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Introduction to Power System P rotection

Lectures prepared by

Prof. S. Shahnawaz Ahmed

Protection:

1.Main components (basic pattern) of a substation 2.Introduction to circuit breakers. 3.Introduction to relays, over current, differential and distance protection.

bus side ES is used to drain trapped charges to ground before doing any maintenance
bus
bus

side

ES is used to drain trapped charges to ground before doing any maintenance work on a line

to ground before doing any maintenance work on a line It is implied that the feeders

It is implied that the feeders are also connected to the

transformer LT through CBs

The assembly of CB, CT, PT, isolator, busbar etc. is also termed switchgear.

Basic equipment in a substation

Isolator provides additional safety during any maintenance work. This is a no load device i.e. designed to be switched on or off under no load condition.

Following se q uence is used for the operation of switches and CB

During Opening a line:

1.Trip CB 2.O pen i sol ator 3. Close earthing switch

During closing a line:

1. Open earthing switch

2. Cl ose i sol ator

3. Close CB

A circuit breaker may be of following types depending upon the arc quenching medium: •

A circuit breaker may be of following types depending upon the arc quenching medium:

air circuit breaker (low voltage up to 1 kV) Vacuum CB (medium voltage up to 33 kV) Air Blast CB, Oil CB, SF 6 CB (High voltage above 33 kV)

i)
i)

Senses and compares against a

setting any one of the following:

I ii)V iii)f iv)I and direction (from the angle between I and V) v)Z =V/I

For low voltage and low current ratings, MCB (Miniature CB: for below 100 amps) and MCCB (Moulded case CB: for several hundred amps )are used that have builtin and integrated sensing and tripping elements without requiring external relays.

For subsequent materials assistance taken mainly from :

Leslie Hewitson, Mark Brown, and Ramesh Balakrishnan, "Practical Power System Protection", Newnes (Elsevier), 2004.

Ch ap t er 7 for b rea k ers

Chapters 9, 13,14 for relays

(only the selected and most relevant sections from each chapter)

• The relay receives information, which it analyzes, and determines that the circuit should be

The relay receives information, which it analyzes, and determines that the circuit should be opened.

• Relay closes its contacts energizing the trip coil of the circuit breaker. The circuit breaker is unlatched and opens its main contacts under the control of the tripping spring .

• The trip coil is deenergized by opening of the circuit breaker auxiliary contacts.

Circuit breakers are normally fitted with a number of auxiliary contacts, which are used in a variety of ways in control and protection circuits (e.g. to energize lamps on a remote panel to indicate whether the breaker is open or closed).

at natural zero current TRV
at natural zero current TRV
at natural zero current TRV
at natural zero
current
TRV

Further classification of CB

Further classification of CB
(both vac uum ty pe)
(both vac uum ty pe)
(both vac uum ty pe)
(
(

Gaseous)

Relays:

Relays are the devices , which monitor the conditions of a circuit and give instructions to open a circuit under unhealthy conditions. The basic parameters of the threephase electrical system are voltage, current, frequency and power.

All these have predetermined

values and/or sequence under healthy conditions . Any shift from this normal behavior could be the result of a fault condition either at the source end or at the load end.

The types of

classified as:

relays can be broadly

Electromechanical relays S tati c rel ays ( ana l og an d di gi ta l) .

The digital relays are microcontroller or microp rocessor based and also termed numerical relays. The measurement principle is based on sampling of the energized currents or voltages, analog to digital

conversion and numerical

handling, where all settings are made in direct numerical form in a non volatile memory. Setting can be performed either manually on the relay front or by serial communications using either a personal computer or a i

contro mon tor ng system .

l/

i

The basic function of protection is to detect faults and to

clear them as soon as possible . It is also important that in the process the minimum amount of equipment should be disconnected. The ability of the protection (i.e. relays and ci rcuit brea kers) to accomp li sh the l atter requi rement is referred to as ‘selectivity’.

Speed and selectivity may be considered technically as

figures of merit for a protection scheme. In general; however greater the speed and/or selectivity, the greater is the cost. Hence, the degree of speed or selectivity in any scheme is not purely a technical matter, it is also an econom i c one.

EM type IDMT relay IDMTL type digital over current relay Operating time is calculated and
EM type IDMT relay
IDMTL type digital over
current relay
Operating time is calculated and trip signal
is sent to CB after that time
Front view of a typical μ P relay
Rear view of the μ P relay
so that t is inversely
proportional to I
rated
rated

If I > I 0 then the relay trips. I 0 is termed pick up current and usually .

when I n is the relay CT’s

secondary current. In fact. operating time is inversely proportional to (I/I 0 ) α when (I/I 0 ) is

set as I =1 2 I

0

n

termed plug setting multiplier and α varies maximum up to 2, depending upon the magnetic cct for EM relays or parameter α in the numerical relay.

cct for EM relays or parameter α in the numerical relay. It can be seen that

It can be seen that the operating time of an IDMTL relay is inversely proportional to a function of current , i.e. it has a lon g operating time at low multiples of setting current and a relatively short operating time at high multiples of setting current. The characteristic curve is defined by BS 142 and is shown in Figure 9.4. Two adjustments are possible on the EM relay, namely:

1. The current pickup or plug setting :

This adjusts the setting current by means of a plug bridge, which varies the effecti ve t urns on th e upper electromagnet. 2. The time multiplier setting : This adjusts the operating time at a given multiple of setting current, by altering by means of the torsion head, the distance that the disk has to travel before contact is made.

