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Raffles Institution (Year 6) Physics H2 2013 Revision Programme

1
Dynamics
Multiple Choice Questions

Answers & Suggested Solutions

1 D 2 A 3 A 4 B 5 C 6 B 7 D 8 B 9 C 10 C
11 D 12 C 13 A 14 C 15 A 16 C 17 A 18 D 19 B 20 C
21 D 22 C 23 D 24 D 25 A 26 A 27 A 28 B 29 C

1 D
As the ball comes into contact with the ground, it is first compressed and then returns back
to its original shape as it leaves the ground. The force exerted by the ground will vary
according to the amount of compression.

2 A
Let the final velocities of 2m and m be v
1
and v
2
respectively.
By conservation of linear momentum, and taking to the right ( ) as positive direction,
2mu mu = 2mv
1
+ mv
2

u = 2v
1
+ v
2
(1)
For elastic collision, the relative speed of approach = the relative speed of separation,
u (u) = v
2
v
1

2u = v
2
v
1
(2)
Solving equations (1) & (2),
1
3
u
v = (i.e.
3
u
to the left), and
2
5
3
u
v = (to the right)

3 A






Consider forces on 2.0kg mass,
mg T = ma
2.0 x 9.81 T = 2.0a . (1)
Consider horizontal forces on box,
T f = Ma
T 6.0 = 8.0a (2)
From (1) & (2) a = 1.4 m s
2


OR

mg f = (M + m) a
2.0 x 9.81 6.0 = (2.0 + 8.0)a , a = 1.4 m s
2

4 B
2(75 50)
0.5 s
100
p p
F t
t F

= = = =



2.0 kg
T
mg
a
8.0 kg
f = 6.0 N
T
a
Raffles Institution (Year 6) Physics H2 2013 Revision Programme


2
5 C
Consider forces on the pendulum.

sin (1)
cos (2)
Eq (1) divide by eq (2): tan
tan
T ma
T mg
a
g
a g

=
=
=
=



Consider horizontal forces on the block.


0
250
250 100(9.81tan11 ) 59.3 N
f ma
f
=
= =




6 B
Change in momentum = Impulse
m (v u) = area under the F-t graph
2.0 (v 3.0) = (5)(2+3) (1)(3)
v = 8.5 m s
1


7 D
Situation 1:
For two identical masses, they will exchange velocities after an elastic collision.
Velocity of ball B is 0.5v towards the left before collision and 0.5v towards the right after
collision.
Taking momentum towards the right as positive,
Change in momentum of B = m (0.5v (0.5v)) = mv

Situation 2:
A imparts a momentum to B equal to mv towards the right.
Hence change in momentum p for B is mv towards the right.
B moves with velocity
( )
2 v at 45
o
to the vertical after the
collision.


Situation 3:
Velocity of B after the collision is 2v towards the right.
Change in momentum of B = m (2v v) = mv


8 B
Option A is wrong as it describes a completely inelastic collision.
For elastic collision, the total momentum and kinetic energy of the system of the two
spheres are conserved.
Total KE after collision = Total KE before collision = mv
2
+ mv
2
= mv
2
.
Hence option B is correct but option C is wrong.
Total momentum before impact = mv + m(v) = 0 , hence option D is wrong.
11
o
T
mg
250 N
f
p
initial
p
p
final
Raffles Institution (Year 6) Physics H2 2013 Revision Programme


3
9 C
The 2 forces in Newton third law are of the same kind, same magnitude and act on different
bodies. It does not act only when the bodies are in equilibrium.


10 C







sin36
4(9.81)sin36 31
7.94 N
o
o
mg f F
f
f
+ =
+ =
=

sin36
4(9.81) sin36 7.94
15 N
o
o
mg F f
F
= +
=
=


11 D
By conservation of momentum and considering the astronaut and the hammer as one
system, initial momentum will be zero, hence final momentum has to be zero as well. So if
the hammer moves forward, the astronaut must move backwards (and vice-versa) so that
final momentum can be equal to zero.

12 C

Since F is constant, acceleration is constant.
Displacement s = a t
2

Graph of s vs t
2
is a straight line passing through the origin.

2
2
2
2
v as
v as
p mv m as
=
=
= =

Graph of p vs s will be a curve shown by Graph 4.


