
f r m _TD

Im

Mod
I

QUAD OUT OUT

Design Challenges Intra-Band CA


Several technical challenges, especially for a UE From RF perspective, intra-band contiguous aggregated carriers have similar properties as a corresponding wider carrier being transmitted and received. Release 10 requires more stringent linearity requirements on the power amplifier than Release 8/9 UE will need to use less transmitter power for the amplifier to remain in the linear region Use of multiple CC on UL should be optional and only used for cases where UEs are not at the cell edge. For the base station, it has less impact - it corresponds in practice to multi-carrier configuration already supported in earlier releases.
2 uplink contiguous CCs

Single uplink CC

Example of CCDF plot using N7624B LTE/LTEAdvanced Signal Studio software

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Design Challenges Inter-Band CA


Major challenge for the UE
Multiple simultaneous receive chains

Multiple simultaneous transmit chains


Challenging radio environment in terms of intermodulation and cross-modulation within the UE device Need to design front-end components that help reduce harmonics, and other intermodulation products, which meet 3GPP requirements. Simultaneous transmit or receive with mandatory MIMO support add significantly to the challenge of antenna design

For the base station it has less impact similar to current base stations supporting multiple bands.
RF filter

Multiplex 1 BB

IFFT

D/A

RF filter
L1

RF PA

Multiple (baseband + IFFT + DAC + mixer + PA), high-power combiner to single antenna OR dual antenna (MIMO)

Multiplex 2 BB

IFFT

D/A

L2

RF PA

RF filter
Reference: 3GPP TR 36.912 v.10.0.0. Figure 11.3.2.1-1

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Agenda
Overview of carrier aggregation Carrier aggregation modes

Operating bands
Cell configuration Deployment scenarios Layer 1 and 2 structure Resource scheduling

Design challenges
Test challenges Agilent solutions Resources

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Test Challenges: Power Amplifier Characterization


Test Challenge: Characterizing the LTE-Advanced UE or eNB power amplifier presents RF challenge. The different carrier aggregation configurations will stress the amplifier in different ways since each will have different peak-to-average ratios. Agilent Solution: Signal Studio software generates LTEAdvanced downlink and uplink signals to test power and modulation characteristics of components and transmitters. Supports up to 5 component carriers within up to 160 MHz I/Q bandwidth with MXG vector signal generator Investigate effects of carrier aggregation on components including PAR and CCDF

Configure up to 5 component carriers

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SystemVue LTE-Advanced Carrier Aggregation


Scenario 1 FDD DL Scenario 4 FDD DL Scenario 4 FDD UL

Scenario 2 TDD DL

Scenario

Link

Configuration

PAPR of single CC, before aggregation

PAPR with CCs, after aggregation

Scenario 1 Scenario 2

FDD DL TDD DL
FDD DL

4x20 MHz CCs 5x20 MHz CCs


2x20+2x20MHz 20 + 20MHz

8.45 dB 9.17 dB
8.38 dB 5.79 dB

9.98 dB 11.71 dB
9.58 dB 6.86 dB

Scenario 4 FDD UL

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Test Challenges: Analyze the Multiple Transmit and Receive Chains Simultaneously
Test Challenge: For Release 10, the multiple component carriers must arrive at the receiver at the same time, time alignment error of 1.3 s for inter-band and 130 ns for intra-band. This requires simultaneous demodulation of the multiple component carriers

Agilent Solutions: 89600 VSA software Inter-band and intra-band carrier aggregation support for both uplink and downlink, FDD and TDD
Hardware: X-Series signal analyzers or N7109A multi-channel signal analyzer
Two component carriers at 800 MHz
One component carrier at 2100 MHz

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LTE-Advanced Signal Analysis: 89600 VSA Carrier Aggregation


FDD and TDD per 3GPP Release 10

Inter-band and intra-band for UL and DL


Analyze up to five component carriers (CCs) simultaneously: Up to 160 MHz analysis bandwidth on PXA for intra-band CA Multi-channel signal analyzer for inter-band CA Independent measurement setup, including varying bandwidths, for individual CCs Rich selection of EVM measurements plus CCDF, freq response and more Strenuous in-band and out-of-band spurious and interference testing is possible with PXAs industry best RF performance

2012 Agilent Technologies 27

89600 VSA: Setting up the LTE-Advanced Demodulator

Measurement example for setting up component carriers, including: FDD / TDD UL / DL Bandwidth & span Sync type

Up to 5 component carriers, both inter-band and intra-band configuration.

