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NON-DESTRUCTIVE TEST MANUAL

PART 9-SPECTROMETRIC OIL ANALYSIS PROGRAM

CFMI-TP-NT.11

NOVEMBER 30, 1980

REVISED MAY 31, 2000

PART 9 - SPECTROMETRIC OIL ANALYSIS PROGRAM SECTION TAB DIVIDER TITLE PAGE LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES PAGE DATE R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R SECTION 79-00-00 (Cont'd) PAGE 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 DATE May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00

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PART 9 - SPECTROMETRIC OIL ANALYSIS PROGRAM SECTION R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R 79-00-00 (Cont'd) PAGE 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 DATE May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May May 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 31/00 SECTION PAGE DATE

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SPECTROMETRIC OIL ANALYSIS PROGRAM 1. General. A. During operation, the lubricating oil of mechanical units becomes contaminated with metallic particles ranging in size from a few microns to several millimeters as a result of friction between moving parts. B. Large particles are usually detected by the periodic inspection of filters and magnetic plugs and may relate to a state of deterioration which is quite marked such as flaking of roller bearings, gears or machining residues. C. Under inspection, small particles are also a source for determining the condition of a unit. By determining the concentration and nature of metallic particles in suspension in the oil (iron, aluminum, chrome, silver, nickel, etc ... ) it is possible to be forewarned and to monitor the evolution of incipient damage to a component of the unit concerned. D. This method of detection is only applicable to damage which is characterised by a previous abnormal production of metallic particles in suspension and which is sufficiently progressive in its evolution to allow preventive action to be taken. Phenomenon such as fatigue and sudden failure cannot be detected. This method of detection therefore serves to supplement the inspection of filters and magnetic detectors. E. A failure signature can be defined for each type of damage and comprises not only of oil contamination by particles produced by wear, but other symtoms as well. It is therefore necessary to look for additional signs and to employ all other methods which will assist in this task. (1) Presence of chips on filters or magnetic chip detectors. (2) Vibrations. (3) oil pressure, consumption and discoloration. (4) Borescopy. (5) Gamma radiography. It is the sum of this information which makes up the failure signature.

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2. Sampling. NOTE: To be valid, the oil sample must be taken as soon as possible after shutdown with a maximum of 15-30 minutes after engine has stopped. No new oil must be added before sampling as this would falsify the result. A. Tools, Equipment and Materials. NOTE: Equivalent substitutes may be used instead of the following items. (1) Tools and Equipment. (a) Standard tools. Description Plastic bottles and tubes Manufacturer Code Local Purchase

(2) Consumable Products. None required. B. Procedure WARNING: WAIT FOR AT LEAST 5 MINUTES AFTER ENGINE SHUTDOWN BEFORE REMOVING OIL TANK CAP, TO ALLOW TANK PRESSURE TO BLEED OFF. HOT OIL GUSHING FROM TANK COULD CAUSE SEVERE BURNS. CAUTION: USE EXTREMELY CLEAN SCREW TOP PLASTIC BOTTLES AND PLASTIC TUBES THAT HAVE NOT BEEN USED BEFORE. (1) Open filler cap of oil tank as specified in maintenance manual section 12-10-00. (2) Take sample by squeezing plastic bottle and then dipping tube end into oil. Release bottle to suction oil. NOTE: A sample of 60 cc should be extracted for a spectromic oil analysis. It is necessary to use a greater bottle than 60 cc and avoid filling up the bottle. If other analysis should be necessary (ferrography, chips analysis...) a sample of 250 cc can be extracted.

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(3) Fill and close oil tank as specified in maintenance manual section 12-10-00. NOTE: Samples for spectrometric analysis should be sent to the laboratory as soon as possible (4) Tag oil samples as follows: (a) Engine total operating time. (b) Operating time since last oil sampling. (c) Date of sample. (d) Identification of engine. (e) Type and brand of oil used. (f) Oil consumption. NOTE: It is recommended that oil samples be taken at approximately 200 hour intervals. If SOAP is to be the primary method of monitoring, including bearing fatigue failures, the interval should be appreciably shorter 50 to 100 hour intervals. 3. Calibration and Analysis. There are two types of equipment: emission and atomic absorption. They have different sensitivities to the elements to be monitored. Sensitivity, detection limits, and working range for analysis of each element should be available from the equipment manufacturers. The sensitivity of the equipment to particular elements should be considered when analysing SOAP results. For example the equipment is particularly sensitive to Mg. The Mg reported in the SOAP results for some CFM56 engines is not believed to be attributable to an engine part's distress as this element is a minor (2,5%) constituent of the lube wetted parts materials.

