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Final Report Acid Content Detection in Rain

INTERNAL SUPERVISOR Dr. Gul-E-Saman Submitted By: Brain Champions Names: Neelam Alla-U-Din Shahzeem Roshan Rozina Zahir Ullah Dept: Computer Science Semester: 3rd Submission Date: 19th June 2013

Preface
We release most of the work of this project in versions. The reason was that in feasibility report and requirement specication in the introduction and history section most of we discuses about only the acid rain not about the Gadget and Gadget for Acid Content Detection in Rain that we are going to construct in this semester project. So there for we release most of the work about the gadget specication either that is the Data modeling section or functional modeling section or behavior modeling section in version 2.

Abstract
The Final Report of Master program is to submit an project of the Acid Content Detection in Rain, in which we apply our knowledge and expertise. Our project duration is almost four months. We worked as an Researcher. Chapter 1cover Introduction of Acid Rain, in which also include History, Eects, Causes. In Chapter 2 we discuss Literature Review of Gadget which is detect Acid Content in Rain. Chapter 3 cover the Project Feasibility Study, in which include Problem Statement, Purpose, Scope of Project, Eorts, Risks, Cost, Time, Approaches, Detection Methods, Conict Resolution. Chapter 4 covers the Project Resource Management, in which include Project Objective, Project Planning, People Management. In Chapter 5 we discussed Requirement Specication, in this chapter we specify all the requirement of project. Chapter 6 covers Data Modeling in which include Flow Chart, Data Flow Diagram and Entity Relationship Diagram. Chapter 7 covers the Behavior Modeling in which include Use Case Diagram, Sequence Diagram, Collaboration Diagram, StateChart Diagram. Chapter 8 covers Functional Modeling in which also include Class Diagram, Activity Diagram. Chapter 9 covers the Prototyping in which we discuss Mockup (Prototype of Gadget for Acid Content Detection in Rain. In chapter 10 we discussed the conclusion and Recommendation. In Chapter 11 we discussed Future work of our Gadgets.

DEDICATION
At rst dedicating this work to the Teachers, who always guided us towards right path of success, and without his mercy and sympathy we were not able to accomplish this work. We also dedicated this work to our Parents Who taught me how to navigate life's many road.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Many people have contributed in the successful completion of our project report. Our great appreciation goes to the INTERNAL SUPERVISOR DR. GUL-ESAMAN DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE SHAHEED BENAZIR BHUTTO WOMEN UNIVERSITY PESHAWAR Pakistan. Who provided us every kind of help in completion of our project. She rst introduced us to the concept of Software Engineering. As our advisor, she helped us to successfully coordinate our ideas, oered direction with the implementation of those ideas, We also thank the faculty guidance in every eld. Last but not the least we would like to thank our respected parents who provided us love and support that made us work hard on this project.

Contents
1 Introduction to Acid Rain
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2.1 2.2 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 History . . . . . . Eects on National Causes . . . . . . . Eects . . . . . . . . . . . . . Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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8 8 8 9

2 Literature Review 3 Feasibility

Infrared camera detects one of the main causes of acid rain . . . Rain gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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10 10

Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scope of Project . . . . . . . . . . . . Eort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alternative Approaches . . . . . . . . 3.8.1 Current System . . . . . . . . . 3.8.2 Approach of Proposed System 3.8.2.1 ACCU-CHEK . . . . 3.8.2.2 Gadgets Dream Point 3.9 Detection Method . . . . . . . . . . . 3.10 CONFLICT RESOLUTION . . . . . . 4.1 4.2 4.3 5.1 5.2

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11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 14 15 15 21 22 22

4 Project Resources Management

Project Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . People Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gadgets Software Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gadget Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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5 Requirements Specication

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5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.1 6.2 6.3 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 9.1

Gadget Functional Requirement . . . Gadget Non Functional Requirement Design Requirements . . . . . . . . . Design Constraints . . . . . . . . . . Internal interface . . . . . . . . . . . CONSTRAINTS . . . . . . . . . . . External Interfaces . . . . . . . . . .

