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EOCT Review

Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers

Dangling and misplaced modifiers are words, phrases, or clauses that confuse the meaning of a sentence. A dangling modifier does not clearly modify another word in a sentence because the word it should modify has been omitted. Ex: Sitting by the fireplace, the flames suddenly sparked and hissed. (It sounds as if the flames are sitting by the fireplace.) Sitting by the fireplace, I noticed the flames suddenly Spark and hiss. (Sitting by the fireplace now modifies I am doing.)

Corrected:

A misplaced modifier seems to modify the wrong word in the sentence because it is located too far away from the word it should modify. Ex: We have several photographs of our dogs on top of the piano. (It sounds as if the dogs are on top of the piano).

Corrected: On top of the piano, we have several photographs of our dogs. Directions: Tell whether each sentence has a dangling or misplaced modifier and correct the sentence. 1. Driving home in the rain, a deer crossed the highway and nearly caused a collision. Dangling 2. The zookeeper explained where to find the gorillas in the cafeteria. Misplaced 3. The houses and streets looked like a miniature village flying high above the landscape. Dangling 4. A dozen tomatoes dried in the sun on the picnic table freshly picked from the garden. Misplaced 5. Living in the city, traffic congestion is a daily problem for many commuters. Dangling 6. The birthday girl opened the wrapped gift with a glowing face. Misplaced 7. Suddenly entering the house with fully loaded backpacks, the cats leapt in surprise and fear. Displaced

EOCT Review
8. To save an extra seat in the concert hall, his jacket was placed on the chair. Displaced 9. Most friends almost communicate every day by cell phone or e-mail. Misplaced 10. While brushing my teeth this morning, my mom made bacon and apple fritters. Displaced Grammar and Literary Terms Pre-test Directions: Write the letter of the best choice to each question. This is based on the following ONE sentence. I have a little shadow that goes in and out with me and what can be the use of him is more than I can see. Questions: 1. This sentence may be hard to read because one comma has been left out. Where would you put a comma to break up the sentence into two main parts? a. After shadow b. After me c. After him d. After more 2. What kind of sentence is this? a. Simple b. Complex c. Compound d. Compound-complex 3. Which of the following is I have a little shadow? a. The subject of the sentence b. The first independent clause c. The first subordinate (dependent) clause d. The subject of him (line 3) 4. What is that goes in and out with me? a. The first independent clause b. A subordinate clause, object of have c. A subordinate clause modifying shadow d. A subordinate clause modifying goes 5. What is and? a. A coordinating conjunction

EOCT Review
b. A subordinating conjunction c. A relative pronoun d. A preposition modifying what 6. What is and what can be the use of him? a. The second independent clause b. A subordinate clause, modifying shadow c. A subordinate clause, subject of is d. A subordinate clause, subject of see 7. What is than I can see? a. The second independent clause b. A subordinate clause, object of is c. A subordinate clause, object of more d. A subordinate clause modifying more 8. What is is? a. Verb of the second independent clause b. Verb of the second subordinate clause c. Verb modifying more d. A verb that does not have a subject 9. What is the subject of the first independent clause? a. I b. shadow c. I have a little shadow d. that goes in and out with me 10. What is the subject of the second independent clause? a. shadow b. that goes in and out with me c. what can be the use of him d. more than I can see I have a little shadow that goes in and out with me and what can be the use of him is more than I can see. 11. What is the verb of the first independent clause? a. have b. goes c. can be d. can see 12. What is the verb of the second independent clause? a. goes

EOCT Review
b. can be c. is d. can see 13. What is shadow? a. Subject of the whole sentence b. Object of have c. A linking-verb compliment d. Object of the preposition little 14. What are in and out? a. Prepositions b. Adverbs c. Objects of goes d. Adjectives modifying with me 15. What does with me modify? a. shadow b. have c. goes d. in and out Literary Terms Directions: Choose the answer that best explains the literary term used in each sentence or definition. 1.. The way a reading makes you feel is called: a. point of view c. tone b. mood d. paradox 2. The sun was screaming with delight as it scattered its rays across the land a. metaphor c. personification b. simile d. onomatopoeia 3. I told my mother she was as ugly as homemade sin. a. simile c. imagery b. metaphor d. hyperbole 4. An object that is used to represent both itself and something else, like an abstract concept, is a: a. symbol c. simile b. metaphor d. theme 5. My heart was beating a million miles per second. a. metaphor c. onomatopoeia