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A. Calibration of the spectrometer Calibration procedures/recommendations should be obtained from the manufacturer of the particular equipment to be used. Some of the equipment manufacturers also supply the calibration fluids. A standard calibration can be made using National Bureau of Standards, NBS materials and the engine oil being used. If the operator wishes to establish a calibration standard this way, the following book reference is suggested. Methods for Emission Spectrochemical Analysis, published by the American Society of Testing Materials, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19103 Issue 1971, Method D-2P3, page 375. In calibrating, and conducting the analysis, it should be noted that the viscosity of the fluids (calibration fluids VS engine oil VS fluid temperatures) may have an effect on SOAP results. Also, in conducting analysis with atomic absorption type equipment the air and gas flow rates for the fire may effect the results. Fresh calibration fluids should be made and/or obtained as recommended by the manufacturer. B. Analysis. Procedure recommendations should be obtained from the equipment manufacturer. Practices that would alleviate possible analysis variances such as shaking samples before analysis to obtain uniform material dispersion, control of the sample temperature to obtain consistent viscosity, calibration before each run, same dilution agent/procedure used in conducting atomic absorption analysis. The laboratory data should be corrected for any metal constituents in the oil. Corrections may also be considered for oil added although the experience indicates that this is not necessary for moderate oil consumption rates. The concentration of wear material in the oil as indicated by SOAP, for a healthy engine is very small for all elements measured, including Fe. The small concentrations and possible variations in analysis results precludes establishing specific values at this time for normal SOAP results. Each airline should establish the engine signature based on their analysis and experience.

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SOAP limits and the engine action required are variable as will be apparent in the following paragraphs. 4. SOAP Data Analysis. A. Iron (Fe) is the most significant metal to monitor. Copper (Cu), Aluminium (Al), Nickel (Ni), Molybden (Mo), Zinc (Zn), Chromium (Cr) and Silver (Ag) are possible secondary identifiers of part distress. Silicon (Si) may be monitored for indications of oil contamination. B. Review SOAP data for significant quantity increases (or appearances) and definite increasing trends. Absolute values (limits) have not been significant in determining required action. Each operator should establish their criteria and actions to be taken for SOAP based on their experience and operations considerations (route length and terrain, route versus service or shop facilities and spare engines, etc ... ). The following guidelines are provided for consideration (quantity values provided indicate relative values - not limits): (1) A sudden large (10 to 12 PPM) increase (or appearance) of Fe or a minor increase (5 to 7 PPM) of Fe in conjunction with an indication (2 PPM) of Cu. These SOAP results can indicate rapid parts deterioration and in particular bearing distress. In this case put the engine on watch do a daily inspection of engine magnetic chip detectors. (2) A progressively moderate increasing trend of Fe is characteristic of excessive parts wear, such as the excessive spline wear experienced with the IGB Horizontal Shaft Spline. Although action for this type of distress is not as urgent as the above, it is recommended that an engine investigation be promptly conducted to determine and assess the part deterioration and establish a program for monitoring the distress until corrective action is taken. The Fe content in the oil may attain a very large (100 + PPM) concentration before corrective action is required providing the distress is assessed and monitored such as can be done with the IGB shaft spline wear.

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(3) Review secondary metals (Cu, Al, Ni, Mo, Zn, Cr, Ag) in conjunction with Fe SOAP results with figures 1 thru 16 for guidance in diagnostic investigations of the engine. Except for Cu, the secondary metals have not contributed to the detection and isolation of part distress in the experience to date. However, some of these metals have been noted in review of some SOAP data received for engines which had incurred a lube wetted parts failure or have been noted as individualistic constituents of particular parts in review of figures 1 thru 26. The following element associations are suggested as possible distress identifiers: (a) Fe, Cu - indication of bearing (CFM56 engine bearings have steel cages - Ag may provide secondary indication). (b) Fe, Cu, Zn - indication of AGB bearing distress or lube and scavenge pump bearing distress, pump bearing distress may occur due to ingestion of material from an engine part's distress, and Fe indication may be from engine part. (c) Fe, Cr - possible indication of gearbox parts distress; IGB or AGB bearing distress. The gearbox bearing housings and the IGB Horizontal drive shaft are Cr plated. (d) Fe, Ni, Cr - indication of bearing distress Fe, Ni, Cr are major constituents of many parts in the sumps. (e) Fe, Ni, Al - indication of No. 3 bearings inner race spinning; Fe, W may be the SOAP indication of a future No. 4 bearing distress. (f) Al - indication of lub module distress