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6 Data Modeling

Flow Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data Flow Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Entity Relationship Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Use Case Diagram . . . . . . Sequence Diagram . . . . . . Collaboration Diagram . . . State Chart Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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25 26 29 30 30 31 32

7 Behavior Modeling

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8 Functional Modeling

Class Diagram . . . . . . . . . Dening classes . . . . . . . . . Dening Attributes of a Class . Dening Operations of a Class Activity Diagram . . . . . . . .

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34 34 35 35 36

9 Prototyping 10 Conclusion 11 Future

Mockup (Prototype of Gadget for Acid Content Detection in Rain) 38

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10.1 Conclusion and Recommendation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1 Future Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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List of Figures
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.6 4.5 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 8.1 8.2 9.1 Gant Chart for Acid Content Detection in Rain . . . . . . Gant Chart for Acid Content Detection in Rain . . . . . . Gant Chart for Acid Content Detection in Rain . . . . . . Gant Chart for Acid Content Detection in Rain . . . . . . Gant Chart for Acid Content Detection in Rain . . . . . . Gant Chart for Acid Content Detection in Rain . . . . . . Gant Chart for Acid Content Detection in Rain . . . . . . Gant Chart for Acid Content Detection in Rain . . . . . . Gant Chart for Acid Content Detection in Rain . . . . . . Gant Chart for Acid Content Detection in Rain . . . . . . Organizational Chart for Acid Content Detection in Rain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 26 27 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 36 37 39

Flow Chart for Acid Content Detection in Rain . . . . . . . . . . Context Level Data Flow Diagram for Acid Content Detection in Rain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Level 1 Data Flow Diagram for Acid Content Detection in Rain . Level 2 Data Flow Diagram for Acid Content Detection in Rain . Entity Relationship Diagram for Acid Content Detection in Rain Use Case Diagram for Acid Content Detection in Rain . . . Sequence Diagram for Acid Content Detection in Rain . . . Collaboration Diagram for Acid Content Detection in Rain State Chart Diagram for Acid Content detection in Rain . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Class Diagram for Acid Content Detection in Rain . . . . . . . . Activity Diagram for Acid Content Detection in Rain . . . . . . Prototype of Gadget for Acid Content Detection in Rain . . . . .

Chapter 1

Introduction to Acid Rain


The term acid rain refers to what scientists call acid deposition. Acid rain is the common name for acidic deposits that fall to Earth from the atmosphere. It is caused by airborne acidic pollutants and has highly destructive results. Acid rain is a rain consisting of water droplets that are unusually acidic because of atmospheric pollution - most notably the excessive amounts of sulfur and nitrogen released by cars and industrial processes [1].

1.1 History
Acid Rain rst discovered by a Scottish chemist, Robert Angus Smith, in 1852. In that year, he discovered the relationship between acid rain and atmospheric pollution in Manchester, England. Although it was discovered in the 1800s, acid deposition did not gain signicant public attention until the 1960s and the term acid rain was coined in 1872 by English chemist Robert Angus Smith to describe the acidic precipitation in Manchester, England. Today scientists study both wet and dry acidic deposits[1].

1.2 Eects on National Economy


Acid rain is a widespread problem found all over the world. It is the result of chemicals from burned fossil fuel mixing with moisture in the atmosphere and falling to the ground as rain, snow, sleet, hail, and anything else; so how do you account for the damage of vegetation? How do you account for damage done by this rain in private property being vehicles or home related [4].

1.3 Causes
The acidity in the substance can harm and even destroy both natural ecosystems and man-made products, such as car nishes. Acid rain is primarily caused by 8

emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from electric utilities burning fossil fuels, especially coal. These chemicals are converted to sulfuric acid and nitric acid in the atmosphere and can be carried by the winds for many miles from where the original emissions took place. Wet deposition occurs when the acid falls in rain, snow, or ice. Dry deposition is caused by very tiny particles (or particulates) in combustion emissions. Acid rain is caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids [3].

