Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 40

Contents

Articles
Raga Carnatic rga Melakarta Sampurna raga Kharaharapriya Mayamalavagowla Shubhapantuvarali Kalyani (raga) Divyamani Hanumatodi Dharmavati Shanmukhapriya Natabhairavi Chalanata Charukesi Keeravani Gourimanohari Chakravakam (raga) 1 6 9 13 13 15 17 18 22 24 25 27 28 30 31 32 34 35

References
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 37 38

Article Licenses
License 39

Raga

Raga
Indian Music Indian classical music Carnatic music Hindustani music Core Concepts ShrutiSwaraGamakaRgaTla

A raga (Sanskrit rga ,, literally "colour, hue" but also "beauty, melody"; also spelled raag, rag, ragam[1] ) is one of the melodic modes used in Indian classical music. It is a series of five or more musical notes upon which a melody is made. In the Indian musical tradition, rgas are associated with different times of the day, or with seasons. Indian classical music is always set in a rga. Non-classical music such as popular Indian film songs and ghazals sometimes use rgas in their compositions. The term raga was defined by Joep Bor of the Rotterdam Conservatory of Music as "tonal framework for composition and improvisation."[2] Nazir Jairazbhoy, chairman of UCLA's department of ethnomusicology, characterized ragas as separated by scale, line of ascent and descent, transilience, emphasized notes and register, and intonation and ornaments.[3]

Terminology
The Sanskrit noun rga is derived from the verbal root raj "to colour, to dye". It is used in the literal sense of "the act of dyeing", and also "colour, hue, tint", especially "red colour" in the Sanskrit epics. A figurative sense "passion, love, desire, delight" is also found in the Mahabharata. The specialized sense of "loveliness, beauty", especially of voice or song, emerges in Classical Sanskrit, used by Kalidasa and in the Pancatantra.[4] The term first occurs in a technical context in the Brihaddeshi (dated ca. 5th to 8th century[5] ), where it is described as "a combination of tones which, with beautiful illuminating graces, pleases the people in general". Rgin (Devanagari: ) is a term for the "feminine" counterpart or "wife" to a rga. The rga-rgini scheme from about the 14th century aligned 6 'male' rgas with 6 'wives'.

Raga

Nature of rga
"That which is a special dhwani (tune), is bedecked with swara (notes) and varna and is colorful or delightful to the minds of the people, is said to be rga" - Matanga in the Brihaddeshi. The basic mode of reference in modern Hindustani practice (known commonly as the shuddha - basic form) is a set which is equivalent to the Western Ionian mode (the major scale) this is called Bilawal thaat in Hindustani music (the Carnatic analogue would be Sankarabharanam). In both systems, the ground (or tonic), Shadja, Sa, and a pure fifth above, Pancham, Pa, are fixed and essentially sacrosanct tones. In the Hindustani system, in a given seven-tone mode, the second, third, sixth, and seventh notes can be natural (shuddha, lit. 'pure') or flat (komal, 'soft') but never sharp, and the fourth note can be natural or sharp (tivra) but never flat, making up the twelve notes in the Western equal tempered chromatic scale (Western Raga Shree recital to Krishna and Radha, Ragamala paintings, 19th enharmonic pitch equivalences like, for example, A century and B do not apply; e.g. Re tivra may, to a Western musician appear enharmonic to Ga shuddha in that system, but in practice is not.) A Western-style C scale could therefore theoretically have the notes C, D, D, E, E, F, F, G, A, A, B, B. The Carnatic system has three versions a lower, medium, and higher form of all the notes except Sa, Ma and Pa. Ma has two versions (lower and higher), while Sa and Pa are invariant. Rgas can also specify microtonal changes to this scale: a flatter second, a sharper seventh, and so forth. Tradition has it that the octave consists of (a division into) 22 microtones ("shrutis"). Furthermore, individual performers treat pitches quite differently, and the precise intonation of a given note depends on melodic context. There is no absolute pitch (such as the modern western standard A = 440 Hz); instead, each performance simply picks a ground note, which also serves as the drone, and the other scale degrees follow relative to the ground note. The Carnatic system embarks from a much different shuddha (fundamental) scalar formation, that is, shuddha here is the lowest-pitched swara. By comparison, using the common tonic "C" for a western musician:

Raga

Carnatic Sa Shuddha Ri Chatusruti Ri Shatsruti Ri Shuddha Ga Sadharana Ga Antara Ga Shuddha Ma Prati Ma Pa Shuddha Dha "Ri 1" "Ri 2" "Ri 3" "Ga 1" "Ga 2" "Ga 3" "Ma 1" "Ma 2"

Hindustani Sa Komal Re Shuddha Re (Komal Ga) (Shuddha Re) Komal Ga Shuddha Ga Shuddha Ma Teevra Ma Pa "Dha 1" Komal Dha

Western E.T. "C" "D" "D" "D" "D" "E" "E" "F" "F" "G" "A" "A" "A"

Chatusruti Dha "Dha 2" Shuddha Dha Shatsruti Dha Shuddha Ni Kaisika Ni Kakali Ni "Dha 3" (Komal Ni) "Ni 1" "Ni 2" "Ni 3"

(Shuddha Dha) "A" Komal Ni Shuddha Ni "B" "B"

Rgas and their seasons


Many Hindustani (North Indian) rgas are prescribed for the particular time of a day or a season. When performed at the suggested time, the rga has its maximum effect. During the monsoon, for example, many of the Malhar group of rgas, which are associated with the monsoon and ascribed the magical power to bring rain, are performed. However, these prescriptions are not strictly followed, especially since modern concerts are generally held in the evening. There has also been a growing tendency over the last century for North Indian musicians to adopt South Indian rgas, which do not come with any particular time associated with them. The result of these various influences is that there is increasing flexibility as to when rgas may be performed.

Notations
Although notes are an important part of rga practice, they alone do not make the rga. A rga is more than a scale, and many rgas share the same scale. The underlying scale may have five, six or seven tones made up of swaras. Rgas that have five swaras are called audava () rgas; those with six, shaadava (); and with seven, sampurna (, Sanskrit for 'complete'). Those rgas that do not follow the strict ascending or descending order of swaras are called vakra () ('crooked') rgas.

Vasant Ragini, Ragamala, Rajput, Kota, Rajasthan. 1770. Vasant is the raga of spring. The painting depicts Hindu god Krishna dancing with maidens.

Raga The mood of the rga and the way the notes are approached and used are more important than the notes it uses. For example, Darbari Kanada and Jaunpuri share the same notes but are entirely different in their renderings. Similarly, although Bilaskhani Todi is classified under the Bhairavi thaat because of the notes it uses, it is actually closer to Todi than to Bhairavi.

Northern and southern differences


The two streams of Indian classical music, Carnatic music and Hindustani music, have independent sets of rgas. There is some overlap, but more "false friendship" (where rga names overlap, but rga form does not). In north India, the rgas have been categorised into ten thaats or parent scales (by Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande, 1860-1936); South India uses an older, more systematic classification scheme called the melakarta classification, with 72 parent (melakarta) rgas. Overall there is a greater identification of rga with scale in the south than in the north, where such an identification is impossible. Rgas in north Indian music system follow the 'law of consonances' established by Bharata in his Natyashastra, which does not tolerate deviation even at the shruti level. As rgas were transmitted orally from teacher to student, some rgas can vary greatly across regions, traditions and styles. There have been efforts to codify and standardise rga performance in theory from their first mention in Matanga's Brihaddeshi (c. tenth century).

Carnatic rga
In Carnatic music, rgas are classified as Janaka rgas and Janya rgas. Janaka rgas are the rgas from which the Janya rgas are created. Janaka rgas are grouped together using a scheme called Katapayadi sutra and are organised as Melakarta rgas. A Melakarta rga is one which has all seven notes in both the rhanam (ascending scale) and avarhanam (descending scale). Some Melakarta rgas are Harikambhoji, Kalyani, Kharaharapriya, Mayamalavagowla, Sankarabharanam and Todi. Janya rgas are derived from the Janaka rgas using a combination of the swarams (usually a subset of swarams) from the parent rga. Some janya rgas are Abheri, Abhogi, Bhairavi, Hindolam and Kambhoji. See the full List of Janya Ragas for more. Each rga has a definite collection and orders of swaras (the basic notes). In Carnatic music, there are 7 basic notes of which there are 12 varieties. The seven basic swarams of Carnatic music are: Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Da, Ni.

Related rgas
Even though Janya rgas are subsets of Janaka rgas in notation and representation, the differences between the child ragas are clear due to the differences like some notes that figure more in a particular rga compared to another, while other notes used sparingly some notes may be sung with gamaka, stress, elongation, etc., in one rga compared to other specific phrases used and other phrases to be avoided in a rga (so as to avoid deviation into another rga's domain) the scales of some ragas may contain at least one swara that does not figure in their janaka ragas. Such ragas are termed as bhashanga ragas. Ragas such as Bhairavi, Kambhoji, Bilahari, Devagandhari, and Neelambari fall under this category. The effect of the rgas are different from each other, even if they notationally use same swarams (or subset of swarams between each other) due to above subjective differences related to bhava and rasa (mood caused in the listener). The artists have to ensure the same when elaborating on a rga, as has been followed and expected on each rga, without digressing into the phrases of another related rga.

Raga

Rga-rgini
The rga-rgini scheme is a classification scheme used from the 14th century to the 19th century. It usually consists of 6 'male' rgas each with 6 'wives' (rginis) and a number of sons (putras) and even 'daughters-in-law'. As it did not agree with various other schemes, and the 'related' rgas had very little or no similarity, the rga-rgini scheme is no longer very popular.[6] Rgas and rginis were often pictured as Hindu gods, Rajput princes and aristocratic women in an eternal cycle of love, longing and fulfilment.[6]

Literature
Bhatkhande, Vishnu Narayan (1968-73), Kramika Pustaka Malika, Hathras: Sangeet Karyalaya.
Basohli painting of Ragaputra Velavala, son of the raga Bhairava.

Bor, Joep (1999), The Rga Guide, Charlottesville,Virginia: Nimbus Records Danilou, Alain (1949), Northern Indian Music, Calcutta: Visva Bharati Jairazbhoy, N.A. (1995), The Rags of North Indian Music: Their Structure & Evolution, Bombay: Popular Prakashan Kaufmann, Walter (1968), The Ragas of North India, Calcutta: Oxford & IBH Publishing Company . Some Ragamala paintings can be found in: Bautze, J (1987), Indian Miniature Paintings c:1590 to c. 1850, Amsterdam: Galerie Saundarya Lahari, ISBN90-72085-01-9. Gangoly, O.C. (1934), Rgas and Rginis, Calcutta.

