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Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory

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Geert Hofstede's theory of cultural dimensions describes the effects of a society's culture on the values of its members, and how these values relate to behavior, using a structure derived from factor analysis. The theory has been widely used in several fields as a paradigm for research, particularly in cross-cultural psychology, international management, and cross-cultural communication. Hofstede developed his original model as a result of using factor analysis to examine the results of a world-wide survey of employee values by IBM in the 1960s and 1970s. The theory was one of the first that could be quantified, and could be used to explain observed differences between cultures. The original theory proposed four dimensions along which cultural values could be analyzed: individualismcollectivism; uncertainty avoidance; power distance (strength of social hierarchy) and masculinity-femininity (task orientation versus person-orientation). Independent research in Hong Kong led Hofstede to add a fifth dimension, long-term orientation, to cover aspects of values not discussed in the original paradigm. In the 2010 edition of Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind [1] Hofstede added a sixth dimension, indulgence versus self-restraint, as a result of co-author Michael Minkov's analysis of data from the World Values Survey. Further research has refined some of the original dimensions, and introduced the difference between countrylevel and individual-level data in analysis. Hofstede's work established a major research tradition in cross-cultural psychology and has also been drawn upon by researchers and consultants in many fields relating to international business and communication. It continues to be a major resource in cross-cultural fields. It has inspired a number of other major cross-cultural studies of values, as well as research on other aspects of culture, such as social beliefs.

1 Research history and methodology 2 Dimensions of national cultures

o o o

2.1 Differences between cultures on the values dimensions 2.2 Correlations of values with other country differences 2.3 Applications of the model

2.3.1 Why is it important to be aware of cultural differences? 2.3.2 What are the practical applications of the theory? International communication International negotiation International management International marketing

3 Limitations of Hofstede's model

3.1 Questionable choice of national level

4 See also 5 References 6 Notes

3.1.1 Individual level: cultural dimensions versus individual personalities 3.1.2 Organizational level 3.1.3 Occupational level 3.1.4 Gender level

7 External links

Research history and methodology[edit]

In 1965, Geert founded the personnel research department of IBM Europe (which he managed until 1971). Between 1967 and 1973, he executed a large survey study regarding national values differences across the worldwide subsidiaries of this multinational corporation: he compared the answers of 117,000 IBM matched employees samples on the same attitude survey in differentcountries. He first focused his research on the 40 largest countries, and then extended it to 50 countries and 3 regions, "at that time probably the largest matched-sample cross-national database available anywhere.".[2] This initial analysis identified systematic differences in national cultures on four primary dimensions: power distance (PDI), individualism (IDV), uncertainty avoidance (UAI) and masculinity (MAS), which are described below. As Hofstede explains on his academic website, [3] these dimensions regard "four anthropological problem areas that different national societies handle differently: ways of coping with inequality, ways of coping with uncertainty, the relationship of the individual with her or his primary group, and the emotional implications of having been born as a girl or as a boy ". In 1980 he published Culture's Consequences,[4] a book which combines the statistical analysis from the survey research with his personal experiences. In order to confirm the early results from the IBM study and to extend them to a variety of populations, six subsequent cross-national studies have successfully been conducted between 1990 and 2002. Covering between 14 to 28 countries, the samples included commercial airline pilots, students, civil service managers, 'up-market' consumers and 'elites'. The combined research established value scores on the four dimensions for a total of 76 countries and regions.

In 1991, Michael Harris Bond and colleagues conducted a study among students in 23 countries, using a survey instrument developed with Chinese employees and managers. The results from this study led Hofstede to add a new fifth dimension to his model: long term orientation (LTO) initially called Confucian dynamism. In 2010, the scores for this dimension have been extended to 93 countries thanks to the research of Micheal Minkov who used the recent World Values Survey.[5] Finally, Minkov's World Values Survey data analysis of 93 representative samples of national populations also led Geert Hofstede to identify a sixth last dimension: indulgence versus restraint.

Dimensions of national cultures[edit]

Power distance index (PDI): "Power distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally." Cultures that endorse low power distance expect and accept power relations that are more consultative or democratic. People relate to one another more as equals regardless of formal positions. Subordinates are more comfortable with and demand the right to contribute to and critique the decision making of those in power. In high power distance countries, less powerful accept power relations that are more autocratic and paternalistic. Subordinates acknowledge the power of others simply based on where they are situated in certain formal,hierarchical positions. As such, the power distance index Hofstede defines does not reflect an objective difference in power distribution, but rather the way people perceive power differences.