1.4 Eects
Acid rain is having harmful eects both on people and on the natural ecosystems of the world. Scientists today are convinced that acid rain is severe in many areas, and that it is having an adverse eect on the environments of those locations. The problem of acid rain is rapidly spreading. Though scientists have studied lakes, streams, and many other natural ecosystems to prove its negative eects, acid rain continues to be produced and is increasing in many parts of the world. So there for we want to construct such type of Gadget which save the human being from the adverse eect of Acid Rain[2].

Chapter 2

Literature Review
2.1 Infrared camera detects one of the main causes of acid rain
Madrid, SpainSENSIA Solutions, a spino of the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M), has developed the rst IR camera for detecting sulfur dioxide, a gas considered to cause acid rain[?].

2.2 Rain gauge


A rain gauge (also known as an udometer, pluviometer, or an ombrometer ) is a type of instrument used by meteorologists and hydrologists to gather and measure the amount of liquid precipitation over a set period of time. The rst known rainfall records were kept by the Ancient Greeks, about 500 B.C. In 1441, Cheugugi was rst standardized rain gauge, invented during the reign of King Sejong the Great in Joseon Dynasty of Korea. In 1662, Christopher Wren created the rst tipping-bucket rain gauge in Britain. For Acid Content Detection in Rain. George James Symons was elected to the council of the British meteorological society in 1863 and made it his life's work to investigate rainfall within the British Isles. 1870 he produced an account of rainfall in In 1863 he took on the help of Colonel Michael Foster Ward, of Calne, Wiltshire, who undertook more extensive investigations[?].

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Chapter 3

Feasibility
3.1 Problem Statement
Global warming is increasing day by day. Which eect the environment, Mostly the humans are unaware that when these gases react with each other then it make a toxic Acids and it reach to clouds and become cause of Acid Rain which is very dangerous for the whole global environment. This is not wrong to say that today every place is polluted with dierent harmful gases due to large amount of Bomb Blasting specially in Pakistan. For this purpose we are going to build a gadget which detects the Acid Contents in Rain easily Humans can easily get information about the Acidic Rain through this gadget. As we discussed in our project about an automatic system; so it will required a good and programming capabilities for coding; that after its testing and debugging the system is valid and full ll all that specication which make life easy for people.

3.2 Purpose
The purpose of this study is to make such type of Gadget or Rain Detector through which we can easily check the Acid level in Rain and nd Acid Content in Rain.

3.3 Scope of Project


The scope of this study is to protect our environment from acid rain. It can have harmful eects on plants, aquatic animals, and infrastructure. The project will provide a gadget which detects the existed Acids along its pattern and level in the Acidic Rain. It detects the pollutants from open environment as well as from inside the room and display the result of detected Acid in the form of levels. These levels are dierentiated from each other by using dierent colors, In which are white color show that Rain water is free from Acid.

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3.4 Eort
A team of four students will develop a Gadget for Acidic Rain through which the human being easily detect the Acid Content and Acid Level in rain and then they avoid to go out in that situation.

3.5 Risk
1. The major risk of our project is 2. Time, Load shading 3. Less resource availability. 4. Experienced team working dependent on the resources cost. 5. There will be a larger number of changes to the requirements than anticipated. 6. Minimum time to achieve mile stones. 7. Deliverables will not schedule and delivered on time. 8. Conicts between team members and schedules. 9. Specications will not meet the requirements. 10. Sensor or battery fails to work properly.

3.6 Cost
This project is our course assignment, so no major cost is identied. But if we successfully achieve our target (software) and also we have time to make our desire (portable device) fullls then our cost is depending on situation. But our target is to make this project in reasonable price.

3.7 Time
We have required almost four months for the completion of this project. The time deadline is from 14th February, 2013 since 17th June, 2013.