Notes
[1] "Raag" is the modern Hindi pronunciation used by Hindustani musicians; "ragam" is the pronunciation in Tamil. [2] Bor, Joep; Rao, Suvarnalata; Van der Meer, Wim; Harvey, Jane (1999). The Raga Guide. Nimbus Records. p.181. ISBN0954397606. [3] Jairazbhoy, Nazir Ali (1995). The Rgs of North Indian music (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=hGLRqLscf78C& pg=PA45). Popular Prakashan. p.45. ISBN8171543952. . [4] Monier-Williams, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary (1899) [5] Kaufmann(1968) p. 41 [6] Bor 1999

External links
Comprehensive reference on raagas (http://www.soundofindia.com/raagas.asp) Krsna Kirtana Songs Ragamala (http://www.kksongs.org/ragamala) an informative database with over ninety rgas (audio clips coming soon), tutorial on the North Indian notation system, rga classification, and explanation of how rgas work. Online quick reference of rgams (http://webspace.webring.com/people/dv/vasudevanvrv/carnatic/raagams. htm) in Carnatic music. Raga Surabhi's guide to identifying Ragas in Carnatic Music (http://www.ragasurabhi.com/identifying-ragas. html) a carnatic music website for beginners with audio clips and articles

Carnatic rga

Carnatic rga
Carnatic Music Concepts Sruti Swara Raga Tala Melakarta Compositions Varnam Kriti Geetham Swarajati Ragam Thanam Pallavi Thillana Instruments Veena Mridangam Ghatam Morsing Kanjira Pullankuzhal Violin Tambura Composers List of Carnatic composers

Carnatic rga refers to rgas used in Carnatic music. A Carnatic raga has several components - primordial sound (nda), tonal system (swara), pitch (ruti), scale, ornaments (gamaka) and important tones.

Origins and history


Carnatic raga classification

Components of Carnatic raga


A Carnatic raga has several components - primordial sound (nda), tonal system (swara), pitch (sruti), scale, ornaments (gamaka) and important tones.

Nda
An aim of composer-performers of the past and present is to realise nda, however, the sound that is audible to human ears is only a fraction of primordial sound.[1]

Swara
The Carnatic tonal system consists of seven basic pitches, expressed by the solfa syllables: Sa (shadja), Ri (rishabha), Ga (gandhara), Ma (madhyama), Pa (panchama), Da (dhaivata) and Ni (nishadha).

Scale
A Carnatic raga consists of an ascending and descending scale pattern (known as aarohana and avarohana respectively). Both ascent and descent should have at least five tones, although rarer ragas contain fewer tones. Scales establish rules for all performers to adhere to in melodic performance, and provide a tonal boundary. Typical scale features also act to help listeners identify ragas.[2]

Gamaka
Gamaka, or ornamentation, is essential in Carnatic raga performance. Gamaka encompasses controlled shaking, articulating, sliding, glottal stops and other vocal or instrumental manipulation.[2]

Carnatic rga

Raga in improvisation
Types
Improvisation in raga is the soul of Indian classical music [3] - an essential aspect.[4] "Manodharma sangeetham" or "kalpana sangeetham" ("music of imagination") as it is known in Carnatic music, embraces several varieties of improvisation.[4] [5] Raga Alapana An alapana, sometimes also called ragam,[6] is the exposition of a raga or tone - a slow improvisation with no rhythm,[7] where the raga acts as the basis of embellishment.[8] In performing alapana, performers consider each raga as an object that has beginnings and endings and consists somehow of sequences of thought.[8] The performer will explore the ragam and touch on its various nuances,[6] singing in the lower octaves first, then gradually moving up to higher octaves, while giving a hint of the song to be performed.[7] Niraval Niraval, usually performed by the more advanced performers, consists of singing one or two lines of a song repeatedly, but with a series of melodic improvised elaborations.[9] The lines are then also played at different levels of speed which can include double speed, triple speed, quadruple speed and even sextuple speed.[10] Kalpanaswaram Kalpanaswaram, also known as swarakalpana, consists of improvising melodic and rhythmic passages using swaras (solfa syllables).[11] Kalpanaswaras are sung to end on a particular swara in the raga of the melody and at a specific place (idam) in the tala cycle.[12] Generally, the swaras are sung to end on the samam (the first beat of the rhythmical cycle), and can be sung at the same speed or double the speed of the melody that is being sung, though some artists sing triple-speed phrases too.[10] Thanam Tanam is one of the most important forms of improvisation, and is integral to ragam tanam pallavi.[13] Originally developed for the veena, it consists of expanding the raga with syllables like tha, nam, thom, aa, nom, na, etc. Ragam Thanam Pallavi Ragam Tanam Pallavi is the principal long form in concerts,[13] and is a composite form of improvisation. As the name suggests, it consists of raga alapana, thanam, and a pallavi line. Set to a slow-paced tala, the pallavi line is often composed by the performer. Through niraval, the performer manipulates the pallavi line in complex melodic and rhythmic ways.[6] The niraval is followed by kalpanaswarams.

Raga in non-classical traditions


Raga in Harikatha
The Harikatha tradition, which originated in the Indian state of Maharashtra, involves popular storytelling combined with dance and music. Krishna Bhagavathar, an exponent of Carnatic music, is responsible for creating the South Indian harikatha style - singing in raga, dancing with tala, and narrating stories in a manner that sustains the attention of the audience. In effect, harikatha is an art form that requires knowledge of raga, Carnatic music, dance, speech, diction and dramatic technique. Harikatha performance aims to communicate with non-literate and literate audiences.[14]

Carnatic rga Well-known harikatha performers had sound knowledge of Carnatic music in the early part of the 20th century some were well established Carnatic musicians, while others were composers. Today, a few performers keep this tradition alive, and use ragas from both Carnatic music and Hindustani music traditions.[14]

Raga and light classical music Notes


[1] [2] [3] [4] Kassebaum (2000), p91 Kassebaum (2000), p93 MacCarthy, M. (1912). "Some Indian Conceptions of Music". Proceedings of the Musical Association 38th Sess: 4165. Kassebaum, G. R. (1987). "Improvisation in Alapana Performance: A Comparative View of Raga Shankarabharana" (http:/ / jstor. org/ stable/ 767877). Yearbook for Traditional Music 19: 4564. doi:10.2307/767877. . [5] Kassebaum (2000), p17 [6] Wolf, R. (1999). "untitled". Asian Music 30 (1): 199203. [7] Royal Carpet: Glossary of Carnatic Terms R (http:/ / www. karnatik. com/ glossr. shtml) [8] Nettl, Bruno (1974). "Thoughts On Improvisation: A Comparitive Approach". Musical Quarterly LX: 912. [9] Higgins, J. B. (1987). "Performing Arts in India: Essays on Music, Dance, and Drama". Asian Music 18 (2): 103118. [10] Henry, E. O. (2002). "The Rationalization of Intensity in Indian Music" (http:/ / jstor. org/ stable/ 852807). Ethnomusicology 46 (1): 3335. doi:10.2307/852807. . [11] [12] [13] [14] Viswanathan & Cormack (1998), p219 Viswanathan & Cormack (1998), p221 Palackal, J. J. (1998). "untitled". Yearbook for Traditional Music 30: 207207. Kassebaum (2000), p106

References
Kassebaum, Gayathri Rajapur. Karnatak raga (2000). In Arnold, Alison. The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. New York & London: Taylor & Francis.

Melakarta

Melakarta
Carnatic Music Concepts Sruti Swara Raga Tala Melakarta Compositions Varnam Kriti Geetham Swarajati Ragam Thanam Pallavi Thillana Instruments Veena Mridangam Ghatam Morsing Kanjira Pullankuzhal Violin Tambura Composers List of Carnatic composers

Melakarta is a collection of fundamental ragas (musical scales) in Carnatic music (South Indian classical music). Melakarta ragas are parent ragas (hence known as janaka ragas) from which other ragas may be generated. In Hindustani music the thaat is equivalent of Melakarta. There are 10 thaats in Hindustani music, though the commonly accepted melakarta scheme has 72 ragas. A melakarta raga is sometimes referred as mela, karta or sampoorna as well.

Rules for Melakarta


Ragas must contain the following characteristics to be considered Melakarta. They are sampurna ragas - they contain all seven swaras (notes) of the octave in both ascending and descending scale[1] [2] They are krama sampurna ragas - that is the sequence is strictly ascending and descending in the scales, without any jumps or zig-zag notes[2] The upper shadjam is included in the raga scale[2] (ragas like Punnagavarali and Chenchurutti are not melakarta as they end with nishadham) The ascending and descending scales must have the same notes [2]

History
The mela system of ragas was first propounded by Raamamaatya in his work Svaramelakalanidhi c. 1550. He is considered the father of mela system of ragas. Later Venkatamakhin expounded in the 17th century in his work Caturdandi Prakaasikaa a new mela system known today as melakarta. He had made some bold and controversial claims and defined somewhat arbitrarily 6 swaras from the known 12 semitones, at that time, to arrive at 72 melakarta ragas. The controversial parts relate to double counting of R2 (and similar swaras) and his exclusive selection of madyamas for which there is no specific reasoning. However, today the 72 melakarta ragas have gained significant following, though to this day this system is being criticized. Venkatamakhin was known to be extremely critical of Raamamaatya.

Melakarta

10

Determining the Melakarta


A hundred years after Venkatamakhin's time the Katapayadi sankhya rule came to be applied to the nomenclature of the melakarta ragas. The sankhya associates Sanskrit consonants with digits. The digits corresponding to the first two syllables of the name of a raga, when reversed, give the index of the raga. Thus the scale of a melakarta raga can be easily derived from its name. For example, Harikambhoji raga starts with syllables Ha and ri, which have numbers 8 and 2 associated with them. Reversing them we get 28. Hence Harikambhoji is the 28th Melakarta raga. See Katapayadi sankhya for more details and examples.

