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INFORMATION QUESTIONS

We use question words to ask information question. We often refer to them as WH words because they include the letters WH (for example WHy, HoW). Question Word what Function asking for information about something asking for repetition or what...for when where which who whom whose why why don't how confirmation asking for a reason, asking why asking about time asking in or at what place or position asking about choice asking what or which person or people (subject) asking what or which person or people (object) asking about ownership asking for reason, asking what...for making a suggestion asking about manner asking about condition or quality Example What is your name? What? I can't hear you. You did what? What did you do that for? When did he leave? Where do they live? Which colour do you want? Who opened the door? Whom did you see? Whose are these keys? Whose turn is it? Why do you say that? Why don't I help you? How does this work? How was your exam?

how + adj/adv
how far how long how many how much how old How about/what about (informal) how come

asking about extent or degree


Distance length (time or space) quantity (countable) quantity (uncountable) Age Making a suggestion asking for reason, asking

see examples below


How far is Pattaya from Bangkok? How long will it take? How many cars are there? How much money do you have? How old are you? How about inviting Sally over for dinner next Sunday? How come I can't see her?

(informal)

why

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
1
Pengertian Conditional sentences adalah gabungan 2 kalimat dimana salah satunya adalah kalimat syarat, dan yang lainnya adalah akibat dari pelaksanaan syarat tersebut. Conditional sentences adalah kalimat-kalimat pengandaian yang mengandaikan sesuatu keinginan, harapan, rencana, dll yang masih bisa terjadi(possible), tak terpenuhi/angan-angan (unreal), dan tak terwujud (impossible). Ada 4 tipe conditional sentence yang biasa digunakan, yaitu: tipe 1, tipe 2, tipe 3, dan tipe 0. Condition pada conditional sentence tipe 1 mungkin dipenuhi, tipe 2 hampir tidak mungkin dipenuhi , tipe 3 tidak mungkin dipenuhi (unreal), sedangkan tipe 0 selalu terwujud karena merupakan scientific fact/kebenaran ilmiah.

Rumus Umum Secara umum, rumus kalimat pengandaian ini adalah sebagai berikut. if + condition, result/consequence atau result/consequence + if + condition

Rumus Conditional Sentence berbagai tipe T yp e 0 1 2 Rumus Conditional Sentence if + simple present, simple present if + simple present, will + bare infinitive if + simple past, would/could/might + bare infinitive if + past perfect, would/should/could/might have + past participle IF + S + V1, S + V1 IF + S + V1, S + Will + V1 IF + S + V2, S + Would + V1 IF + S + Had + V3, S + Would Have + V3 Pattern

Negatif if + condition Rumus Contoh ask. Unless the students understand, they will raise their hand to ask. : : ifnot dapat digantikan dengan unless. If the students do not understand, they will raise their hand to

Conditional Sentences Type-I


Conditional type-I adalah digunakan ketika result/consequence (hasil) dari

condition (syarat) memiliki kemungkinan untuk terwujud. Rumus Conditional Type-I Dibentuk dengan If clause (dalam simple present) dan main clause simple future) if + condition, result/consequence if + simple present, (will + bare infinitive) / imperative Contoh Conditional Type-I Kalimat (+) Contoh conditional type-I If I have free time, I will go swimming. If the bell rings, Ill go home. If you meet Andy, ask him to call me. [Imperative] If you dont finish your homework, your teacher will be angry. If he doesnt come, I wont be angry. atau Unless he comes, I wont be angry. If he comes, I wont be angry. If they invite you, will you come? (dalam

(-) (?)

Conditional Sentences Type-II


Conditional tipe-II digunakan ketika result/consequence (hasil) dari

condition (syarat) tidak memiliki atau hanya sedikit kemungkinan untuk terwujud karena condition-nya tidak mungkin dipenuhi dimasa sekarang (present unreal situation) atau condition-nya sulit untuk dipenuhi di masa depan (unlikely to happen). Rumus Conditional Type-II if + condition, result/consequence if + simple past, would/could/might + bare infinitive

NOTE : Were Menggantikan Was Pada conditional type 2, were digunakan menggantikan was meskipun subjek yang digunakan merupakan pronoun: she, he, it, maupun kata benda tunggal. Hal ini untuk menunjukkan bahwa pengandaiannya benar-benar hanya berupa khayalan semata karena tidak condition-nya tidak mungkin dipenuhi (present unreal situation).

if + condition, result/consequence if + S + were, S + would/could/might + bare infinitive Contoh Conditional Type 2 Kal. Contoh Conditional Type-II Fact If it rained tomorrow, I would sleep all but I dont have much hope it day. will rain If Nisa studied hard, she would pass. but Nisa doesnt study hard If I had much money, I would buy a but I dont have much money sport car. If I were a millionaire, I would donate but Im not a millionaire my money to charity. If Nisa studied hard, she wouldnt fail. If Nisa didnt study hard, she would fail atau Unless Nisa studied hard, she would fail. If I were a millionaire, I wouldnt donate my money to charity. If Nisa studied hard, would she pass? If you had much money, would you buy a sport car? If you were a millionaire, would you donate my money to charity?

(+)

(-)

(?)

Inverted Word Order pada Conditional Type-II Inverted word order berarti verb muncul sebelum subject. Kondisi ini dapat terjadi pada conditional clause dengan menghilangkan kata if dan menukar posisi subject dan verb. Contohnya adalah Normal If I (S) were (V) the shopkeeper, I would give you discounts. Inverted Were (V) I (S) the shopkeeper, I would give you discounts.

Conditional sentences type-III


Conditional tipe-III digunakan untuk menunjukkan suatu penyesalan tentang

sesuatu yang tidak akan pernah terjadi lagi di waktu sekarang

Rumus Conditional Type 3 Rumus conditional type 3 menggunakan past tense dimana membicarakan sesuatu yang tidak terjadi di masa lampau. if + condition, result/consequence if + past perfect, would/should/could/might have + present perfect Contoh Conditional Type 3 Kal. Contoh Conditional type 3 If you had remembered to invite me, I would have attended your party. If I had given the interviewer really good answers, I might have got a higher position than you. If the waitress had been careful, she wouldnt have broken many plates. If he had asked you for forgiveness, would you have forgiven him? Fact but you didnt remember but I didnt give really good answers but the waitress wasnt careful but he didnt ask you for forgiveness

(+)

(-) (?)

Inverted Word Order pada Conditional Type 3 Inverted word order berarti verb muncul sebelum subject. Kondisi ini dapat terjadi pada conditional clause dengan menghilangkan kata if dan menukar posisi subject dan verb. Contohnya adalah: Normal If you (S) had (V) saved your gold in a safety deposit box, it would have gone. Inverted Had (V) you (S) saved your gold in a safety deposit bix, it would have gone.

Pengertian Zero Conditional Zero conditional adalah conditional fact (kebenaran ilmiah) sentence yang atau general digunakan

ketika result/consequence (hasil) dari condition (syarat) selalu terwujud karena merupakan scientific umum) yang truth (kebenaran Bagian dependent merupakan habitual activity (kebiasaan).

clause (if+clause) dapat diawali oleh kata if atau when. Rumus Zero Conditional if/when + condition, result/consequence if/when + simple present, simple present

Contoh Zero Conditional: kalimat (+) (-) (?) If If If If If Contoh Zero Conditional I sleep late, I am sleepy at work. [habitual activity] we burn paper, it becomes ash. [fact] you dry fruits or vegetables, they loss their nutrient and calorie. one doesnt drink after doing exercise, one gets dehydrated. we burn paper, does it becomes ash?

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