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ESL FundameNTals

ESL FundameNTals
Understandings and strategies that underpin ESL pedagogy and practice. Contents Collaboration in Teaching Collaborative Learning Critical Literacy English-based Languages and Dialects First and Second Language Learning Genre-based Approach to Literacy High Expectations and Age Appropriateness Language Learning in Context Learner Profile Learning How to Learn Metalanguage Non-verbal Communication Oral language Focus Repetition and Guided Practice Scaffolding Teaching Grammar

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ESL FundameNTals Collaboration in Teaching


What is it?
Collaboration in teaching involves educators planning and working together in schools, working with students at all stages of schooling and across all learning areas. Educators can include: Teachers, Assistant Teachers (ATs), Aboriginal and Islander Education workers (AIEWs), Inclusion Support Assistants (ISAs), Aboriginal Resource Officers (AROs), ESL Specialist Teachers, Teacher Linguists, Community Elders, Parents / Care-givers, Community Workers, ITAS tutors (Indigenous Tutorial Assistance Scheme), Bilingual Officers in New Arrival Program. There is no one way of collaborating; each context is different. Collaborative teaching can take many forms; each school should choose the mode of collaboration which best suits learner needs. Some options are: Joint planning teaching teams collaborate in planning and evaluating lessons or units of work for whole class. Small group work teaching teams plan a brief activity for a small group. One team member works with the small group while the other takes responsibility for the whole class. Parallel teaching the class is divided into groups with specific needs. Each member of the team takes responsibility for one group, using the same topic. Support teaching one team member assists targeted learners with normal classroom activities while the other teaches the whole class. Team teaching ESL teacher and teaching team share responsibility for planning, teaching, assessing and evaluating mainstream programs. They jointly plan curriculum content, lesson methodology and classroom organization. ITAS Tutors in class work with individual students at risk during normal class hours. This is planned in consultation with the class teacher and the school ITAS coordinator. All forms of collaborative teaching should include assessment of learner performance/learning outcomes as well as evaluation of the unit of work/lesson sequence.

What is its purpose?


Collaborative teaching aims to maximize learning by reducing learner/teacher ratio to more effectively meet learner needs. It also effectively uses expertise existing in the school community. Joint planning - The ESL specialist teacher can provide information about ESL programming and assessing strategies to class teachers. The ESL teacher may or may not be involved in the classroom implementation. - Assistant Teachers and teachers plan lessons and or units of work. During the process they clarify language and strategies to be used, roles and responsibilities during each lesson and how learning will be assessed. Small Group work - The ESL teacher plans, in consultation with class teacher and Assistant Teacher, a brief activity for small groups in class. This activity is conducted while the class teacher and Assistant Teacher continue with the regular class routine. Parallel teaching - The class is divided into groups with specific needs. Following joint planning, each member of the collaborative team takes responsibility for working with one group on the same topic with a language focus appropriate to each group. Support teaching - The ESL teacher may assist specific learners/small groups with language aspects of programmed class activities. Joint planning precedes this to ensure that the curriculum content is accessible to ESL learners. In addition, the ESL teacher may model strategies that will support ESL learners.

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ESL FundameNTals
Team teaching - Team members share responsibility for planning, teaching, assessing and evaluating programs or units of work. Collaborative assessment - Teams assess learners progress to inform future planning in relation to specific needs. Assessing collaboratively provides an in-school form of moderation. Collaborative evaluation - All team members reflect on a unit of work/program and decide how well it achieved the stated learning outcomes. Team members also reflect on the allocated roles and responsibilities of team members, what worked effectively and what changes could be made to improve effectiveness. ITAS tutors - Tutors target specific learners who are at risk. They provide one-to-one tutoring in specific literacy/numeracy areas.

What do the teaching team members do?


The teaching team members identify, respect and value each team members knowledge and experience. make a joint commitment to plan together. make arrangements to incorporate team-planning time during school hours - this is ideally a wholeschool commitment. define roles and responsibilities of each team member. explain to learners how the collaboration works. discuss issues carefully to ensure full understanding. share differing values and cultural understandings. be prepared to learn, shift position and deal with problems constructively. decide when first language and Standard Australian English will be used in lessons. focus on learners learning.

Why is it important for ESL learners?


increases opportunities to explain concepts in learners first language reduces student-teacher ratio cultural knowledge and values of learners are recognised and valued in the classroom increases opportunities for oral language development ESL teaching-learning strategies can be utilized in mainstream classrooms caters for language development across the curriculum shows learners how to work collaboratively as it provides for modeling of adults working collaboratively within the class.

Where can you find out more?


Curriculum Resources Unit 2000, ESL in the Mainstream Teacher Development Course, Department of Education, Training and Employment, South Australia. Graham, B. 1999, Working in Teams in Indigenous schools in the Northern Territory, Northern Territory Department of Education, Darwin, NT. NT Department of Employment, Education and Training (no date), ESL for Indigenous Students Teacher Development Course adapted from ESL in the Mainstream Teacher Development Course, 2000, Department of Education, Training and Employment, South Australia. http://www.dest.gov.au/

Contributed by ESL Team. Curriculum Services Branch, 2004

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ESL FundameNTals Collaborative Learning


What is it?
Collaborative learning is any learning where two or more students are working together on a learning experience. It is learner-centred where students are active participants and have clear roles, responsibilities and outcomes both long term and short term. The success of the group is dependent upon the contribution of every individual. The NTCF EsseNTial Learnings include Collaborative Learner as one of its four domains. Collaborative Learning is an integral part of a balanced teaching and learning program.

What is its purpose?


Collaborative skills are important in many work and social contexts. The purpose of collaborative learning in schools is to give learners an avenue where they learn the skills of active listening, positive conflict resolution and awareness/acceptance of others views. For ESL learners, collaborative learning provides a means of support from peers, with shared effort and ownership of learning outputs. Risktaking and participation by the ESL learner is thus encouraged as the focus is taken away from the individual. The Collaborative Learner domain enables students to become effective communicators and group members. (Page 19 NTCF Essential Learnings Overview.)

What does the teacher do?


The teacher explicitly teaches how to be an active listener take turns respond constructively to different view points provide constructive feedback to others perform the various roles of the team member eg scribe, time-keeper, convener deal positively with conflict adapt socio-cultural behaviours according to different social contexts use the language required for effective communication in groups The teacher also needs to explicitly teach the language associated with these skills and how learning will be assessed. The teacher plans for a supportive learning environment through regular and frequent practice of working collaboratively grouping students in a variety of ways (eg eye colour, cards in a box where learners have to find their matching team, same birthday month etc) providing opportunities that enable learners to practise language, or clarify concepts in first language providing opportunities for meaningful interaction between peers explicit teaching and modelling of comprehensible language and new ways of expressing meaning providing frequent opportunities for interaction between teacher and individual learners providing opportunities for children to be problem solvers rather than information receivers.

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ESL FundameNTals
What does the learner do?
grows towards independence in learning assists others discusses/shares ideas and information develops social and thinking skills and associated language required to operate productively in groups takes risks uses new language and practises new skills.

Why is it important for ESL learners?


In collaborative learning situations, ESL learners are given more opportunity to use their first and second language for exploration of ideas, attitudes, for hypothesising and predicting and asking questions in a supportive environment. They provide opportunities for ESL learners to develop proficiency in Standard Australian English (SAE) in an active and meaningful way through working with different groups of peers such as pairings, buddies, small groups, conferencing etc. ESL learners can see different socio-cultural language and behaviours modelled in a variety of meaningful contexts.

Where can you find out more?


Jones, P. 2000 (Ed), Talking To Learn, Primary English Teaching Association, Newtown, NSW. Gibbons, P. 2002, Learning To Learn in a Second Language, Primary English Teaching Association, Newtown, NSW. Gibbons, P. 2002, Scaffolding Language, Scaffolding Learning. Teaching Second Language Learning in the Mainstream Classroom, Heinemann, Portsmouth, USA. NT Department of Employment, Education and Training (no date), ESL for Indigenous Students Teacher Development Course, adapted from ESL in the Mainstream Teacher Development Course 2000, Department of Education, Training and Employment, SA. http://www.newhorizons.org

Attachments
NT Department of Employment, Education and Training, The Titjikala Experience: Introducing Group Work, Workshop 8, ESL For Indigenous Students Teacher Development Course, adapted from ESL in the Mainstream Teacher Development Course 2000, Department of Education, Training and Employment SA. ESL Team. Curriculum Services Branch, 2004

Contributed by

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ESL FundameNTals
The Titjikala Experience: Introducing Group Work
One of the greatest challenges facing teachers in rural school in the NT is coping with multi-aged and multilevel students in the one classroom. So often, students are organised into ability groups and then set tasks, without having been taught how to work in groups. In the vast majority of cases, the teacher quickly becomes a rubber band stretched from group to group, becoming very frazzled and ineffective. The endpoint is that the teacher gives up on the idea of grouping and reverts to the whole group instruction teaching model. Jacky Costanzo at Titjikala was faced with this problem. She had on average 25 students ranging in age from 5 to 14 in her class each day. Realising that her students did not know the appropriate behaviours for working in groups, Jacky went right back to basics and began to teach her students how to operate efficiently in a group situation. Although the concept is nothing revolutionary, the way she went about this may be of interest to teachers. Students were put into three groups at random, and each group decided on a name. Jacky explained that each group had to listen carefully for their group name, and the instructions that followed. At first, the instructions were very simple. E.g. Wombats sit down, Goannas stand up, and Bush Turkeys hop on one foot. After a short time they were told to stop and listen for a new task. The groups were rotated through all the tasks, getting used to hearing their group name and their instructions immediately following.