Melakarta scale
Each melakarta raga has a different scale. This scheme envisages the lower Sa (Keezh Shadjamam), upper Sa (Mael Shadjamam) and Pa (Panchamam) as fixed swaras, with the Ma (Madhyamam) having two variants and the remaining swaras Ri (Rishabam), Ga (Gandhaaram), Dha (Dhaivatham) and Ni (Nishaadham) as having three variants each. This leads to 72 seven-note combinations (scales) referred to as the Melakarta ragas as follows. There are twelve semitones of the octave S, R1, R2=G1, R3=G2, G3, M1, M2, P, D1, D2=N1, D3=N2, N3 (see swaras in Carnatic music for explanation of these notations). A melakarta raga must necessarily have S and P, one of the M's, one each of the R's and G's, and one each of the D's and N's. Also, R must necessarily precede G and D must precede N (krama sampoorna raga). This gives 2 6 6 = 72 ragas. Finding melakarta ragas is a mathematical process. By following a simple set of rules we can find the corresponding raga and the scale associated with it. A raga which has a subset of swaras from a Melakarta raga is said to be a janya (means born or derived from) of that Melakarta raga. Every raga is the janya of a melakarta raga. Janya ragas whose notes are found in more than one melakarta raga are assigned (or associated) parent Melakarta based on subjective notions of similarity. This is obvious for ragas that have less than seven notes. For such ragas it can be associated with a Melakarta which has any of the different swaras in that position. For example, Hindolam has Rishabam and Panchamam missing. Hence, it could be considered a janya of Todi (also known as Hanumatodi) which has shuddha rishabam or with Natabhairavi which has a chathusruthi rishabam. It is popularly associated with Natabhairavi.

Chakras
The 72 melakarta ragas are split into 12 groups called chakras, each containing 6 ragas. The ragas within the chakra differ only in the dhaivatham and nishadham notes (D and N), as illustrated below. The name of each of the 12 chakras suggest their ordinal number as well.[1] [3] Indu stands for the moon, of which we have only one - hence it is the first chakra. Netra means eyes, of which we have two - hence it is the second. Agni is the third chakra as it denotes the three divyagnis (fire, lightning and Sun). Veda denoting four Vedas is the name of the fourth chakra. Bana comes fifth as it stands for the five banas of Manmatha. Rutu is the sixth chakra standing for the 6 seasons of Hindu calendar. Rishi, meaning sage, is the seventh chakra representing the seven sages. Vasu stands for the eight vasus of Hinduism. Brahma comes next of which there are 9. The 10 directions, including akash (sky) and patal (nether region), is represented by the tenth chakra, Disi. Eleventh chakra is Rudra of which there are eleven.

Twelfth comes Aditya of which there are twelve.

Melakarta

11

Table of Melakarta ragas


The 72 melakarta ragas can be divided into two parts. viz.,. suddha Madhyamam and prati Madhyamam ragas. When a given suddha madhyamam raga's M1 is replaced by M2, we get the corresponding prati madhyamam raga. See Katapayadi sankhya for more information on how to derive the various swaras of a raga from its melakarta number. See swaras in Carnatic music for explanation of the notations like R1, G2, N2, etc.

'Makart Rgas'
'Suddha Madhyamam' No. Raga 1.Indu Chakra 1 2 3 4 5 6 Kanakangi Ratnangi Ganamurti Vanaspati Manavati Tanarupi S R1 G1 M1 P D1 N1 S' 37 S R1 G1 M1 P D1 N2 S' 38 S R1 G1 M1 P D1 N3 S' 39 S R1 G1 M1 P D2 N2 S' 40 S R1 G1 M1 P D2 N3 S' 41 S R1 G1 M1 P D3 N3 S' 42 2. Netra Chakra 7 8 9 10 11 12 Senavati Hanumatodi Dhenuka Natakapriya Kokilapriya Rupavati S R1 G2 M1 P D1 N1 S' 43 S R1 G2 M1 P D1 N2 S' 44 S R1 G2 M1 P D1 N3 S' 45 S R1 G2 M1 P D2 N2 S' 46 S R1 G2 M1 P D2 N3 S' 47 S R1 G2 M1 P D3 N3 S' 48 3. Agni Chakra 13 14 15 16 17 18 Gayakapriya Vakulabharanam Mayamalavagowla Chakravakam Suryakantam Hatakambari S R1 G3 M1 P D1 N1 S' 49 S R1 G3 M1 P D1 N2 S' 50 S R1 G3 M1 P D1 N3 S' 51 S R1 G3 M1 P D2 N2 S' 52 S R1 G3 M1 P D2 N3 S' 53 S R1 G3 M1 P D3 N3 S' 54 4. Veda Chakra 19 20 21 22 23 24 Jhankaradhwani Natabhairavi Keeravani Kharaharapriya Gourimanohari Varunapriya S R2 G2 M1 P D1 N1 S' 55 S R2 G2 M1 P D1 N2 S' 56 S R2 G2 M1 P D1 N3 S' 57 S R2 G2 M1 P D2 N2 S' 58 S R2 G2 M1 P D2 N3 S' 59 S R2 G2 M1 P D3 N3 S' 60 5. Bana Chakra 25 Mararanjani S R2 G3 M1 P D1 N1 S' 61 Kantamani Shamalangi Shanmukhapriya Gavambhodi Bhavapriya Shubhapantuvarali Shadvidamargini Suvarnangi Divyamani Salagam Jalarnavam Jhalavarali Navaneetam Pavani Raghupriya Scale No. 'Prati Madhyamam' Raga 7. Rishi Chakra S R1 G1 M2 P D1 N1 S' S R1 G1 M2 P D1 N2 S' S R1 G1 M2 P D1 N3 S' S R1 G1 M2 P D2 N2 S' S R1 G1 M2 P D2 N3 S' S R1 G1 M2 P D3 N3 S' 8. Vasu Chakra S R1 G2 M2 P D1 N1 S' S R1 G2 M2 P D1 N2 S' S R1 G2 M2 P D1 N3 S' S R1 G2 M2 P D2 N2 S' S R1 G2 M2 P D2 N3 S' S R1 G2 M2 P D3 N3 S' 9. Brahma Chakra Dhavalambari Namanarayani Kamavardani Ramapriya Gamanashrama Vishwambari S R1 G3 M2 P D1 N1 S' S R1 G3 M2 P D1 N2 S' S R1 G3 M2 P D1 N3 S' S R1 G3 M2 P D2 N2 S' S R1 G3 M2 P D2 N3 S' S R1 G3 M2 P D3 N3 S' Scale

10. Disi Chakra S R2 G2 M2 P D1 N1 S' S R2 G2 M2 P D1 N2 S'

Simhendramadhyamam S R2 G2 M2 P D1 N3 S' Hemavati Dharmavati Neetimati S R2 G2 M2 P D2 N2 S' S R2 G2 M2 P D2 N3 S' S R2 G2 M2 P D3 N3 S' 11. Rudra Chakra S R2 G3 M2 P D1 N1 S'

Melakarta

12
26 27 28 29 30 Charukesi Sarasangi Harikambhoji S R2 G3 M1 P D1 N2 S' 62 S R2 G3 M1 P D1 N3 S' 63 S R2 G3 M1 P D2 N2 S' 64 Rishabhapriya Latangi Vachaspati Mechakalyani Chitrambari S R2 G3 M2 P D1 N2 S' S R2 G3 M2 P D1 N3 S' S R2 G3 M2 P D2 N2 S' S R2 G3 M2 P D2 N3 S' S R2 G3 M2 P D3 N3 S'

Dheerasankarabharanam S R2 G3 M1 P D2 N3 S' 65 Naganandini S R2 G3 M1 P D3 N3 S' 66 6. Rutu Chakra

12. Aditya Chakra Sucharitra Jyoti swarupini Dhatuvardani Nasikabhushani Kosalam Rasikapriya S R3 G3 M2 P D1 N1 S' S R3 G3 M2 P D1 N2 S' S R3 G3 M2 P D1 N3 S' S R3 G3 M2 P D2 N2 S' S R3 G3 M2 P D2 N3 S' S R3 G3 M2 P D3 N3 S'

31 32 33 34 35 36

Yagapriya Ragavardhini Gangeyabhushani Vagadheeswari Shulini Chalanata

S R3 G3 M1 P D1 N1 S' 67 S R3 G3 M1 P D1 N2 S' 68 S R3 G3 M1 P D1 N3 S' 69 S R3 G3 M1 P D2 N2 S' 70 S R3 G3 M1 P D2 N3 S' 71 S R3 G3 M1 P D3 N3 S' 72

References
[1] Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications [2] A practical course in Carnatic music by Prof. P. Sambamurthy, 15th edition published 1998, The Indian Music publishing house [3] South Indian Music Book III, by Prof. P Sambamoorthy, Published 1973, The Indian Music Publishing House

External links
The katapayadi sankhya applied to the melakarta ragas (http://members.tripod.com/~RKSanka/music/ katapaya.html) Explanation of the two melakarta systems (http://webspace.webring.com/people/dv/vasudevanvrv/carnatic/ mela.htm) Explanation of the melakarta and demonstration of ragas with piano keys (http://hkhandrika.blinkk.com/music/ ) Melakarta Raga Chart (http://www.carnaticcorner.com/articles/mukund_chart.htm) Basic Notes and their Western Equivalents (http://www.raaga.net) Carnatic-composer: A community project where you can experiment online with the Melakarta Raga system and compose little tunes in Carnatic notation (http://carnatic-composer.com)

Sampurna raga

13

Sampurna raga
In Indian classical music, Sampurna ragas (, Sanskrit for 'complete') have all seven swaras in their scale. In general, the swaras in the Arohana and Avarohana strictly follow the ascending and descending scale as well. That is, they do not have vakra swara phrases (, meaning 'crooked'). In Carnatic music, the Melakarta ragas are all sampurna ragas, but the converse is not true, i.e., all sampoorna ragas are not Melakarta ragas. An example is Bhairavi raga in Carnatic music (different from the Bhairavi of Hindustani music). Some examples of Melakarta ragas are Mayamalavagowla, Todi, Sankarabharanam and Kharaharapriya.

Kharaharapriya
Kharaharapriya (Sanskrit: , Kannada: Tamil: , Telugu: ) is a rgam in Carnatic music (musical scale of South Indian classical music). It is the 22nd melakarta rgam (parent scale) in the 72 melakarta rgam system. Kharaharapriya has a distinct melody and brings out the Karuna rasam, invoking pathos in the listeners. The Kafi thaat of Hindustani music is the equivalent of Kharaharapriya.[1] [2]

Etymology
There are many theories behind the etymology of the name Kharaharapriya. The most popular interpretation of the name is "Loved (priya) by the slayer (hara) of demon Khara".

