Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 22


A robot is a mechanical or virtual agent, usually an electro-mechanical machine that is guided by a computer program or electronic circuitry. Robots can be autonomous or semi-autonomous and range from humanoids such as Honda's Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility (ASIMO) and Tosy's TOSY Ping Pong Playing Robot (TOPIO) to industrial robots, collectively programmed 'swarm' robots, and even microscopic nano robots. By mimicking a lifelike appearance or automating movements, a robot may convey a sense of intelligence or thought of its own. Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots,[] as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing. These technologies deal with automated machines that can take the place of humans in dangerous environments or manufacturing processes, or resemble humans in appearance, behavior, and/or cognition. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics. As mechanical techniques developed through the Industrial age, more practical applications were proposed by Nikola Tesla, who in 1898 designed a radio-controlled boat. Electronics evolved into the driving force of development with the advent of the first electronic autonomous robots created by William Grey Walter in Bristol, England in 1948. The first digital and programmable robot was invented by George Devol in 1954 and was named the Unimate. It was sold to General Motors in 1961 where it was used to lift pieces of hot metal from die casting machines at the Inland Fisher Guide Plant in the West Trenton section of Ewing Township, New Jersey.[1]

ASIMO (2000) at the Expo 2005, a humanoid robot

Articulated welding robots used in a factory

Robots have replaced humans[2] in the assistance of performing those repetitive and dangerous tasks which humans prefer not to do, or are unable to do due to size limitations, or even those such as in outer space or at the bottom of the sea where humans could not survive the extreme environments. There are concerns about the increasing use of robots and their role in society. Robots are blamed for rising unemployment as they replace workers in some functions. The use of robots in military combat raises ethical concerns. The possibility of robot autonomy and potential repercussions has been addressed in fiction and may be a realistic concern in the future.


The word robot can refer to both physical robots and virtual software agents, but the latter are usually referred to as bots.[3] There is no consensus on which machines qualify as robots but there is general agreement among experts, and the public, that robots tend to do some or all of the following: move around, operate a mechanical limb, sense and manipulate their environment, and exhibit intelligent behavior especially behavior which mimics humans or other animals. There is no one definition of robot that satisfies everyone and many people have their own.[4] For example Joseph Engelberger, a pioneer in industrial robotics, once remarked: "I can't define a robot, but I know one when I see one."[5] According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica a robot is "any automatically operated machine that replaces human effort, though it may not resemble human beings in appearance or perform functions in a humanlike manner." Merriam-Webster describes a robot as a "machine that looks like a human being and performs various complex acts (as walking or talking) of a human being", or a "device that automatically performs complicated often repetitive tasks", or a "mechanism guided by automatic controls".[6]

The various types of robots

KITT (a fictitious robot) is mentally anthropomorphic

ASIMO is physically anthropomorphic

The idea of automata originates in the mythologies of many cultures around the world. Engineers and inventors from ancient civilizations, including Ancient China,[7] Ancient Greece, and Ptolemaic Egypt,[] attempted to build self-operating machines, some resembling animals and humans. Early descriptions of automata include the artificial doves of Archytas,[8] the artificial birds of Mozi and Lu Ban,[9] a "speaking" automaton by Hero of Alexandria, a washstand automaton by Philo of Byzantium, and a human automaton described in the Lie Zi.[7]

Timeline of robot and automata development

Date 1st century AD and earlier Significance Descriptions of over a hundred machines and automata, including a fire engine, wind organ, coin-operated machine, and steam-powered aeliopile, in Pneumatica and Automata by Heron Early programmable automata Designs for a humanoid robot Robot band [] Robot name Inventor Ctesibius, Philo, Heron, and others

1206 c. 1495

Al-Jazari Leonardo da Vinci

Mechanical knight Karakuri ningy

Early 18th century 1738 1860s

Japanese mechanical toys that served tea, fired arrows, and painted

Hisashige Tanaka

Mechanical duck that was able to eat, flap its wings, and excrete Remotely (mechanical) steered clockwork fire ship

Digesting Duck (Coastal fireship)

Jacques de Vaucanson Giovanni Luppis


(torpedo) John Ericsson, John Louis Lay, Victor von Scheliha Nikola Tesla Karel apek


Remotely controlled torpedos by John Ericsson (pneumatic), John Louis Lay [10] (electric wire guided), and Victor von Scheliha (electric wire guided) Tesla demonstrates the first radio controlled (wireless) vessel (torpedo) First fictional automata called "robots" appear in the play R.U.R.

1898 1921

(torpedo) Rossum's Universal Robots Eric


Humanoid robot, based on a suit of armor with electrical actuators, exhibited at the annual exhibition of the Model Engineers Society in London Remotely controlled humanoid robot exhibited at the 1939 and 1940 World's Fairs Simple robots exhibiting biological behaviors [11]

W. H. Richards



Westinghouse Electric Corporation William Grey Walter George Devol

1948 1956

Elsie and Elmer Unimate

First commercial robot, from the Unimation company founded by George [12] Devol and Joseph Engelberger, based on Devol's patents First installed industrial robot First palletizing robot [13]

1961 1963 1973 1976

Unimate Palletizer Famulus PUMA

George Devol Fuji Yusoki Kogyo KUKA Robotics Victor Scheinman

[14][15] First robot with six electromechanically driven axes Programmable universal manipulation arm, a Unimation product

Ancient beginnings
Many ancient mythologies include artificial people, such as the mechanical servants built by the Greek god Hephaestus[16] (Vulcan to the Romans), the clay golems of Jewish legend and clay giants of Norse legend, and Galatea, the mythical statue of Pygmalion that came to life. Since circa 400 BC, myths of Crete include Talos, a man of bronze who guarded the Cretan island of Europa from pirates. In ancient Greece, the Greek engineer Ctesibius (c. 270 BC) "applied a knowledge of pneumatics and hydraulics to produce the first organ and water clocks with moving figures."[17][18] In the 4th century BC, the Greek mathematician Archytas of Tarentum postulated a mechanical steam-operated bird he called "The Pigeon". Hero of Alexandria (1070 AD), a Greek mathematician and inventor, created numerous user-configurable automated devices, and described machines powered by air pressure, steam and water.[19] In ancient China, the 3rd century text of the Lie Zi describes an account of humanoid automata, involving a much earlier encounter between Chinese emperor King Mu of Zhou and a mechanical engineer known as Yan Shi, an 'artificer'. Yan Shi proudly presented the king with a life-size, human-shaped figure of his mechanical 'handiwork' made of leather, wood, and artificial organs.[7] There are also accounts of flying automata in the Han Fei Zi and other texts, which attributes the 5th century BC Mohist philosopher Mozi and his contemporary Lu Ban with the invention of artificial wooden birds (ma yuan) that could successfully fly.[9] In 1066, the Chinese inventor Su Song built a water clock in the form of a tower which featured mechanical figurines which chimed the hours. The beginning of automata is associated with the invention of early Su Song's astronomical clock tower featured mechanical figurines that chimed the hours.[][20][] His mechanism had a programmable drum machine with pegs (cams) that bumped into little levers that operated percussion instruments. The drummer could be made to play different rhythms and different drum patterns by moving the pegs to different locations.[]


Washstand automaton reconstruction, as described by Philo of Byzantium (Greece, 3rd century BC).

Al-Jazari's toy boat, musical automata

Tea-serving karakuri with mechanism. (National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo).

Su Song's astronomical clock tower showing the mechanical figurines which chimed the hours.

Early modern developments

In Renaissance Italy, Leonardo da Vinci (14521519) sketched plans for a humanoid robot around 1495. Da Vinci's notebooks, rediscovered in the 1950s, contained detailed drawings of a mechanical knight now known as Leonardo's robot, able to sit up, wave its arms and move its head and jaw.[21] The design was probably based on anatomical research recorded in his Vitruvian Man. It is not known whether he attempted to build it. In Japan, complex animal and human automata were built between the 17th to 19th centuries, with many described in the 18th century Karakuri zui (Illustrated Machinery, 1796). One such automaton was the karakuri ningy, a mechanized puppet.[22] Different variations of the karakuri existed: the Butai karakuri, which were used in theatre, the Zashiki karakuri, which were small and used in homes, and the Dashi karakuri which were used in religious festivals, where the puppets were used to perform reenactments of traditional myths and legends. In France, between 1738 and 1739, Jacques de Vaucanson exhibited several life-sized automatons: a flute player, a pipe player and a duck. The mechanical duck could flap its wings, crane its neck, and swallow food from the exhibitor's hand, and it gave the illusion of digesting its food by excreting matter stored in a hidden compartment.[23]

Modern developments
The Japanese craftsman Hisashige Tanaka (17991881), known as "Japan's Edison" or "Karakuri Giemon", created an array of extremely complex mechanical toys, some of which served tea, fired arrows drawn from a quiver, and even painted a Japanese kanji character.[24] Remotely operated vehicles were demonstrated in the late 19th Century in the form of several types of remotely controlled torpedos. The early 1870s saw remotely controlled torpedos by John Ericsson (pneumatic), John Louis Lay (electric wire guided), and Victor von Scheliha (electric wire guided).[10] In 1898 Nikola Tesla publicly demonstrated a "wireless" radio-controlled torpedo that he hoped sell to the US Navy.[25][26] In 1926, Westinghouse Electric Corporation created Televox, the first robot put to useful work. They followed Televox with a number of other simple robots, including one called Rastus, made in the crude image of a black man. In the 1930s, they created a humanoid robot known as Elektro for exhibition purposes, including the 1939 and 1940 World's Fairs.[27][28] In 1928, Japan's first robot, Gakutensoku, was designed and constructed by biologist Makoto Nishimura. The first electronic autonomous robots with complex behaviour were created by William Grey Walter of the Burden Neurological Institute at Bristol, England in 1948 and 1949. They were named Elmer and Elsie. These robots could sense light and contact with external objects, and use these stimuli to navigate.[] The first truly modern robot, digitally operated and programmable, was invented by George Devol in 1954 and was ultimately called the Unimate. Devol sold the first Unimate to General Motors in 1960, and it was installed in 1961

Robot in a plant in Trenton, New Jersey to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them.[29] Devols patent for the first digitally operated programmable robotic arm represents the foundation of the modern robotics industry.[30] Commercial and industrial robots are now in widespread use performing jobs more cheaply or with greater accuracy and reliability than humans. They are also employed for jobs which are too dirty, dangerous or dull to be suitable for humans. Robots are widely used in manufacturing, assembly and packing, transport, earth and space exploration, surgery, weaponry, laboratory research, and mass production of consumer and industrial goods.[31]

The word robot was introduced to the public by the Czech interwar writer Karel apek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), published in 1920.[] The play begins in a factory that makes artificial people called robots, though they are closer to the modern ideas of androids, creatures who can be mistaken for humans. They can plainly think for themselves, though they seem happy to serve. At issue is whether the robots are being exploited and the consequences of their treatment.