13 A
Since the cart is initially moving, there must be a force in the same direction as its velocity
to cause it to speed up. To cause the cart to slow down, this force must now be in the
opposite direction. Hence the force must change from positive to negative.


14 C

Consider the forces on the block.


Vertical equilibrium: N cos = mg (1)
N = mg / cos
Horizontal acceleration: N sin = ma (2)
Divide eq (2) by eq (1) tan = a / g
a = g tan
V

F
f
mgsin36
o

v
F
f
mgsin36
o

block
wedge
mg
N
a
Raffles Institution (Year 6) Physics H2 2013 Revision Programme


4
15 A



Applying principle of conservation of momentum,
80v + (20 20) = (20 100) + [ 80 (20) ]
v = 0

16 C


Since m
B
g > m
A
g sin 30
o
, the acceleration of A is up the slope and that of B is vertically
downwards. Both blocks have acceleration of magnitude a.
Consider forces on B,
m
B
g T = m
B
a (1)
Consider forces on A in the direction along the slope,
T m
A
g sin 30
o
= m
A
a (2)

Combining equations (1) and (2),
m
B
g m
A
g sin 30
o
= (m
A
+ m
B
) a

( )
o
2
1.5 9.81 (2.0 9.81sin30 )
1.401 m s
(1.5 2.0)
a


= =
+


Consider motion of B,

2
1
2
2 0.50
0.84 s
1.401
s at
t
=

= =


block
bullet
20 m s
1
v

bullet
block
100 m s
1
20 m s
1
Before collision
After collision
m
A
g
m
B
g
T
T
Raffles Institution (Year 6) Physics H2 2013 Revision Programme


5
17 A

Applying principle of conservation of momentum,
( ) ( )
3.0
0.50
6.0
X X Y Y
X Y
Y X
m v m v
v m
v m
=

= = =




18 D




Consider forces on Q,

(1)
( ) 1.0(10 2) 12 N
Y
Y
T mg ma
T m g a
=
= + = + =



Consider forces on combined system of P and Q,

2 2 (1)
2 ( ) 2.0(10 2) 24 N
X
X
T mg ma
T m g a
=
= + = + =




19 B

When the lift is moving at constant speed, acceleration a = 0.

1
1
(1)
kx mg
mg
k
x
=
=

where x
1
= 50.0 25.0 = 25.0 cm


When lift is moving downwards and is slowing down, the acceleration a is upward.

2
(2) kx mg ma =
Substituting (1) into (2),
2
1
mg
x mg ma
x
=

2 1
( ) 2.0 10
(25.0) 30.0 cm
10
a g
x x
g
+ +
= = =

The spring lengthens by 5.0cm.


P
Q
acceleration
2 m s
-2

T
X
T
Y
T
Y
mg
mg
a
mg
kx

Raffles Institution (Year 6) Physics H2 2013 Revision Programme


6
20 C
Since some kinetic energy of the carts has been converted to sound energy, the sum of the
kinetic energies of the carts after the collision is less than that before the collision.
Total momentum is conserved, assuming no net external force acts on the system.
Since the collision is inelastic, the relative speed of approach will not be equal to the relative
speed of separation of the carts.

21 D

Upward acceleration a of helicopter is given by:

2 1
2
2
1
2
2
60 0 (10)
1.2 m s
s ut at
a
a

= +
= +
=

Considering forces on the helicopter,

( ) 5.0(9.81 1.2) 55 N
upward
upward
F mg ma
F m g a
=
= + = + =


22 C

Impulse = area under F-t graph = (6.0)(10.0) = 30 N s
Change of momentum = Impulse
p
final
mu = 30
p
final
= 30 + (1.0)(10) = 40 kg m s
1



23 D
In an elastic collision between 2 identical bodies, the colliding bodies exchange velocities.
Hence in this case, after collision, Y will move with the initial velocity of X which is 30 cm s
1

to the left and X will move with the initial velocity of Y which is 50 cm s
1
to the right.