Individualism (IDV) vs. collectivism: "The degree to which individuals are integrated into groups". In individualistic societies, the stress is put on personal achievements and individual rights. People are expected to stand up for themselves and their immediate family, and to choose their own affiliations. In contrast, in collectivist societies, individuals act predominantly as members of a lifelong and cohesive group or organization (note: "The word collectivism in this sense has no political meaning: it refers to the group, not to the state"). People have large extended families, which are used as a protection in exchange for unquestioning loyalty.

Uncertainty avoidance index (UAI): "a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity". It reflects the extent to which members of a society attempt to cope with anxiety by minimizing uncertainty. People in cultures with high uncertainty avoidance tend to be more emotional. They try to minimize the occurrence of unknown and unusual circumstances and to proceed with careful changes step by step by planning and by implementing rules, laws and regulations. In contrast, low uncertainty avoidance cultures accept and feel comfortable in unstructured situations or changeable environments and try to have as few rules as possible. People in these cultures tend to be more pragmatic, they are more tolerant of change.

Masculinity (MAS), vs. femininity: "The distribution of emotional roles between the genders". Masculine cultures' values are competitiveness, assertiveness, materialism, ambition and power, whereas feminine cultures place more value on relationships and quality of life. In masculine cultures, the differences between gender roles are more dramatic and less fluid than in feminine cultures where men and women have the same values emphasizing modesty and caring. As a result of the taboo on sexuality in many cultures, particularly masculine ones, and because of the obvious gender generalizations implied by Hofstede's terminology, this dimension is often renamed by users of Hofstede's work, e.g. to Quantity of Life vs. Quality of Life.

Long term orientation (LTO), vs. short term orientation: First called "Confucian dynamism", it describes societies' time horizon. Long term oriented societies attach more importance to the future. They foster pragmatic values oriented towards rewards, including persistence, saving and capacity for adaptation. In short term oriented societies, values promoted are related to the past and the present, including steadiness, respect for tradition, preservation of one's face, reciprocation and fulfilling social obligations.

Differences between cultures on the values dimensions[edit]

Putting together national scores (from 1 for the lowest to 120 for the highest), Hofstede's six dimensions model allow international comparison between cultures, also called comparative research:[6]

Power distance index shows very high scores for Latin and Asian countries, African areas and the Arab world. On the other hand Anglo and Germanic countries have a lower power distance (only 11 for Austria and 18 for Denmark). For example, the United States has a 40 on the cultural scale of Hofstede's analysis. Compared to Guatemala where the power distance is very high (95) and Israel where it is very low (13), the United States is in the middle. In Europe, power distance tends to be lower in northern countries and higher in southern and eastern parts: for example, 68 in Poland and 57 for Spain vs. 31 for Sweden and 35 for the United Kingdom.

Regarding the individualism index, there is a clear gap between developed and Western countries on one hand, and less developed and eastern countries on the other. North America and Europe can be considered as individualistic with relatively high scores: for example, 80 for Canada and Hungary. In contrast, Asia, Africa and Latin America have strong collectivistic values: Colombia scores only 13 points on the IDV scale, and Indonesia 14. The greatest contrast can be drawn comparing two extreme countries on this dimension: 6 points for Guatemala vs. 91 points score for the United States. Japan and the Arab world have middle values on this dimension.

Uncertainty avoidance scores are the highest in Latin American countries, Southern and Eastern Europe countries including German speaking countries, and Japan. They are lower for Anglo, Nordic, and Chinese culture countries. However few countries have very low UAI. For example, Germany has a high UAI (65) and Belgium even more (94) compared to Sweden (29) or Denmark (23) despite their geographical proximity.

Masculinity is extremely low in Nordic countries: Norway scores 8 and Sweden only 5. In contrast, Masculinity is very high in Japan (95), and in European countries like Hungary, Austria and Switzerland influenced by German culture. In the Anglo world,

masculinity scores are relatively high with 66 for the United Kingdom for example. Latin countries present contrasting scores: for example Venezuela has a 73 point score whereas Chile's is only 28.