This activity would only take a short time and was part of the daily routine. Jacky modelled the correct behaviours for these tasks and gave opportunity to practise these. Gradually the instructions involved the students moving around the classroom e.g. Wombats sit down in the library corner, Goannas stand near the door, etc. The length of time spent on the tasks lengthened. Further extension was to send a group or groups outside the class e.g. Snakes go outside and walk around the basketball court, then come inside and sit on the mat, etc. The group were again rotated through these tasks, with Jacky modelling desired behaviours where necessary.

This activity was incorporated as a part of the daily routine until the children were able to complete tasks independently and successfully and with appropriate behaviours. The next step was to begin grouping the students according to academic ability. The same steps as for random grouping were applied i.e. naming of their groups, and responding to clear precise instructions according to the ability level of each group. E.g. Eagles Trace over the numbers 1 to 10 (on worksheet), Hawks Match the numbers and the words 1 to 10, and Cockatoos Make up 5 number facts about 10. The tasks were not rotated around groups however, as they were not applicable to all. The instructions and tasks were gradually increased in length and complexity according to the academic abilities of the group. The modelling and practice of appropriate behaviours was an integral part of each session. By this stage the students were demonstrating an ability to remain on task for an extended period of time which allowed Jacky to work with whichever group she wished. The final step was allocating multiple tasks often requiring students to move around the room. Jacky still instructed the students as to when they were to complete the task, pack up and be ready to begin the next task. After this whole procedure, Jackys class was operating far more effectively. As a whole class the students were able to work on a common focus but at varying ability levels, with each of the groups moving through three tasks of about 20 minutes duration.
[This is from an article by Stephen Bobos who was an ESL Coordinator supporting Titjikala School at the time.]

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ESL FundameNTals Critical Literacy


What is it?
Critical literacy recognises that language is a product of culture and, as such, carries attitudes, values and beliefs. It shows us ways of looking at written, visual and spoken texts to recognise and question these attitudes, values and beliefs that are either apparent or may lie beneath the surface (inference). Although readers make their own meanings, writers aim to shape readers meanings, to position a reader a certain way. People reading critically ask questions of the text dealing with equity, values and decisions the writer has made and the position the writer tries to put us in. In their Four Roles/Resources Model, Luke and Freebody describe the critical reader as a Text Analyst.

Four Roles/Resources of the Successful Reader


www.myread.org Text analyst understanding how texts position readers, viewers and listeners

Is aware and can identify how


texts are not ideologically natural or neutral but are crafted to represent the views and interests of the writer information, ideas and language in texts influence reader perceptions texts empower or disempower certain groups

Critical literacy includes: looking at the meaning within texts considering the purpose and audience for the text and the authors motives questioning the ways in which texts have been constructed analysing the power of the authors language choices identifying whose voices are present, absent, valued or not valued emphasising multiple interpretations of texts - texts will have different meaning to different people because people interpret texts in the light of their own values and beliefs providing learners with opportunities to consider and clarify their own attitudes and values providing learners with opportunities to take social action. http://www.education.tas.gov.au/english/critlit.htm

What is its purpose?


Critical literacy is an integral part of effective reading empowering learners to analyse choices of content, language and structure used in a text.

What does the teacher do?


The teacher provides the context and background of the text models the language needed to discuss the text, including the language needed to talk about feelings, responses and opinions plans for activities which explicitly look at the language within the text and how it is used to provoke feelings, responses and opinions shares his/her understandings, feelings, responses and opinions raised by the text and encourages the students to do likewise.

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ESL FundameNTals
What are the learner outcomes?
The critical reader is able to recognise that no text is neutral. identify how the ways in which information or ideas are expressed influence reader perceptions. recognise and challenge how a writer positions a reader to view the world of the text or certain characters action in a particular way. recognise levels of objectivity and subjectivity in both primary and secondary sources of information. identify how different authors portray the same event in different ways and explain their reasons for advancing these different perspectives. identify how information or ideas expressed influence the readers perceptions.

Why is it important for ESL learners?


Critical literacy may not be a part of a learners experience or culture. ESL learners (and other learners) may not have backgrounds that encourage critical literacy. If the skills and strategies of critical literacy are not explicitly taught and applied, the ESL learner may be unable to engage or interact with a text beyond a superficial, literal interpretation of the authors meaning. Through the application of critical and analytical skills, the ESL learner not only gains cultural insights but is better able to understand the Western discourse of schooling and meet the demands of academic English, enabling access to Senior Secondary courses and Higher Education.

Where can you find out more?


www.myread.org www.criticalreading.com www.education.tas.gov.au/english/critlit.htm www.criticalreading.com/principles.htm Gibbons, P. 2002, Scaffolding Language, Scaffolding Learning: Teaching. Second Language Learning in the Mainstream Classroom, Heinemann, Portsmouth, USA. Wilson, L. 2002, Reading to Live - How to Teach Reading for Todays World, Heinemann, Portsmouth, USA.

Contributed by ESL Team. Curriculum Services Branch, 2004

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ESL FundameNTals English-based Languages and Dialects


(Kriol, Aboriginal English and English as a Second Dialect) What are they?
PIDGIN
Pidgins arise through contact between speakers of different languages. In particular, during recent periods of exploration and colonisation, the French, English, Portuguese, Dutch and Spanish came into contact with speakers of many other Indigenous languages. Technically, pidgins are not a first language. They are not full languages and are referred to as a contact language. They are not a creole. Pidgins use simple grammar and words from both languages. They are used in basic communication situations where speakers do not share a common language. People who speak pidgin have their own language/s for use amongst themselves. If interactions remain limited, then the pidgins also remain limited; if interactions increase, then speakers expand the pidgin so it can meet their needs. With the passing of time, as intermarriage occurs between language groups or where speakers of a number of distinct language groups come to live together and children are raised, the pidgin can develop into a full language, called a creole. Note: In the Katherine Region, people sometimes call Kriol Pidgin or Pidgin English. Likewise in North Qld where Torres Strait Creole was and still is sometimes referred to as Brokin or Broken. Linguistically, these terms are inaccurate. CREOLE A creole is a substantially expanded pidgin that is spoken as a first language. Under some circumstances, a pidgin may facilitate more communication needs of its speakers, so much so, that young children acquire it as their first language. It is in this acquisition process that the former pidgin is expanded dramatically so it is able to meet all the communication requirements of its speakers. In doing so, it becomes a creole. Creoles occur throughout the world.

KRIOL
Kriol is a new Aboriginal language that arose in the early 20th Century in the cattle belt of the Northern Territory and Kimberley. Currently, there are many thousands of speakers of Kriol. Varieties of Kriol are spoken throughout the Katherine region, the Daly River region, parts of the Barkly and much of the Kimberley. Apart from regional varieties, there are also heavy and light creoles within a region. When conversing with English-speaking people, Kriol speakers often use a lot more English vocabulary and language features. This is called light creole. But when conversing amongst other Kriol speakers, the sounds, intonations, vocabulary and language structures of the local Indigenous languages take precedence. This is called heavy creole.

Standard Australian English

Australian Languages

Ngarinyman

Heavy

KRIOL

Light

Aboriginal English

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ESL FundameNTals
ABORIGINAL ENGLISH
Aboriginal English (AE) is a dialect of English in the same way that American English, Scots English, Standard Australian English (SAE) and many other varieties, are dialects of English. It is the first or home language of many Indigenous people throughout Australia. It is a non-standard dialect of English, not a sub-standard dialect. It is not bad English and is distinctive in its vocabulary, grammar and underlying concepts.

TORRES STRAIT CREOLE


The Torres Strait Islanders have a number of traditional languages. They also a have a distinct creole called Torres Strait Creole which is a full language, spoken throughout Queensland (particularly Far North Queensland). There is a significant number of Torres Strait Islanders residing in the Northern Territory.

STANDARD AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH


Standard Australian English is now the recognized national dialect of Australia and is the acceptable language of education, training, employment and communication. However, it is important to note that then are many dialects or varieties of English spoken in Australia. Standard Australian English is characterized by the pronunciation, lexis and idiom of many of those born and educated in Australia, often in contrast with other such national dialects, in particular, British English and American English. Whilst there are variations in spoken forms of Australian English, there are generally accepted standards of written English. Standard Australian English (SAE) fifty years ago, was nameless, not admired, and commonly reckoned, even by its own speakers then, to be nothing but an unfortunate distortion of the British mother tongue from which it was derived. Today however, SAE is the foundation language of our education, training and employment systems. It is the common medium for communication and the exchange of ideas across a population of widely varying ethnic and racial backgrounds. It is used in dealing with government agencies, the law and commercial transactions. Examples Kriol Wilat bin go AE We bin go./Usmob bin go. We did go./Usmob did go. E ober dere. I bin see da pig. SAE We went

Im tharrei Aibin lukum ola pigipig.