EOCT Review
b. hyperbole d. simile

6. As I walked into the room, the smell of apple pie filled my nose, and my mouth began to water. I could almost taste the sweet tang of the apples rolling down my tongue. a. personification c. metaphor b. hyperbole d. imagery 7. My hatred is a war that I battle within my own mind. a. simile c. metaphor b. mood d. personification 8. The metal on the car went, Crunch! as it slammed into the guard rail on the side of the cliff. a. personification c. tone b. repetition d. onomatopoeia 9. The attitude an author takes toward his or her subject matter is called: a. tone c. mood b. Parody d. satire 10. The lesson that the author attempts to teach about life through the work, which is stated in a complete sentence, is called: a. tone b. theme c. mood d. symbolism Directions: In the passage below, identify the underlined verbs as passive or active. The voice of an action verb tells whether the subject of the sentence performs or receives the action. When the subject performs the action of the verb, the verb is in active voice. When the subject receives the action of the verb, the verb is in the passive voice. Ex: Passive Voice: The marker was dropped by Miss Bennett. Passive voice is when there is a form of the verb to be + the past participle of an action verb. These sentences can usually be revised to the active voice. Active Voice: Miss Bennett dropped the marker. Leon stared (A) at the new moccasins that Teofilo had made(A) for the ceremonial dances in the summer. They were nearly hidden(P) by the red blanket. It was getting(P) colder, and the wind pushed(A) gray dust down the narrow pueblo road. The sun was approaching(A) the long mesa where is disappeared(A) during the winter. Louise stood(A) there shivering and

EOCT Review
watching his face. Then he zipped(A) up his jacket and opened(a) the truck door. A. Underline the prepositional phrase in each sentence and tell whether it functions as an adjective or an adverb on the line provided. 1. The book about women writers is mine. 2. She is helpful to everyone. 3. Harriet Beecher Stowe worked as a teacher with her sister Catherine. 4. Harriet Beecher Stowe is the seventh child of a famous Protestant preacher. ADJ ADV ADV ADV

B. Underline the participial phrase and circle the word it is modifying (telling us more about). 1. The fish swimming near us are lovely. 2. Closing my backpack, I continued on the trail. 3. The Everglades, teeming with alligators, are humid. 4. Covered in mud, I had to take a shower before dinner. C. Underline the gerund phrase and tell what part of speech it is in the line provided. 1. Hiking mountains is a pleasant activity. 2. My new hobby is snorkeling in the ocean. 3. You should never swim before waiting thirty minutes after a meal. 4. I mastered climbing the rock wall.

EOCT Review

D.Underline the infinitive/infinitive phrase and tell what part of speech it is on the line provided. 1. Mr. Wilkins decided to walk briskly(DO). 2. I hugged my mother to show her I love her. 3. The purpose of learning grammar is to better your writing(Predicate Noun) skills. 4. Cleaning your room(ADJ) is a good thing to do. E. Underline the appositive phrase and circle the word it is identifying. 1.The black and white cow, a milk cow, makes milk for people to drink. 2.The book My Sisters Keeper is a really great read. 3.Her new book is a mysterya real page turner. 4.A world-renowned expert on medieval history, the professor lectured on the construction of castles during this period. For each sentence, underline the antecedent and circle the correct pronoun. Ex: The team has elected Bill for (its, their) captain. 1. Charles and his brother received (their, his) tetanus shots. 2. Neither girl did (their, her) best. 3. One of the campers put (their, his) tent in a good location. 4. Everyone has (their, his) own opinion about the coach. 5. If anyone calls, get (their, his) name and telephone number. 6. Both applicants brought (their, his) applications with them. 7. Sam and his brother were so thirsty (their, his) tongues were hanging out. 8. Nobody in the class has turned in (their, his) notebook. 9. Every chef has (their, his) favorite recipe.

EOCT Review
10. Several of the boys brought (his, their) Scout handbooks. Matching: Match the letters to the correct definitions. a. simple sentence b. compound sentence c. complex sentence d. compound-complex sentence e. run-on sentence f. comma splice g. fused sentence 1. ___b___ two independent clauses correctly jointed and punctuated. 2. ___e___two or more complete sentences incorrectly punctuated as if they were one. 3. __d___ consists of two or more independent clauses and one or more subordinate clauses. 4. __a___ A independent clause that includes a subject and a predicate and expresses a complete thought. 5. __f___two or more sentences separated by a comma instead of a comma and a conjunction. 6. __c___ consists of one independent clause and one subordinate clause. 7. __g___two complete sentences that are not separated or jointed by punctuation. For each sentence, underline the subject and circle the verb that agrees with it. Ex: Men who work here (is, are) well paid. 1. One man (requires, require) help. 2. Several men (requires, require) help. 3. One man, as well as several children, (needs, need) help. 4. A man and several children (needs, need) help. 5. Out of every four Americans, one (owns, own) an automobile. 6. One American out of every four (possesses, possess) an automobile. 7. The order of words in sentences sometimes (causes, cause) errors in agreement. 8. A sentence which begins with there, where, or here (is, are) sometimes deceptive.