Karel apek himself did not coin the word. He wrote a short letter in reference to an etymology in the Oxford English Dictionary in which he named his brother, the painter and writer Josef apek, as its actual originator.[] In an article in the Czech journal Lidov noviny in 1933, he explained that he had originally wanted to call the creatures laboi ("workers", from Latin labor). However, he did not like the word, and sought advice from his brother Josef, who suggested "roboti". The word robota means literally "corve", "serf labor", and figuratively "drudgery" or "hard work" in Czech and also (more general) "work", "labor" in many Slavic languages (e.g.: Bulgarian, Russian, Serbian, Slovak, Polish, Macedonian, Ukrainian, archaic Czech). Traditionally the robota was the work period a serf (corve) had to give for his lord, typically 6 months of the year. The origin of the word is the Old Church Slavonic (Old Bulgarian) rabota "servitude" ("work" in contemporary Bulgarian and Russian), which in turn comes from the Indo-European root *orbh-. Robot is cognate with the German root Arbeit (work).[32][33] The word robotics, used to describe this field of study,[] was coined by the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov. Asimov created the "Three Laws of Robotics" which are a recurring theme in his books. These have since been used by many others to define laws used in fact and fiction. Introduced in his 1942 short story "Runaround" the Laws state the following: 1. A robot may not harm a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. 2. A robot must obey a human being, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law. 3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.

A scene from Karel apek's 1920 play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), showing three robots


Modern robots
Mobile robot
Mobile robots have the capability to move around in their environment and are not fixed to one physical location. An example of a mobile robot that is in common use today is the automated guided vehicle or automatic guided vehicle (AGV). An AGV is a mobile robot that follows markers or wires in the floor, or uses vision or lasers.[citation needed] AGVs are discussed later in this article. Mobile robots are also found in industry, military and security environments. They also appear as consumer products, for entertainment or to perform certain tasks like vacuum cleaning. Mobile robots are the focus of a great deal of current research and almost every major university has one or more labs that focus on mobile robot research.[citation needed] Mobile robots are usually used in tightly controlled environments such as on assembly lines because they have difficulty responding to A laparoscopic robotic surgery machine unexpected interference. Because of this most humans rarely encounter robots. However domestic robots for cleaning and maintenance are increasingly common in and around homes in developed countries. Robots can also be found in military applications.[citation needed]

Industrial robots (manipulating)

Industrial robots usually consist of a jointed arm (multi-linked manipulator) and an end effector that is attached to a fixed surface. One of the most common type of end effector is a gripper assembly. The International Organization for Standardization gives a definition of a manipulating industrial robot in ISO 8373: "an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose, manipulator programmable in three or more axes, which may be either fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial automation applications."[34] This definition is used by the International Federation of Robotics, the European Robotics Research Network (EURON) and many national standards committees.[35]

Service robot
Most commonly industrial robots are fixed robotic arms and manipulators used primarily for production and distribution of goods. The term "service robot" is less well-defined. The International Federation of Robotics has proposed a tentative definition, "A service robot is a robot which operates semi- or fully autonomously to perform services useful to the well-being of humans and equipment, excluding manufacturing operations."[36]

A Pick and Place robot in a factory


Modular robot
Modular robots are a new breed of robots that are designed to increase the utilization of the robots by modularizing the robots. The functionality and effectiveness of a modular robot is easier to increase compared to conventional robots. These robots are composed of a single type of identical, several different identical module types, or similarly shaped modules, which vary in size. Their architectural structure allows hyper-redundancy for modular robots, as they can be designed with more than 8 degrees of freedom (DOF). Creating the programming, inverse kinematics and dynamics for modular robots is more complex than with traditional robots. Modular robots may be composed of L-shaped modules, cubic modules, and U and H-shaped modules. ANAT technology, an early modular robotic technology patented by Robotics Design Inc., allows the creation of modular robots from U and H shaped modules that connect in a chain, and are used to form heterogeneous and homogenous modular robot systems. These ANAT robots can be designed with n DOF as each module is a complete motorized robotic system that folds relatively to the modules connected before and after it in its chain, and therefore a single module allows one degree of freedom. The more modules that are connected to one another, the more degrees of freedom it will have. L-shaped modules can also be designed in a chain, and must become increasingly smaller as the size of the chain increases, as payloads attached to the end of the chain place a greater strain on modules that are further from the base. ANAT H-shaped modules do not suffer from this problem, as their design allows a modular robot to distribute pressure and impacts evenly amongst other attached modules, and therefore payload-carrying capacity does not decrease as the length of the arm increases. Modular robots can be manually or self-reconfigured to form a different robot, that may perform different applications. Because modular robots of the same architecture type are composed of modules that compose different modular robots, a snake-arm robot can combine with another to form a dual or quadra-arm robot, or can split into several mobile robots, and mobile robots can split into multiple smaller ones, or combine with others into a larger or different one. This allows a single modular robot the ability to be fully specialized in a single task, as well as the capacity to be specialized to perform multiple different tasks. Modular robotic technology is currently being applied in hybrid transportation,[] industrial automation,[] duct cleaning[] and handling. Many research centres and universities have also studied this technology, and have developed prototypes.

Collaborative robots
A collaborative robot or Cobot is a robot that can safely and effectively interact with human workers in performance of simple industrial tasks. However, end-effectors and other environmental conditions could create a hazard, and a risk assessment should be done with any industrial motion control application.[37] The collaborative robots most widely used in industries today are manufactured by Universal Robots in Denmark.[citation needed] Baxter, introduced on September 18, 2012, a product of Rethink Robotics, whose principal was Rodney Brooks, was an industrial robot selling for about $20,000 which was designed to safely interact with neighboring human workers and be programmable for the performance of simple tasks.[38] The robot stops if its movement encounters a human in the way of its robotic arm and has a prominent off switch which its human partner can push if necessary. The product, intended for sale to small business, was touted as the robotic analogue of the personal computer. Costs were projected to be the equivalent of a worker making $4 an hour.[]


Robots in society
Roughly half of all the robots in the world are in Asia, 32% in Europe, and 16% in North America, 1% in Australasia and 1% in Africa.[41] 40% of all the robots in the world are in Japan,[42] making Japan the country with the highest number of robots.

Regional perspectives
In Japan and other Asian countries, ideas of future robots have been mainly positive, and the start of the pro-robotic society there TOPIO, a humanoid robot, played ping pong at Tokyo is thought to be possibly due to the famous 'Astro Boy'. Asian [39][40] International Robot Exhibition (IREX) 2009. societies such as Japan, and more recently in South Korea and China, believe robots to be more equal to humans, having them care for old people, play with or teach children, or replace pets etc.[43] The general view in Asian cultures is that the more robots advance, the better. "This is the opening of an era in which human beings and robots can co-exist," says Japanese firm Mitsubishi about one of the many humanistic robots in Japan.[44] South Korea aims to put a robot in every house there by 2015-2020.[45][46] Western societies are more likely to be against, or even fear the development of robotics, through much media output in movies and literature that they will replace humans. Some believe that the West regards robots as a 'threat' to the future of humans, partly due to religious beliefs about the role of humans and society.[47][48] Obviously, these boundaries are not clear, but there is a significant difference between the two cultural viewpoints.

Autonomy and ethical questions

As robots have become more advanced and sophisticated, experts and academics have increasingly explored the questions of what ethics might govern robots' behavior,[49] and whether robots might be able to claim any kind of social, cultural, ethical or legal rights.[50] One scientific team has said that it is possible that a robot brain will exist by 2019.[51] Others predict robot intelligence breakthroughs by 2050.[52] Recent advances have made robotic behavior more sophisticated.[53] The social impact of intelligent robots is subject of a 2010 documentary film called Plug & Pray.[54] Vernor Vinge has suggested that a moment may come when computers and robots are smarter than humans. He calls this "the Singularity".[55] He suggests that it may be somewhat or possibly very dangerous for humans.[56] This is discussed by a philosophy called Singularitarianism. In 2009, experts attended a conference hosted by the Association for An android, or robot designed to resemble a human, can appear comforting to some people the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) to discuss whether [] and disturbing to others computers and robots might be able to acquire any autonomy, and how much these abilities might pose a threat or hazard. They noted that some robots have acquired various forms of semi-autonomy, including being able to find power sources on their own and being able to independently choose targets to attack with weapons. They also noted that some computer viruses can evade elimination and have achieved "cockroach intelligence." They noted that self-awareness as depicted in

Robot science-fiction is probably unlikely, but that there were other potential hazards and pitfalls.[55] Various media sources and scientific groups have noted separate trends in differing areas which might together result in greater robotic functionalities and autonomy, and which pose some inherent concerns.[57][58][59]

Military robots
Some experts and academics have questioned the use of robots for military combat, especially when such robots are given some degree of autonomous functions.[60] There are also concerns about technology which might allow some armed robots to be controlled mainly by other robots.[61] The US Navy has funded a report which indicates that, as military robots become more complex, there should be greater attention to implications of their ability to make autonomous decisions.[62][63] One researcher states that autonomous robots might be more humane, as they could make decisions more effectively. However, other experts question this.[64] One robot in particular, the EATR, has generated public concerns [] over its fuel source, as it can continually refuel itself using organic substances.[] Although the engine for the EATR is designed to run on biomass and vegetation[65] specifically selected by its sensors, which it can find on battlefields or other local environments, the project has stated that chicken fat can also be used.[66] Manuel De Landa has noted that "smart missiles" and autonomous bombs equipped with artificial perception can be considered robots, as they make some of their decisions autonomously. He believes this represents an important and dangerous trend in which humans are handing over important decisions to machines.[67]

Relationship to unemployment
A recent example of human replacement involves Taiwanese technology company Foxconn who, in July 2011, announced a three-year plan to replace workers with more robots. At present the company uses ten thousand robots but will increase them to a million robots over a three-year period.[] Service robots of different varieties including medical robots, underwater robots, surveillance robots, demolition robots and other types of robots that carry out a multitude of jobs are gaining in numbers. Service robots are everyday tools for mankind. They can clean floors, mow lawns and guard homes and will also assist old and handicapped people, do some surgeries, inspect pipes and sites that are hazardous to people, fight fires and defuse bombs.[68]



Contemporary uses
At present, there are two main types of robots, based on their use: general-purpose autonomous robots and dedicated robots. Robots can be classified by their specificity of purpose. A robot might be designed to perform one particular task extremely well, or a range of tasks less well. Of course, all robots by their nature can be re-programmed to behave differently, but some are limited by their physical form. For example, a factory robot arm can perform jobs such as cutting, welding, gluing, or acting as a fairground ride, while a pick-and-place robot can only populate printed circuit boards.