He/she/it is over there. I saw the pigs.

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ESL FundameNTals
What does the teacher do?
The teacher is aware of learners cultural and linguistic backgrounds - recognising speakers of Kriol and Aboriginal English can be difficult because some of the English-based language (light Kriol or Aboriginal English) spoken by students is understood by English speaking teachers - some students who struggle with SAE acquisition and fail to achieve satisfactory levels of reading and writing, do not have learning difficulties but rather, language difficulties affirms and acknowledges home language in order to encourage participation and engagement develops programs that are contextual, valued and that incorporate cultural knowledge and pluralism actions programs that cater for ESL/ESD students, reflect current best practice in ESL pedagogy and successfully achieve ESL outcomes The FELIKS (Fostering English in Kimberley Schools) Approach is a valuable tool for teachers to support speakers of Kriol and Aboriginal English. Using the FELIKS Stairway the learners are supported through Awareness and Separation levels and move into Code-Switching between languages when appropriate.

Control Code-Switching Separation Awareness Teachers can use the Code-Switching Stairway and Areas of Difficulty from Making the Jump to discover the teaching point and jumping off point for students.

What does the learner do?


The learner is encouraged to become a risk taker in English in a non-threatening classroom environment participates in programs that reflect cultural and linguistic inclusivity and that incorporate best ESL practice becomes aware of their spoken language or dialect, respects and values it and recognizes how it differs from English with the assistance and support of educators will become a confident and proficient speaker of English will become an effective code switcher thus enabling and empowering the learner to successfully operate in both their home language and culture and that of English.

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ESL FundameNTals
Where can you find out more?
Berry, R. & Hudson, J. 1997, Making the Jump, Catholic Education Office, Kimberley Region, WA. Eagleson, R., Kaldor, S., Malcolm, I. 1982, English and the Aboriginal Child, Curriculum Development Centre, Canberra, ACT. Social Change Media and the Curriculum Corporation (no date), Langwij comes to school, Commonwealth Department of Employment, Education and Training. Creole languages listed by country http://www.ethnologue.com/show_subject.asp?code=CRE Kriol: a language of Australia http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ROP Creole and Aboriginal English http://www.frogandtoad.com.au/aboriginies/language2.html A matter of survival creoles http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/1992/2/38.html What is Aboriginal English? http://www.tesol.org.au/esl/docs/whatis.pdf What is Aboriginal English? Edith Cowan University http://www.ecu.edu.au/ses/research/CALLR/AENG/what/what.htm Aboriginal English by Diana Eades http://www.une.edu.au/langnet/aboriginal.htm#bkgd-hce Aboriginal English in the Courts http://www.justice.qld.gov.au/courts/pdfs/handbook.pdf Aboriginal English in Education by Nola Mary Goodwin 1998 http://www.ntu.edu.au/education/csle/student/goodwin/goodwin0.html ESL and Aboriginal Englishes by AATE http://www.aate.org.au/Policy%20papers/esl.html Talking Concepts the language of western mathematics, science and instruction http://www.eddept.wa.edu.au/saer/images/talking.pdf Creole languages listed by country http://www.ethnologue.com/show_subject.asp?code=CRE Kriol: a language of Australia http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ROP (Macquarie Dictionary Revised Third Edition 2002) http://www.macquariedictionary.com.au/p/dictionary/ae5.html#top

Contributed by ESL Team. Curriculum Services Branch, 2004

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ESL FundameNTals First and Second Language Learning


What is it?
First language or Language One (L1) is a learners Mother Tongue (MT). It is the language acquired first in a learners life. In multilingual communities, a learner may gradually shift from the main use of one language to that of another. L1 may refer to the language a person feels most comfortable using. L1 is sometimes used synonymously with the term native language. Second language or Language Two (L2) refers to the second language or target language. In other words, the language which a learner is learning or acquiring, in addition to their first language or Mother Tongue (MT). In the Northern Territory, for convenience purposes, English is referred to as a second language (ESL) despite it being, in some cases, a learners third or even fourth language. Indigenous and Migrant ESL learners develop proficiency in English through the school curriculum and must gain specialised language and cultural understandings often with little support beyond the school context. Some ESL learners may also have to master new ways of organising knowledge and structuring texts that may differ from those learnt in gaining literacy in their first language. The L1 learner is highly motivated to learn the home language as it allows communication and fulfilment of basic social, emotional and physical needs within the family and community. If second language learners had as strong a need for English as they do their L1, received similar support and acceptance from those around them in their efforts to use it and had the same abundance of contextual support, then L2 proficiency may be achieved with similar success. It is this language learning environment of L1 that teachers should strive to establish and implement when teaching all ESL learners, irrespective of whether the English language learning is occurring in remote, rural or urban settings. It is important to note that it has long been recognised through language learning research that literacy acquired in L1 assists transfer to literacy in L2. Beyond improved literacy outcomes, using/incorporating L1 into English mainstream schooling has significant advantages in terms of improved self-esteem, attention, desire to learn, sense of place in school and school attendance/retention.

What does the teacher do?


The teacher approximates the language learning environment of L1 that is outlined in the table below through the following strategies: small group work increasing likelihood of individual tutoring opportunities creating a positive, secure and non-threatening classroom environment providing opportunities for learner repetition and practice of target language introducing new language together with concrete activities eg teaching the language of sinking and floating in Science could be done with a tub of water and different objects to experiment with

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ESL FundameNTals
scaffolding oral language thoroughly before setting writing tasks explicitly teaching the cultural attitudes and norms embedded in the target language eg register, modality, tone etc accepting the language offered by the learners and with positive feedback, modelling Standard Australian English version (scaffolding) allowing opportunities for spontaneous language use in both L1 and L2 encouraging risk taking with positive feedback, responding to the learners meaning rather than how the message is given.

In comparison with learning L1, there are a number of similarities and some important differences when learning English. Teacher awareness and knowledge of these similarities and differences will better inform teachers when planning and facilitating learning in and through English.

Where can you find out more?


Berry, R. & Hudson, J. 1997, Making the Jump, Catholic Education Office, Kimberley Region, WA. Edith Cowan University & Education Department of Western Australia 1999, Solid English, Education Department of WA. Gibbons, P. 1991, Learning To Learn in a Second Language, Primary English Teaching Association, Newtown, NSW. Kay, A. 1993, Learning English while Learning in English, Northern Territory University, Darwin, NT. Krashen, S. 1981, Second language acquisition and second language learning, Pergamon, Oxford. Murray, F. 1995, Walking Talking Texts, NT Department of Education & NT Board of Studies, Darwin, NT. NT Department of Employment, Education and Training 2002, Northern Territory Curriculum Framework, Darwin, NT. NT Department of Employment, Education and Training (no date), ESL for Indigenous Students Teacher Development Course, adapted from ESL in the Mainstream Teacher Development Course 2000, Department of Education, Training and Employment, SA. Richards, J., Platt, J., & Weber, H. 1985, Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics, Longman, Hong Kong.

Contributed by ESL Team. Curriculum Services Branch, 2004

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ESL FundameNTals
Differences between L1 and L2 Learning/Acquisition

L1 Learning/Acquisition
one to one input/response from parents/caregivers in a positive secure environment occurs over time here & now contexts oral then written

L2 Learning/Acquisition
one to many from a teacher, in a restricted more threatening environment often no time (or very reduced) different cultural and situational contexts oral and written together OR written to oral learning does not relate to developmental stages motivation is variable (more extrinsic than intrinsic)

learning accompanies developmental stages language develops in response to motivation of physical, emotional and cognitive needs (more intrinsic than extrinsic) occurs with gradual socialisation enculturation occurs spontaneous accompanies conceptual development learners do not know that they dont know the language, because everyone around the learner acts as if the learner does know how to speak it attempts at meaning are the focus for development risk taking is encouraged with positive feedback learners are accepted as talkers of the language

does socialisation occur? does acculturation occur? has to be planned should be linked to concepts in L1 learners know that they dont speak the language

grammatical errors are given a great deal of attention risk taking is modified by the embarrassment of mistakes learners are not seen as talkers of the language until they are very competent

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ESL FundameNTals Genre-based Approach to Literacy


What is it?
Genre refers to culturally specific text types that are written, visual or spoken for specific purposes and situations. Each genre has characteristics that distinguish it from other genres; a specific purpose, an overall structure and particular language features. In reality texts are often a mixture of genre. Text types that need to be explicitly taught include recount, narrative, exposition, report and explanation.

What is its purpose?


The genre-based approach is a tool that enables teachers to make explicit their implicit understandings of how language works to construct texts. It provides teachers and learners with a meta-language to talk about and develop understandings of the writing process.

What does the teacher do?