3.8 Alternative Approaches


We have some alternate approaches through which we can detect Acid in Rain these are the following:

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3.8.1

Current System

Up till now there are no automatic and Computerized way or handhold device is dened by the government of any country through which a common person can easily check the Acid Level in Rain and they save their selves from the adverse eect of Acid Rain.
3.8.2 Approach of Proposed System

3.8.2.1 ACCU-CHEK
Another alternate method is if we use such type of device just like ACCU-CHEK through which we put some drops of Acid rain and the device can show color wise the Acid Rain content and categorize it.

3.8.2.2 Gadgets Dream Point


Our dream point device by doing this project to construct such a gadget which also cover all the feature of the ACCU-CHEK meter in which user put Rain drops and the Gadget can pretend that it is Acidic Rain; and when we want do develop the hardware device it has to be the following features: 1. 2. 3.

Accurate: Fast: Tiny:

Simple auto-coding, Strip expiry warning, Wide operating temperature & Humidity range 5 seconds test time, 3 simple steps Rain Drop Sample 1 -2 L, Under-dosing detection

3.9 Detection Method


There are many methods required to detect the presence of acid rain. One method is using a pH electrode to track long term pH changes in water bodies. Another method detects the presence and concentration of specic anions deposited by acid rain, this process is known as Ion Chromatography. The technique of ion chromatography is based upon the attraction between two substances or "phases" as they are referred to. The interaction of the ions in the liquid or "mobile" phase become attracted to the solid or "stationary" phase, which causes them to come o the phase column at dierent rates depending on their attraction. This is a powerful technique because it allows for the distinguishing between substances present in a mixture. Ion Chromatography is capable of detecting the presence of anions such as SO4, a main constituent in acid rain. Before being analyzed, samples are passed through a membrane lter and then loaded into an ion chromatograph.

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3.10 CONFLICT RESOLUTION


1. Every team member should understand the importance of team work any doesn't complete her task in a given time it eects the whole project. 2. Work is distributed equally between every member and it is responsibility of team leader to resolved conict between team members.

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Chapter 4

Project Resources Management


4.1 Project Objective
To construct such a gadgets or automatic system that work such type of software through which within a room we check the properties of Rain which predict and pretend that either the rain is acidic or clean such that people avoid to go out from their homes and they can easily protect their selves from harmful rain.

4.2 Project Planning


The project plan is that all the group members will work together within unity and with dedication. Each and every group member will complete their task according to the time deadline and project schedule; and each component of project will be submitted on time.

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Figure 4.1: Gant Chart for Acid Content Detection in Rain

Figure 4.2: Gant Chart for Acid Content Detection in Rain

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Figure 4.3: Gant Chart for Acid Content Detection in Rain

Figure 4.4: Gant Chart for Acid Content Detection in Rain

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Figure 4.6: Gant Chart for Acid Content Detection in Rain

Figure 4.5: Gant Chart for Acid Content Detection in Rain

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Figure 4.7: Gant Chart for Acid Content Detection in Rain

Figure 4.8: Gant Chart for Acid Content Detection in Rain

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Figure 4.9: Gant Chart for Acid Content Detection in Rain

Figure 4.10: Gant Chart for Acid Content Detection in Rain

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4.3 People Management


Figure 4.11: Organizational Chart for Acid Content Detection in Rain

The stakeholders team are Neelam Alla-u-Din, Shahzeem Roshan, and Rozina Zahir Ullah, and the team leader is Rozina Zahir Ullah, and the project manager is Dr. Gul-E- Saman. She will examine the overall project process model and each component of project time by time.

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Chapter 5

Requirements Specication
5.1 Gadgets Software Attributes
Our rst priority for the gadget; that it must be easy to maintain it occupy a small place; and it is a hand hold device which can easily to mange. Our product will be Completely depend upon on Rain Situation. It will not concern with dry season. We are trying that the system is so ecient that it always display the accurate result on the spot. We have required such an easy to useable system through which just one key pressing we can easily know the information about acidic rain; so it has to be full user interface and not be so we are also focusing of the quality assurance of the gadgets that it must be reliable and give accurate result forever. After using the gadgets through many people it give us an excellent feedback which encourage us to construct more devices like that one.