Structure and Lakshana


It is 4th rgam in the 4th chakra Veda. The mnemonic name is Veda-Bhu. The mnemonic phrase is sa ri gi ma pa dhi ni.[1] Its rohaa-avarohaa structure is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on below notation and terms): rohaa : S R2 G2 M1 P D2 N2 S avarohaa : S N2 D2 P M1 G2 R2 S The notes are chathusruthi rishabham, Kharaharapriya scale with shadjam at C sadharana gandharam, shuddha madhyamam, chathusruthi dhaivatham and kaisiki Nishadham. It is a sampoorna rgam - scale having all 7 swarams. It is the shuddha madhyamam equivalent of Hemavati, which is the 58th melakarta scale. Since the swaras of Kharaharapriya are quite evenly spaced, and since several different types of gamakas are allowed, it is a very versatile, fluid and flexible rgam that allows for elaborate melodic improvisation within its scale. Songs sung in Kharaharapriya ragas typically have long, elaborate lapans, which exhibit the fluidity of the rgam. Kharaharapriya songs are usually meant to be sung slow, medium or medium-fast, in order to bring out the Karuna rasa and bhava of the song.

Kharaharapriya

14

Janya rgams
Due to the even spacing of swaras, many janya rgams (derived scales) are associated with Kharaharapriya. It is one of the melakarta scales that has a large number of janya rgams. Many of the janya rgams are very popular on their own, lending themselves to elaboration and interpretation. Some of them are Abheri, Abhogi, Bhimplaas (Hindustani music), Brindavana Saranga, Kpi, Madhyamavathi, Mukhari, Reetigowla,Shree, Udayaravichandrika, Shivaranjani and Sriranjani. See List of janya rgams for full list of scales associated with Kharaharapriya.

Compositions
Kharaharapriya has been decorated with compositions by many composers. All except the Dikshitars, including Muthuswami Dikshitar,[1] have composed songs in this rgam. Thyagaraja has composed many in this rgam. Muthuswami Dikshitar, one of the three most important composers in Carnatic music, has not composed kritis in Kharaharapriya, but has composed kritis in a closely related ragam Harapriya, which bears stark similarities to Kharaharapriya.[3] A few of the popular compositions are listed here. Chakkani rajamargamu, Pakkala nilapadi, Mitri Bhagyame, Rama ni samana, Nadachi Nadachi and Rama neeyata by Thyagaraja Moovasai konda thiruman by Muthiah Bhagavatar Senthil andavan, Srinivasa Thava Charanam by Papanasam Sivan The basic scale of Kharaharapriya has been used in several film songs in Indian film music. Although rarely authentic, there are several film songs that are set in this scale, or scales derived from this ragam.

Related rgams
This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspect of this rgam. Kharaharapriya's notes when shifted using Graha bedham, yields 5 other major melakarta rgams, namely, Kalyani, Hanumatodi, Natabhairavi, Shankarabharanam and Harikambhoji. Graha bedham is the step taken in keeping the relative note frequencies same, while shifting the shadjam to the next note in the rgam. For further details and an illustration of Graha bedham of this rgam refer Graha bedham on Shankarabharanam.

References
[1] Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications [2] Raganidhi by P. Subba Rao, Pub. 1964, The Music Academy of Madras [3] Article from Carnatica.net (http:/ / www. carnatica. net/ nvr/ kharahara. htm)

Compositions in Kharaharapriya at Royal Carpet Karnatik (http://www.karnatik.com/ragask. shtml#kharaharapriyA)

Mayamalavagowla

15

Mayamalavagowla
Mayamalavagowla (pronounced mymavagoua, Sanskrit: , Kannada: , Tamil: , Malayalam: ), is a raga of Carnatic Music (musical scale of South Indian classical music). It is classified as 15thmelakarta raga under Venkatamakhin's melakarta system. Originally known as malavagowla, "maya" was prefixed to it after the advent of the scheme of the 72 melas. The number 15 was assigned to it following the Katapayadi sankhya system.

Structure and Lakshana


Venkatamakhin defines its lakshana thus: pro mavagoukhyah sa graho gyate sad Mayamalavagowla is the 3rd raga in the 3rd chakra, Agni. Its mnemonic name is Agni-Go. Its mnemonic phrase is sa ra gu ma pa dha nu.[1] Its rohaa-avarohaa structure is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on below notation and terms): rohaa: S R1 G3 M1 P D1 N3 S avarohaa: S N3 D1 P M1 G3 R1 S The notes in this raga are shuddha rishabham, antara gandharam, shuddha madhyamam, shuddha dhaivatham and kakali nishadham. As it is a melakarta rgam, by definition it is a sampoorna rgam (has all seven notes in ascending and descending scale). It is the shuddha madhyamam equivalent of Kamavardhini (also known as pantuvarali), which is the 51st melakarta scale. The gamakas in the raga are unique in that conversely to the G-M relationship in Sankarabharanam, G is sung in oscillation (M,G M,G M,G) while M is held constant. There is no bold M-P gamaka as in Sankarabharanam as well. R and D are also usually sung in oscillation with S and P respectively, making the only constant notes S, M, and P. Of course, these rules are occasionally broken for effect (ie holding N flat before ascending to S).

Mayamalavagowla scale with shadjam at C

Nature of Raga
This auspicious raga evokes shntha(peace) rasa and pathos. It creates a soothing effect. Suitable to sing at all times, particularly, the first yAMam (dawn). It is commonly used for beginners lessons such as Sarali Varisais, etc. Since it eschews vivadi swaras (relatively discordant notes), has a uniform distance between swara sthnas (relative position of notes) and has symmetry, they are easier to learn. It is an ancient rgam and has been around for a long time. It is a Sampoorna raga. Also, it is a sarva swara gamaka varika rakthi rga. It has a large number of janya ragas (derived scales) assigned to it. This rgam corresponds to Bhairav in Hindustani music. It is also defined as a mrcana kraka mLa since it can be used for Graha bedham on madhyamam and rishabham to result in Simhendramadhyamam and Rasikapriya respectively. Graha bedham is the step taken in keeping the relative note frequencies same, while shifting the Sruti (or drone) to another note in the rgam. For further details and an illustration refer Graha bedham on Myamlavagowla.

Mayamalavagowla

16

Janya ragams
Mayamalavagowla has quite a few janya ragams associated with it, of which Bowli, Jaganmohini, Gowla, Gowlipantu, Lalita, Nadanamakriya, Revagupti, Saveri and Malahari are quite well known. See List of janya Ragas for a full list of janyas.

Popular Compositions
All the basic swara exercises (Sarali, Jantai, Daattu, etc.) are set to the Mayamalavagowla raga. These are learnt by beginners in Carnatic Music. It is commonly used in the basics, credited to Purandara Dasa's work in his time, when he did much work towards standardising the teaching of Carnatic Music into a fully graded system. The first mini-songs (geetham) that are taught after the completion of basic exercises, are set to Malahari, a janya of Mayamalavagowla. Muthuswami Dikshitar's famous gounta krithis (eight compositions with their raga names ending as gowla), on Goddess Nilothpalamba has mymavagoua for one of the them. Some of the popular compositions in Mayamalavagowla are, Deva Deva composed by Swathi Thirunal and Adikkondar by Muthu Thandavar. A list of popular compositions in Mayamalalavagowla is as follows: Tuasi Daa Mulace - Thyagaraja Dv Sri Tuasamm - Thyagaraja Dva Dva Kalayamith - Swathi Thirunal Mya Theetha Swaroopini - Ponnaiyya Pillai (Direct Disciple of Muthuswami Dikshitar) Sri Nthdi Guruguho - Muthuswami Dikshitar (The very first composition of Muthuswami Dikshitar)

References
[1] Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications

Shubhapantuvarali

17

Shubhapantuvarali
Shubhapantuvarali (pronounced ubhapantuvari, Sanskrit: , Telugu: , Tamil: , English: The auspicious moon) is a rgam in Carnatic music (musical scale of South Indian classical music). It is the 45th melakarta rgam in the 72 melakarta rgam system of Carnatic music. It is called Shivapantuvari in Muthuswami Dikshitar school of Carnatic music.[1] [2] Todi (thaat) is the equivalent in Hindustani music.[2]

Structure and Lakshana


It is the 3rd rgam in the 8th chakra Vasu. The mnemonic name is Vasu-Go. The mnemonic phrase is sa ra gi mi pa dha nu.[1] Its rohaa-avarohaa structure (ascending and descending scale) is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on below notation and terms): rohaa: S R1 G2 M2 P D1 N3 S avarohaa: S N3 D1 P M2 G2 R1 S This scale uses the notes shuddha rishabham, sadharana gandharam, prati madhyamam, shuddha dhaivatham and kakali nishadham
Shubhapantuvarali scale with shadjam at C

As it is a melakarta rgam, by definition it is a sampoorna rgam (has all seven notes in ascending and descending scale). It is the prati madhyamam equivalent of Dhenuka, which is the 9th melakarta scale.

Janya rgams
Shubhapantuvarali has a few minor janya rgams (derived scales) associated with it. See List of janya rgams for full list of rgams associated with Shubhapantuvarali.

Compositions
Here are a few common compositions sung in concerts, set to Shubhapantuvarali. Ennalu orake by Thyagaraja Sri Satyanarayanam and Pasupatheeswaram by Muthuswami Dikshitar

Shubhapantuvarali

18

Related rgams
This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspect of this rgam. Shubhapantuvarali's notes when shifted using Graha bedham, yields a melakarta rgam, namely, Chalanata. Graha bedham is the step taken in keeping the relative note frequencies same, while shifting the shadjam to the next note in the rgam. For further details and an illustration refer Graha bedham on Chalanata.

References
[1] Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications [2] Raganidhi by P. Subba Rao, Pub. 1964, The Music Academy of Madras

Kalyani (raga)
Kalyan or Kalyani, originally called Iman, is a melakarta rga (parent musical scale) in the Carnatic music of South India, and is also an important raga in Hindustani (North Indian) music.

Kalyani in Carnatic music


In South Indian weddings this is a very prominently played rga. The word kalyani means she who causes auspicious things. It is the 65th melakarta rga under the Katapayadi sankhya. It is also called Mechakalyani. The notes for Kalyani are S R2 G3 M2 P D2 N3.

Specifics on this raga


Kalyani is slightly difficult to elaborate on in raaga alapna due to its similarity with Sankarabharanam with the only difference of the Madyamam (Ma). One should not remain too long on panchamam (pa) or alternate between shadyam and panchamam too frequently. Also, one must stress the characteristic madhyama very frequently or risk confusion with other raagas. Rishabham and Daivatam are also very key to this raagam and also aren't stressed very much in Sankarabharanam. Kalyani is a very beautiful raaga, and is prominently known among the public.