In order to support learners to develop either written or oral texts, teachers need to move them through four key stages, sometimes referred to as the Curriculum Cycle. This may occur over a number of weeks and often involves revisiting key elements of the stages in order re-enforce understanding of the construction process. Building knowledge of the topic o Teachers create the context and ensure that learners have enough relevant background knowledge of the topic to be able to write and talk about it. Teachers provide shared stimuli such as excursions, videos or shared book sessions to develop the topic knowledge. Modelling the text type o Teachers provide learners with opportunities to explore the purpose, the overall structure and language features of the text type. Teachers provide models of the text type and engage learners in activities that unpack the form and function of a particular text. Joint Construction o Teachers and learners compile text together so that learners can experience and develop understandings of the process of text construction. Teachers demonstrate the process through attention to text structure, language and content. Independent Construction o Teachers support individuals or groups of learners to construct texts through conferencing. This is to support learners to organise ideas, create drafts, proofread, edit and finally produce a text.

What does the learner do?


Learners need to engage in activities that will move them through four key stages. Building knowledge of the topic o Learners develop their understandings of the topic and associated language. They collect knowledge and share information through oral language and research based activities. Modelling the text type o Over a series of lessons, learners engage in activities that require them to talk about and make explicit the purpose and function of the text type, the structure and function of parts of the text and the language features of the text. They explore how to deconstruct and reconstruct similar text types.

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ESL FundameNTals
Joint Construction o Together teachers and learners actively construct text, focusing on all aspects of process and product. They can contribute through brainstorming, discussion and critical reflection. Independent Construction o Individuals or groups of learners construct texts. They organise ideas, create drafts, proofread and edit in order to produce a text. Learners can access support through peer and teacher conferencing.

Why is it important for ESL learners?


This approach provides a scaffold for ESL learners who do not have the confidence or proficiency to create various text types of any length or complexity, that can move learners on who are preoccupied with the mechanics of text construction such as spelling or grammar or correctness. It incorporates opportunities for ESL learners to develop understandings of, and apply the cultural and linguistic knowledge necessary to gain control over their use of English in its various forms and contexts as commonly encountered in the school curriculum. Without the ability to make informed choices from a range of options about the what and how of a text, it could be that ESL learners may not make any real progress and restrict their efforts to a limited and familiar range of text types, content and form. The 4 key stages of the genre based approach enable ESL learners to develop a shared knowledge of the topic and the text and understand its social purpose identify the schematic structure and discuss and practise appropriate language features giving them the tools to construct the text independently clarify aspects of the writing process that may be unfamiliar through modelling to talk through and clarify their ideas before and during independent construction through small group work receive meaningful feedback through conferencing.

Where can you find out more?


Aboriginal Schools Curriculum Materials Project (ASCMP) 1993, Getting Going with Genres, NT Department of Education, Darwin, NT. Curriculum Resources Unit 2000, ESL in the Mainstream Teacher Development Course, Department of Education, Training and Employment, South Australia. Derewianka, B. 2002, Exploring How Texts Work, Primary English Teaching Association, Newtown, NSW. Disadvantaged Schools Project 1988, Language and Social Power, DSP Productions, NSW. Gibbons, P. 2002, Scaffolding Language Scaffolding Learning. Teaching Second Language Learners in the Mainstream Classroom, Heinemann, Portsmouth, USA. Hardy, J., & Klarwein, D. 1998, Written Genres in the Secondary School Text Models for Classroom Use, Education Queensland. Kalantzis, M. & Wignell, P. 1998, Explain? Argue? Discuss? Writing for Essays and Exams, Common Ground Press. ESL Team. Curriculum Services Branch, 2004.

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ESL FundameNTals High Expectations and Age Appropriateness


What is it?
ESL learners English language proficiency often lags behind their cognitive development. However, learning tasks need to be set at the cognitive levels of the learners, and appropriate to their age, interests and needs, rather than set to their level of English proficiency. Having high expectations is expecting learners will work at their cognitive level with the required support, rather than dumbing down the curriculum simply because learners have not acquired sufficient proficiency in Standard Australian English to engage with academic concepts. Language support needs to be provided to assist learners through the learning process, and in the demonstration of their learning.

What is the purpose?


Having high expectations and providing age appropriate tasks ensures that learners are challenged and learning at the appropriate level for their age across all Learning Areas. That is, that cognitive ability is not confused with linguistic proficiency in Standard Australian English. This ensures progression of learning through the developmental levels.

What does the teacher do?


establishes the NTCF Learning Area and language outcomes, appropriate learning tasks/activities and assessment from an age-appropriate Band or Level (ESL EC/Primary or Secondary Level) analyses the language demands of tasks, resources and assessment items explicitly teaches language structures, features and vocabulary in context scaffolds the learners language use in deconstruction and reconstruction of a task, through the provision of models, explicit teaching and scaffolding oral language at the point of need provides opportunity for students to practice and demonstrate new learning modifies the assessment so it assesses the students cognitive knowledge and understanding rather than the level of language acquisition.

As far as possible, learners need to be engaged with authentic and cognitively challenging learning tasks; it is the nature of support - support that is responsive to the particular demands made on children learning through the medium of a second language - that is critical for success (Gibbons 2002).

What does the learner do?


participates and allows the teacher to guide them in understanding the requirements of the task has a go at expressing known concepts and learning, which the teacher can scaffold develops and uses learning how to learn strategies uses English in a variety of contexts and for different purposes across the curriculum.

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Why is it important for ESL learners?


Whilst their level of proficiency in SAE may potentially disadvantage ESL learners, they have already developed concepts and understandings in their first language and share the same capacity for learning as SAE speaking learners at similar developmental levels. With age appropriate curriculum content, high expectations and appropriate intervention and support, these learners can achieve outcomes in literacy and other learning areas appropriate to their stage of schooling.

Where can you find out more?


Gibbons, P. 1991, Learning To Learn in a Second Language, Primary English Teaching Association, Newtown, NSW. Gibbons, P. 2002, Scaffolding Language, Scaffolding Learning: Teaching. Second Language Learning in the Mainstream Classroom, Heinemann, Portsmouth, USA.

Contributed by ESL Team. Curriculum Services Branch, 2004

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ESL FundameNTals Language Learning in Context


What is it?
Language learning in context is the learning of English through the meaningful use of language in a variety of contexts, rather than in isolation. At school the curriculum provides those contexts and the rationale for what language to teach. The physical environment supports the learning and encourages the learner to develop confidence and take risks. For the ESL learner the language learning is not separate but occurs alongside all learning. While aspects of language need to be explicitly taught, this should be linked to the class text, unit of work or Learning Area activity.

Why is it important for ESL learners?


Second language acquisition is similar to first language learning in that it is learned most effectively through use, exposure, need and experimentation (Lock 1985). Children learn language while using it to do things and when interacting with others. In the introduction to Walking Talking Texts Fran Murray (1995) states For Aboriginal ESL learners in remote communities, there are few, if any English language contexts outside of school. Children are not able to revisit/reinforce their English language learning by having to interact in English outside of school. As a result, it is more difficult to bring real life purposes to the learning of English, except to that which occurs in or around school learning. The contexts for the learning of English for this group of learners therefore needs to be school based.

What does the teacher do?


In remote Indigenous schools or where the enrolment is predominantly ESL creates a variety of English language situations which are relevant and rich. ensures that each language situation is explored in depth, revisited and developed.

In both mainstream and remote Indigenous schools teaches socio-cultural information which will help learners understand how first language speakers use English. sets up situations where students can practise using the English learned in class. teaches spelling, grammar and phonics in context. provides a classroom where students feel supported and valued and able to take risks. develops a print rich environment which reflects the units of work/topics being studied. recognises that every lesson is a language lesson and provides language support across the curriculum. plans for group work and collaborative learning. scaffolds learners utterances to foster increasing control of oral English. models the language while doing the activity accepts approximations of English.

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Where can you find out more?
Aboriginal Schools Curriculum Materials Project (ASCMP) 1993, Learning English in Aboriginal Schools: Methodology for Teaching English in Aboriginal Schools, NT Department of Education, Darwin, NT. Curriculum Resources Unit 2000, ESL in the Mainstream Teacher Development Course, Department of Education, Training and Employment, SA. Gibbons, P. 1991, Learning to Learn in a Second Language, Primary English Teaching Association, Newtown, NSW. Gibbons, P. 2002, Scaffolding Language, Scaffolding Learning: Teaching Second Language Learning in the Mainstream Classroom, Heinemann, Portsmouth, USA. Lock, S. 1985, Second Language Learners in the Classroom, Some Considerations in ESL in the Mainstream Teacher Development Course, Department of Education, Training and Employment 2000, SA. Murray, F. 1995, Walking Talking Texts. A program for Teaching and Learning English as a Second Language, NT Department of Education, Darwin, NT. NT Department of Employment, Education and Training (no date), ESL for Indigenous Students Teacher Development Course adapted from ESL in the Mainstream Teacher Development Course 2000, Department of Education, Training and Employment, SA, www.education.tas.gov.au/english/Emmitt.htm Understanding Phonics and its role in Literacy Education www.alliance.brown.edu

Contributed by ESL Team. Curriculum Services Branch, 2004.