General-purpose autonomous robots

General-purpose autonomous robots can perform a variety of functions independently. General-purpose autonomous robots typically can navigate independently in known spaces, handle their own re-charging needs, interface with electronic doors and elevators and perform other basic tasks. Like computers, general-purpose robots can link with networks, software and accessories that increase their usefulness. They may recognize people or objects, talk, provide companionship, monitor environmental quality, respond to alarms, pick up supplies and perform other useful tasks. A general-purpose robot acts as a guide during the day and a security guard at General-purpose robots may perform a variety of functions simultaneously night or they may take on different roles at different times of day. Some such robots try to mimic human beings and may even resemble people in appearance; this type of robot is called a humanoid robot. Humanoid robots are still in a very limited stage, as no humanoid robot, can, as yet, actually navigate around a room that it has never been in. [citation needed] Thus humanoid robots are really quite limited, despite their intelligent behaviors in their well-known environments.

Factory robots
Car production Over the last three decades, automobile factories have become dominated by robots. A typical factory contains hundreds of industrial robots working on fully automated production lines, with one robot for every ten human workers. On an automated production line, a vehicle chassis on a conveyor is welded, glued, painted and finally assembled at a sequence of robot stations. Packaging Industrial robots are also used extensively for palletizing and packaging of manufactured goods, for example for rapidly taking drink cartons from the end of a conveyor belt and placing them into boxes, or for loading and unloading machining centers. Electronics Mass-produced printed circuit boards (PCBs) are almost exclusively manufactured by pick-and-place robots, typically with SCARA manipulators, which remove tiny electronic components from strips or trays, and place them on to PCBs with great accuracy.[69] Such robots can place hundreds of thousands of components per hour, far out-performing a human in speed, accuracy, and reliability.[70] Automated guided vehicles (AGVs)



Mobile robots, following markers or wires in the floor, or using vision[71] or lasers, are used to transport goods around large facilities, such as warehouses, container ports, or hospitals.[72] Early AGV-Style Robots Limited to tasks that could be accurately defined and had to be performed the same way every time. Very little feedback or intelligence was required, and the robots needed only the most basic exteroceptors (sensors). The limitations of these AGVs are that their paths are not easily altered and they cannot alter their paths if obstacles block them. If one AGV breaks down, it may stop the entire operation. Interim AGV-Technologies Developed to deploy triangulation from beacons or bar code grids for scanning on the floor or ceiling. In most factories, triangulation systems tend to require moderate to high maintenance, such as daily cleaning of all beacons or bar codes. Also, if a tall pallet or large vehicle blocks beacons or a bar code is marred, AGVs may become lost. Often such AGVs are designed to be used in human-free environments. Intelligent AGVs (i-AGVs) Such as SmartLoader,[73] SpeciMinder,[74] ADAM,[75] Tug[76] Eskorta,[77] and MT 400 with Motivity[78] are designed for people-friendly workspaces. They navigate by recognizing natural features. 3D scanners or other means of sensing the environment in two or three dimensions help to eliminate cumulative errors in dead-reckoning calculations of the AGV's current position. Some AGVs can create maps of their environment using scanning lasers with simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) and use those maps to navigate in real time with other path planning and obstacle avoidance algorithms. They are able to operate in complex environments and perform non-repetitive and non-sequential tasks such as transporting photomasks in a semiconductor lab, specimens in hospitals and goods in warehouses. For dynamic areas, such as warehouses full of pallets, AGVs require additional strategies using three-dimensional sensors such as time-of-flight or stereovision cameras.

An intelligent AGV drops-off goods without needing lines or beacons in the workspace

Dirty, dangerous, dull or inaccessible tasks

There are many jobs which humans would rather leave to robots. The job may be boring, such as domestic cleaning, or dangerous, such as exploring inside a volcano.[79] Other jobs are physically inaccessible, such as exploring another planet,[80] cleaning the inside of a long pipe, or performing laparoscopic surgery.[] Space probes Almost every unmanned space probe ever launched was a robot.[81][82] Some were launched in the 1960s with very limited abilities, but their ability to fly and land (in the case of Luna 9) is an indication of their status as a robot. This includes the Voyager probes and the Galileo probes, and others. Telerobots



Teleoperated robots, or telerobots are devices remotely operated from a distance by a human operator rather than following a predetermined sequence of movements. They are used when a human cannot be present on site to perform a job because it is dangerous, far away, or inaccessible. The robot may be in another room or another country, or may be on a very different scale to the operator. For instance, a laparoscopic surgery robot allows the surgeon to work inside a human patient on a relatively small scale compared to open surgery, significantly shortening recovery time.[] They can also be used to avoid exposing workers to the hazardous and tight spaces such as in duct A U.S. Marine Corps technician prepares to use a telerobot to detonate a buried improvised cleaning. When disabling a bomb, the operator sends a small robot to explosive device near Camp Fallujah, Iraq disable it. Several authors have been using a device called the Longpen to sign books remotely.[83] Teleoperated robot aircraft, like the Predator Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, are increasingly being used by the military. These pilotless drones can search terrain and fire on targets.[84][85] Hundreds of robots such as iRobot's Packbot and the Foster-Miller TALON are being used in Iraq and Afghanistan by the U.S. military to defuse roadside bombs or improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in an activity known as explosive ordnance disposal (EOD).[86] Automated fruit harvesting machines Used to pick fruit on orchards at a cost lower than that of human pickers. Domestic robots Domestic robots are simple robots dedicated to a single task work in home use. They are used in simple but unwanted jobs, such as vacuum cleaning and floor washing, and lawn mowing.

Military robots
Military robots include the SWORDS robot which is currently used in ground-based combat. It can use a variety of weapons and there is some discussion of giving it some degree of autonomy in battleground situations.[87][88][89]

The Roomba domestic vacuum cleaner robot does a single, menial job

Unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs), which are an upgraded form of UAVs, can do a wide variety of missions, including combat. UCAVs are being designed such as the BAE Systems Mantis which would have the ability to fly themselves, to pick their own course and target, and to make most decisions on their own.[90] The BAE Taranis is a UCAV built by Great Britain which can fly across continents without a pilot and has new means to avoid detection.[] Flight trials are expected to begin in 2011.[91][92] The AAAI has studied this topic in depth[49] and its president has commissioned a study to look at this issue.[93] Some have suggested a need to build "Friendly AI", meaning that the advances which are already occurring with AI should also include an effort to make AI intrinsically friendly and humane.[94] Several such measures reportedly already exist, with robot-heavy countries such as Japan and South Korea[45] having begun to pass regulations requiring robots to be equipped with safety systems, and possibly sets of 'laws' akin to Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics.[95][96] An official report was issued in 2009 by the Japanese government's Robot Industry Policy Committee.[97] Chinese officials and researchers have issued a report suggesting a set of ethical rules, and a set of new legal guidelines referred to as "Robot Legal Studies."[98] Some concern has been expressed over a possible occurrence of robots telling apparent falsehoods.[99]



Mining robots
Mining robots are designed to help counteract a number of challenges currently facing the mining industry, including skills shortages, improving productivity from declining ore grades, and achieving environmental targets. Due to the hazardous nature of mining, in particular underground mining, the prevalence of autonomous, semi-autonomous, and tele-operated robots has greatly increased in recent times. A number of vehicle manufacturers provide autonomous trains, trucks and loaders that will load material, transport it on the mine site to its destination, and unload without requiring human intervention. One of the worlds largest mining corporations, Rio Tinto, has recently expanded its autonomous vehicle fleet to the worlds largest, consisting of 150 autonomous Komatsu trucks, operating in Western Australia.[100] Drilling, longwall and rockbreaking machines are now also available as autonomous robots.[101] The Atlas Copco Rig Control System can autonomously execute a drilling plan on a drilling rig, moving the rig into position using GPS, set up the drill rig and drill down to specified depths.[102] Similarly, the Transmin Rocklogic system can automatically plan a path to position a rockbreaker at a selected destination.[103] These systems greatly enhance the safety and efficiency of mining operations.