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Oil Sampling for Analysis Figure 1

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Chemical Composition of Materials (In Percent) Figure 2 (Sheet 1 of 2)

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Chemical Composition of Materials (In Percent) Figure 2 (Sheet 2 of 2)

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CMF56-2 Engine Sump Area Figure 3

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CMF56-2 Forward Sump Material Figure 4 (Sheet 1 of 5)

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CMF56-2 Forward Sump Material Figure 4 (Sheet 2 of 5)

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CMF56-2 Forward Sump Material Figure 4 (Sheet 3 of 5)

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CMF56-2 Forward Sump Material Figure 4 (Sheet 4 of 5)

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CMF56-2 Forward Sump Material Figure 4 (Sheet 5 of 5)

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CMF56-2 Transfer and Accessory Gearboxes, Radial Drive Shaft Lubrication Unit Figure 5

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CMF56-2 Accessory Gearbox Assembly Figure 6

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Magnetic and Sealol Seal/Housing Figure 7

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CMF56-2 Material Sheet Data Figure 8 (Sheet 1 of 2)

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CMF56-2 Material Sheet Data Figure 8 (Sheet 2 of 2)

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CMF56-2 No. 4 and No. 5 Bearing Area (AFT Sump) Figure 9 (Sheet 1 of 2)

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CMF56-2 Material Sheet Data Figure 9 (Sheet 2 of 2)

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CMF56-2 AFT Sump (Location of Seals) Figure 10

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CMF56-3 Engine Sump Area Figure 11

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CMF56-3 No. 1 Bearing Support and Oil Manifold Figure 12 (Sheet 1 of 3)

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CMF56-3 No. 2 Bearing Area (Forward Sump) Figure 12 (Sheet 2 of 3)

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CMF56-3 No. 1 and No. 2 Bearing Area (Material Sheet Data) Figure 12 (Sheet 3 of 3)

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CMF56-3 No. 3 Bearing Area (Forward Sump Material) Figure 13 (Sheet 1 of 2)

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CMF56-3 No. 3 Bearing Area (Material Sheet Data) Figure 13 (Sheet 2 of 2)

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CMF56-3 AGB/TGB Forward Sump Material Figure 14 (Sheet 1 of 9)

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CMF56-3 AGB/TGB Forward Sump Material Figure 14 (Sheet 2 of 9)

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CMF56-3 Forward Sump Material Figure 14 (Sheet 3 of 9)

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CMF56-3 Accessory Gearbox Assembly Figure 14 (Sheet 4 of 9)

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CMF56-3 Accessory Gearbox Assembly Figure 14 (Sheet 5 of 9)

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CMF56-3 TGB and Lubrication Unit Sump Material Figure 14 (Sheet 6 of 9)

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CMF56-3 Magnetic and Sealol Seal/Housing Figure 14 (Sheet 7 of 9)

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CMF56-3 Material Sheet Data Figure 14 (Sheet 8 of 9)

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CMF56-3 Material Sheet Data Figure 14 (Sheet 9 of 9)

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CMF56-3 No. 4 Bearing Area (AFT Sump) Figure 15 (Sheet 1 of 3)

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CMF56-3 No. 5 Bearing Area (AFT Sump) Figure 15 (Sheet 2 of 3)

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CMF56-3 No. 4 and No. 5 Bearing Area (Material Sheet Data) Figure 15 (Sheet 3 of 3)

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CMF56-5A Engine Sump Area Figure 16

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CMF56-5B Engine Sump Area Figure 17

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CMF56-5C Engine Sump Area Figure 18

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CMF56-5A No. 1 Bearing Support and Oil Manifold (Forward Sump) Figure 19 (Sheet 1 of 7)