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ESL FundameNTals Learner Profile


What is it?
A learner profile is a collection of information that refers to the cultural and linguistic background of a learner. It may include personal life and educational experiences that may impact on their learning and schooling.

What is its purpose?


To allow teachers to respond to individual needs of learners.

What does the teacher do?


Gathers information over a period of time with considerable care and sensitivity about individual ESL learners in terms of cultural and linguistic background previous education and life experiences skills talents and interests strengths and weaknesses across different curriculum areas preferred learning styles friendship groups kinship groups aspirations and plans for the future areas of confidence and anxiety in learning. Adopts a combination of appropriate strategies to gather relevant information such as informal interviews with learners/parents/carers questionnaires discussions with relevant educators e.g. classroom teacher, ESL teachers, AIEWs (Aboriginal and Islander Education Workers), ATs (Assistant Teachers) classroom activities (arranged with caution and sensitivity) which allow learners to write and/or speak about their experiences, interests, hopes and fears opportunities for learners to bring their cultures and languages into the classroom pre-existing documentation check e.g. student record folders, SAMS Documents and stores relevant information which may include updating pre-existing records of learners maintaining observational/anecdotal records over a period of time creating a personal file which includes a portfolio of evidence of learning, questionnaires, observational records, checklists ensuring that relevant information is stored so that it can be accessed by key personnel involved in the education of the learner. Shares information with relevant educators. Positively acknowledges and values the cultural identity of learners.

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What does the learner do?
Learners have the opportunity to contribute to the development of their own learner profile. Learners may have access to their profile.

Why is it important for ESL learners?


Teachers need to be aware of the wide variety of factors that can affect the school experiences and learning outcomes of their ESL learners. These factors can include: language background, cultural knowledge, cognitive ability, school attendance, family literacy and educational background, experience with English learning interests and motivation, the use and maintenance of L1 and physical well being. ESL learners need to be seen in terms of their strengths, rather just in terms of the language and learning difficulties they may face. Each ESL learner brings uniquely individual knowledge, skills and experience to the classroom that need to be acknowledged, valued and incorporated into planning and programming. Knowing your learners is about expectations and shared understandings. The learner profile assists the teacher to develop a meaningful and supportive learning context.

Where can you find out more?


Aboriginal Curriculum Unit 1995, Aboriginal Literacy Resource Kit, Board of Studies, Sydney, NSW. Anglicare NT, PO Box 36506, Winnellie NT 0812, Tel: 08 895 0000. Berry, R. & Hudson, J. 1997, Making the Jump, Catholic Education Office, Kimberley Region, WA. Curriculum Resources Unit 2000, ESL in the Mainstream Teacher Development Course, Department of Education, Training and Employment, SA. Curriculum Services Branch 2004, General Support Program: ESL Specialist Teachers Handbook, Appendix H: ESL Student Profile, NT Department of Employment, Education and Training, Darwin, NT. Intensive English Unit, Anula Primary School, NT. Tel: 8927 9477. Melaleuca Refugee Settlement Centre (Torture and Trauma Survivors Service of the NT), PO Box 1226, Nightcliff 0814, NT. 8985 3311. NT Department of Employment, Education and Training (no date), ESL for Indigenous Students Teacher Development Course adapted from ESL in the Mainstream Teacher Development Course 2000, Department of Education, Training and Employment, SA. NT Department of Employment, Education and Training 2002, Northern Territory Curriculum Framework ESL Section, Darwin, NT. Secondary Intensive English Unit, Darwin High School, Darwin, NT. Tel: 8999 1222.

Contributed by ESL Team. Curriculum Services Branch, 2004

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ESL FundameNTals Learning How To Learn


What is it?
Learning How To Learn is one of four elements in the ESL outcomes and Strands and refers to the explicit teaching of learning strategies and behaviours that enable learners to develop and use Standard Australian English (SAE) in a range of contexts (NTCF page 98).

What is its purpose?


The purpose is to make the teaching and assessing of Learning How To Learn outcomes explicit in all school programming. For many years these were the hidden curricula which those with the right cultural capital could access.

Why is it important for ESL learners?


This element is relevant to ESL learners in that learners have their own cultural ways of learning that are different to the Western sub-culture of formal schooling. ESL learners dont always have the confidence and the will to participate in school education. They require explicit teaching in Learning How To Learn behaviours across the four strands of Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking, and across all Learning Areas. ESL learners may come from homes with limited exposure to the formal schooling system, or the literacies required of the formal education system. ESL learners may have different values related to learning, expectations, roles, obligations and assumptions to those of the teacher. The curriculum assumes that learners come to school with language and literature, and a literacy background. It cannot be assumed that the cultural capital learners bring to the classroom is the type valued or useful in our formal schooling system. I decided to set aside a part of each lesson so that I could teach the subculture of Western schooling using formal learning strategies, and make explicit to the children the behaviour I expected of them (Trouw, 1994). Children have to be able to develop the confidence and the will to participate in school education. They must be explicitly shown their roles as students and the purpose behind their schoolwork (Fleer & Kennedy 2001).

What does the teacher do?


The teacher models strategies eg check meaning, clarify, confirm with another adult in the classroom. When you said did you mean? gives positive and constructive feedback. sets up opportunities for practice through role-play and play activities eg uses a puppet to ask questions or clarify. develops charts of class words and phrases relevant to topic/text, display on walls, and explicitly teach how to use these literacy resources and model everyday use. (eg print walks). in factual texts, models and explicitly teaches skills of reading charts, diagrams, tables and other visuals and how they relate to the written text.

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ESL FundameNTals
models and explicitly teaches organisational skills relevant to school eg look at timetable for next day to plan homework, resources needed, notes returned etc. model and explicitly teach learners how to self-evaluate writing using checklists etc. doesnt assume that every student knows how to demonstrate the desired formal learning behaviour. actively accepts learners first language as their starting point for literacy development. plans for, teaches and assesses Learning How To Learn outcomes at all stages of schooling and across all Learning Areas.

What does the learner do?


watches teacher modelling, copies target behaviour, practises target behaviour practises asking for assistance, clarification accepts teacher praise and constructive suggestions has a go in class and tries taking risks in desired learning behaviour practises using literacy resources (wall charts etc) every day participates in role-play or other activities supports others in learning scaffolds and prompts others towards desired behaviour practises and applies taught behaviour outside of the class eg at the shop begins to assume ownership of the learning process and becomes a stakeholder in his or her own success.

Where can you find out more?


Berry, R. & Hudson, J. 1997, Making the Jump, Catholic Education Office, Kimberley Region, WA. For print walks see Murray, F. 1999, Walking Talking Texts folder and videos, NT Department of Education, Darwin, NT. Fleer, M. & Williams-Kennedy, D. 2001, Building Bridges: Literacy Development In Young Indigenous Children, Department of Education, Science and Training, ECA Publishers. McKay, P. Scarino A, 1993, ESL Framework of Stages - An Approach To ESL Learning in Schools K-12, Curriculum Corporation, Victoria. Trouw, N. 1994, Urban Aboriginal Children Learning to Read - Best Practice in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education, The National Languages and Literacy Institute of Australia Ltd., Canberra, ACT.

Contributed by ESL Team. Curriculum Services Branch, 2004.

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ESL FundameNTals Metalanguage


What is it?
Metalanguage is the language or vocabulary used to talk about and describe language.

What is its purpose?


The schools that made a difference (in achieving higher success in literacy) had consistent vocabularies and metalanguages for talking about literacy (Luke 2003). The use of metalanguage is to make clear and explicit the links between language and literacy teaching and learning. This enables learners and teachers to have a common language to discuss writing and speaking and to learn about English. It also enables teachers to have a common language when planning for language-focused teaching, and assessing learners language and literacy skills.

What does the teacher do?


The teacher has an explicit understanding about how English works. learns the necessary metalanguage to talking about language eg grammar, syntax, text types. models the language for talking about language, using age appropriate terminology according to the learners needs and capabilities. has frequent discussion with learners about o talking and writing o how written and spoken texts work o how sentences work or dont work (syntax/grammar) o meaning structures and text structures (semantics/genre) o how discourses work in speech and writing. helps the learner identify and understand the problems they may be facing. chooses teaching moments within activities, assignments, readings and lessons to focus on particular words, sentences, text features, discourses etc. effectively models English. clarifies subject specific language.

Why is it important for ESL learners?


When learning English as a second language learners need to: learn English learn about English learn through English.

For these learners learning English often happens everyday, both consciously and unconsciously in formal and informal situations. When learning about English ESL learners need to have how the language works explained. Metalanguage helps teachers to do this. Teachers know implicitly how English works because they speak English as their first language, but they may not know the metalanguage or terminology for explaining this to others. Teachers may assume that their learners also have this implicit knowledge.