In numerical or digital relays ‘TMS’ is applied simply changing k and PSM by changing the value of current setting I> (i.e. I 0 )

Differential protection Differential protection, as its name implies, compares the currents entering and leaving the protected zone and operates when the differential between these currents exceeds f protection can be divided into two types, namely balanced current and balanced voltage.

a

d t

i

d

it d

Thi t

pre e erm ne magn u e.

s ype o

a ‐ d t i d it d Thi t pre e erm ne magn u
a ‐ d t i d it d Thi t pre e erm ne magn u

Balanced circulating current system

The principle is shown in Figure 13.2. The CTs are connected in series and the secondary current circulates between them. The relay is connected across the midpoint thus the voltage across the relay is theoretically nil, therefore no current through the relay and hence no operation for any faults outside the protected zone.

Similarly under normal conditions the currents, leaving zone A and B are equal, making the relay to be inactive by the current balance.

Under internal fault (see Figure 13.3) conditions (i.e. between the CTs at end A and B) relay operates. This is basically due to the direction of current reversing at end B making the fault current to flow from B to A instead of the normal A to B condition in the earlier figure.

of the normal A to B condition in the earlier figure. The current transformers are assumed
of the normal A to B condition in the earlier figure. The current transformers are assumed

The current transformers are assumed identical and are assumed to share the burden equally between the two ends. However, it is not always possible to have identical CTs and to have the relay at a location equidistant from the two end CTs. It is a normal practice to add a resistor in series with the relay to balance the unbalance created by the unequal nature of burden between the two end circuits. This resistor is named as ‘stabilizing resistance’.

Bias The spill current in the differential relay due to the various sources of CT errors is dependent on the magnitude of the through current. Hence it is necessary to consider the setting of the differential relay to be more than or proportional to the worst spill current likely to occur under throughfault (external fault) conditions. Because of the wide range of fault current magnitudes, it is not always satisfactory to make the relay insensitive to lowerspill current values. This problem had been overcome by a dj usti ng th e operati ng l eve l o f th e re l ay accordi ng to th e total amount of fault current. This was done originally by providing a restraining winding or electromagnet which carries the total fault current while an operating electromagnet was allowed to carry only the differential current. This principle of bias is applied to circulating current protection to ensure proper operation under all fault conditions. If the two zone boundary currents are I 1 an d I 2, then Operating quantity: K1 (I1 – I2) Biasing quantity: K2 (I1 + I2) Suitable choice of constants K1 and K2 ensures stability for external fault currents despite measurement errors, while

still ensuring sensitivity under internal fault conditions. or, if (I1 I2)>k(I1+I2)

f ( I 1 ‐ I 2 ) > k ( I 1 + I 2

The relay operates (trips) if k1(I1I2)XN > k2(I1+I2)N/2

This is also termed percent differential relay

Transformer differential protection A typical transformer differential protection system also adopts the circulating current principle. The first point to notice is that the CTs on one side are connected in delta whilst they are connected in star on the other. This has been d one for two reasons:

1. To correct for the phase shift through the transformer in order to obtain cophasal currents at the relay. 2. To p revent the relay from op eratin g incorrectl y for an external earth fault on the side of the power transformer where the windings are connected in star with the neutral earthed. Through current bias is necessary on these relays not only for the inherent unbalances of the CTs but also to take care of any voltage tappings on the transformer provided by the tap changer. For example, a transformer having a nominal ratio of 132/40 kV and a tap change range of +15 to –5% on the 40 kV side would have the CT ratios selected to be balanced at the midtap, namely 132/42 kV. (=46+28 =84 /2 = 42)

Distance protection

A distance relay, as its name implies, has the ability to detect a fault within a preset distance along a transmission line or i

bl f

l

i

Zone setting:

The distance relay is made selective by settin g three threshold imp edances for its operation and respectively they are termed 1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd zone settings. These are as follows.

Zone Threshold impedance Relay operating time 1 0.8ximpedance of line being protected i.e. underreach 1
Zone
Threshold impedance
Relay operating
time
1
0.8ximpedance of line being
protected i.e. underreach
1 cycle i.e. acts as
primary relay
2
1 2xim edance of the line
.
p
15 to 30 c cles to
y
being
protected
i.e.
overreach
allow the relay of
the line at the
other end act
first for a fault in
the 2 nd zone.
3
Impedance of the line + 1.2
times that of the longest line
connec te d to o ther end
≈ 1 second so that
the relay acts as a
bac k up for a
fault in the 3 rd
zone.

power ca e rom ts ocat on .

Every power line has a resistance and reactance per kilometer related to its design and construction so its total impedance will be a function of its length or distance.

A distance relay therefore looks at current and voltage and compares these two quantities on the basis of O h m ’s l aw i.e. d etects a fau l t condition if (V/I) < Z L