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CMF56-5B No. 1 Bearing Support and Oil Manifold (Forward Sump) Figure 19 (Sheet 2 of 7)

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CMF56-5C No. 1 Bearing Support and Oil Manifold (Forward Sump) Figure 19 (Sheet 3 of 7)

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CMF56-5A No. 2 Bearing Area (Forward Sump) Figure 19 (Sheet 4 of 7)

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CMF56-5B No. 2 Bearing Area (Forward Sump) Figure 19 (Sheet 5 of 7)

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CMF56-5C No. 2 Bearing Area (Forward Sump) Figure 19 (Sheet 6 of 7)

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CMF56-5A/-5B/-5C No. 1 and No. 2 Bearing Area (Forward Sump) Figure 19 (Sheet 7 of 7)

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CMF56-5A No. 3 Bearing Area (Forward Sump) Figure 20 (Sheet 1 of 4)

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CMF56-5B No. 3 Bearing Area (Forward Sump) Figure 20 (Sheet 2 of 4)

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CMF56-5C No. 3 Bearing Area (Forward Sump) Figure 20 (Sheet 3 of 4)

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CMF56-5A/-5B/-5C No. 3 Bearing Area (Forward Sump) Material Sheet Data Figure 20 (Sheet 4 of 4)

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CMF56-5A TGB Sump Figure 21 (Sheet 1 of 20)

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CMF56-5A AGB/TGB Sump Figure 21 (Sheet 2 of 20)

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CMF56-5A AGB/TGB Sump Figure 21 (Sheet 3 of 20)

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CMF56-5B TGB Sump Figure 21 (Sheet 4 of 20)

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CMF56-5B AGB/TGB Sump Figure 21 (Sheet 5 of 20)

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CMF56-5B AGB Sump Figure 21 (Sheet 6 of 20)

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CMF56-5C TGB Sump Figure 21 (Sheet 7 of 20)

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CMF56-5C AGB/TGB Sump Figure 21 (Sheet 8 of 20)

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CMF56-5C AGB Sump Figure 21 (Sheet 9 of 20)

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CMF56-5A/-5B/-5C Accessory Gearbox Assembly Figure 21 (Sheet 10 of 20)

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CMF56-5A/-5B/-5C Accessory Gearbox Assembly Figure 21 (Sheet 11 of 20)

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CMF56-5A/-5B/-5C Magnetic Seal/Housing Figure 21 (Sheet 12 of 20)

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CMF56-5A/-5B/-5C Sealol Seal Figure 21 (Sheet 13 of 20)

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CMF56-5A/-5B/-5C Lubrication Unit Figure 21 (Sheet 14 of 20)

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CMF56-5A Material Sheet Data Figure 21 (Sheet 15 of 20)

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CMF56-5A Material Sheet Data Figure 21 (Sheet 16 of 20)

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CMF56-5B Material Sheet Data Figure 21 (Sheet 17 of 20)

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CMF56-5B Material Sheet Data Figure 21 (Sheet 18 of 20)

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CMF56-5C Material Sheet Data Figure 21 (Sheet 19 of 20)

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CMF56-5C Material Sheet Data Figure 21 (Sheet 20 of 20)

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CMF56-5A No. 4 Bearing Area (AFT Sump) Figure 22 (Sheet 1 of 7)

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CMF56-5B No. 4 Bearing Area (AFT Sump) Figure 22 (Sheet 2 of 7)

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CMF56-5C No. 4 Bearing Area (AFT Sump) Figure 22 (Sheet 3 of 7)

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CMF56-5A No. 5 Bearing Area (AFT Sump) Figure 22 (Sheet 4 of 7)

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CMF56-5B No. 5 Bearing Area (AFT Sump) Figure 22 (Sheet 5 of 7)

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CMF56-5C No. 5 Bearing Area (AFT Sump) Figure 22 (Sheet 6 of 7)

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CMF56-5A/-5B/-5C No. 4 and No. 5 Bearing Area (AFT Sump) Material Data Sheet Figure 22 (Sheet 7 of 7)

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CMF56-7B Engine Sump Area Figure 23 (Sheet 1 of 2)

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CMF56-7B Engine Sump Area Figure 23 (Sheet 2 of 2)