Structure and Lakshana


It is the 5th ragam in the 11th chakra Rudra. The mnemonic name is Rudra-Ma. The mnemonic phrase is sa ri gu mi pa dhi nu [1] . Its rohaa-avarohaa structure is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on below notation and terms): rohaa: S R2 G3 M2 P D2 N3 S avarohaa: S N3 D2 P M2 G3 R2 S (Chathusruthi Rishabam, Anthara Gandharam, Prati Madhyamam, Chathusruthi Dhaivatham, Kakali Nishatham)
Kalyani scale with Shadjam at C

It is a Sampoorna raga in Carnatic music, that is to say, has all the seven notes: Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni. It is the prati madhyamam equivalent of Dheerasankarabharanam, which is the 29th melakarta.

Kalyani (raga)

19

Janya Rgams
Kalyani has many janya rgams (derived scales) associated with it, of which Hameer kalyani, Mohanakalyani, Saranga, Sunadavinodini and Yamuna kalyani are very popular. See List of Janya Rgams for full list of rgams associated with Kalyani.

Popular compositions
Nearly every significant Carnatic composer (including the Trinity of Carnatic music) has composed several pieces in the Kalyni rgam. Kalyni is also considered one of the "major" rgams of Carnatic music along with Sankarabharanam, Todi and Kharaharapriya (the set of "major" rgams is an informal grouping of the most popular rgams used for elaboration and exploration, and which often form the centerpiece of a Carnatic music concert in the form of a rgam thnam pallavi (RTP) or a krithi). See next section for further information on relationships between these rgams. Here is a short list of well known compositions in Kalyani. Vanajakshi, an Ata tala varnam composed by Pallavi Gopala Iyer. Nidhi chaala sukhama, Ethavunnara, Sundari ni divya, Amma ravamma and Vasudevanyani by Thyagaraja Kamalaambaam bhajare and Bhajare rechita by Muthuswami Dikshitar Nambi Kettavarillavo, kallu sakkare koLLiro by Purandara Dasa Himadri suthe pahimam by Syama Sastri Unnai allal by Papanasam Sivan Sadanandame by Koteeswara Iyer Pankacha lochana by Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma

The Tamil movie Sindhu Bhairavi has a track called Kalaivaniye that is set in the Kalyani rgam and sung without an avarohaam. The Bharathiar composition Veenai Adi Nee Enakku from the movie Ezhavathu Manithan is also set in the Kalyani rgam. The Telugu movie Sankarabharanam has a Shloka "Maanikya Veenaam Upalalayanthi" set in this rgam.

Related rgams
This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspect of Kalyani. Kalyani's notes when shifted using Graha bedham, yields 5 other major Melakarta rgams, namely, Hanumatodi, Sankarabharanam, Natabhairavi, Kharaharapriya and Harikambhoji. For further details and an illustration of Graha bedham of this rgam refer Related rgams section in Sankarabharanam page.

Kalyan in Hindustani music


Aroha & Avaroha
Arohana S R G M+ P D N S' Avarohana S' N D P M+ G R S

Kalyani (raga)

20

Vadi and Samavadi


Vadi is Ga, Samvadi Ni.

Pakad or Chalan
Kalyan has no specific phrases or particular features, many musicians avoid Sa and Pa in ascend or treat them very weakly. You often hear N0 R G M+ D N S' in ascent and S' N G M+ G R S in descend[2] ). Sa is avoided in beginning the ascend such as N0 R G M+ P D N S'

Organization and relationships


There is some discussion whether Yaman and Kalyan really just are different names for the same raga, or that these are actually 2 ragas. Joep Bor says "Kalyan (today usually referred to as Yaman)"[3] . Kaufmann[4] says that Yaman and Kalyan are just different names, but insists that rga Yaman-kalyan is different as there natural Ma is occasionally inserted between two Ga, like Ga Ma Ga Re Sa, while in all other instances tivra Ma (Ma+ is used (as in Kalyan). S. Bagchee [5] agrees with Kaufmann. Bor : If natural Ma is occasionally added in a concluding figure leading to Sa, the raga is known as Yaman-Kalyan[3] Kalyan is mixed with several ragas: Shuddha Kalyan Puriya Kalyan Yamani Bilawal Thaat: Kalyan is type raga of Kalyan thaat. In thaat Kalyan, all notes are shuddha (natural) except teevra (sharp) Ma.

Behavior
Yaman is regarded one of the grandest and most fundamental rgas in Hindustani music. It is one of the first rgas taught to students.

Samay (Time)
Kalyan should be performed during the first quarter of the night.

Rasa
Kalyan is described by Meshakarna(1570) as "lord in white garments and pearl necklace on a splendid lion-throne, under a royal umbrella, fanned with whisk, chewing betel"[3] A song text is: Hey friend, without my lover I don't find peace At any moment of the day; Since my lover went away I spend my nights counting the starts
[3]

Kalyani (raga)

21

Historical Information
Yaman is not an ancient rga. It is first mentioned in the literature in the late 16th century, by which time it was very popular: The Sahasras contains 45 dhrupad song-texts for Kalyan and five for Iman-Kalyan. According to Venkatamakhin(1620), Kalyan was a favourite melody to the Arabs, and Pundarika included Yaman among his 'Persian' Ragas [3] .

Important recordings
Amir Khan - Shuddh Kalyan, Yaman, and Yaman Kalyan Rashid Khan - bandish in vilambit ektal (India Archive Music IAM CD 1003) Ravi Shankar in matta tal: "The Genius of Pandit Ravi Shankar", Oriental Records Inc, New York AAMS CD108 Imrat Khan "Nordindische Ragas, Live" Zia Mohiuddin Dagar on Nimbus Records, LS5871 / NI7047/8

Film songs
"Man re, tu kaahe na dheer dhare" in "Chitralekha" "Zindagi bhar nahin bhulegi barsaat ki raat" in "Barsaat Ki Raat" (1960) "Aansoo bhari hai yeh jeevan ki raahen" in "Parvarish" (1977)

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications Kaufmann(1968) Bor 1997 Kaufmann 1968 Bagchee 1998

External links
Examples of Kalyan: Chandan Sa Badan (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mxGYsF_Bvig) Alp by [[Budhaditya Mukherjee (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zt-Ts7BF77M)] Kolkata, India, 6 January 2006] Drut Gat by [[Budhaditya Mukherjee (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8O_YAiouu9Y)] Kolkata, India, 6 January 2006] Alp, Jod and Jhl by [[Arnab Chakrabarty (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=myR0R-SCzQM)] (sarod)] Riyaz of Prashant Uday Manohar on violin (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ahIJWvR7gIg) song "Bhuli Hui Yaadein" on Saaj (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aWDFEfNgCgg) Abhik Mukherjee, sitar, Raag Yaman, drut (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FoeViqMyw4k) Examples of Yaman-Kalyan: Arnab Chakrabarty (sarod) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GwLtD8XAihQ) Yaman-Kalyan by [[Bhimsen Joshi (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a24p1kBjrZ0)]] Film Songs in Rag Kalyan (Yaman) (A-H) (http://chandrakantha.com/raga_raag/film_song_raga/kalyan1. html) Film Songs in Rag Kalyan (Yaman) (I-R) (http://chandrakantha.com/raga_raag/film_song_raga/kalyan2. html) Film Songs in Rag Kalyan (Yaman) (S-Z) (http://chandrakantha.com/raga_raag/film_song_raga/kalyan3. html)

Kalyani (raga)

22

Literature
list partly from Moutal (1991) Bor, Joep (1997), The Raga Guide, Charlottesville,Virginia: Nimbus Records Kaufmann, Walter (1968), The Ragas of North India, Calcutta: Oxford and IBH Publishing Company. Bagchee, Sandeep (1998), Nd, Understanding Rga Music, Mumbai: Eshwar (Business Publications Inc.). Bhatt, Balvantray (1964-1974), Bhvaranga, Varanasi: Motilal Barnasidas. Gandharva, Kumar (1965), Anpargavilsa, Bombay: Mauj Prakashan. Patwardhan, Vinayak Rao (1961-74), Rga Vijna, Poona: Sangeet Gaurav Granthamala. Srivastava, Harichandra (1973-79), Rga Paricaya, Allahabad: SangeetSadan Prakashan. Telang, Gokulanand; Bhartendu, Banwari Lal (1962), Sangta Rga Aachpa, Hathras: Sangeet Karyalaya. Thakar, Vasant Vaman, Sangta Rga Darana, Prayag: Gandharva Mahavidyalaya Mandal Prakashan. Rao, B. Subba (1964-66), Raganidhi, Madras: Music Academy. Moutal, Patrick (1991), Hindustni Rga-s Index, New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ltd, ISBN81-215-0525-7.

Divyamani
Carnatic Music Concepts Sruti Swara Raga Tala Melakarta Compositions Varnam Kriti Geetham Swarajati Ragam Thanam Pallavi Thillana Instruments Veena Mridangam Ghatam Morsing Kanjira Pullankuzhal Violin Tambura Composers List of Carnatic composers

Divyamani (pronounced Divyamai [1] , Sanskrit: , Telugu: , English: The divine gem) is a rgam in the 72 melakarta rgam system of Carnatic music. It is called Jeevantika[1] or Jeevantini [2] [3] in Muthuswami Dikshitar school of Carnatic music.

Divyamani

23

Structure and Lakshana


It is the 6th rgam in the 8th chakra Vasu. The mnemonic name is Vasu-Sha. The mnemonic phrase is sa ra gi mi pa dhu nu [2] . Its rohaa-avarohaa structure (ascending and descending scale) is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on below notation and terms): rohaa: S R1 G2 M2 P D3 N3 S avarohaa: S N3 D3 P M2 G2 R1 S (the notes used in this scale are shuddha rishabham, sadharana gandharam, prati madhyamam, shatsruthi dhaivatham, kakali nishadham)
Divyamani scale with Shadjam at C

As it is a melakarta rgam, by definition it is a sampoorna rgam (has all seven notes in ascending and descending scale). It is the prati madhyamam equivalent of Roopavati, which is the 12th melakarta.

Janya rgams
Divyamani has a few minor janya rgams (derived scales) associated with it. See List of janya rgams for all rgams associated with Divyamani.