High long term orientation scores are typically found in East Asia, with China having 118, Hong Kong 96 and Japan 88. They are moderate in Eastern and Western Europe, and low in the Anglo countries, the Muslim world, Africa and in Latin America. However there is less data about this dimension.

There is even less data about the sixth dimension. Indulgence scores are highest in Latin America, parts of Africa, the Anglo world and Nordic Europe; restraint is mostly found in East Asia, Eastern Europe and the Muslim world.

Correlations of values with other country differences[edit]

Researchers have grouped some countries together by comparing countries value scores with other country difference such as geographical proximity, shared language, related historical background, similar religious beliefs and practices, common philosophical influences, identical political systems, in other words everything which is implied by the definition of one nation's culture. For example, low power distance is associated with consultative political practices and income equity, whereas high power distance is correlated with the use of bribery and corruption in domestic politics and the unequal distribution of income. Individualism is positively correlated with mobility between social classes and with national wealth. In fact, as a country becomes richer, it's culture becomes more individualistic. Another example of correlation has been drawn by the Sigma Two Group[7] in 2003. They have studied the correlation between countries cultural dimensions and their predominate religion,[8]based on the World Factbook 2002. On average, predominantly Catholic countries show very high uncertainty avoidance, relatively high power

distance, moderate masculinity and relatively low individualism, whereas predominantly atheist countries have low uncertainty avoidance, very high power distance, moderate masculinity, and very low individualism.

Applications of the model[edit]

Why is it important to be aware of cultural differences?[edit]
"Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster."[9] Despite the evidence that groups are different from each other, we tend to believe that deep inside all people are the same. In fact, as we are generally not aware of other countries' cultures, we tend to minimize cultural differences. This leads to misunderstandings and misinterpretations between people from different countries. Instead of the convergence phenomena we expected with information technologies availability (the "global village culture"), cultural differences are still significant today and diversity tends to increase. So, in order to be able to have respectful cross-cultural relations, we have to be aware of these cultural differences. With this model, Geert Hofstede shed light on these differences. The tool can be used to give a general overview and an approximate understanding of other cultures, what to expect from them and how to behave towards groups from other countries.

What are the practical applications of the theory?[edit]

Geert Hofstede is perhaps the best known sociologist of culture and anthropologist in the context of applications for understanding international business. Many articles and research papers refer to his publications, with over 20,000 citations to his 2003 book Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations[10] (which is an updated version of his first publication[4]). The five dimensions model is widely used in many domains of human social life, and particularly in the field

of business. Practical applications were developed almost immediately. In fact, when it comes to business, promoting cultural sensitivity will help people work more effectively when interacting with people from other countries, and will participate to make transactions are successful.

International communication[edit]
In business, it is commonly agreed that communication is one of the primary concerns. So, for professionals who work internationally; people who interact daily with other people from different countries within their company or with other companies abroad; Hofstede's model gives insights into other cultures. In fact, cross-cultural communication requires being aware of cultural differences because what may be considered perfectly acceptable and natural in one country, can be confusing or even offensive in another. All the levels in communication are affected by cultural dimensions: verbals (words and language itself), non verbals (body language, gestures) and etiquette do's and don'ts (clothing, gift-giving, dining, customs and protocol). And this is also valid for written communication as explained in William Wardrobe's essay "Beyond Hofstede: Cultural applications for communication with Latin American Businesses".[11]

International negotiation[edit]
In international negotiations, communication style, expectation, issue ranking and goals will change according to the negotiators' countries of origin. If applied properly, the understanding of cultural dimensions should increase success in negotiations and reduce frustration and conflicts.[12] For example, in a negotiation between Chinese and Canadian, Canadian negotiators may want to reach an agreement and sign a contract, whereas Chinese negotiators may want to spend more time for non business activities, small talks and hospitality with preferences for protocol and form in order to first establish the relationship. "When negotiating in Western countries, the objective is to work toward a target of mutual understanding and agreement and 'shake-hands' when that agreement is reached a

cultural signal of the end of negotiations and the start of 'working together'. In Middle Eastern countries much negotiation takes place leading into the 'agreement', signified by shaking hands. However, the deal is not complete in the Middle Eastern culture. In fact, it is a cultural sign that 'serious' negotiations are just beginning."[9]

International management[edit]
These considerations are also true in international management and cross-cultural leadership. Decisions taken have to be based on the country's customs and values.[13] When working in international companies, managers may provide training to their employees in order to make them sensitive to cultural differences, develop nuanced business practices, with protocols across countries. Hofstede's dimensions offer guidelines for defining culturally acceptable approaches to corporate organizations. As a part of the public domain, Geert Hofstede's work is used by numerous consultancies worldwide.[14] But only 3 of them are regarded as partners and have Hofstede's full support with regular contacts.