From the 1980s, robots such as turtles were used in schools and programmed using the Logo language.[][] Robotics at school in the 21st century has three main applications, Robotic kits, Virtual tutors, and teacher's assistants. Robot kits Robotic kits like Lego Mindstorms, BIOLOID, OLLO from ROBOTIS, or BotBrain Educational Robots can help children to learn about mathematics, physics, programming, and electronics. Robot competitions Robotics have also been introduced into the lives of elementary and high school students with the company FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology). The organization is the foundation for the FIRST Robotics Competition, FIRST LEGO League, Junior FIRST LEGO League, and FIRST Tech Challenge competitions. Virtual tutors Virtual tutors are some kind of embodied agent that helps children to do their homework, for example, on peer to peer basis. Teacher assistants Robots as teacher assistants let children to be more assertive during the class and get more motivated. South Korea is the first country deploying a program to have a robot in each school.[citation needed]



Robots in healthcare have two main functions. Those which assist an individual, such as a sufferer of a disease like Multiple Sclerosis, and those which aid in the overall systems such as pharmacies and hospitals. Home automation for the elderly and disabled Robots have developed over time from simple basic robotic assistants, such as the Handy 1,[] through to semi-autonomous robots, such as FRIEND which can assist the elderly and disabled with common tasks. The population is aging in many countries, especially Japan, meaning that there are increasing numbers of elderly people to care for, but relatively fewer young people to care for them.[104][105] Humans make the best carers, but where they are unavailable, robots are gradually being introduced.[106] FRIEND is a semi-autonomous robot designed to support disabled and elderly people in their daily life activities, like preparing and serving a meal. FRIEND make it possible for patients who are paraplegic, have muscle diseases or serious paralysis (due to strokes etc.), to perform tasks without help from other people like therapists or nursing staff. Pharmacies Script Pro manufactures a robot designed to help pharmacies fill prescriptions that consist of oral solids or medications in pill form. The pharmacist or pharmacy technician enters the prescription information into its information system. The system, upon determining whether or not the drug is in the robot, will send the information to the robot for filling. The robot has 3 different size vials to fill determined by the size of the pill. The robot technician, user, or pharmacist determines the needed size of the vial based on the tablet when the robot is stocked. Once the vial is filled it is brought up to a conveyor belt that delivers it to a holder that spins the vial and attaches the patient label. Afterwards it is set on another conveyor that delivers the patients medication vial to a slot labeled with the patient's name on an LED read out. The pharmacist or technician then checks the contents of the vial to ensure its the correct drug for the correct patient and then seals the vials and sends it out front to be picked up. The robot is a very time efficient device that the pharmacy depends on to fill prescriptions. McKessons Robot RX is another healthcare robotics product that helps pharmacies dispense thousands of medications daily with little or no errors. The robot can be ten feet wide and thirty feet long and can hold hundreds of different kinds of medications and thousands of doses. The pharmacy saves many resources like staff members that are otherwise unavailable in a resource scarce industry. It uses an electromechanical head coupled with a pneumatic system to capture each dose and deliver it to its either stocked or dispensed location. The head moves along a single axis while it rotates 180 degrees to pull the medications. During this process it uses barcode technology to verify its pulling the correct drug. It then delivers the drug to a patient specific bin on a conveyor belt. Once the bin is filled with all of the drugs that a particular patient needs and that the robot stocks, the bin is then released and returned out on the conveyor belt to a technician waiting to load it into a cart for delivery to the floor.

The Care-Providing Robot FRIEND. (Photo: IAT)

Research robots
While most robots today are installed in factories or homes, performing labour or life saving jobs, many new types of robot are being developed in laboratories around the world. Much of the research in robotics focuses not on specific industrial tasks, but on investigations into new types of robot, alternative ways to think about or design robots, and new ways to manufacture them. It is expected that these new types of robot will be able to solve real world problems when they are finally realized.[citation needed]

Robot Nanorobots Nanorobotics is the emerging technology field of creating machines or robots whose components are at or close to the microscopic scale of a nanometer (109 meters). Also known as "nanobots" or "nanites", they would be constructed from molecular machines. So far, researchers have mostly produced only parts of these complex systems, such as bearings, sensors, and synthetic molecular motors, but functioning A microfabricated electrostatic gripper holding robots have also been made such as the entrants to the Nanobot [107] some silicon nanowires. [108] Robocup contest. Researchers also hope to be able to create entire robots as small as viruses or bacteria, which could perform tasks on a tiny scale. Possible applications include micro surgery (on the level of individual cells), utility fog,[109] manufacturing, weaponry and cleaning.[110] Some people have suggested that if there were nanobots which could reproduce, the earth would turn into "grey goo", while others argue that this hypothetical outcome is nonsense.[111][112] Reconfigurable Robots A few researchers have investigated the possibility of creating robots which can alter their physical form to suit a particular task,[113] like the fictional T-1000. Real robots are nowhere near that sophisticated however, and mostly consist of a small number of cube shaped units, which can move relative to their neighbours. Algorithms have been designed in case any such robots become a reality.[114] Soft Robots Robots with silicone bodies and flexible actuators (air muscles, electroactive polymers, and ferrofluids), controlled using fuzzy logic and neural networks, look and feel different from robots with rigid skeletons, and can have different behaviors.[115] Swarm robots Inspired by colonies of insects such as ants and bees, researchers are modeling the behavior of swarms of thousands of tiny robots which together perform a useful task, such as finding something hidden, cleaning, or spying. Each robot is quite simple, but the emergent behavior of the swarm is more complex. The whole set of robots can be considered as one single distributed system, in the same way an ant colony can be considered a superorganism, exhibiting swarm intelligence. The largest swarms so far created include the iRobot swarm, the SRI/MobileRobots CentiBots project[116] and the A swarm of robots from the open-source Open-source Micro-robotic Project swarm, which are being used to micro-robotic project research collective behaviors.[117][118] Swarms are also more resistant to failure. Whereas one large robot may fail and ruin a mission, a swarm can continue even if several robots fail. This could make them attractive for space exploration missions, where failure is normally extremely costly.[119] Haptic interface robots Robotics also has application in the design of virtual reality interfaces. Specialized robots are in widespread use in the haptic research community. These robots, called "haptic interfaces," allow touch-enabled user interaction with real and virtual environments. Robotic forces allow simulating the mechanical properties of "virtual" objects, which users can experience through their sense of touch.[120]




Poledancing robots Some robots are used for entertainment and as a demonstration of the newest technology. This nimble automoton is a perfect example of this process. Being the main attractions at Ce-BIT, the worlds biggest IT trade fair in Hanover, Germany.[121]

Future development
Technological trends
Various techniques have emerged to develop the science of robotics and robots. One method is evolutionary robotics, in which a number of differing robots are submitted to tests. Those which perform best are used as a model to create a subsequent "generation" of robots. Another method is developmental robotics, which tracks changes and development within a single robot in the areas of problem-solving and other functions.

Technological development
Overall trends Japan hopes to have full-scale commercialization of service robots by 2025. Much technological research in Japan is led by Japanese government agencies, particularly the Trade Ministry.[122] As robots become more advanced, eventually there may be a standard computer operating system designed mainly for robots. Robot Operating System is an open-source set of programs being developed at Stanford University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Technical University of Munich, Germany, among others. ROS provides ways to program a robot's navigation and limbs regardless of the specific hardware involved. It also provides high-level commands for items like image recognition and even opening doors. When ROS boots up on a robot's computer, it would obtain data on attributes such as the length and movement of robots' limbs. It would relay this data to higher-level algorithms. Microsoft is also developing a "Windows for robots" system with its Robotics Developer Studio, which has been available since 2007.[123] New functions and abilities The Caterpillar Company is making a dump truck which can drive itself without any human operator.[124] Many future applications of robotics seem obvious to people, even though they are well beyond the capabilities of robots available at the time of the prediction.[125][126] As early as 1982 people were confident that someday robots would:[127] 1. clean parts by removing molding flash 2. spray paint automobiles with absolutely no human presence 3. pack things in boxesfor example, orient and nest chocolate candies in candy boxes 4. make electrical cable harness 5. load trucks with boxesa packing problem 6. handle soft goods, such as garments and shoes 7. shear sheep 8. prosthesis 9. cook fast food and work in other service industries 10. household robot. Generally such predictions are overly optimistic in timescale.



Reading robot
A literate or 'reading robot' named Marge has intelligence that comes from software. She can read newspapers, find and correct misspelled words, learn about banks like Barclays, and understand that some restaurants are better places to eat than others.[128]

Robots in popular culture

Robotic characters, androids (artificial men/women) or gynoids (artificial women), and cyborgs (also "bionic men/women", or humans with significant mechanical enhancements) have become a staple of science fiction. The first reference in Western literature to mechanical servants appears in Homer's Iliad. In Book XVIII, Hephaestus, god of fire, creates new armor for the hero Achilles, assisted by robots.[] According to the Rieu translation, "Golden maidservants hastened to help their master. They looked like real women and could not only speak and use their limbs but were endowed with intelligence and trained in handwork by the immortal gods." Of course, the words "robot" or "android" are not used to describe them, but they are nevertheless mechanical devices human in appearance. "The first use of the word Robot was in Karel apek's play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots) (written in 1920)". Writer Karel apek was born in Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic). Possibly the most prolific author of the twentieth century was Isaac Asimov (19201992)[] who published over five-hundred books.[] Asimov is probably best remembered for his science-fiction stories and especially those about robots, where he placed robots and their interaction with society at the center of many of his works.[129][130] Asimov carefully considered the problem of the ideal set of instructions robots might be given in order to lower the risk to humans, and arrived at his Three Laws of Robotics: a robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm; a robot must obey orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law; and a robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.[131] These were introduced in his 1942 short story "Runaround", although foreshadowed in a few earlier stories. Later, Asimov added the Zeroth Law: "A robot may not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow humanity to come to harm"; the rest of the laws are modified sequentially to acknowledge this. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first passage in Asimov's short story "Liar!" (1941) that mentions the First Law is the earliest recorded use of the word robotics. Asimov was not initially aware of this; he assumed the word already existed by analogy with mechanics, hydraulics, and other similar terms denoting branches of applied knowledge.[132]

Problems depicted in popular culture

Fears and concerns about robots have been repeatedly expressed in a wide range of books and films. A common theme is the development of a master race of conscious and highly intelligent robots, motivated to take over or destroy the human race. (See The Terminator, Runaway, RoboCop, the Replicators in Stargate, the Cylons in Battlestar Galactica, The Matrix, Enthiran and I, Robot.) Some fictional robots are programmed to kill and destroy; others gain superhuman intelligence and abilities by upgrading their own software and hardware. Examples of popular media where the robot becomes evil are 2001: A Space Odyssey, Red Planet and Enthiran. Another common theme is the reaction, sometimes called the "uncanny valley", of unease and even revulsion at the sight of robots that mimic humans too closely.[] Frankenstein (1818), often called the first science fiction novel, has become synonymous with the theme of a robot or monster advancing beyond its creator. In the TV show, Futurama, the robots are portrayed as humanoid figures that live alongside humans, not as robotic butlers. They still work in industry, but these robots carry out daily lives. Other problems may include events pertaining to robot surrogates (e.g. the movie Surrogates) where tissue of living organisms is interchanged with robotic systems. These problems can leave many possibilities where electronic viruses or an electro magnetic pulse (EMP) can destroy not only the

Robot robot but kill the host/operator as well.