24 D


Total net force (total mass of system) acceleration
2 ( 3 )
2
4 2
F m m a
F F
a
m m
=
= +
= =

According to Newtons 3
rd
Law, the force exerted by Y on X is equal in magnitude to the force
exerted by X on Y. Let the magnitude of this force of contact between X and Y be F
c
.
Consider force on Y,
3
3 3
2 2
c
F F
F ma m
m
| |
= = =
|
\


X Y
2F
Raffles Institution (Year 6) Physics H2 2013 Revision Programme


7
25 A

Taking momentum towards the right as positive,
Initial momentum of system = 20 12 = 8 N s
Final momentum of system = 12 + (p
X
)

Applying principle of conservation of momentum,
12 + (p
X
) = 8
p
X
= 12 4 = 4 N s

magnitude of final momentum of X is 4 N s


26 A

Let T be the tension in the string between the 3.0 kg and 1.0 kg masses and a be the
acceleration of the system.
Considering the 3.0 kg and 2.0 kg masses taken together,
5.0g T = 5.0a (1)
Considering the 1.0 kg mass,
T 1.0g = 1.0a (2)
Solving equations (1) and (2), a = (2/3)g
Considering the 2.0 kg mass,
Let T be the tension between the 3.0 kg and 2.0 kg masses,
2.0g T = 2.0a
T = 6.5 N


27 A

Using Newtons 2
nd
Law,
Up the incline,
0
(5.0)(9.81) sin30 30 (5.0)(4.0) F =
F 75 N

28 B

F = ma
( )
( )
1
1
800 40 25
6000 2.000 s

T t
T t
= =
Similarly,
( )
( )
2
2
890 40 25
6000 2.225 s

T t
T t
= =
2 1
0.225 s T T =

29 C

Astronaut experiences apparent weightlessness when no reaction (contact) force is exerted
on him.

1.0 kg
3.0 kg
2.0 kg a
a
30
0

F
5.0 kg
Before
collision
After
collision
12 N s pX
Raffles Institution (Year 6) Physics H2 2013 Revision Programme


8
Structured Questions



31 (a)

By the principle of conservation of momentum,
5.0 (4.0) + 3.0(10.0) 4.0 (3.0) = v (17.0)
v = 2.24 m s
1


(b) (i) 5.0 (4.0) + 3.0(10.0) 4.0 (3.0) = 9.0(u) + (2.24)(17.0)
u = 2.11 m s
1


(ii)


By Law of Conservation of Energy,
mu
2
= mgh
2 2
2.11
0.227 m
2 2 9.81
u
h
g
= = =


0.300 cos = (0.300 h)
( ) 0.300 0.227
cos
0.300
=
= 76

30 (a) (i) mu = MV mv'
(ii) mu
2
= MV
2
+ m(v')
2


(b)
7
2
3.30 10
n
n p
m
x v
m m
=
+

6
2
4.70 10
14
n
n p
m
x v
m m
=
+

6
7
4.70 10
0.1424
14 3.30 10
n p
n p
m m
m m
+

= =
+

Hence 0.8576 m
n
= 0.9936 m
p

Therefore m
n
= 1.16 m
p

5.0 m s
1
3.0 m s
1
4.0 m s
1

4.0 g 10.0 g 3.0 g
v
train of three blocks
u

30.0
cm
9.0 g
h
Raffles Institution (Year 6) Physics H2 2013 Revision Programme


9
32 (a) (i)
Force on air
= rate of change of momentum of air
= change of momentum of air per unit time
= change in velocity mass flow per unit time
= (v 0) ( r
2
vt ) / t
= r
2
v
2


(ii) By Newtons 3
rd
Law,
Force on fan by air = Force on air by fan = r
2
v
2


(iii) As the fan blades rotate, they exert a force on the air. By Newtons Third Law, the
air exerts an equal and opposite force on the axle of the fan.

(b) (i) No.

When the fan blades rotate, momentum is transferred to the air, which in turn
transfers momentum to the sail, which is connected to the whole trolley.
At the same time, due to Newtons Third Law, the gain in momentum of the air
causes the axle of the fan to gain a momentum that is equal in magnitude but in
the opposite direction.
Since the fan is also fixed on the trolley, the NET force on the trolley is zero.

Thus the trolley will not move and his idea wont work.