5.2 Gadget Perspective


1. If it is not programmed properly could project the wrong time or date. 2. May be too costly for the average working person to purchase. 3. May be over designed for some people. 4. Too expensive to x.

5.3 Gadget Functional Requirement


1. 2.

Lighting Function:- Gadget will turn on when user press the ON button
with full light mode.

Colored LCD display:-through which each Acid color display clearly.


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3.

Battery-operated:-design Mean Gadget battery can easily charged from


electricity and Gadget work.

5.4 Gadget Non Functional Requirement


1. Performance 2. Save time and availability 3. Reliability of Gadget 4. Battery Life Time

5.5 Design Requirements


1. Keypad Input (ON/OFF Button) 2. Pressure Sensors (For for Rain Detection) 3. All Acids Menu due to which Rain become Acidic. 4. Assign distinguish color to each Acid within the Gadget. 5. Proper display to show Acid color

5.6 Design Constraints


1. Entire unit shall t neatly on any standard Design. 2. The sensor should detect the Acid particular Acid Type. 3. Must be Portable easy to re- package.

5.7 Internal interface


1. Software Cost Analysis 2. Cost Management (throughout total Project Cost) 3. Code Training (In Java or C++ Programming) 4. Gadget Coding (In suitable programming Language which fulll the Gadget Logic) 5. Implementation (No Conict between Hardware in Software Interface) 6. Testing & Debugging (Required Acidic water for software testing) 7. Validation ( Gadget display the Acid color after testing) 23

8. Quality Assurance (If Acid color Display according to the designed Menu its mean the Gadget working accurately) 9. Maintenance (Installation and Future work)

5.8 CONSTRAINTS
1. The project must be completed by the end of the semester. It must include operational system, appropriate documentation, and a nal presentation. 2. Scheduling conicts between the clients and team members may lead to diculties. 3. Particular team members need to be trained in the programming languages and software tools. E.g. 4. For Project Planning and Resources Management we will make a Gantt Chart in Ms-Project Software. 5. For Data modeling of Gadget i.e. (ERD, DFD, Flow Chart, Organizational Chart We Required the Ms-Visio Software) 6. For Behavior and Functional Modeling we will construct (Use Case Diagram, Class Diagram, Activity Diagram, Stat Chart Diagram, Sequence Diagram, and Collaboration Diagram in Rational Rose)

5.9 External Interfaces


1. This is the open source soft ware and can by any one. 2. Hardware Resources 3. Technical Specication (Circuitry Designing which is compatible with the Software logic) 4. User interface (Any person can use it easily. The Gadget perform the functionality on just press the on button and then OFF by OFF button, )

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Chapter 6

Data Modeling
In the Data Modeling we have dened the overall data design of Gadget through dierent data modeling techniques' e.g. Flow Chart, Data Flow Diagram, and Entity Relationship Diagram.

6.1 Flow Chart


The Figure 6.1 Flow chart show the data control of the Gadget. The Rain drops will be enter into a Gadget. The sensor will sense to Acids level in the Rain in the conditional phase of the Flow Chart. If Rain water is Acidic the Gadget will display that water is Acidic if water is pure Gadget will take decision and display that water is neutral.

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Figure 6.1: Flow Chart for Acid Content Detection in Rain

6.2 Data Flow Diagram


The Figure 6.2: Data Flow of the Gadget for Acid Content Detection in Rain. At rst the user will enter Rain Drops into gadget here at the external Hardware Interface level the Sensor is designed within a Gadget circuitry which will sense that the Rain drops is entered into the Gadget. Sensor will transfer the rain drops in the internal Software Interface phase for logical checking. Here through already existence Logical Programming Code the Acid Logic will be check with existence Acid Database when the Acid is detected according is Knowledge based acid Pattern then the gadget display the Acid Type.