[1] Pearce, Jeremy. "George C. Devol, Inventor of Robot Arm, Dies at 99" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2011/ 08/ 16/ business/ george-devol-developer-of-robot-arm-dies-at-99. html), The New York Times, August 15, 2011. Accessed February 7, 2012. "In 1961, General Motors put the first Unimate arm on an assembly line at the companys plant in Ewing Township, N.J., a suburb of Trenton. The device was used to lift and stack die-cast metal parts taken hot from their molds." [7] Needham, Volume 2, 53. [8] Noct. Att. L. 10 [9] Needham, Volume 2, 54. [10] Edwyn Gray, Nineteenth-century torpedoes and their inventors, page 18 [17] Mark E. Rosheim (1994). " Robot evolution: the development of anthrobotics (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=IxtL54iiDPUC& pg=& dq& hl=en#v=onepage& q=& f=false)". p.2. Wiley-IEEE. ISBN 0-471-02622-0 [18] " Robots then and now (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ cbbcnews/ hi/ find_out/ guides/ tech/ robots/ newsid_3914000/ 3914569. stm)". BBC. [22] Jane Marie Law, Puppets of Nostalgia The Life, Death and Rebirth of the Japanese Awaji Ningyo Tradition, 1997, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-02894-1 [23] Wood, Gabby. "Living Dolls: A Magical History Of The Quest For Mechanical Life" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ books/ 2002/ feb/ 16/ extract. gabywood), The Guardian, 2002-02-16. [32] Indo-European root *orbh- (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080512121943/ www. bartleby. com/ 61/ roots/ IE363. html) [36] Provisional definition of Service Robots (http:/ / www. ifr. org/ service-robots/ :) English, 27th of October 2012 [38] Baxter Robot Heads to Work (http:/ / online. wsj. com/ article/ SB10000872396390443720204578004441732584574. html) September 18, 2012 [41] Robots Today and Tomorrow: IFR Presents the 2007 World Robotics Statistics Survey (http:/ / www. robots. com/ blog. php?tag=48); World Robotics; 2007-10-29; retrieved on 2007-12-14 [42] Reporting by Watanabe, Hiroaki; Writing and additional reporting by Negishi, Mayumi; Editing by Norton, Jerry; Japan's robots slug it out to be world champ (http:/ / www. reuters. com/ article/ technologyNews/ idUST32811820071202); Reuters; 2007-12-02; retrieved on 2007-01-01 [43] "Robot Helpers" (http:/ / www. usatoday. com/ tech/ news/ techinnovations/ 2004-04-11-robot-helpers_x. htm). USA Today. April 11, 2004. [44] Domestic robot to debut in Japan (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ asia-pacific/ 4196052. stm); BBC News; 2005-08-30; retrieved on 2007-01-02 [45] Robotic age poses ethical dilemma (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ technology/ 6425927. stm); BBC News; 2007-03-07; retrieved on 2007-01-02; [46] Chamberlain, Ted; Photo in the News: Ultra-Lifelike Robot Debuts in Japan (http:/ / news. nationalgeographic. com/ news/ 2005/ 06/ 0610_050610_robot. html); National Geographic News; 2005-06-10; retrieved on 2008-01-02 [47] Biglione, Kirk; The Secret To Japan's Robot Dominance (http:/ / www. planettokyo. com/ news/ index. cfm/ fuseaction/ story/ ID/ 36/ ); Planet Tokyo; 2006-01-24; retrieved on 2007-01-02 [48] Yang, Jeff; ASIAN POP Robot Nation Why Japan, and not America, is likely to be the world's first cyborg society (http:/ / www. sfgate. com/ cgi-bin/ article. cgi?f=/ g/ a/ 2005/ 08/ 25/ apop. DTL); SFGate; 2005-08-25; retrieved on 2007-01-02 [49] AAAI webpage of materials on robot ethics (http:/ / www. aaai. org/ AITopics/ pmwiki/ pmwiki. php/ AITopics/ Ethics). [50] AAAI compilation of articles on robot rights (http:/ / www. aaai. org/ AITopics/ newstopics/ ethics5. html), Sources compiled up to 2006. [51] Scientists Predict Artificial Brain in 10 Years (http:/ / www. familyhealthguide. co. uk/ scientists-predict-artificial-brain-in-10-years. html), by Kristie McNealy M.D. July 29, 2009. [52] Robot: Mere Machine to Transcendent Mind (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=fduW6KHhWtQC& dq=robot& printsec=frontcover& source=bl& ots=SuquyjYb4n& sig=5S3L8pqiLqZ_yjJgh97tPE6F7gQ& hl=en& ei=R1-MSubxLs_dlAfJm_26CA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=6#v=onepage& q=& f=false) By Hans Moravec, Google Books. [53] Robots Almost Conquering Walking, Reading, Dancing (http:/ / www. koreaittimes. com/ story/ 4668/ robots-almost-conquering-walking-reading-dancing), by Matthew Weigand, Korea Itimes, Monday, August 17, 2009. [54] Plug & Pray (http:/ / www. plugandpray-film. de/ en/ content. html), documentary film by Jens Schanze about the possibilities of AI and robotics. [55] Scientists Worry Machines May Outsmart Man (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2009/ 07/ 26/ science/ 26robot. html?_r=1& ref=todayspaper) By John Markoff, NY Times, July 26, 2009. [56] The Coming Technological Singularity: How to Survive in the Post-Human Era (http:/ / www-rohan. sdsu. edu/ faculty/ vinge/ misc/ singularity. html), by Vernor Vinge, Department of Mathematical Sciences, San Diego State University, (c) 1993 by Vernor Vinge. [57] Gaming the Robot Revolution: A military technology expert weighs in on Terminator: Salvation (http:/ / www. slate. com/ id/ 2218834/ )., By P. W. Singer, slate.com Thursday, May 21, 2009. [58] Robot takeover (http:/ / www. gyre. org/ news/ explore/ robot-takeover), gyre.org. [59] robot page (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ tag/ robotapocalypse), engadget.com. [60] Call for debate on killer robots (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ technology/ 8182003. stm), Jason Palmer. BBC News, 8/3/09.

[61] Robot three-way portends autonomous future (http:/ / www. wired. com/ dangerroom/ 2009/ 08/ robot-three-way-portends-autonomous-future/ ), By David Axe wired.com, August 13, 2009. [62] New Navy-funded Report Warns of War Robots Going "Terminator" (http:/ / www. dailytech. com/ New Navyfunded Report Warns of War Robots Going Terminator/ article14298. htm), by Jason Mick (Blog), dailytech.com, February 17, 2009. [63] Navy report warns of robot uprising, suggests a strong moral compass (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2009/ 02/ 18/ navy-report-warns-of-robot-uprising-suggests-a-strong-moral-com/ ), by Joseph L. Flatley engadget.com, February 18, 2009. [64] New role for robot warriors; (http:/ / www. csmonitor. com/ layout/ set/ print/ content/ view/ print/ 279448) Drones are just part of a bid to automate combat. Can virtual ethics make machines decisionmakers?, by Gregory M. Lamb, Christian Science Monitor, February 17, 2010. [65] Press release, RTI Inc. (2009 July 16). Cyclone Power Technologies Responds to Rumors about Flesh Eating Military Robot (http:/ / www. robotictechnologyinc. com/ images/ upload/ file/ Cyclone Power Press Release EATR Rumors Final 16 July 09. pdf), pp. 1-2. [66] Press release, RTI Inc. (2009 April 6). "Brief Project Overview" (http:/ / www. robotictechnologyinc. com/ images/ upload/ file/ Presentation EATR Brief Overview 6 April 09. pdf), EATR: Energetically Autonomous Tactical Robot, pp. 22. [67] Manuel de Landa, War in the Age of Intelligent Machines, New York: Zone Books, 1991, 280 pages, Hardcover, ISBN 0-942299-76-0; Paperback, ISBN 0-942299-75-2. [68] retrieved September-03-11 (http:/ / www. sciencedaily. com/ releases/ 2004/ 10/ 041021085857. htm) [81] The Utilization of Robotic Space Probes in Deep Space Missions:Case Study of AI Protocols and Nuclear Power Requirements (http:/ / upes. academia. edu/ SeeteshPANDE/ Papers/ 1717325/ The_Utilization_of_Robotic_Space_Probes_in_Deep_Space_Missions_Case_Study_of_AI_Protocols_and_Nuclear_Power_Requirements), Proceedings of 2011 International Conference on Mechanical Engineering, Robotics and Aerospace, October 2011. [82] Review: Space Probes (http:/ / www. thespacereview. com/ article/ 2004/ 1), by Jeff Foust, Monday, January 16, 2012. Review of Space Probes: 50 Years of Exploration from Luna 1 to New Horizons, by Philippe Sgula Firefly, 2011. [87] WIRED: First Armed Robots on Patrol in Iraq (http:/ / blog. wired. com/ defense/ 2007/ 08/ httpwwwnational. html) [88] WIRED: Armed Robots Pushed To Police (http:/ / blog. wired. com/ defense/ 2007/ 08/ armed-robots-so. html) [89] America's Robot Army (http:/ / www. popularmechanics. com/ technology/ military_law/ 4252643. html?page=2) [90] The Present and Future of Unmanned Drone Aircraft: An Illustrated Field Guide; (http:/ / www. popsci. com/ technology/ article/ 2010-02/ field-guide-flying-robots) Inside the wild kingdom of the worlds newest and most spectacular species of unmanned aircraft, from swarming insect bots that can storm a burning building to a seven-ton weaponized spyplane invisible to radar. By Eric Hagerman, Popular Science, 23 February 2010. [93] AAAI Presidential Panel on Long-Term AI Futures 2008-2009 Study (http:/ / research. microsoft. com/ en-us/ um/ people/ horvitz/ AAAI_Presidential_Panel_2008-2009. htm), Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, Accessed 7/26/09. [94] Article at Asimovlaws.com (http:/ / www. asimovlaws. com/ articles/ archives/ 2004/ 07/ why_we_need_fri_1. html), July 2004, accessed 7/27/09. [95] Asimov's First Law: Japan Sets Rules for Robots (http:/ / www. livescience. com/ technology/ 060526_robot_rules. html), By Bill Christensen, livescience.com, May 26, 2006. [96] Japan drafts rules for advanced robots (http:/ / www. physorg. com/ news95078958. html), UPI via physorg.com, April 6, 2007. [97] Report compiled by the Japanese government's Robot Industry Policy Committee -Building a Safe and Secure Social System Incorporating the Coexistence of Humans and Robots (http:/ / www. meti. go. jp/ english/ press/ data/ 20090325_01. html), Official Japan government press release, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, March 2009. [98] Toward the human-Robot Coexistence Society: on Safety intelligence for next Generation Robots (http:/ / works. bepress. com/ cgi/ viewcontent. cgi?article=1000& context=weng_yueh_hsuan), report by Yueh-Hsuan Weng, China Ministry of the Interior, International Journal of Social Robotics (http:/ / www. springer. com/ engineering/ robotics/ journal/ 12369), April 7, 2009. [99] Evolving Robots Learn To Lie To Each Other (http:/ / www. foxnews. com/ story/ 0,2933,540721,00. html), Popular Science, August 19, 2009. [100] Rio Tinto Media Center - Rio Tinto boosts driverless truck fleet to 150 under Mine of the Future programme (http:/ / www. riotinto. com/ media/ 5157_21165. asp) [101] AIMEX blog - Autonomous mining equipment (http:/ / adrianboeing. blogspot. com/ 2011/ 06/ aimex. html) [102] Atlas Copco - RCS (http:/ / www. atlascopco. com/ rcs/ ) [103] Transmin - Rocklogic (http:/ / rocklogic. com. au/ ) [108] Techbirbal: Nanobots Play Football (http:/ / www. techbirbal. com/ viewtopic. php?p=3687& sid=7faaeeb64eaf84880b23755fea7fa7cd) [109] KurzweilAI.net: Utility Fog: The Stuff that Dreams Are Made Of (http:/ / www. kurzweilai. net/ meme/ frame. html?main=/ articles/ art0220. html?) [110] (Eric Drexler 1986) Engines of Creation, The Coming Era of Nanotechnology (http:/ / www. e-drexler. com/ d/ 06/ 00/ EOC/ EOC_Chapter_11. html) [113] (1996) LEGO(TM)s to the Stars: Active MesoStructures, Kinetic Cellular Automata, and Parallel Nanomachines for Space Applications (http:/ / www. islandone. org/ MMSG/ 9609lego. htm) [114] (Robert Fitch, Zack Butler and Daniela Rus) Reconfiguration Planning for Heterogeneous Self-Reconfiguring Robots (http:/ / groups. csail. mit. edu/ drl/ publications/ papers/ MeltSortGrow. pdf) [116] ((cite web|http:/ / www. activrobots. com/ RESEARCH/ wheelchair. html|title=SRI/ MobileRobots Centibot project))