(ii) Any two plausible methods such as:
remove the sail
reduce the mass of the trolley
increase blade area
place fan on the floor



33 (a)












(b) (i) Block A: T = m
A
a (1)
Block B: W
B
T = m
B
a (2)
(1) + (2): W
B
= (m
A
+ m
B
) a
0.50 9.81 = (0.30 + 0.50) a
a = 6.13 m s
2


W
A
N
A
T

B
T

W
B
A
T is the tension of string acting on mass A
N
A
is the normal contact force acting on mass A
W
A
is the weight of mass A
T is the tension of string acting on mass B
W
B
is the weight of mass B

Raffles Institution (Year 6) Physics H2 2013 Revision Programme


10
Or alternatively,
Consider the whole system as a body,

W
B
= (m
A
+ m
B
) a
0.50 9.81 = (0.30 + 0.50) a
a = 6.13 m s
2


(ii) From (1): T = 0.30 6.131 = 1.84 N

(c) Block A: T kx = m
A
a (1)
Block B: W
B
T = m
B
a (2)
(1) +(2):
W
B
kx = (m
A
+ m
B
) a

B
A B
W kx
a
m m

=
+

a = 6.1 450 x

Thus, the acceleration of block B decreases linearly immediately with its distance
travelled after it touches the spring.


34 (a) Newtons Second Law states that the rate of change of momentum of a body is
proportional to the resultant force acting on it and occurs in the direction of the force.

(b) (i) Volume of air arriving on the blades per unit time = ( r
2
) v
Mass of air colliding with turbine per unit time
= (volume per unit time of air on blades) (density of air)
= r
2
v
= 5.0
2
15.0 0.85
= 1000 kg s
1


(ii) In 1 s:
change of momentum of air, p = 1000 (15.0 5.0)
= 1.0 10
4
kg m s
1


By Newtons 2
nd
Law: Force on air =
d
d
p
t
= 1.0 10
4
N (to the right)

By Newtons 3
rd
Law: Force on turbine = 1.0 10
4
N (to the left)

(iii) Horizontal force from the ground = 1.0 10
4
N (to the right)

Torque due to couple = 1.0 10
4
25 = 2.5 10
5
N m (anti-clockwise)
Resisting torque from ground = 2.5 10
5
N m (clockwise)


15.0 m s
1
5.0 m s
1
5.0 m

25 m

Raffles Institution (Year 6) Physics H2 2013 Revision Programme


11
35 (a) (i) The momentum of the water changes because the velocity of the water changes
when the water was brought to rest by the wall.
This is because when the water strikes the wall, it exerts a force on the wall and
by Newtons third law, the wall exerts an equal but opposite force on the
water.
By Newtons second law, the force experienced by the water means that the
water undergoes a rate of change of momentum. Thus the momentum of the
water changes.

(ii) The water exerts a constant force because the water flows at a constant rate.

(b) (i) change in momentum in one second = m v = 18 (0 7.2) = 130 kg m s
1


(ii) Force by the water on the wall = force on water by wall = 130 kg m s
2


(c) The magnitude is greater because there is a larger rate of change of momentum of
the water when the water rebounds.


36 (a) (i)
( )
( )
2
Let be the maximum compression of the spring
and be the total mass of A and bullet.
Mechanical energy of A and bullet
1
sin 30
2
1
(4.20)(9.81)(0.30) 4.20 (9.81)(0.20)(sin(30 ))
x
M
Mgh Mgx kx = + +
= + +
2
(10000)(0.20)
2
216 J
220 J (to 2 s.f.)
=



(ii)
2
1 1
Let be the speed of A and bullet after the collision.
1
216
2
2 216

4.20
10.14 m s 10 m s
V
MV
V
V

=

=
=


(iii) By principle of conservation of momentum,
1 1

4.2
10.14 213 m s 210 m s
0.20
bullet
m v MV
v

=
| |
= =
|
\



(iv) The collision between A and the bullet was completely inelastic, hence kinetic
energy is not conserved.
Part of the kinetic energy of the bullet is transferred to A as heat energy, causing A
to experience a rise in temperature.


Raffles Institution (Year 6) Physics H2 2013 Revision Programme


12
37 (a) (i) The Earth and the ball each exert a gravitational force on the other. Considering the
ball and the Earth as a system, their total momentum is conserved since there is no
net external force acting on the system. However, the momentum of either the ball or
the Earth is not conserved due to the gravitational force acting on each one.