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Figure 6.2: Context Level Data Flow Diagram for Acid Content Detection in Rain

Figure 6.3: Level 1 Data Flow Diagram for Acid Content Detection in Rain

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Figure 6.4: Level 2 Data Flow Diagram for Acid Content Detection in Rain

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6.3 Entity Relationship Diagram


An entity-relationship diagram (ERD) is a data modeling technique that graphically illustrates an information system's entities and the relationships between those entities. An ERD is a conceptual and representational model of data used to represent the entity framework infrastructure. As Figure 6.3 the Entity Relationship Digram which is constructed for a Gadget Acid Content Detection in Rain.The Figure 6.3 consist of ve Entities, one is Rain Drops with primary key Acid Id data type integer and attributes Acidic water or pure water which have a one to one mandatory relationship with the Gadget Entity having Primary key Acid detector which mean that at least one rain Drops must exist to use the Gadget and that either that drops are Acdic or Pure decided by gadget detector. Here the Gadget entity have one to many mandatory relationship with entity Coding having foreign key Acid Id and primary key Acid logic. This entity having one to many relationship with the entity Acid pattern where all the distinguish Acids pattern is lie due to which rain become Acidic. The Rain Detector entity compare the rain drops whith that Acid Pattern and then for Acid color Recognition the Acid pattern have the one to many mandatory relationship with color pattern entity in the ERD because for Acid color picking it will concern with all acid color in the ERD then when after matching the color Id and Acid Id when it equal the specic acid color Gadget show which Acid is exist in Rain Drops but if color id and Acid id is white the Gadget show pure water. Figure 6.5: Entity Relationship Diagram for Acid Content Detection in Rain

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Chapter 7

Behavior Modeling
7.1 Use Case Diagram
The Figure 7.1 Use Case diagram show how the user will interact with a Gadget. The user will enter Rain drops into the Gadget. Gadget sensor will detect the rain water and display that it is Acidic or Pure. Figure 7.1: Use Case Diagram for Acid Content Detection in Rain

7.2 Sequence Diagram


The Figure 7.2 Show the sequence of Processes interaction of the Gadget in order. As the Rain drops will switch on to Gadget in Process1 it will be detected 30

through sensor of the Gadget. In Process 2 Acids Logic will be check with Gadget Acid pattern and then Process 3 Acid type will be display. The Dotted line of Figure 7.2 Show the inactive stat of Process and the thin cylindrical line show that the process is active. Figure 7.2: Sequence Diagram for Acid Content Detection in Rain

7.3 Collaboration Diagram


The Figure 7.3 Show the interaction between dierent objects of Gadget. As the Rain drops will switch on to Gadget in Object1 it will be detected through sensor of the Gadget. In Object 2 Acids Logic will be check with Gadget Acid pattern and then Object 3 Acid type will be display.

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Figure 7.3: Collaboration Diagram for Acid Content Detection in Rain

7.4 State Chart Diagram


The Figure 7.4 Show the dierent state of the Gadget which is constructed for Acid Content detection in Rain. In the rst state the Rain Drops will enter into Gadget as Sensor sense Gadget Signals become active for processing. As acid is Detected in Rain Drops for type checking Gadget send request to the Acid type database and pick type and then from acid color Gadget will match the acid color in color database and display the acid color on gadget screen.

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Figure 7.4: State Chart Diagram for Acid Content detection in Rain

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Chapter 8

Functional Modeling
8.1 Class Diagram
The Figure 8.1 Class Diagram show the overall functionality of the Gadget.

8.2 Dening classes


1.

Rain Drops ( The Rain Drops class of our gadget here we dene a two

type of variable called attributes of that class this variable invoke the class that take input through some external event that occur.

2.

Rain Detector ( The Rain Detector is the second most class of gadget
here a sensor variable is dened it sense the external event an pass it to software class for logical checking.

3.

Acid Logic

( In a Acid Logic class attributes are dene program coding and compiler which takes the Rain drops from user and according to program logic drops will be check then compiler generate the gadget understandable version and through programming logic if the drops will be acidic then its pass to the next class.

4.