[122] Research and Development for Next-generation Service Robots in Japan (http:/ / ukinjapan. fco. gov. uk/ resources/ en/ pdf/ 5606907/ 5633632/ next-generation-services-robots), United Kingdom Foreign Ministry report, by Yumiko Moyen, Science and Innovation Section, British Embassy, Tokyo, Japan, January 2009. [123] Robots to get their own operating system (http:/ / www. ethiopianreview. com/ articles/ 23156), by Mehret Tesfaye Ethipian Review, August 13, 2009. [124] The Caterpillar Self-Driving Dump Truck (http:/ / www. fastcompany. com/ magazine/ 131/ the-caterpillar-self-driving-dump-truck. html?nav=inform-rl), By Tim McKeough, fastcompany.com, November 25, 2008. [125] Robotic Tactile Sensing - Technologies and System (http:/ / www. springer. com/ engineering/ robotics/ book/ 978-94-007-0578-4) [126] IEEE Transaction on Robotics - Special Issue on Robotic Sense of Touch (http:/ / ieeexplore. ieee. org/ xpls/ abs_all. jsp?arnumber=5784198& tag=1) [127] "Robotics in practice: Future capabilities" by Joseph F. Engelberger. in "Electronic Servicing & Technology" magazine 1982 August. [128] Robot can read, learn like a human http:/ / www. msnbc. msn. com/ id/ 40534768/ ns/ technology_and_science-science [129] He wrote "over 460 books as well as thousands of articles and reviews", and was the "third most prolific writer of all time [and] one of the founding fathers of modern science fiction".


Further reading
Glaser, Horst Albert and Rossbach, Sabine: The Artificial Human, Frankfurt/M., Bern, New York 2011 "The Artificial Human" (http://www.amazon.com/The-Artificial-Human-Tragical-History/dp/3631578083/ ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1335701088&sr=1-1) TechCast Article Series, Jason Rupinski and Richard Mix, "Public Attitudes to Androids: Robot Gender, Tasks, & Pricing" (http://www.techcast.org/Upload/PDFs/050804104155TC.androids2.pdf) Cheney, Margaret [1989:123] (1981). Tesla, Man Out of Time. Dorset Press. New York. ISBN 0-88029-419-1 Craig, J.J. (2005). Introduction to Robotics. Pearson Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, NJ. Gutkind, L. (2006). Almost Human: Making Robots Think. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 2. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd. Sotheby's New York. The Tin Toy Robot Collection of Matt Wyse, (1996) Tsai, L. W. (1999). Robot Analysis. Wiley. New York. DeLanda, Manuel. War in the Age of Intelligent Machines. 1991. Swerve. New York. Journal of Field Robotics (http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/117946193/grouphome/home.html)

External links
Robotics (http://www.dmoz.org/Computers/Robotics/) at the Open Directory Project Robotics Portal (http://www.roboticsportal.it/) Research International Foundation of Robotics Research (IFRR) (http://www.ifrr.org) International Journal of Robotics Research (IJRR) (http://www.ijrr.org) Robotics and Automation Society (RAS) (http://www.ieee-ras.org) at IEEE Robotics Network (http://kn.theiet.org/communities/robotics/index.cfm) at IET Robotics Division (http://robotics.nasa.gov) at NASA Human Machine Integration Laboratory (http://robotics.eas.asu.edu/) at Arizona State University