EOCT Review
9. Here (is, are) several of your friends. 10. Where (has, have) Henry and his friends gone? Define the type of clause that is in the sentence (essential or non-essential adjective, adverb, noun), underline it, and punctuate the sentence correctly if needed. 1. _____non_________When Kevin Simmons hit a monster home run against the Guilford Indians he, broke the game wide open. 2. _____________Bill and Betty Holiday who have lived in several parts of the world love, Madison, Connecticut the best. 3. _____________Although the Yankees played several games with replacements, the team hung together and eventually won the pennant. 4. _____none_____The program that captures the attention of the audience usually receives the most awards. 5. _____________The Woodlawn which is owned by the proprietor of the Dolly Madison Inn, has had a long history. 6. _____________As calm as Dave Nelson seems when approaching a ball in a sand trap, internally butterflies play havoc with his psyche. 7. _____none_____Terri James would present the Culinary Arts Award to whoever baked the cake with the most chocolate. 8. _____none_____The book that I consider the best teaching tool for vocabulary is on my shelf. 9. _____none_____Whatever bid Gerd Nelson makes while playing bridge usually pleases her partner. 10. ______________Before he enlisted in the Marines, Bill Reilly hunted wild boar in Australia. Critical Reading The questions below are based on the following selection. This excerpt is from an early section of Benjamin Franklins Autobiography. In the final sentence, the word discovered means revealed.

EOCT Review
My Brother had in 1720 or 21, begun to print a Newspaper. . . . Being still a Boy, and suspecting that my Brother would object to printing any Thing of mine in his Paper if he knew it to be mine, I contrived to disguise my Hand, and writing an anonymous Paper, I put it in at Night under the Door of the Printing House. It was found in the Morning and communicated to his Writing friends when they called in as usual. They read it, commented on it in my Hearing, and I had the exquisite Pleasure of finding it met with their Approbation, and that in their different Guesses at the Author none were named but men of some Character among us for Learning and Ingenuity. I suppose now that I was rather lucky in my Judges: And that perhaps they were not really so very good ones as I then esteemed them. Encouraged, however, by this, I wrote and conveyed in the same Way to the Press several more papers, which were equally approved, and I kept my Secret till my small Fund of Sense for such Performances was pretty well exhausted, and then I discovered it; when I began to be considered a little more by my Brothers Acquaintance, and in a manner that did not quite please him, as he thought, probably with reason, that it tended to make me too vain. . . . On the line, write the letter of the one best answer. ____ 1. Benjamin Franklin a. signed his name to the articles he wrote for his brothers newspaper. b. printed several stories his brother wrote for his newspaper. c. signed a false name to the articles he wrote for his brothers newspaper. d. signed no name to the articles he wrote for his brothers newspaper. ____ 2. Why might Franklins brother object to printing any Thing of mine in his Paper if he knew it to be mine? a. He dislikes Franklin, despite their kinship. b. He disagrees with Franklins political views. c. He never prints unsolicited articles. d. He deems Franklin too young to be an adequate writer. ____ 3. What conclusion can you draw about Franklin based on the following passage from The Autobiography? I made a little book, in which I allotted a page for each of the virtues. I ruled each page with red ink, so as to have seven columns, one for each day of the week, marking each column with a letter for the day. I crossed these columns with thirteen red lines, marking the beginning of each line with the first letter of one of the virtues. . . . a. Franklin was organized in his approach to his project. b. Franklin was afraid of forgetting the virtues. c. Was concerned that his book did not have enough space. d. Franklin carried his book with him wherever he went.

EOCT Review
____ 4. This selection presents events a. in a positive light. b. as the authors brother saw them. c. as historical fact. d. as Benjamin Franklin saw them. (17501800) ____ 5. What causes Franklin to cease his deception? a. He tires of misleading the editors. b. The printer recognizes Franklins handwriting. c. The lie is detected by a learned editor. d. He wants to embarrass his brother. ____ 6. What is the best characterization of Franklins attitude toward his brother during this period, as it is revealed in the selection? a. fond b. hostile c. competitive d. casual ____ 7. An autobiography has most in common with which of the following literary forms? a. a poem b. a historical narrative c. a short story d. a journal ____ 8. In The Autobiography, what does Franklin mean when he says, In truth, I found myself incorrigible with respect to Order. . . . a. Franklin didnt care about achieving Order. b. Order was the hardest virtue for Franklin to achieve. c. Franklin felt the need to tell the truth about Order. d. Order was the simplest virtue for Franklin to achieve. ____ 9. What can you infer about the author from this selection? a. He was wracked by guilt about his duplicity. b. He was an orphan. c. He was an ambitious young man. d. He despised his brother. ____ 10. Which of the following words is most likely to produce an emotional response in a reader? a. judiciary b. reason c. liberty

EOCT Review
d. anonymous

LITERATUREDefine the following terms. List the major characteristics of each group and know the writers associated with each group. Term Puritanism Definition/Characteristics Writers

Rationalism

Romanticism

Transcendentalism

Realism

Naturalism

Modernism