Compositions
A few compositions set to Divyamani are: Leela ganu joochi by Thyagaraja Appa muruga by Koteeswara Iyer

Related rgams
This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspect of this rgam. Divyamani's notes when shifted using Graha bedham, yields no other melakarta rgam. Graha bedham is the step taken in keeping the relative note frequencies same, while shifting the shadjam to the next note in the rgam.

References
[1] Sri Muthuswami Dikshitar Keertanaigal by Vidwan A Sundaram Iyer, Pub. 1989, Music Book Publishers, Mylapore, Chennai [2] Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications [3] Raganidhi by P. Subba Rao, Pub. 1964, The Music Academy of Madras

Hanumatodi

24

Hanumatodi
Hanumatodi, more popularly known as Todi, (Sanskrit: , Telugu: , Kannada: , Tamil: ) is a rgam in Carnatic music (musical scale of South Indian classical music). It is the 8th melakarta rgam (parent scale) in the 72 melakarta rgam system. This is sung very often in concerts. It is known to be a difficult rgam to perform in owing to its complexity in prayoga (phrases of notes and intonation). It is called Janatodi in Muthuswami Dikshitar school of Carnatic music.[1] Todi in Carnatic music, is different from Todi (thaat) of Hindustani music (North Indian classical music). The equivalent of the Hindustani raga Todi in Carnatic music is Shubhapantuvarali (which is the 45th melakarta).[2] [3] The equivalent of Carnatic Todi in Hindustani is Bhairavi thaat.[2]

Structure and Lakshana


It is the 2nd rgam in the 2nd chakra Netra. The mnemonic name is Netra-Sri. The mnemonic phrase is sa ra gi ma pa dha ni.[2] Its rohaa-avarohaa structure is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music page for details on below notation and terms): rohaa : S R1 G2 M1 P D1 N2 S avarohaa : S N2 D1 P M1 G2 R1 S This scale uses the notes shuddha Todi scale with shadjam at C rishabham, sadharana gandharam, shuddha madhyamam, shuddha dhaivatham and kaisiki nishadham. It is a sampoorna rgam - rgam having all 7 swarams. It is the shuddha madhyamam equivalent of Bhavapriya, which is the 44th melakarta scale.

Janya rgams
Hanumatodi has a quite a few janya rgams (derived scales) associated with it, of which Asaveri, Bhupalam, Dhanyasi, Punnagavarali and Shuddha Seemandhini are popular. See List of janya rgams for all of Todi's janyas.

Popular Compositions
Most composers have composed songs in Todi.[3] Thye Yashoda, composed by Oottukkadu Venkata Kavi, is a very well known composition, in the Tamil language. This popular kriti is sung frequently in concerts. A popular varnam in the Todi rgam is Er Npai by Patnam Subramania Iyer, one of the famous composers of Carnatic music. Other popular compositions are: Kdhanu vriki, Dsu kovalena and Gati Neevani by Thyagaraja Shri Krishnam Bhajamaanasa and Kamalambike by Muthuswami Dikshitar Krthikeya Gangeya and Thamatham aen swami by Papanasam Sivan

Hanumatodi

25

Related rgams
This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspect of this rgam. Todi's notes when shifted using Graha bedham, yields 5 other major melakarta rgams, namely, Kalyani, Shankarabharanam, Natabhairavi, Kharaharapriya and Harikambhoji. For further details and an illustration of graha bedham of this rgam refer related rgams section in Shankarabharanam page.

References
[1] Sri Muthuswami Dikshitar Keertanaigal by Vidwan A Sundaram Iyer, Pub. 1989, Music Book Publishers, Mylapore, Chennai [2] Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications [3] Raganidhi by P. Subba Rao, Pub. 1964, The Music Academy of Madras

Dharmavati
Carnatic Music Concepts Sruti Swara Raga Tala Melakarta Compositions Varnam Kriti Geetham Swarajati Ragam Thanam Pallavi Thillana Instruments Veena Mridangam Ghatam Morsing Kanjira Pullankuzhal Violin Tambura Composers List of Carnatic composers

Dharmavati (Sanskrit: , Tamil: ) is a rgam in Carnatic music (musical scale of South Indian classical music). It is the 59th Melakarta rgam in the 72 melakarta rgam system of Carnatic music. It is called Dhaamavati in Muthuswami Dikshitar school of Carnatic music Hindustani music scale to Dharmavati [2] .
[1] [2]

. Madhuvanti is the nearest

Structure and Lakshana


It is the 5th rgam in the 10th chakra Disi. The mnemonic name is Disi-Ma. The mnemonic phrase is sa ri gi mi pa dhi nu [1] . Its rohaa-avarohaa structure (ascending and descending scale) is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on below notation and terms): rohaa: S R2 G2 M2 P D2 N3 S avarohaa: S N3 D2 P M2 G2 R2 S (the notes in this scale are chathusruthi rishabham, sadharana gandharam, prati madhyamam, chathusruthi dhaivatham, kakali nishadham)
Dharmavati scale with Shadjam at C

Dharmavati As it is a melakarta rgam, by definition it is a sampoorna rgam (has all seven notes in ascending and descending scale). It is the prati madhyamam equivalent of Gourimanohari, which is the 23rd melakarta.

26

Janya rgams
Dharmavati has a few janya rgams (derived scales) associated with it, of which Madhuvanti, Ranjani and Vijayanagari are popular in concerts. See List of janya rgams for all rgams associated with Dharmavati.

Compositions
Here are a few common compositions sung in concerts, set to Dharmavati. Parandaamavati Jayathi by Muthuswami Dikshitar (includes the name of rgam Dhaamavati in the lyrics) Ododi vandhen kanna by Ambujam Krishna Notable Chennai film composers like A. R. Rahman and Ilaiyaraja have composed film songs based on the scale of Dharmavati. An example is "Ottagathai Kattiko", in the 1993 Tamil film Gentleman, by A. R. Rahman, based on the Dharmavati scale.

Related rgams
This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspect of this rgam. Dharmavati's notes when shifted using Graha bedham, yields 2 other Melakarta rgams, namely, Chakravakam and Sarasangi. Graha bedham is the step taken in keeping the relative note frequencies same, while shifting the shadjam to the next note in the rgam. For further details and an illustration refer Graha bedham on Dharmavati.

References
[1] Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications [2] Raganidhi by P. Subba Rao, Pub. 1964, The Music Academy of Madras

Shanmukhapriya

27

Shanmukhapriya
Shanmukhapriya (Sanskrit: , Tamil: , Telugu: , Malayalam: ) is a rgam in Carnatic music (musical scale of South Indian classical music). It is the 56th melakarta rgam (parent scale) in the 72 melakarta rgam system of Carnatic music. It is called Chmaram in Muthuswami Dikshitar school of Carnatic music.[1] [2] It is said to be borrowed into Hindustani music from Carnatic music.[2]

Structure and Lakshana


It is the 2nd rgam in the 10th chakra Disi. The mnemonic name is Disi-Sri. The mnemonic phrase is sa ri gi mi pa dha ni.[1] Its rohaa-avarohaa structure (ascending and descending scale) is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on below notation and terms): rohaa: S R2 G2 M2 P D1 N2 S avarohaa: S N2 D1 P M2 G2 R2 S
Shanmukhapriya scale with shadjam at C This scale uses the swaras chathusruthi rishabham, sadharana gandharam, prati madhyamam, shuddha dhaivatham and kaisiki nishadham. As it is a melakarta rgam, by definition it is a sampoorna rgam (has all seven notes in ascending and descending scale). It is the prati madhyamam equivalent of Natabhairavi, which is the 20th melakarta scale.

Janya rgams
Shanmukhapriya has a few minor janya rgams (derived scales) associated with it. See List of janya rgams for scales associated with Shanmukhapriya.

Compositions
A Great composition in shanmukapriya Muthai tharu bhakti by Arunagirinathar Here are a few common compositions sung in concerts, set to Shanmukhapriya. Vaddane vaaru by Thyagaraja Siddhi Vinayakam, Mahasuram Ketumaham and Ekamreshanayakim by Muthuswami Dikshitar (with rgam name chmaram mudra in them) Marivere Dikkevarayya by Patnam Subramania Iyer Parvathi nayakane, Saravana bhava ennum by Papanasam Sivan Abhimaanamutho Nannubrovaradha by Mysore Vasudevachar Valli Nayakane by Muthiah Bhagavatar Vilayada idu nerama by T.N.Bala of USA

Shanmukhapriya

28

Related rgams
This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspect of this rgam. Shanmukhapriya's notes when shifted using Graha bedham, yields 3 other major melakarta rgams, namely, Shoolini, Dhenuka and Chitrambari. Graha bedham is the step taken in keeping the relative note frequencies same, while shifting the shadjam to the next note in the rgam. For further details and an illustration refer Graha bedham on Shanmukhapriya.

References
[1] Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications [2] Raganidhi by P. Subba Rao, Pub. 1964, The Music Academy of Madras

Natabhairavi
Natabhairavi (Sanskrit , Tamil ) is a rgam in Carnatic music (musical scale of South Indian classical music). It is the 20th melakarta rgam in the 72 melakarta rgam system. It corresponds to the minor scale of western music system. Natabhairavi corresponds to the Asavari thaat of Hindustani music.[1] [2] In the Muthuswami Dikshitar school this rgam is called Nrirtigowla.[3] Natabhairavi is known to be a rgam that incites feelings of grandeur and devotion in the listeners.

Structure and Lakshana


It is the 2nd rgam in the 4th chakra Veda. The mnemonic name is Veda-Sri. The mnemonic phrase is sa ri gi ma pa dha ni.[1] Its rohaa-avarohaa structure is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on the notations used): rohaa : S R2 G2 M1 P D1 N2 S avarohaa : S N2 D1 P M1 G2 R2 S (this scale uses the notes chathusruthi rishabham, sadharana gandharam, shuddha madhyamam, shuddha dhaivatham, kaisiki nishadham)
Natabhairavi scale with shadjam at C

It is a sampoorna rgam - rgam having all 7 swarams. It is the shuddha madhyamam equivalent of Shanmukhapriya, which is the 56th melakarta.

Natabhairavi

29

Janya rgams
Natabhairavi has a number of popular janya rgams (derived scales) such as Bhairavi, Anandabhairavi, Saramati, Jaunpuri, Hindolam (sometimes Hindolam is also associated as a Janya of Hanumatodi) and Jayanthasree. See List of janya rgams for a full list of Natabhairavi's janya rgams.