Article Sources and Contributors


Article Sources and Contributors

Robot Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=560018835 Contributors: "alyosha", (jarbarf), 12 Noon, 129.128.164.xxx, 15turnsm, 1freegold, 2001:5B0:27FF:1EF0:0:0:0:3C, 21655, 23skidoo, 2600:1006:B10C:8A77:DEAF:987A:431C:4A41, 2600:1006:B128:C1C4:C23C:30B1:4177:C442, 2602:306:CD86:A1F0:159C:B517:D3D3:E2E6, 999cj999, @modi, A plague of rainbows, A3 nm, A930913, ABF, ALACE, AOL account, AVand, Aaagmnr, Aarktica, Aaron Schulz, AaronPaige, Abdullais4u, Aboeing, Abrech, AbsolutDan, Abu badali, Academic Challenger, Acalamari, Accurizer, Ace Frahm, Acebulf, Aceituno, Acer77e, Addshore, Adroitv82, Age Happens, Ageekgal, Agemoi, Ahoerstemeier, Aidencrr, Akasanof, Akinkhoo, Al E., Alan Rockefeller, Alansohn, Albert E, Alesnormales, Alexandrepv, Alexhong211, AlexiusHoratius, Alfio, Allanx, Allstarecho, Alphanin, Altenmann, Altermike, Alwayzright4eva, AlysTarr, Amatulic, Amp71, Amrav94, Anaraug, Anarchemitis, Andonic, Andor, Andre Engels, Andreas-B, Andres, Andrew Delong, Angela, Anger22, Angmering, Anilocra, Anna Lincoln, Anna512, Ant, AntOnTrack, Antandrus, AntiHacker, Antonbharkamsan, Aranel Cuthalion, ArglebargleIV, Argo Navis, Arnoutf, Asath, Asdcaszx, Ash, Ashenai, Assasin Droid, Astros433, Astudent, Aszxasdc, Atbreid, AtonalFreeRider, Audriusa, Ausir, Average Earthman, Avidd, Avono, AxelBoldt, Az29, AzaToth, Aznkid924, B, BAxelrod, Babalzoo, Babbar.ankit, Bact, Bamagic, Banaticus, Bangthedash101, Barnham, Barticus88, Bayerischermann, Beetstra, Beezhive, Beginning, Beland, Belinrahs, Belugatoa, Benno Briton, Berek, Betterusername, Bhadani, BigPimpinBrah, Bighead01753, Bijx, BillC, Binary TSO, Bisqwit, Bissinger, Blake Jimsta, Blanchardb, Blogjack, Bn gff, Bobisthecoolest, Bobo192, Bobrayner, Bones108, Bongwarrior, Boog96, Boogyboys, Bovineone, BradBeattie, Brain, Brandon, Briang@adelphia.net, Brighterorange, Brklnboi, BrokenSegue, Bruno424, Bruyninc, Bryan Derksen, Bubba hotep, Bubbha, Bugnot, Bunnyhop11, C'est moi, CF84, CQJ, Cadiomals, Calabraxthis, Calltech, Calmer Waters, Caltas, Cameleon123, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Canadiansteve, Candorwien, CanisRufus, Canuck222, Caper13, Capricorn42, Captain Disdain, Captmog, CardinalDan, Careful Cowboy, Catgut, Cautious, Cbdorsett, Cc2po, Celticengineer, Cenarium, Centrx, Chaojoker, Chaosdruid, Chaosrxn, CharlesC, Charlie Huggard, CharonM72, Chasteng, Ched, Cheezmeister, CherryX, Chilla9697, Chinaexports, Chocolateboy, Chodorkovskiy, Cholmes75, Chris 73, Chris G, Chris the speller, Chris857, ChrisGualtieri, Christian List, Ck lostsword, Clarekatz, Clarince63, Clasqm, Cllv25, Club Penguin Undercover Spys, Cmdrjameson, Cmichael, Cmskog, Coemgenus, Cole31337, Colin Keigher, ColinMcMillen, Colonel Warden, Commit charge, CommonsDelinker, Conjon9, Conversion script, Cooldude504, Corpx, Coslet101, Count Iblis, Crazycomputers, CrystalMyst, Cubs197, Cunikm, Curps, Curry4u, Cxz111, Cynwolfe, DJ Clayworth, DOC DS, DV8 2XL, DVD R W, DVdm, Dan100, Dan94l, DancingPenguin, Dancter, Danger, Daniel J. Leivick, Daniel5127, Danim, Dank, Danniel R., DarkFalls, Dartheragon1, Darthmix, DaveFS, David Gerard, Davidelit, Davidiad, Davidm617617, Dawn Bard, Dawnseeker2000, Dbenbenn, De728631, DeadEyeArrow, Deathsythe, Debresser, Decumanus, Dekisugi, Delldot, Deltabeignet, Denisarona, Denizgazel, Dependent Variable, DerHexer, Derumi, Dethme0w, Deus257, DexDor, Dfrg.msc, Dharmabum420, Dhfsai, Dicehiggins, Didzej, DigitalC, Dina, Disavian, Discospinster, Dlaz, Dlohcierekim, Dmd, Docboat, Dodomat, Dominic7848, DonSiano, Donner60, Doomshifter, DownDeath, Download, Dpotter, Drangon, Drappel, Dravick, Drbreznjev, Dreamafter, Drmies, Dstructo, Dwane E Anderson, Dwo, Dysepsion, E Wing, E0steven, EEPROM Eagle, EJF, ERcheck, ESkog, Eclecticology, Ed Cormany, Ed Poor, EdGl, EdX20, Edderso, Eddyjos, Edison, Editor18, Eduardo Sellan III, Edward espino, Edward321, Eenu, Egghead06, Egil, Ego White Tray, Ehheh, El C, Eladinbar, ElectronicsEnthusiast, Elfguy, Ellrond, Elockid, Elussya, Emurphy42, Enviroboy, Epbr123, Esanchez7587, Escape Orbit, Esotericmynd, Essjay, Evercat, Everyking, Evil Monkey, Evilbred, Exacerbation, Excirial, Exxolon, FF2010, Fabrictramp, FaerieInGrey, Fagallos, Faizan, Falcon8765, Farmer21, Farosdaughter, Favonian, Fcummins, Fedor, Felliax08, Fences and windows, FiachraByrne, FidelDrumbo, Fieldday-sunday, Fiftwekid, Filipmorris, Fishsteak, Flewis, Fountains of Bryn Mawr, Fram, Frammy7, Franamax, Francisco Valverde, FrancoGG, FrankCostanza, Freakofnurture, Fred the Oyster, FredrikM, Free Bear, FreeKresge, Freilipc, FreplySpang, Fritslyneborg, Frosty0814snowman, FuegoFish, Funandtrvl, Func, Futurerobo, Fuzheado, Fylbecatulous, GB fan, GHe, GPHemsley, Galoubet, Galzigler, Gareth Griffith-Jones, Ged UK, Gene s, Geni, Geo2642, Geometry guy, George Ponderevo, George100, Gilliam, Glacialfox, Glen, GoShow, Gobonobo, Gogo Dodo, Gohiking, GoingBatty, Golbez, Governmentspy, Gracefool, GraemeL, GrandDrake, GreatWhiteNortherner, Greensam74, Gregalodon, GregorB, Greudin, Gtrmp, GumbaGumba, Gunman24, Guoguo12, Guppy, Guy M, Gwernol, Gzkn, Hackercracker, Hadal, Haikupoet, HalJor, Hansierher, Haoie, HappyApple, Hard Sin, Hazfacta, Heartbore, HenryLi, Hephaestos, Heron, Hersfold, HexaChord, HiLo48, Hibernian, Highfields, Hl224483, Hmains, Hockeyrink, Holger.winkler, Honza97, Hoof Hearted, Horselover Frost, Hschmid616, Htomfields, Hu, Huku-chan, HumanDictionary117, Humanrobo, HumphreyW, Hut 8.5, Hutcher, I already forgot, IAIeropoulos, IG-2000, II MusLiM HyBRiD II, ILovePlankton, IRP, IW.HG, Iam, Iaroslavvs, Idaltu, Igordebraga, Ikh, Iloverickey, Imaninjapirate, Imjustmatthew, Imnotminkus, Imran, Imrek, Indon, Inferno, Lord of Penguins, Insanity Incarnate, Instinct, Intellectus, Interchange88, Intersofia, Ionlyputrealfacts, Iridescent, Irishguy, IronMaidenRocks, Ishikawa Minoru, Isptraack, Ixfd64, Izehar, J.delanoy, J.smith, JHunterJ, JQF, JRR Trollkien, JSimmonz, JaGa, Jaanus.kalde, Jack Phoenix, Jackfork, Jackol, Jackson Peebles, Jagged 85, Jahsonic, Jaibe, Jaikrishna, Jake Wartenberg, JakeVortex, Jakerobb, Jamoche, Janezp, Japantrends, Jaranda, Jarmen kell, Jauhienij, Java7837, Jazzyjwb, Jb-adder, Jdeep74, Jdietsch, Jeff G., Jem141, Jenda, Jennavecia, Jerryobject, Jetis4him, Jewellzy, Jeydnb, Jhanthem, Jhgf, JimVC3, Jimmayjr, Jirka7, Jkaplan, Jman678, Jmundo, Joana Gonalves, JoanneB, Joe Decker, Joel7687, Joelr31, Joemahon, John, John Chamberlain, John Cline, John of Reading, JohnCD, Johnbod, Johnuniq, Jomaririzarry, Jon Backenstose, JonHarder, JordanIsTheCoolest, Joseph Solis in Australia, Josephacutler, Josh Parris, Josh2510, Josh3580, Jottce, Joyous!, Jpallas, Jpardey01, Jprg1966, Jrockley, Julesd, Juliancolton, Julius1990, Junglecat, Junu944, Juro, Juru, Jusdafax, Jusses2, Jwelsh1023, KFP, KVDP, Kablaang, Kane5187, Kanesthename, Kanishafa, Karada, Karch, Karl stefanovic fan, Karlhahn, Karthikvs88, Kasey112, Kasha.re, Kcordina, Ke4roh, Kechvsf, Keilana, Kellyna, Kelvin Case, Kenrinaldo, Kevinalewis, Kevinb, Khazar2, Khukri, Kilonum, King jakob c 2, Kingpin13, KitSolidor, Kizor, Kkailas, Klomag, Knight1993, KnowledgeOfSelf, Kozuch, Kp2ak, Kratos240, Krellis, Krich, Kross, Kruckenberg.1, Krystalo, Kubigula, Kungfuadam, Kuralyov, Kuru, Kusunose, Kv0nza, Kwertii, L33tminion, LSmok3, Lala336, Landroo, LarryGilbert, Lateg, Laviathin66, Lazylaces, Lcarscad, Leafyplant, LeaveSleaves, Lectonar, LedgendGamer, Lee Daniel Crocker, Lee J Haywood, Leflyman, Lemmingfan, LeoNomis, Leuko, Lexor, LibLord, Liftarn, Lightdarkness, Lights, Likeicecr3am, LilHelpa, Lindert, Linnell, LionMans Account, Lissajous, Logan, Lolziez1, LonelyMarble, LongAgedUser, Lotusduck, Louis Do Nothing, Lrofthejungle, Lsparages, Lucinos, Luckas Blade, Lugia2453, Lun xia2000, Luna Santin, Lylodo, Lyncas, Lynea, MER-C, MFlet1, MK8, MKoltnow, MZMcBride, Mac, Macaldo, Macdorman, Macy, MadGuy7023, MadSurgeon, Madchester, Madhephaestus, Madhero88, Magister Mathematicae, Magnus Manske, Magog the Ogre, Mahewa, Majdmay, Majoreditor, Makecat, Malamockq, Malyctenar, Man vyi, Mandsford, Mani1, Manishearth, Manuel Trujillo Berges, Manus1605, MarBozo, Marek69, Marginoferror, Maria Sieglinda von Nudeldorf, Markus Kuhn, Markus.Waibel, Markymarkmagic, MarshalOctopus, Martarius, Martpol, Marudubshinki, Master Deusoma, MasterToast, Mastercampbell, Masterzen52, Materialscientist, MathFacts, Matodesu, MattGiuca, Matthewctai, MattieTK, Mattman214, Mawfive, Maxfalco, Mboverload, Mdann52, Mdenton, Mean as custard, Medic463, Meegs, Meekywiki, MegX, Megasteve, Melodious9Nocturne9, Melonhead, Melonkelon, Mercury271, Mercurywoodrose, Message From Xenu, Metalheaded Mastodon, Meters, Michael Devore, Michael Hardy, Michael93555, Michelinman738, Mightymights, Miithew, Mike Rosoft, Mike Van Emmerik, Mike1942f, Mild Bill Hiccup, Mineminemine, Minimac's Clone, Ministry of truth 02, Miotroyo, Miraceti, Miranche, Mirrorsaw, Miskin, Mitch Ames, Mkamensek, Mkdw, Mllyjn, Mlukehac, Mnemeson, Mogism, MonkeyMoney101, Monstera, Monty845, Moocowpong1, Moogle001, Moonriddengirl, Mormegil, Moswento, Motters, Mountainlion1990, Movingboxes, Moxon, Mporter, Mprinc, Mr Stephen, Mr Stop 2000-2000-1999 to 2006 versus TCP, Mr. Stradivarius, MrOllie, Mspraveen, Mtmelendez, Muenda, Mynor3000, Mysid, Mystylplx, N5iln, NCurse, NERIC-Security, NO ACMLM,AND XKEPPER SUCK !, Nagle, Nakon, Nalknipper, Narendra1913, Natalie Erin, Navigatr85, NawlinWiki, Nayakharish, Neelix, NellieBly, Nescio, Neverquick, NewEnglandYankee, NewsAndEventsGuy, Nickt69, NightFalcon90909, Nightmare88ish, Nightscream, Nihiltres, NijatK, Nikola Smolenski, Nintendude, Nishkid64, Nivix, Nk, Nkdblackhole, NobbiP, NosnhojYbbag, Nousernamesleft, Noz92, Nsaa, Ntsimp, NuclearWarfare, Nufy8, Nukeless, Nurg, Nyttend, Oceanmeets, Ocee, Oda Mari, Odalcet, Officiallyover, Ohconfucius, Ohellothar, Ohnoitsjamie, OlEnglish, Oleg Alexandrov, Olivier, Oliviermichel, OllieFury, Omegatron, Omicronpersei8, OnBeyondZebrax, Opelio, Orangemike, Orphan Wiki, Orrmaster, Ortolan88, Oscar2000, OverlordQ, Ovons, Owen214, Oxymoron83, P-penguinz, PDH, POofYS, PTSE, Palalalala, Paranoid, ParlorGames, Pasky, PatrickCarbone, Paul August, Paulson74, Pedro, PericlesofAthens, Persian Poet Gal, Peruvianllama, PervyPirate, Pgk, Pgr94, Phanton, Pharaoh of the Wizards, Pharaohmobius, Phasmatisnox, Phgao, Philip Trueman, Philwelch, Phlegat, Piano non troppo, Pietrow, Pimpjuices, Pinakidou, Pinethicket, Ping, Pinkadelica, Piotrus, Pjacobi, Pjvpjv, Pnm, Pocar19, Polar, Polenth, Polygamyx4, Poomuffins, Poopman12, PopeOnDope71, Pozor, PranksterTurtle, Prashanthns, Praveen khm, Primetime, PrivateMasterHD, Pro123handyman, Prolog, ProtossPylon, Psandin, Psb777, Pschemp, PseudoSudo, Psy guy, Pupster21, Pvfd117, Pylori, Pyroen21, Qbman123321, Qetuoadgjlzcbm, Qrstuv1, Qtoktok, QueenCake, Quickwik, Quintote, Qwyrxian, Qxz, R Calvete, R'n'B, R00b0t-war, RA0808, RJaguar3, Racerx11, Raghav182001, RaiderTarheel, Rajasidhu14, Rajendran tt, Rallego, Rama, Ramaksoud2000, Rampart, Ran4, RandomP, Ransack., Rasmasyean, RealityApologist, Realityscalling, Reaper Eternal, RedSpruce, Redalert42, Redbrown1234, Reddi, Redrose64, Redthoreau, Reliableforever, Remco47, RenamedUser01302013, RetiredWikipedian789, Rettetast, RexNL, Rgrof, Rhrad, Rianamit, Rich Farmbrough, Richard Arthur Norton (1958- ), Richard D. LeCour, Richcoder, Rick kelley, Riku15, Rixchi, Rjanag, Rjka K, Rjwilmsi, Rmhermen, Roastytoast, Robbbb, Robby8867t, Robert Brockway, Robertfjames, Robin klein, Roboshed, RockMFR, Rocket71048576, Rocketmagnet, Rocketmaniac, Rodhullandemu, Ronathen jonen, Ronz, Rory096, Roryp57, RossF18, Rossy1010, RoyBoy, Royalguard11, Rrburke, Rror, Rsd111, Rtc, Rtv, Rtvihjowvemtoi, RuiAgostinho, Runewiki777, Runlaugr, RustyPete12, Ruud Koot, Rwendland, Ryan Roos, Ryan032, Rykotsusei, SEWilco, SME, SWAdair, Saalstin, Sabik, Sabinerossbach, Saif Sohail, Saintrain, Salamurai, Sam Korn, Sam Vimes, Sander123, Sandstein, Sango123, Savage1666, Savidan, Sbn1984, Scarian, Sceptre, SchfiftyThree, Schrei, Schzmo, Science History, ScienceApe, Scientizzle, Scoot-Overload, Sdornan, Seaphoto, Searchme, Selket, Semperlumen, Sesu Prime, Sfan00 IMG, Shadow Puppet, Shanes, Shaun Kellys Nan, Shawnc, Shenme, Shimei, Shoaler, Shopeda, Shrine of Fire, Shsilver, Siawase, Sideways713, Siliconov, Simeon H, Singularity, Sithboy, Sjakkalle, Sj, SkerHawx, Skizzik, Skoonky, Skumarla, SkyMachine, Skyler243, Slakr, Slayemin, Sleeping123, Sleepy42, Sm8900, Smalljim, Smiloid, Smithhhhhhhh, Snow Blizzard, Snowdog, Snoyes, SoWhy, SocratesJedi, Soerfm, Someoneelseagain, Sonett72, Souklis, SoyYo, SpaceFlight89, SpacemanAfrica, Spartan-James, Spellcast, Spellmaster, Spen gottogo, Spenceisgay, Spiel496, Spitfire, Splash, Splitpeasoup, SpookyMulder, SpuriousQ, Srainwater, Starnestommy, StaticVision, Steel, Stefan, Stentie, Stephane.magnenat, Stephen G. Brown, Stephenb, Stephlet, Steve1608, Stinknamazing, Stormwriter, Strontium86, Stuw, Stwalkerster, Sully89, Sumone10154, Swabey233, Symane, Syrthiss, TBloemink, THEN WHO WAS PHONE?, Tabletop, Taco hot, Takeitupalevel, Tanvir Ahmmed, Tarret, Tarun pinto, Tavilis, Taylor Bohl, Tblackma222, Tclowers, Tcturner2002, Techtonik, Tedd, Teleshopper, Telfordbuck, Terrx, TerryNF, Tevanor, Tgeairn, Th4n3r, That Guy, From That Show!, Thaxin, The Anome, The High Fin Sperm Whale, The Hybrid, The Rambling Man, The Ronin, The Thing That Should Not Be, The Transhumanist, The Transhumanist (AWB), TheBurningPie, TheCatalyst31, TheFeds, TheKMan, TheMadBaron, TheRanger, Thebrighterside, Thecheesykid, Thedhexperience, Themfromspace, Thesloper69, Thingg, Thivyan21, Thomas Kist, Thumperward, Thunderboltz, Tiddly Tom, Tide rolls, Tige31, TigerCubby, TigerShark, TimBentley, Timekeeper77, Timmytimtim1111, Timo Honkasalo, Titodutta, Tmacfan12, Tmangray, Toastman451, Tobby72, Tombomp, Tomdo08, Tony1, Tonywalton, Totlmstr, Train2104, Trevj, Triforce of Power, Trisw, Tslocum, Tsob, Tugaworld, Tulkolahten, Turtleboy, Twelfthian, Tweshadhar, Tylden5, Typochimp, Tyranno324, Uberneer, Ulric1313, Uncle Dick, Uncle Milty, Universal Hero, Unmitigated Success, Up2datenow, Useight, Uusitunnus, Vaceituno, Vanished user 39948282, Vcmaster, Vdannyv, Vertium, Vicenarian, Vicki Rosenzweig, Violetriga, Viscious, Vkoves, Vreemdst, Vsevolod4, Vsmith, Vwollan, Wagino 20100516, Wall Screamer, Weedwhacker128, Wernher, WhatamIdoing, Wheatsing, Widr, Wik, Wiki alf, Wiki sosa, Wiki-vr, Wikiborg, Wikipediaacer, Wikipeidc, Wikipelli, Wikkrockiana, WillWare, Willking1979, Wimt, Winchelsea, Witchwooder, Woodsstock, Woohookitty, Woome, Wtmitchell, Wtshymanski, Wukatang, Ww.ellis, Wysematt, X96lee15, XXx1990, Xbaby222, Xiahou, Xiong Chiamiov, Xnuala, Xopar, Yamara, Yessum, Yidisheryid, Yintan, Ynhockey, Yovoyovo, Yunshui, ZJP, Zachary8604, Zad68, Zahnradzacken, Zarano, Zelmerszoetrop, Zepheriah, Zigger, Ziggyfest, Zondor, Zuytdorp Survivor, Zvika, ^demon, , , , , , 3273 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