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ESL FundameNTals

ESL learners have intuitive feeling and knowledge about how their first language works but this may be very different to the way English works. ESL learners need to be shown how to make the links with English so they can understand how this additional language works. Metalanguage enables teachers and learners to have a common language to talk about language and to make informed choices about the words, phrases and sentences that they use.

Where can you find out more?


Department of Education Queensland 2002, Productive Pedagogies, State of Queensland. Luke, A. 2003, Making literacy policy and practice with a difference, Australian Journal of Languages and Literacy, Vol 26 Oct. http://www.education.tas.gov.au/english/allanluke.htm Professor Allan Luke, University of Queensland, How to Make Literacy Policy Differently: Generational Change, Professionalisation, and Literate Futures, Opening plenary address delivered at the Joint National AATE/ALEA Conference on July 13, 2001 in Hobart, Tasmania.

Contributed by ESL Team. Curriculum Services Branch, 2004

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ESL FundameNTals Non Verbal Communication


What is it?
Nonverbal aspects of a language refer to the non-linguistic elements which accompany spoken language, ie the voice tone and body language, including gestures, body positioning and facial expressions, all of which assist in conveying meaning. These nonverbal aspects are sometimes referred to as paralinguistic devices. According to experts, our body language communicates about 50% of what we really mean (voice tonality contributes 38%), while words themselves contribute a mere 7%. Our bodies send out messages constantly and often we don't recognize that we're communicating a lot more than we realise. As we gain awareness of body language by trying to interpret others, we become more conscious of our own body gestures, thus improving the way in which we both give and receive messages. Most of the basic nonverbal communication gestures are the same all over the world, such as smiling when happy, frowning or scowling when angry, nodding the head for agreement or shaking the head from side to side to indicate disagreement. However there are some significant differences in nonverbal communication between cultures, languages and even dialects. These differences can range from the interpretation of the thumbs up gesture to the amount of eye contact thats considered socially acceptable. Learners who are learning English as a second or further language need to be taught the non-verbal behaviours for communicating in English. Teaching and learning strategies that incorporate non-verbal features can sustain and support communication in Standard Australian English (SAE) for ESL learners. Visual cues other than body language and actions, such as pictures, diagrams and maps, can also be included in the term non verbal strategies, and play an important role in classroom teaching and learning.

What is its purpose?


Non-verbal strategies can be used by ESL learners to enhance their communication in SAE. They can also demonstrate understandings and knowledge through non-verbal means such as actions or gestures when oral language is insufficient to do this eg responding to directions from the teacher. Non-verbal strategies can be used by teachers to enhance learners understandings of the English talk used in class. ESL learners, especially beginning learners, rely heavily on visual aids to assist comprehension. So, when learning new vocabulary and language structures, it is important that learners can associate the item or concept with a visual representation.

What does the teacher do?


Teachers support learners studying English through the use of non-verbal strategies by involving learners in shared experiences as a basis for new learning, where the new material is introduced in a meaningful context e.g. through using concrete materials, actions accompanying language, and other relevant visual stimuli. using hand signs, gestures, facial expressions and voice tone that reinforce or clarify the oral language being used. using concrete materials, pictures, drawings or other diagrams, or actions, to assist with introduction of new vocabulary and concepts. providing visual cues as part of the classroom environmental print, for continued reference material e.g. picture-word charts, charts/maps/lists, bilingual or picture dictionaries, models of writing, which support the current unit of work. using strategies which visually demonstrate the organization of information, such as retrieval charts, semantic webs, concept maps, graphs, graphic outlines and story maps.

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ESL FundameNTals
Teachers encourage learners in their efforts to communicate in English and through non-verbal language by allowing learners who may be in a silent stage to express their understandings non-verbally eg drawings, actions eg Show me three shells, Draw a circle around the apple, etc. explicitly teaching the appropriate body language of English.

Teachers restate when learners indicate they do not understand, and use non-verbal language to support the interaction.

What does the learner do?


learners will initially use the nonverbal strategies they have learned in their first language and culture, and gradually approximate to English non-verbal strategies with time, exposure and explicit teaching. learners are supported through the use of a variety of non-verbal and visual cues. They use nonverbal language conventions to enhance the meaning of their own spoken texts. They are supported to understand these texts through the extensive use of visual materials, such as pictures and diagrams, and strategies to show organisation of information such as retrieval charts, concept maps, etc.

Why is it important for ESL learners?


Learning the non-verbal rules of English is essential for ESL learners if they are to be effective communicators in English. Getting the words right is only a small part of communication - if an ESL learner uses inappropriate body language, voice tone or gesture, English speakers will misinterpret the communication and maybe form inaccurate judgements about the learner, even if the words are right eg if an Indigenous person does not maintain any eye contact when speaking to an English user who is unfamiliar with Indigenous culture, the English speaker may think that person is shifty, unreliable or not telling the truth. This is because English speakers expect a high degree of eye contact when talking with others, as opposed to the Indigenous perspective of showing politeness through little or no eye contact. Non-verbal strategies in the classroom are important to allow the ESL learner to engage in learning activities despite language barriers, and to enhance meaning of learning tasks and classroom interaction.

Where can you find out more?


Australian Education Council 1994, ESL Scales, Curriculum Corporation, Carlton, Vic. NT Department of Employment, Education and Training (no date), ESL for Indigenous Students Teacher Development Course, Workshop 8, adapted from ESL in the Mainstream Teacher Development Course 2000, Department of Education, Training and Employment, SA. NT Department of Employment, Education and Training 2002, NT Curriculum Framework, ESL Section, NT Department of Employment, Education and Training, Darwin, NT. Pease, A.1987, Body Language. How to read others thoughts by their gesture, William Collins Pty Ltd., Victoria. Sammut, V. 2002, When English is a Second Language, in Practical Literacy Programming, Primary English Teaching Association, Newtown, NSW.

Contributed by ESL Team. Curriculum Services Branch, 2004.

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ESL FundameNTals Oral Language Focus


What is it?
An oral language focussed program specifically plans for explicit teaching of the oral language associated with a topic, text or unit of work, and assesses what has been taught. It aims to ensure that ESL learners can comprehend small chunks of language, vocabulary and structures associated with new learning and have the opportunity to practise and use the language orally, before being asked to engage in learning tasks that involve reading and writing. Oral language is, in many ways, different to written language but does share some common features. It can be contextual, purposeful, unpredictable and spontaneous. However, in more formal contexts (eg. debates, oral presentations), oral language will be extremely predictable and structured. Teachers are aware of the language demands of tasks, and provide necessary teaching and support for ESL learners.

What is its purpose?


The ability to communicate effectively is fundamental. Students must be able to listen, view and speak with purpose, understanding and critical awareness, to select and apply strategies for conveying and making meaning in a wide range of contexts. The development of speaking and listening skills is pivotal to the acquisition of literacy. A strong oral language focus is essential if students are to become proficient readers and writers. We use oral English in different ways: Interpersonal to build and maintain relationships and make simple transactions Informational to give and receive information Aesthetic to participate in or create oral texts and to listen and respond to discussions, stories, plays, poems, etc. The primary function or central goal of learning a language is to communicate successfully. To do this effectively, students need to: know the socio-cultural aspects of SAE the courtesies of the language know how the English language works the language structures and features the semantics, syntax and phonic cues take responsibility for their own learning and learn how to learn.

What does the teacher do?


Given that every lesson is a language lesson, teachers must explicitly teach about the language and teach how to use the language, in addition to teaching content. Opportunities for the development of spoken language, both formal and informal, should be constantly available. The teacher must: Before the lesson become familiar with learners cultural, linguistic and familial backgrounds provide a safe, supportive class environment where learners are encouraged to take risks in their learning provide an environment where talk is valued and encouraged provide good models of the target language create a print rich environment to scaffold talk initiate and maintain shared planning (negotiating the curriculum) provide appropriate and culturally/contextually relevant tasks that extend prior knowledge be aware of the language demands of tasks

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ensure oral language tasks are challenging to the learner plan activities carefully with provision for possible difficulties

During the lesson revise the content of the previous lesson or topic so that learners move from the known to the unknown examine the vocabulary of the topic make learners aware of the specific language demands of the task set make instructional goals explicit facilitate shared language experiences, both inside and outside the classroom encourage risk taking provide hands on learning model and scaffold the set task provide opportunities for purposeful language usage maintain high but realistic expectations provide examples of competent language use provide opportunities for learners to work in pairs or small groups provide practice time before expecting independent construction accept approximations towards the target language/text After the lesson use a variety of questions to elicit a wide range of oral language (refer to questioning toolkit J. McKenzie) allow sufficient wait time to enable learners to think through their answers provide an appropriate balance between oral and written tasks provide meaningful, constructive feedback establish a context for talk and record it so that the data collected is learner centered provide multiple opportunities for learners to demonstrate their learning assess learners oral language development (refer NTCF) in a context that is realistic for, and meaningful to, the learner use assessment results to inform future planning and learning outcomes.

What does the learner do?