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CMF56-7B No. 1 Bearing Support and Oil Manifold Figure 24 (Sheet 1 of 5)

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CMF56-7B No. 2 Bearing Area (Forward Sump) Figure 24 (Sheet 2 of 5)

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CMF56-7B No. 3 Bearing Area (Forward Sump) Figure 24 (Sheet 3 of 5)

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CMF56-7B No. 1 and No. 2 Bearing Area (Forward Sump) Material Sheet Data Figure 24 (Sheet 4 of 5)

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CMF56-7B No. 3 Bearing Area (Forward Sump) Material Sheet Data Figure 24 (Sheet 5 of 5)

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CMF56-7B AGB/TGB Sump Figure 25 (Sheet 1 of 5)

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CMF56-7B AGB/TGB Sump Figure 25 (Sheet 2 of 5)

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CMF56-7B AGB/TGB Sump Figure 25 (Sheet 3 of 5)

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CMF56-7B Gearboxes Area (Forward Sump) Material Sheet Data Figure 25 (Sheet 4 of 5)

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CMF56-7B Gearboxes Area (Forward Sump) Material Sheet Data Figure 25 (Sheet 5 of 5)

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CMF56-7B No. 4 Bearing Area (Aft Sump) Figure 26 (Sheet 1 of 3)

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CMF56-7B No. 5 Bearing Area (Aft Sump) Figure 26 (Sheet 2 of 3)

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CMF56-7B No. 4 and No. 5 Bearing Area (Aft Sump) Material Sheet Data Figure 26 (Sheet 3 of 3)

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(4) It is recommended that each airline compile a SOAP history record for each incurred engine failure and/or lube wetted parts distress with careful correlation of exhibited SOAP indications to parts damage using figure 1 for guidance. These records may provide for establishing SOAP diagnostic criteria. (5) Investigate the engine for increased oil consumption if a SOAP trend suddenly drops or the rate of increase is reduced. High oil consumption can indicate lube wetted parts distress. Also a drop in SOAP indications caused by the diluting effect of increased oil additions may be interpreted as a correction of a false indication of part's distress. C. Diagnostics Consider the following engine investigations and monitoring as determined by SOAP data analysis and experience: (1) Inspect the engine collection devices (magnetic chip detector, pump scavenge inlet screens, scavenge oil filter). (2) If the collectors have debris, substantiating possible parts distress, investigate per chip analysis. (3) If the collectors do not have debris, substantiating possible parts distress, the engine should be "put on watch" and the following investigations and monitoring conducted: (a) Take an oil sample and expedite SOAP evaluation. (b) Review engine oil consumption history. Inspect the engine for evidence of internal oil leakage, including borescope inspections and a ground engine run. (c) Review engine vibration history. Increasing vibration can be an indication of bearing distress. (d) If the SOAP indication was a sudden increase in Fe, monitor the engine collection devices daily until the SOAP indication is resolved.

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(e) If the SOAP indication is a progressively increasing Fe trend, consider the following engine investigations/monitoring: 1 Perform Radiographic inspection of the IGB radial shaft. Perform Radiographic inspection of the No. 3 bearing or No. 4 bearing areas. Monitor engine oil consumption, vibration, and chip analysis collection devices on more frequent time interval until distress indication is resolved. Consider spectrographic analysis of material collected. Review oil leakage troubleshooting and consider borescope inspection of compressor for oil wetting.

(f) If the SOAP indication is a progressively increasing Si silicon trend (over 10 PPM), as Si is composed by silica and/or silicone (contained in greases), the following procedure could be performed. 1 Perform a SOAP on oil sample and determine Si concentration (CI). Perform a filtration of sample with a filter of 11.8 micro inches (0,3 micrometer). Perform a second SOAP on the sample and determine Si concentration (C2). If CI concentration is approximately equal to C2 concentration there is no silica in oil. If CI concentration is higher than C2 concentration there is a silica contamination (look for presence of silica on filter). Refer to Maintenance Manual, chapter 12-10-00, paragraph 6. "Flushing of Oil System in the case of oil system contamination.

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(g) Consider changing the engine oil and corroborating the SOAP results previously obtained if the engine inspections do not confirm on indicated problem. (h) Decrease the oil sampling and SOAP analysis time intervals.

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