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Inter-Band Carrier Aggregation Analysis


Test Challenge: Demodulating inter-band carrier aggregated signals require signal analyzer with bandwidth that spans multiple frequency bands (ex. 800 MHz and 2100 MHz)
Resource block

Band A

Band B

Agilents Unique Solution:


Dual input hardware, fully synchronized , plus 89600 VSA software. VSA software acquires all the CCs simultaneously, demodulate the captured signals, and analyze them all simultaneously
10 MHz Freq ref. Time sync

CC from
Band A CC from Band B

OR

Dual signal analyzer

N7109A
Two CCs at 800 MHz Three CCs at 2100 MHz

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Inter-Band Carrier Aggregation Analysis

Frame summary per component carrier

Constellation diagram per component carrier

Allocated resources per component carrier

Spectrum of two CCs at 800 MHz

Spectrum of three CCs at 2100 MHz

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Test Challenges: Simultaneous analysis of Inter-Band Aggregation plus downlink MIMO


Test Challenge: when inter-band carrier aggregation is combined with spatial multiplexing MIMO, it requires test tools that has a minimum of 4 inputs (two inputs per CC).

Agilent Solutions:
N7109A multi-channel signal analysis system: 2, 4 or 8 channels, 40 MHz demodulation BW per channel Pick and choose how you want to use the 8 channels (ex. 4x4 MIMO on two inter-band component carriers or 2x2 MIMO on four inter-band component carriers)

Up to 8 channels
MIMO Info trace for CC0

Constellation for CC0

Frequency response for CC0

Constellation for CC1

MIMO Info trace for CC1 Frequency response for CC0

Example of 2x2 MIMO and inter-band carrier aggregation with two component carriers

2012 Agilent Technologies 31

Agenda
Overview of carrier aggregation Carrier aggregation modes

Operating bands
Cell configuration Deployment scenarios Layer 1 and 2 structure Resource scheduling

Design challenges
Test challenges Agilent solutions Resources

2012 Agilent Technologies 32

Agilent LTE and LTE-Advanced Portfolio


Signal creation software 89600 VSA 89600 WLA Scopes and Logic Analyzers RDX for DigRF v4 Signal Analyzers with LTE Measurement Apps
Battery drain characterization

SystemVue (BB) ADS/GG (RF/A)

Signal Generators
Baseband Generator and Channel Emulator

RF Module Development RF Proto RF Chip/module

RF and BB Design Integration L1/PHY DigRF v4 BTS or Mobile

Pre-Conformance

Design Simulation

BTS and Mobile BB Chipset Development L1/PHY FPGA and ASIC Protocol Development L2/L3
RF & Protocol test platforms

System Design Validation System Level RF Testing

Conformance

Manufacturing

Network Deployment
Manufacturing test platforms

N6070A LTE signaling conformance test

N5971A IFT Software

Systems for RF and Protocol Conformance

N7109A Multi-Channel Signal Analysis System

RF Handheld Analyzers

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Summary
Carrier aggregation is one of the most important features for LTEAdvanced enabling: Higher data rates
Facilitate efficient use of fragmented spectrum Interference management in heterogeneous networks

It is introduced in LTE Release 10 with deployment of two component carriers and will be extended with Rel. 11and beyond It introduces various design challenges, especially for UE
Test challenges for multi-carrier EVM requiring simultaneous demodulation of both inter-band and intra-band signal configurations Agilent was first to market with LTE-Advanced solution addressing system simulation, signal generation and analysis tools

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For More Information


Agilent Resources
LTE-Advanced application and product info: www.agilent.com/find/lteadvanced 89600 VSA product information: www.agilent.com/find/vsa X-Series signal analyzer product information: www.agilent.com/find/xseries

N7109A multi-channel signal analyzer information: www.agilent.com/find/N7109A


Signal Studio product information: www.agilent.com/find/signalstudio

Key LTE-Advanced Documents


Historical documents: Study Item RP-080599: ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/tsg_ran/TSG_RAN/TSGR_41/Docs/RP-080599.zip

Requirements TR 36.913 v9.0.0 (2009-12): ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/Specs/html-info/36913.htm


Study Phase Technical Report TR 36.912 v9.3.0 (2010-06): ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/Specs/htmlinfo/36912.htm The LTE-A specifications are now drafted in the Release 10 specifications ftp.3gpp.org/specs/latest/Rel-10/

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THANK YOU!

2012 Agilent Technologies