The learner: Listens with understanding. The level of understanding can be determined from facial expressions, body language, learner artwork and/or writing as well as learner speech. Participates in set tasks. Factors such as the extent to which the learner copies other learners, whether s/he requests clarification of the task (verbally and/or non-verbally), and the extent to which s/he relies on teacher modeling and scaffolding of the task, will help determine learner understanding. Shows awareness of socio-cultural understandings. The appropriate response to eye contact, body space between speaker and listener, tone of voice and intonation patterns, help to indicate learner understanding. Shows awareness of purpose. This can be determined by learner response to different kinds of oral language (eg stories, instructions) and his/her ability to identify, challenge and justify interpretations of the underlying assumptions, viewpoints and subtexts in spoken texts.

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Shows awareness of language structure and features. Initial awareness may be indicated by the learners obvious reaction to a syntactic error in his/her own speech. At a much later stage the learners ability to analyse and use language structure and features that affect interpretations of spoken texts, especially in the construction of tone, style and point of view, will determine their level of awareness. (Refer to NTCF English & ESL Outcome Indicators)

In many ways the acquisition of a second (or further) language closely parallels the acquisition of a first. However, the conditions under which a second language is acquired are usually significantly different: the time-frame within which the second language must be learned, will not be as large or as flexible as that for the acquisition of the first language first language acquisition is usually one-to-one (i.e. parent-child); second language acquisition is usually one-to-many (i.e. teacher-class) the psychological climate of the home (where the L1 is usually acquired) and the school (where the L2 is usually learned) will be significantly different learners learning a second language at school are at very different cognitive and conceptual levels.

Standard Australian English is Australias national language. All learners have the right to be taught to communicate effectively in SAE, to understand how the English language works, to think in and learn through English and to be given access to the cultural understandings that it carries (NTCF p. 95). The English language will almost always be the vehicle by which ESL learners are taught other Learning Area knowledge (eg Science, SOSE, Maths). Failure of the ESL learner to acquire SAE will impact on his/her performance in every other Learning Area. School success is often measured not by individual effort, but by the match between the learners existing oral literacies and those taught by the school.

Where can you find out more?


Aboriginal Schools Curriculum Materials Project (ASCMP) 1993, Learning English in Aboriginal Schools Oral, NT Department of Education, Darwin, NT. Berry, R. & Hudson, J. 1997, Making the Jump, Catholic Education Office, Kimberley Region, WA. Curriculum Resources Unit 2000, ESL in the Mainstream Teacher Development Course, Department of Education, Training and Employment, SA. Education Department of Western Australia 1997, First Steps Oral Language Resource Book, Rigby Heinemann, Port Melbourne, Vic. ESL Curriculum Project 1993, Teaching and Learning Strategies for ESL Learners R 12, Education Department of South Australia. Gibbons, P. 1991, Learning to Learn in a Second Language, Primary English Teaching Association, Newtown, NSW. Jones, P. (ed) 1996, Talking to Learn, Primary English Teaching Association, Newtown, NSW. McKay, P., & Scarino, A. 1988, ESL Framework of Stages, Curriculum Corporation, Carlton, Vic. Murray, F. 1995, Walking Talking Texts, NT Department of Education, Darwin, NT. NT Department of Employment, Education and Training 2002, Northern Territory Curriculum Framework, NT Department of Employment, Education and Training, Darwin, NT. NT Department of Employment, Education and Training (no date), ESL for Indigenous Students Teacher Development Course adapted from ESL in the Mainstream Teacher Development Course Department of Education, Training and Employment 2000, SA.

Contributed by ESL Team. Curriculum Services Branch, 2004.

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ESL FundameNTals Repetition and Guided Practice


What is it?
ESL learners need to hear, see and practise all kinds of English. Teachers need to actively and purposefully engage ESL learners in activities that allow them to practise the language, functions and structures that they have been taught i.e. guided practice. Repetition is one example where learners are given the opportunity to practise new language structures. It can involve ESL learners imitating other peoples speech or utterances, asking for clarification, or engaging in meaningful activities that give learners the opportunity to repeat previously introduced or new language. This involves all language modes: Speaking, Listening, Reading and Writing.

What is its purpose?


To reinforce and develop proficiency in using new and previously introduced language across all Learning Areas and to increase learner confidence and knowledge in using the new language in different contexts.

What does the teacher do?


The teacher allows sufficient time for repetition and practice when programming for ESL learners. plans for the language that is to be introduced and plans for the activities that will allow ESL learners to use the language for a communicative purpose. plans how assessment of learning will take place and provides clear criteria to the learners so they know what the teacher is looking for. presents language in its whole before deconstructing it and allowing ESL learners to practise its parts. provides a secure and supportive environment that reflects an authentic view of language.

Some ways of incorporating repetition and guided practice:


Listening and Speaking
rephrase or repeat instructions in preference to verbatim repetition encourage ESL learners to repeat selected phrases or instructions to check for understanding encourage ESL learners to ask for repetition to check meaning model how a listener checks for meaning eg By that do you mean.? plan small group activities that allow learners to hear and practise SAE eg information gap, sequencing, retelling and information transfer activities allow time for whole class practice of the language that will be used in small group activities with varying contexts develop and utilise games with a specific language focus provide activities that require learners to use language needed for school learning eg problem solving, reasoning, accepting, modifying or rejecting role play rhymes and chants pronunciation activities

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Reading and Writing
read books/text/passage/view video etc more than once encourage learners to reread and revisit previously introduced texts, both written or visual and make links of how the language and structure may be similar or different between texts provide opportunities to practise introduced text types and review them periodically provide opportunities for learners to read a selected text to different audiences ie to the teacher, to a friend, to a younger child joint negotiation or whole class practice of introduced language in text construction eg writing a poem innovating on a particular structure encourage learners to read and reread their own writing and that of other students allow time and opportunities to practise the ordering of parts of an introduced text type allow time and opportunities to practise reordering of phrases at the sentence level allow time and opportunities to practice key grammatical features of an introduced text type e.g. reference items, connectives, tense, vocabulary.

Why is it important for ESL learners?


Language acquisition is a cumulative process. It necessitates time and repetition, which can incorporate rote learning and drill. However, it is when practice and repetition are incorporated into meaningful and authentic learning experiences that ESL learners are able to gain control over the language they are learning, for example, in relation to repetitive and isolated teaching of English sounds. Practice in sound discrimination in a listening program like the teaching of phonics in the reading program is necessary but not sufficient to ensure comprehension (Gibbons 2002). .if they can decode, but neither predict nor apply appropriate cultural understandings of texts, they are left imitating sounds with no purpose or fulfilment.

Where can you find out more?


Berry, R. & Hudson, J. 1997, Making the Jump. A Resource Book for Teachers of Aboriginal Students, Catholic Education Office, Kimberly Region, WA. Curriculum Resources Unit 2000, ESL in the Mainstream Teacher Development Course, Department of Education, Training and Employment, SA. ESL Curriculum Project 1993, Teaching and Learning Strategies for ESL Learners R - 12, Education Department of South Australia. Gibbons, P. 2002, Learning to Learn in a Second Language, Primary English Teaching Association, Newtown, NSW. Gibbons, P. 2002, Scaffolding Language Scaffolding Learning: Teaching Second Language Learners in the Mainstream Classroom, Heinemann, Portsmouth, USA. Murray, F. 1999, Students learning English as a Second Language and the phonics issue, Catholic Education Office, Darwin, NT, Reprinted from ALEA TAWL Special Interest Newsletter. Wilson, L. 2002, Reading To Live - How To Teach Reading for Todays World, Heinemann, Portsmouth, USA. ESL Team. Curriculum Services Branch, 2004.

Contributed by

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ESL FundameNTals Scaffolding


What is it?
The scaffolding analogy comes from the construction industry where temporary frameworks or scaffolds are used as supports to enable building erection, alteration, or repair. Scaffolding refers to the strategies and cognitive supports that guide, model and cue the complex or thinking-related processes involved in thinking and problem solving (Elliott (in ESL for Indigenous Students Teacher Development Course NTDEET). Scaffolding refers to support that is designed to provide the assistance necessary to enable learners to accomplish tasks and develop understandings that they would not quite be able to manage on their ownit is not just any assistance which helps a learner accomplish a task. It is help which will enable a learner to accomplish a task which they would not have been quite able to manage on their own, and it is help which is intended to bring the learner closer to a state of competence which will enable them eventually to complete such a task on their own (Hammond & Gibbons 2001).

I DO YOU WATCH
(Teacher)

I DO YOU HELP

YOU DO I HELP

YOU DO I WATCH (Student)

www.myread.org

Scaffolding
supports learning through speaking, listening, reading, viewing and writing across all learning areas allows the curriculum to be enriched, not simplified gives opportunities for exploration and clarification provides for guided practice revisits the concepts unpacks the subject (ways of thinking and the language involved).

What is its purpose?


The purpose of scaffolding is to allow learners to do as much as they can on their own and then for the teacher to intervene and provide assistance when it is needed so that the task can be successfully completed. This assists learners to move from the zone of actual development to the zone of proximal development (Vygotsky 1978), so that the task can be completed independently. Scaffolding is designed to help learners know not only what to think and do, but how to think and do so that new skills and understandings can be applied in new contexts. Learning always proceeds from the known to the new. Good teaching will recognise and build on this connection. www.myread.org

What does the teacher do?