File:HONDA ASIMO.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:HONDA_ASIMO.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:Gnsin File:FANUC 6-axis welding robots.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:FANUC_6-axis_welding_robots.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Phasmatisnox, 1 anonymous edits Image:Simplified robottypes.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Simplified_robottypes.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Simplified_robottypes.JPG: KVDP derivative work: Fred the Oyster (talk) Image:Knight2000 ex107.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Knight2000_ex107.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0 Contributors: K.I.T.T.1982 Image:Asimo look new design.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Asimo_look_new_design.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: Morio, Romram, Yuval Y, 1 anonymous edits Image:Washstand by Philo of Byzantium.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Washstand_by_Philo_of_Byzantium.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Carra de Vaux, B. Image:Al-Jazari_-_A_Musical_Toy.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Al-Jazari_-_A_Musical_Toy.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Grenavitar Image:KarakuriBritishMuseum.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:KarakuriBritishMuseum.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: User:PHGCOM, User:PHGCOM Image:Clock Tower from Su Song's Book.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Clock_Tower_from_Su_Song's_Book.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: PericlesofAthens File:Capek play.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Capek_play.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Unknown, uploaded to ar.wiki by ar::Classic 971 on , to en.wiki by en:User:Rocketmagnet on , to commons by User:Sreejithk2000 on File:Laproscopic Surgery Robot.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Laproscopic_Surgery_Robot.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Original uploader was Nimur at en.wikipedia File:Automation of foundry with robot.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Automation_of_foundry_with_robot.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: KUKA Roboter GmbH, Bachmann Image:TOPIO 3.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:TOPIO_3.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Humanrobo File:Actroid-DER 01.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Actroid-DER_01.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Photo by Gnsin File:smUsingGuiaBot.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SmUsingGuiaBot.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Jdietsch File:ADAM Intelligent AGV.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ADAM_Intelligent_AGV.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Jdietsch File:IED detonator.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:IED_detonator.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Lance Cpl. Bobby J. Segovia File:Roomba original.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Roomba_original.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Larry D. Moore File:FRIEND-III klein.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:FRIEND-III_klein.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Institute of Automation (IAT), University of Bremen File:Microgripper holding silicon nanowires.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Microgripper_holding_silicon_nanowires.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Contributors: KristianMolhave, Pieter Kuiper File:SwarmRobot org.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SwarmRobot_org.jpg License: GNU General Public License Contributors: Serg (Sergey Kornienko (?))

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported //creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/