Acids Pattern

( Here the drops properties will be checked with the already dened and existing pattern of acids in the gadget due to which Rain become acidic; and to each acid the Id is assigned. They are store in the array index wise.

5.

Pattern Recognition

(Here color Id will be compare with acid id if acid id and color id are equal then color wise the acid type will be show. Because color are also stored in that class in integer array to which index consecutively assigned to each color.

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8.3 Dening Attributes of a Class


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Acidic Water ( 1st Attribute of Rain Drops class with string data type) Pure water ( 2nd Attribute of Rain Drops class with string data type) Sensor ( Attribute of Rain Detector class data type is string) Coding ( Attribute of Acid Logic class data type string) Compiler ( Attribute of Acid Logic class data type string) Acid Id ( Attribute of Acid Pattern class data type string) Color Id ( Attribute of Pattern Recognition class data type string)

8.4 Dening Operations of a Class


1.

Get_drops()

( Through this method the Rain class get drops input from user and perform some functionality according to the program logic because it's a rst method of 1st most Rain Drops class)

2.

Flow () ( The rst method of Rain Detector class when sensor sense the

drops input through this method the drops will be ow throughout the gadget)

3.

Check_Logic() (the 1st method of Acid Logic class through this method
the program logical and decision making functionality will be perform provided by the coding attribute of that class)

4.

Translate () (The 2nd method of Acid Logic class the functionality is to Determine_type () (The 1st method of Acid Pattern class rst invoke

perform gadget understandable language provided by compiler attribute of that class. the acid types array)

5. 6.

Check_type () (The 2nd method of Acid Pattern class check the input Pick_type () Match ()
(The functionality of this method to pick the associated acid type according to the input Rain drops) (The 1st method of the Pattern Recognition class which will match the color id with acid id if equal)

gadget drops type with already existing Knowledge based of acids in the gadget)

7. 8. 9.

Display_type ()

(the display method gain the input from the match method and will draw inference from that and display the acid type on the gadget screen) 35

Figure 8.1: Class Diagram for Acid Content Detection in Rain

10.

8.5 Activity Diagram


The Figure 8.2 Show the performing Activities of the Gadget for Acid Content detection in Rain. In the Rain Drops class the Rain Drops input to Gadget. The Rain detector class will send out the drops request for logical checking to acid logic class when Acid is detected in Rain drops then for pattern recognition it will send to the Acid Pattern class here the gadget will pick the existence acid type from Acid Database and will be send out for color matching with Pattern recognition class and gadget will display the Acid type through color wise on the gadget Screen.

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Figure 8.2: Activity Diagram for Acid Content Detection in Rain

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Chapter 9

Prototyping
9.1 Mockup (Prototype of Gadget for Acid Content Detection in Rain)

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Figure 9.1: Prototype of Gadget for Acid Content Detection in Rain

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Chapter 10

Conclusion
10.1 Conclusion and Recommendation
By participating and using these demonstrations and activities we will be able to understand why acid rain can be very harmful to life on earth and also destructive to the environment. We found that our project is feasible. All team members are condent to achieve our goal. Our team members plan to design software, including portable device at the end of semester. [1]

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Chapter 11

Future
11.1 Future Work
As from a whole study about Acid Content Detection our purpose is; as acid rain is very harmful for all living things animals, plants, human beings. So for future safety we want to discover such a gadget that through which we rst easily the Acidic Content detect, and so we can control, deduce and prevent the harmful eects of Acid Rain.

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Bibliography
1. http://www.airquality.co.uk/archive/glossary.php. Date Accessed 2013.02.20 2. http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_does_the_eect_of_acid_rain_cost_us_in_terms_of_money. Date Accessed 2013.02.20 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acid_rain. Date Accessed 2013.02.23 2. http://www.umac.org/ocp/ProgressReportonAcidRain/info.html. Date Accessed 2013.02.25 3. http://www.bioopticsworld.com/molecular-imaging/more-articles.html. Date Accessed 2013.06.17 4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rain_gauge. Date accessed 2013.06.18

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