Popular compositions
Sri Valli Devasena pathe is a popular composition in Natabhairavi, composed by Papanasam Sivan. Parulaseva by Poochi Srinivasa Iyengar is another well known composition in this rgam.

Related rgams
This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspect of this rgam. Natabhairavi's notes when shifted using Graha bedham, yields 5 other major melakarta rgams, namely, Kalyani, Sankarabharanam, Hanumatodi, Kharaharapriya and Harikambhoji. For further details and an illustration of Graha bedham of this rgam refer Graha bedham on Sankarabharanam. Even though Natabhairavi has quite evenly spaced swara sthanas (pitch positions, notes) like the other 5 in this group, it has not found as much importance in concerts. One is likely to find Kalyani, Todi, Sankarabharanam and Karaharapriya as the main ragam in concerts, more often than Natabhairavi by a big count.

References
[1] Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications [2] Raganidhi by P. Subba Rao, Pub. 1964, The Music Academy of Madras [3] Sri Muthuswami Dikshitar Keertanaigal by Vidwan A Sundaram Iyer, Pub. 1989, Music Book Publishers, Mylapore, Chennai

Chalanata

30

Chalanata
Chalanata (pronounced Chalanta, Sanskrit: , Tamil: ) is a rgam in Carnatic music (musical scale of South Indian classical music). It is the 36th Melakarta rgam in the 72 melakarta rgam system of Carnatic music. It is one of the few rgams referred by the same name in Muthuswami Dikshitar school of Carnatic music.[1]

Structure and Lakshana


It is the 6th rgam in the 6th chakra Rutu. The mnemonic name is Rutu-Sha. The mnemonic phrase is sa ru gu ma pa dhu nu.[2] Its rohaa-avarohaa structure (ascending and descending scale) is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on below notation and terms): rohaa: S R3 G3 M1 P D3 N3 S avarohaa: S N3 D3 P M1 G3 R3 S
Chalanata scale with Shadjam at C The notes used in this scale are shadjam, shatsruthi rishabham, antara gandharam, shuddha madhyamam, panchamam, shatsruthi dhaivatham and kakali nishadham. As it is a melakarta rgam, by definition it is a sampurna rgam (has all seven notes in ascending and descending scale). It is the shuddha madhyamam equivalent of Rasikapriya, which is the 72nd (last) melakarta.

Janya Rgams
Chalanta (also pronounced Chalanttai) has two popular janya rgams (derived scales) associated with it, namely Nta (Nttai) and Ghambheeranta (Gambheeranttai). Nta ragam compositions are sung often in concerts and it overshadows Chalanta.[3] See List of Janya Rgams for list of janya rgams associated with Chalanta.

Compositions
A few compositions set to Chalanta are: Rjadhirja (varnam) by Baluswami Dikshitar Ngatmaja by Dr. M. Balamuralikrishna Margazhi Thingal by Andal

Chalanata

31

Related rgams
This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspect of this rgam. Chalanata's notes when shifted using Graha bedham, yields a major Melakarta rgam Shubhapantuvarali. Graha bedham is the step taken in keeping the relative note frequencies same, while shifting the shadjam to the next note in the rgam. For further details and an illustration refer Graha bedham on Chalanata.

References
[1] Sri Muthuswami Dikshitar Keertanaigal by Vidwan A Sundaram Iyer, Pub. 1989, Music Book Publishers, Mylapore, Chennai [2] Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications [3] Raganidhi by P. Subba Rao, Pub. 1964, The Music Academy of Madras

Charukesi
Charukesi (pronounced Chruksi, Telugu , Devanagari , Tamil , Malayalam ) is a rga in Carnatic music (musical scale of South Indian classical music). It is the 26th Melakarta rgam in the 72 melakarta rgam system of Carnatic music. Charukesi is known to incite feelings of pathos and devotion in the listener.

Structure and Lakshana


It is the 2nd rgam in the 5th chakra Bana. The mnemonic name is Bana-Sri. The mnemonic phrase is sa ri gu ma pa dha ni[1] . Its rohaa-avarohaa structure (ascending and descending scale) is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on below notation and terms): rohaa: S R2 G3 M1 P D1 N2 S avarohaa: S N2 D1 P M1 G3 R2 S (chathusruthi rishabham, anthara gandharam, shuddha madhyamam, shuddha dhaivatham, kaisiki nishadham)
Charukesi scale with Shadjam at C

It is a sampoorna rgam - a rgam that has all seven swaras (notes). It is the shuddha madhyamam equivalent of Rishabhapriya, which is the 62nd melakarta.

Janya rgams
There are only a few minor janya rgams (derived scales) associated with Charukesi. See full list of janya rgams associated with it.

Popular compositions
Adamodi Galade by Thyagaraja and Kripaya playa sowrae by Swati Tirunal are popular kritis (compositions) set in Charukesi. Lalgudi Jayaraman, the acclaimed violinist and composer, has composed a very popoular varnam in Charukesi called Innum En Manam. This varnam was a favorite of Maharajapuram Santhanam, who began a large chunk of his concerts with this song.

Charukesi Many compositions exist amongst modern adaptations of Charukesi, especially in Indian movies, in the so-called film songs. An example is the song Ahista Ahista from the movie Swades, Vasanta mullai poalae from the Tamil movie Sarangadara, Edho Edho Ondru from the Tamil movie Enakku Iruvathu, Unakku Padhinettu and Udaya Udaya from another Tamil movie Udhaya. Charukesi is also popular in Hindustani music.

32

Related rgams
This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspect of this rgam. Charukesi's notes when shifted using Graha bedham, yields 3 other major melakarta rgams, namely, Vachaspati, Natakapriya and Gourimanohari. Graha bedham is the step taken in keeping the relative note frequencies same, while shifting the shadjam to the next note in the rgam. For further details and an illustration, see Graha bedham on Vachaspati.

References
[1] Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications

External links
Film Songs (Hindi) in Charukesi (http://chandrakantha.com/raga_raag/film_song_raga/charukesi.shtml)

Keeravani
Keeravani (pronounced keeravi, , Sanskrit: , Telugu: , Tamil: ) is a rgam in Carnatic music (musical scale of South Indian classical music). It is the 21st Melakarta rgam in the 72 melakarta rgam system of Carnatic music. The 21st melakarta rgam as per Muthuswami Dikshitar school of music is Kiravai. This rgam is a popular scale in western music as well. The Western equivalent is the Harmonic minor scale.[1] [2] It is said to be borrowed into Hindustani music from Carnatic music.

Structure and Lakshana


It is the 3rd rgam in the 4th chakra Veda. The mnemonic name is Veda-Go. The mnemonic phrase is sa ri gi ma pa dha nu [1] . Its rohaa-avarohaa structure (ascending and descending scale) is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on below notation and terms): rohaa: S R2 G2 M1 P D1 N3 S avarohaa: S N3 D1 P M1 G2 R2 S (the notes used in this scale are chathusruthi rishabha, sadharana gandhara, suddha madhyama,panchama suddha dhaivatha, kakali nishadha)
Keeravani scale with shadjam at C

As it is a melakarta rgam, by definition it is a sampoorna rgam (has all seven notes in ascending and descending scale). It is the shuddha madhyamam equivalent of Simhendramadhyamam, which is the 57th melakarta.

Keeravani

33

Janya Rgams
Keeravani has many janya rgams (derived scales) associated with it. Kalyna vasantam is a popular janya of Keeravani. See List of janya rgams for full list of rgams associated with Keeravani. Other popular janya ragam include Smapriya and Vasantamanohari.

Compositions
Many composers have composed songs in Keeravani. A few of them are listed here. Kalikiyunde by Thyagaraja Ambavani nannu by Muthiah Bhagavatar Devi neeye thunai by Papanasam Sivan Illayaraja and Keeravani[3]

Related rgams
This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspect of this rgam. Keeravani's notes when shifted using Graha bedham, yields 3 other major melakarta rgams, namely, Hemavati, Vakulabharanam and Kosalam. Graha bedham is the step taken in keeping the relative note frequencies same, while shifting the shadjam to the next note in the rgam. For further details and an illustration refer Graha bedham on Keeravani.

References
[1] Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications [2] Raganidhi by P. Subba Rao, Pub. 1964, The Music Academy of Madras [3] http:/ / www. s-anand. net/ blog/ classical-ilayaraja-10

Gourimanohari

34

Gourimanohari
Gourimanohari or Gowrimanohari (Sanskrit: , Telugu: , Tamil: ) is a rgam in Carnatic music (musical scale of South Indian classical music). It is the 23rd Melakarta rgam in the 72 melakarta rgam system of Carnatic music. Hindustani music does not have an equivalent to this rgam, where the purvanga (first half of the scale) is like Kafi thaat, while the uttaranga (second half) is like Bilaval thaat.[1]

Structure and Lakshana


It is the 5th rgam in the 4th chakra Veda. The mnemonic name is Veda-Ma. The mnemonic phrase is sa ri gi ma pa dhi nu.[2] Its rohaa-avarohaa structure (ascending and descending scale) is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on below notation and terms): rohaa: S R2 G2 M1 P D2 N3 S avarohaa: S N3 D2 P M1 G2 R2 S
Gourimanohari scale with Shadjam at C The notes used in this scale are shadjam, chathusruthi rishabham, sadharana gandharam, shuddha madhyamam, panchamam, chathusruthi dhaivatham and kakali nishadham. It is a sampurna rgam - a rgam that has all seven swaras (notes). It is the shuddha madhyamam equivalent of Dharmavati, which is the 59th melakarta.

Janya rgams
It has a few minor janya rgams (derived scales) associated with it. See List of janya rgams to lookup all rgams associated with it.

Popular compositions
The following are a few popular compositions in this rgam. Guruleka etuvanti by Thyagaraja Sarasa sama mridu pada by Swati Tirunal

Related rgams
This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspect of this rgam. Gourimanohari's notes when shifted using Graha bedham, yields 3 other major melakarta rgams, namely, Vachaspati, Natakapriya and Charukesi. Graha bedham is the step taken in keeping the relative note frequencies same, while shifting the shadjam to the next note in the rgam. For further details and an illustration see Graha bedham on Vachaspati.

Gourimanohari

35

References
[1] Raganidhi by P. Subba Rao, Pub. 1964, The Music Academy of Madras [2] Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications

Chakravakam (raga)
Chakravakam, (pronounced chakravkam, Sanskrit: , Telugu: , Tamil: ) is a rgam (musical scale), in Carnatic music (South Indian classical music). It is the 16th Melakarta rgam (parent rgam) in the 72 melakarta rgam system. According to the Muthuswami Dikshitar school, this rgam is called Tyavgavhini.[1] Chakravakam is close to Raga Ahir bhairav in the Hindustani music.[2] Chakravakam is a raga that is known to incites feelings of devotion, sympathy and compassion in the listeners.