(ii) If ball 1 is released and causes balls 4 and 5 to swing out with half the speed of ball
1 and ball 1 coming to rest, the total momentum of the system is conserved but its
total kinetic energy is not, as shown below:
Initial kinetic energy of ball 1 =
2
1
2
mv
Final total kinetic energy of balls 4 and 5 = ( )
2
2
1 1
2
2 2 4
v
m mv
| |
=
|
\

Initial total kinetic energy Final total kinetic energy

For an elastic collision, both momentum and kinetic energy of the system must be
conserved. Hence the scenario described cannot happen in an elastic collision.

(iii) The duration of collision of the egg with the hard floor is much shorter than that with
the thick foam rubber cushion. By Newtons 2
nd
Law of Motion, since the change in
momentum is the same for both cases, hence the force of impact is much larger for
the hard floor.

(iv) For a floating iceberg,
upthrust U on the iceberg = weight W of the iceberg
(vol of iceberg submerged)(density of water)g = (vol of iceberg)(density of ice)g
vol of iceberg submerged 917
0.890
vol of iceberg 1030
ice
water

= = =

(b) (i) The principle of conservation of momentum states that the total momentum of a
system of interacting bodies remains unchanged provided no net external resultant
force acts on the system.

(ii) The spring exerts a force on the block of mass 3M.

* (iii) Applying the principle of conservation of momentum,

1
3 (2.0) 0
6.0 m s
M Mv
v

=
=

Applying the conservation of energy,
Energy stored in the spring = total kinetic energy of the blocks

( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
1 1
0.350 (6.0) 3 0.350 2.0
2 2
8.4 J
= +
=




Raffles Institution (Year 6) Physics H2 2013 Revision Programme


13
38 (a) (i) Let M be the mass of the pile driver.
By the principle of conservation of energy,

2
1
2
Mv Mgh =

( ) ( )
2
2 9.81 25 v =

1
22.147 22.1ms v

=

(ii) Let m be the mass of the pile and v
joint
be the joint speed of the pile and pile driver
after the collision.
By the principle of conservation of momentum,
( )
int jo
Mv M m v = +
( ) ( )
( )
int
100 22.147
100 300
jo
v =
+

1
int
5.5368 5.54 m s
jo
v

=

(b) (i) 1.
Change in momentum
f i
p p =
( ) ( ) 0 100 300 5.5368 ( = +


= 2215 kg m s
1


2. Area under the F-t graph = change in momentum
max
1
2215
2
ave
F t F t = =
2215
0.18
ave
F =
4
1.23 x 10 N
ave
F =

* (ii) By the principle of conservation of energy,

Loss in kinetic energy + Loss in gravitational potential energy
= Work done against external forces
( ) ( ) + + + =
2
int
1
( )
2
jo ave
M m v M m gh F d
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
4
1
400 5.5368 (400)(9.81) 1.23 10
2
d d + =

d = 0.732 m
Raffles Institution (Year 6) Physics H2 2013 Revision Programme


14
39 (a) (i) Newtons Third Law states that if one object exerts a force on a second object, the
second object exerts an equal force in the opposite direction on the first object.

When two bodies, one of mass m
1
and the other of mass m
2
, interact, they exert
forces on each other. Let F
21
be the force exerted on m
1
by m
2
and F
12
be the force
exerted on m
2
by m
1
.



By Newtons Third Law, these forces are equal in magnitude but opposite in
direction. There is no net external force acting on the system.

F
12

= F
21

These forces act for the same duration of time t.
By Newtons Second Law,

1 2
Change in momentum of Change in momentum of m m
t t
=



1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
( )

mv mu m v m u
mu m u mv m v
=
+ = +

Total initial momentum of the system = total final momentum of the system.

(ii) Since the kayak is moving at a constant speed, net force on it is zero.
F F
resistive
= 0
F = 30(3.50)
2
= 367.5 368 N (to 3 s.f.)

(iii) 1. Paddle blade pushes the water backwards. By Newtons 3
rd
Law, water exerts
a forward force of equal magnitude and opposite direction on Bryan which
enables kayak to move forward.