The teacher provides assistance and support that is designed to help learners move towards new skills, concepts or understandings. Classroom scaffolding is much more than encouragement, management or confirmation of learning.

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ESL FundameNTals
The teachers role is to make clear the cognitive demands of the task and to guide activity within a purposeful and goaldirected framework. establish classroom structures such as purposeful group work for peer scaffolding. plan explicitly so that they are aware of the demands of the tasks being set in order to prepare the learners for success. make instructional goals explicit. actively monitor learner progress, provide immediate and academically orientated feedback. create an environment that is task oriented but relaxed. Scaffolding is not only verbal in nature. It means high levels of learner involvement. As the learner develops control of new understandings, concepts and abilities, the teacher needs to withdraw the support, only to provide further support for extended or new tasks, understandings and concepts. The teacher gradually releases responsibility to the student until the task can be completed independently. Scaffolding applies to all stages of schooling and into adult life. Scaffolding must be culturally and cognitively age appropriate. Evaluation of learners current language proficiency will inform the teacher how much scaffolding is needed in order for learners to achieve greater proficiency. Scaffolding for ESL learners can include: Demonstrating use appropriate body language & gestures use appropriate language to accompany action provide charts, frameworks, picture cues, word lists. Modelling demonstrate the English vocab and language structures needed for the activity demonstrate the English words to talk about Western concepts in the activity demonstrate the English language that links to concepts learners already have, as this will support the concepts they will be learning respond to the meaning of learners talk and be ready to model and scaffold at the point of need. Questioning use guided questioning, probing, paraphrasing, clarifying Cueing and prompting supply words and structures that the learners arent able to give at the point where they need to use the English provide the English vocab and language structures needed for the activity provide the English words to talk about Western concepts in the activity provide concrete examples High expectations encourage and expect the learner to use the rephrased language either to restate what s/he said, or later in the same context for a communicative purpose expect the learner to supply whatever English they are able to within the context of the activity. set the learner up to succeed in set tasks and questionings Classroom Management allow learners sufficient time to become familiar with the vocab associated with the field of knowledge for each activity create opportunities for learners to use and practise the language orally before being required to read and/or write it.
(adapted from: Gledhill, Ruth & Morgan, Dale 2000, Risk taking: Giving ESL students an edge.)

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What does the learner do?
The learner values challenges and risk-taking but doesnt have to do these things unaided shares responsibility of learning with teacher/peers moves towards independent learning is an active learner and uses what English they have to participate in tasks is a collaborative learner reflects, monitors and evaluates own learning practises and revisits new concepts, skills and language transfers learned strategies to new learning contexts.

Why is it important for ESL learners?


ESL learners come from diverse socio-cultural and linguistic backgrounds, with varying educational experiences and needs. It is imperative that teachers are aware of these educational, cultural and language backgrounds. Teachers need to be aware of the needs of their ESL learners to effectively plan and deliver appropriate learning programmes (Refer to NT Curriculum Framework pp 95-96).

Where can you find out more?


Aboriginal Schools Curriculum Materials Project (ASCMP)1993, Learning English in Aboriginal Schools, NT Department of Education, Darwin, NT. Berry, R. & Hudson, J. 1997, Making the Jump, Catholic Education Office, Kimberley Region, WA. Costa, Arthur 2002, Components of a Well Developed Thinking Skills Program http://www.newhorizons.org/strategies/thinking/costa2.htm Curriculum Corporation and NT Department of Education 2000, Maths No Fear, Carlton, Vic., Darwin. Education Department of Western Australia 2001, Success For All. Selecting Appropriate Learning Strategies, Curriculum Corporation, Carlton, Vic. Edith Cowan University 2001, Stepping Out Literacy and Learning Resource: Classroom Teachers Courses: Reading and Viewing: Writing: Listening, Speaking and Critical Thinking. Education Department of Western Australia 1994, First Steps Resource Books: Reading, Writing, Spelling, Oral Language, Longman Australia Pty Ltd, Melbourne, Vic. Curriculum Resources Unit 2000, ESL in the Mainstream Teacher Development Course, Department of Education, Training and Employment, SA. Gibbons, P. Scaffolding Language, Scaffolding Learning, Heinemann, Portsmouth, USA. Gledhill, R. & Morgan, D. 2000, Risk taking: Giving ESL students an edge. Gray, B. & Cowey, W. Accelerated Literacy Program http://www.nalp.cdu.edu.au/ Hammond, J. (ed) 2001, Scaffolding: Teaching and Learning in Language and Literacy Education, Primary English Teaching Association, Newtown, NSW. Murray, F. 1995 Walking Talking Texts, NT Department of Education, Darwin, NT. NT Department of Education 1996, Teaching the Intensive English Course - video (available from Curriculum Services Branch), Darwin, NT. NT Department of Employment, Education and Training (no date), ESL for Indigenous Students Teacher Development Course adapted from ESL in the Mainstream Teacher Development Course 2000, Department of Education, Training and Employment, SA. Vygotsky, L.S. 1978, Mind in Society, Cambridge MA: Harvard Uni Press. www.myread.org Ways of Assisting Readers and Writers: Modes of Scaffolding www.myread.org ESL Team. Curriculum Services Branch, 2004.

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Ways of Assisting Readers and Writers: Modes of Scaffolding


I DO YOU WATCH I DO YOU HELP YOU DO I HELP YOU DO I WATCH

ESL FundameNTals

Teacher- Regulated
Reading to student

Supportive Joint Practice


Reciprocal reading Engage in discourse: analysis of texts
Student protocols

Student Regulated

Teacher Modelling

Directed Reading, Thinking and Writing activities Teacher symbolic story representation Literature circles Student symbolic story representation Students use Strategy on own in context of Inquiry Project Small groups Inquiry groups

Book Orientation

Explicit instruction

Shared reading with teacher. Joint construction of texts


Structured guided reading / writing

Independent reading/writing Internalisation of process Short Re-writes

Teacher chooses material for teaching purposes

Reading materials negotiation and matched to student needs

Student chooses topic/material

Source: www.myread.org
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ESL FundameNTals Teaching Grammar


What is it?
Grammar is the way sounds, symbols, words and phrases are put together to make meaning in the language. Each language does this in different ways. Learners of English need to learn to use English learn about English learn through English. A knowledge of grammar helps learners to learn about English.

What is its purpose?


The purpose of teaching grammar is to improve the oral and written expression of learners and give them an appreciation of how the language works. It provides a metalanguage for teachers and learners to talk about how languages work to make meaning.

What does the teacher do?


The teacher identifies the vocabulary that learners will need to learn and understand in order to grasp key factors and concepts for future lessons. identifies the language structures and features that will need to be modelled and introduced. integrates learning about language with the learners own use of language and develops their ability to use English effectively in all its modes listening, speaking, reading and writing. integrates learning sequences across all Learning Areas based around texts the learners are hearing, producing orally, reading and writing. accepts and responds to learners developing oral English. scaffolds talk, providing learners with correct models, and extending what it is learners are already able to say in English. encourages learners to play and experiment with the sounds, rhythms and meanings of English through songs, rhymes, repetitive stories and word play. focuses learners incidentally on correct grammatical features and vocabulary without lessening the communicative value of the learners own forms of English. notes grammatical errors and provides opportunities for explicit teaching, use and practice of the correct forms in future teaching/learning sequences. assists learners to perceive patterns in English at both the grammatical and phonological levels through modelling and deconstructing/reconstructing texts in a range of different genres. holds writing conferences after learners have attempted independent writing to assist them to make informed linguistic choices that will improve the quality of the piece of writing.

What does the learner do?


Learners learn language by using language within a social context. They take risks and use models of the language to make generalizations, formulate rules about, and gain a feel for the language (Collerson 1997).

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ESL FundameNTals
Why is it important for ESL learners?
All ESL learners need help to move into areas of language-use that they might not otherwise reach. Learners whose mother tongue is English have generally had plenty of experience of spoken language by the time they start school and will have a core of basic vocabulary and grammatical structures. Many ESL learners have very little English at all on entry to school and face major difficulties with English, especially in writing. They often lack the feel for the language or the sense of what sounds right which other learners have gained through having heard and used English from early childhood. Whilst they may achieve a degree of competence in everyday conversation, they may plateau at a certain stage where they feel comfortable and often find it very difficult to take on the language demands of school learning. Learning about the language structures and features and specific teaching of English grammar is essential if they are to develop control over English.

Where can you find out more?


Collerson, J. 1997, Grammar in Teaching, Primary English Teaching Association, Newtown, NSW. Collerson 1994, English Grammar, a functional approach, Primary English Teaching Association, Newtown, NSW. Derewianka, B. 1990, Exploring How Texts Work, Primary English Teaching Association, Newtown, NSW. ESL Curriculum Project 1993, Teaching and Learning Strategies for ESL Learners R 12, Education Department of South Australia. ESL Team. Curriculum Services Branch, 2004

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