Structure and Lakshana


It is the 4th melakarta in the 3rd chakra Agni. The mnemonic name is Agni-Bhu. The mnemonic phrase is sa ra gu ma pa dhi ni.[1] Its rohaa-avarohaa structure (ascending and descending scale) is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on below notation and terms): rohaa : S R1 G3 M1 P D2 N2 S avarohaa : S N2 D2 P M1 G3 R1 S The notes in this scale are shadjam, shuddha rishabham, anthara gandharam, shuddha madhyamam, panchamam, chathusruthi dhaivatham and kaisiki nishadham.
Chakravakam scale with Shadjam at C

It is a sampoorna rgam - rgam having all 7 swarams. It is the suddha madhyamam equivalent of Ramapriya, which is the 52nd melakarta.

Janya rgams
Chakravakam has quite a few janya rgams (derived scales) associated with it, of which Bindumalini, Malayamarutam and Valaji are popular. See List of Janya Ragas for a full list of its janyas.

Popular Compositions
Gajnanayutham is a popular composition in Chakravakam, by the maestro Muthuswami Dikshitar, which is sung in a brisk tempo, unlike other compositions. Etula Brotuvo teliya and Sugunamule by Thyagaraja, Knakkankoti vendum by Koteeswara Iyer are also sung in concerts. There are a number of popular compositions in Ahir bhairav (Hindustani raga similar to Chakravakam), one of the most well known ones being Pibare Rmarasam in Sanskrit, by Sadasiva Brahmendra.

Chakravakam (raga)

36

Related rgams
This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspect of this rgam. Chakravakam's notes when shifted using Graha bedham, yields 2 other major melakarta rgams, namely, Sarasangi and Dharmavati. Graha bedham is the step taken in keeping the relative note frequencies same, while shifting the Shadjam to the next note in the rgam. For an illustration refer Graha bedham on Dharmavati.

References
[1] Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications [2] Raganidhi by P. Subba Rao, Pub. 1964, The Music Academy of Madras

External links
Carnatic musician Charulatha Mani describes Chakravakam (Tamil) (http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=OA22JgZOjec) Carnatic music prodigy Aishu Venkataraman performs Chakravakam (http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=Buy5UogLq80)

Article Sources and Contributors

37

Article Sources and Contributors


Raga Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=422006822 Contributors: Adwaitjoshi, Ahung, Aksi great, Alansohn, Alex n, Allisonmarieanne, Ambarish, Amirdhagopal, Anarchivist, Annamacharya Vaibhavam, Arjun024, Ashwath Rabindranath, Ashwinijaya, B9 hummingbird hovering, Badagnani, Bharatveer, Calaf, CambridgeBayWeather, Capricorn42, Champ1979, Champaign, Charukesi, Chhajlaniv1, Chris the speller, Cminard, Daedalus969, Dbachmann, Deeptrivia, Deltabeignet, DerHexer, Dforest, Dhamit21, Dhesi, Drummerdave1, EdChem, Eirik, Ekabhishek, Epioinopaponton, Excirial, FrancoGG, Gautam3, Gene Nygaard, Gh5046, Ghanonmatta, Gnanapiti, Gokhul, Gokul madhavan, Gopikoundinya, GregorB, Guaka, Gwalla, H3rcul3s, Harisingh, Hekerui, Hu12, Huangdi, Hyacinth, Impy4ever, Introferious, JaGa, Jan civil, Jeff3000, Jerome Kohl, John Quincy Adding Machine, JohnI, Jossi, Julesd, Kappa, Kaustuv, Keenan Pepper, Kh7, KirtanDevotee, Kksongs, LAAFan, Lerdthenerd, Light current, LilHelpa, LordSimonofShropshire, MER-C, MPerel, Madbassist, MarkC77, Matt Gies, Meco, Mellery, MoRsE, Mrahaim, Mukundan, Namjap, Nataraja, Ncmvocalist, Neelix, Nizonstolz, Orderinchaos, PMDrive1061, Pepve, Philip Trueman, Prash n rao, Pstarbuck, Raas1234, RagaBhakta, Ragaist, Raguks, RedWolf, Redheylin, Redtigerxyz, Rigadoun, S.dedalus, SWFlash, Saga City, Samjones9booyakasha, Sciurin, Seth Ilys, Shobhit102, Shreevatsa, Sir Nicholas de Mimsy-Porpington, Sivaraj, Skal, Smdevesh, Sojarumojaru, Sp3z1aL, Srinivasaraju, Srkris, SteinbDJ, Sudhir V Gadre, Summer Song, TUF-KAT, Tabalji, Tabisini, Tanaats, Tevildo, Thadius856, The Rationalist, The wub, Ultimus, Updatehelper, VasuVR, Vegaswikian, Veggieburgerfish, Venu62, WereSpielChequers, Wiki-uk, Wmahan, Zerokitsune, 219 anonymous edits Carnatic rga Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=407846926 Contributors: Aiuw, BD2412, CarTick, CardinalDan, Elonka, JamesAM, Lumos3, Ncmvocalist, Redheylin, Rich Farmbrough, VasuVR, Vegaswikian, 5 anonymous edits Melakarta Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=419191906 Contributors: Aadal, Arvindn, Badagnani, Bharatveer, Camembert, CarTick, Champ1979, Charukesi, Delirium, HairyPotter, Jallan, Janas, Krishnachandranvn, Mattisse, Michael Hardy, Nataraja, Paddu, Rajasekhar1961, Skal, Skaushik92, Srinivasa.iyer, Srkris, TUF-KAT, Techraj, Thunderboltz, Unnikt, Updatehelper, Utcursch, VasuVR, Venu62, Vkchinta, Wmahan, 32 anonymous edits Sampurna raga Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=352254703 Contributors: CarTick, Gurch, Hadrianheugh, Piuskerala, Redheylin, VasuVR Kharaharapriya Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=371800678 Contributors: CarTick, Martin-vogel, Rajasekhar1961, Shreevatsa, Techraj, VasuVR, 8 anonymous edits Mayamalavagowla Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=417056620 Contributors: Balamayran92, CarTick, Enochlau, Fetchmaster, Janas, Krishnachandranvn, Ma8thew, Madsas.sasi, Navneetvk, NayakDeepti, Rajasekhar1961, Srkris, Techraj, VasuVR, 14 anonymous edits Shubhapantuvarali Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=352254845 Contributors: CarTick, VasuVR, 1 anonymous edits Kalyani (raga) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=417248605 Contributors: AnanthaKrishna12, Badagnani, Balamayran92, Bluebulb, BritishWatcher, Chris the speller, GraemeL, Grafen, Hekerui, J04n, Krishnachandranvn, Madsas.sasi, Nizonstolz, RagaBhakta, Rajasekhar1961, Redheylin, Rjwilmsi, Shshshsh, Sudhar v, Tabalji, Techraj, Tjako, VasuVR, Zerokitsune, 31 anonymous edits Divyamani Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=352254041 Contributors: CarTick, Unspokentruth, VasuVR, 1 anonymous edits Hanumatodi Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=352254169 Contributors: Allen3, Balaji j, Camembert, CarTick, DeadEyeArrow, Martin-vogel, Paddu, Pearle, Rajasekhar1961, Shreevatsa, Srkris, Techraj, VasuVR, Venu62, Wahoofive, 9 anonymous edits Dharmavati Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=352253971 Contributors: CarTick, Clubover, Techraj, TheFamousPeter, Unspokentruth, VasuVR, 1 anonymous edits Shanmukhapriya Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=417057986 Contributors: CarTick, Fetchmaster, Nachi shiva, VasuVR, 10 anonymous edits Natabhairavi Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=368243177 Contributors: A930913, Alinnisawest, Anoopan, CarTick, Martin-vogel, Rajasekhar1961, Techraj, VasuVR, Wprlh, 4 anonymous edits Chalanata Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=352253938 Contributors: CarTick, Techraj, VasuVR, Woohookitty, 1 anonymous edits Charukesi Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=419232265 Contributors: BurtAlert, CarTick, Closedmouth, Ramrao, Shreevatsa, Tabalji, Techraj, VasuVR, Woohookitty, 12 anonymous edits Keeravani Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=381965474 Contributors: CarTick, Martin-vogel, Rajasekhar1961, Shreevatsa, Sunshankar, Techraj, VasuVR, 3 anonymous edits Gourimanohari Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=366926499 Contributors: CarTick, Shreevatsa, Technopat, VasuVR, 5 anonymous edits Chakravakam (raga) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=352253911 Contributors: CarTick, Martin-vogel, Shreevatsa, Techraj, VasuVR, 4 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

38

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


Image:Sri Raga recital to Krishna-Radha, 19th century.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sri_Raga_recital_to_Krishna-Radha,_19th_century.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Abhishekjoshi, Johnbod, Roland zh File:Vasant Ragini, Ragamala, Rajput, 1770.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Vasant_Ragini,_Ragamala,_Rajput,_1770.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Abhishekjoshi, Ekabhishek, Mattes File:Ragaputra Velavala of Bhairava.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ragaputra_Velavala_of_Bhairava.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Abhishekjoshi, BostonMA Image:Kharaharapriya scale.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Kharaharapriya_scale.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: VasuVR Image:Mayamalavagowla scale.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mayamalavagowla_scale.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: VasuVR Image:Shubhapantuvarali scale.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Shubhapantuvarali_scale.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: VasuVR Image:Kalyani scale.gif Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Kalyani_scale.gif License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:VasuVR Image:Divyamani scale.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Divyamani_scale.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: VasuVR Image:Hanumatodi scale.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hanumatodi_scale.svg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: VasuVR Image:Dharmavati scale.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Dharmavati_scale.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: VasuVR Image:Shanmukhapriya scale.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Shanmukhapriya_scale.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: VasuVR Image:Natabhairavi scale.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Natabhairavi_scale.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: VasuVR Image:Chalanata scale.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Chalanata_scale.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: VasuVR Image:Charukesi scale.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Charukesi_scale.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: VasuVR Image:Keeravani scale.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Keeravani_scale.svg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: VasuVR Image:Gourimanohari scale.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gourimanohari_scale.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: VasuVR Image:Chakravakam scale.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Chakravakam_scale.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: VasuVR

License

39

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/