2. Mass of water captured by the paddle
= (Blade area) (distance moved per stroke) (density of water)
= 0.0650 0.700 x 1050
= 47.775 kg
47.8 kg (to 3 s.f.)

3. By the principle of conservation of momentum
Total initial momentum = Total final momentum
0 = m
kayak
v
kayak
+ m
water
v
water

m
kayak
v
kayak
= m
water
v
water

80 v
kayak
= (47.775 2.5)
v
kayak
= 1.49 m s
1

The gain in speed of the kayak is 1.49 m s
1
.

4. Any one of the following:
Drag from water does not act on the kayak when paddle is transferring
momentum to water.
External resultant force acting on system is zero.
The stroke is horizontal.

m
1
m
2
F
12
F
21
Raffles Institution (Year 6) Physics H2 2013 Revision Programme


15
5. To catch up with Alvin, at a certain time t,
Displacement of Bryan = Displacement of Alvin + 300 m
Displacement of Bryan, s
Bryan
= (3)t
2

Displacement of Alvin, s
Alvin
= 4t + 300
Equating
(3)t
2
= 4t + 300
1.5t
2
4t 300 = 0

2
( 4) ( 4) 4(1.5)( 300)
2(1.5)
4 1816
3
15.5 s
t

=

=
=


(b) Let the speed of projection of the ball be u. Taking upwards as positive
s
y
= 3.05 2.00 = 1.05 m
a = 9.81 m s
2

s
x
= (ucos40
o
)t
Since s
x
= 10.0 m, (ucos40
o
)t = 10.0 (1)
s
y
= (usin40
o
)t (9.81)t
2

(usin40
o
)t (9.81)t
2
= 1.05 (2)
Solving equations (1) and (2), u = 10.7 m s
1


(c)








[Note to students: Values on the time-axis were inadvertently left out in the
question.]
(i) Momentum , p = mv = 1500 30 = 4.5 10
4
N s


(ii) Impulse equals to the change of momentum = area under the graph
(20)(F
max
) = 4.5 10
4

F
max
= 4500 N

(iii)












Time /s
Stopping force/N
F
max

10 20
0
v / m s
1
t / s
10 20
0
s / m
t
20
0
30
15
Raffles Institution (Year 6) Physics H2 2013 Revision Programme


16
40 (a) The total momentum of a system of interacting bodies remains constant provided that
no external force acts on the system.

(b) (i) Let the velocity of box A at the bottom of the slope be v.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
1
Loss in gravitational potential energy
= Gain in kinetic energy + Work done against friction
1
1.5 9.81 2.5 1.5 2.0 5.0
2
6.81m s
v
v

= +
=


(ii) Let the velocities of box A and box B after the collision be v
A
and v
B
respectively.
( )
By the principle of conservation of momentum,
1.5 6.81 1.5 3.0 (1)
Since the collision is elastic,
relative speed of approach = relative speed of separation
6.81 0 (2)
Solving Eqn (1) and Eqn (2)
A B
B A
v v
v v
= +
=

1
1
,
2.27 m s
4.54 m s
A
B
v
v

=
=


Raffles Institution (Year 6) Physics H2 2013 Revision Programme


17
41 (a)

Type of
collision
Total
Momentum
Total Kinetic
Energy
Total Energy

Elastic

Inelastic




(b) (i) The magnetic potential energy is converted to kinetic energy.

(ii) The total initial momentum is zero.
Applying the principle of conservation of momentum, the total final momentum of
the two magnets must be zero.
Hence, the two magnets must move in opposite directions with the same
magnitude of momentum.
(c)

Explanation of above graph:
Let the mass of the hydrogen nucleus be m. The mass of the tritium nucleus will then
be 3m.
Let also the velocity of the tritium nucleus be v when the velocity of the hydrogen
nucleus is v.

Applying the principle of conservation of momentum and taking direction towards the
right as positive,
mu + 3m(u) = mv + (3m)v
2u = v + 3v

2 1
'
3 3
v u v =
Hence the shape of the graph of v is the reflection about the time-axis of the given
graph of v, but scaled down to one-third of it.

At closest separation, v = v,

2 1
3 3
1
2
v u v
v u
=
=


u
u
velocity
time
T
graph starts from u
final velocity is negative and of very small magnitude
Closest sep : intersection point of both graphs

u