The American firm ITAP International Inc. and its ITAP International Alliance propose full-service consulting based on Hofstede's approach using the Culture in the Workplace Questionnaire[15]

Similarly, Itim international, headquartered in Finland offers culture and management consultancy, training and coaching.

Itim focus, in the Netherlands and Finland, concentrate on change consultancy at organizational level.

International marketing[edit]
As in communication, negotiation and management, the five dimensions model is very useful in international marketing too because it defines national values not only in business context but in general. Marieke de Mooij has studied the application of Hofstede's findings in the field of global branding, advertising strategy and consumer behavior. As companies try to adapt their

products and services to local habits and preferences they have to understand the specificity of their market.[16] For example, if you want to market cars in a country where the uncertainty avoidance is high, you should emphasize on their safety, whereas in other countries you may base your advertisement on the social image they give you. Cell phone marketing is another interesting example of the application of Hofstede's model for cultural differences: if you want to advertise cell phones in China, you may show a collective experience whereas in the United States you may show how an individual uses it to save time and money. The variety of application of Hofstede's abstract theory is so wide that it has even been translated in the field of web designing in which you have to adapt to national preferences according to cultures' values.[17]

Limitations of Hofstede's model[edit]

Even though Hofstede's model is generally accepted as the most comprehensive framework of national cultures values by those studying business culture, its validity and its limitations have been extensively criticized. To give only one example, in a recent article in the Academy of Management's flagship journal, The Academy of Management Review, Galit Ailon deconstructs Hofstede's book Culture's Consequences by mirroring it against its own assumptions and logic.[18] Ailon finds inconsistencies at the level of both theory and methodology and cautions against an uncritical reading of Hofstede's cultural dimensions.

Questionable choice of national level[edit]

Aside from Hofstede's 5 cultural dimensions, there are other factors on which culture can be analyzed. There are other levels for assessing culture. These levels are overlooked often because of the nature of the construction of these levels.

Individual level: cultural dimensions versus individual personalities[edit]

Hofstede acknowledges that the cultural dimensions he identified, as culture and values, are theoretical constructions. They are tools meant

to be used in practical applications. Generalizations about one country's culture are helpful but they have to be regarded as such, i.e. as guidelines for a better understanding. They are group-level dimensions which describe national averages which apply to the population in its entirety. Hofstede's cultural dimensions enable users to distinguish countries but are not about differences between members of societies. They don't necessarily define individuals' personalities. National scores should never be interpreted as deterministic for individuals. For example, a Japanese person can be very comfortable in changing situations whereas on average, Japanese people have high uncertainty avoidance. There are still exceptions to the rule. Hofstede's theory can be contrasted with its equivalence at individual level: the trait theory about human personality.

Organizational level[edit]
Within and across countries, individuals are also parts of organizations such as companies. Hofstede acknowledges that "the [] dimensions of national cultures are not relevant for comparing organizations within the same country".[3] In contrast with national cultures, embedded in values, organizational cultures are embedded in practices. From 1985 to 1987, Geert's institute IRIC (Institute for Research on Intercultural Cooperation)[19] has conducted a separate research project in order to study organizational culture. Including 20 organizational units in two countries (Denmark and the Netherlands), six different dimensions of practices, or communities of practice have been identified:

Process-Oriented vs. Results-Oriented Employee-Oriented vs. Job-Oriented Parochial vs. Professional Open System vs. Closed System Loose Control vs. Tight Control Pragmatic vs. Normative

Managing international organizations involves understanding both national and organizational cultures. Communities of practice across

borders are significant for multinationals in order to hold the company together.

Occupational level[edit]
Within the occupational level, there is a certain degree of values and convictions that people hold with respect to the national and organizational cultures they are part of. The culture of management as an occupation has components from national and organizational cultures. This is an important distinction from the organizational level.

Gender level[edit]
When describing culture, gender differences are largely not taken into consideration. However, there are certain factors that are useful to analyze in the discussion of cross-cultural communication. Within each society, men's culture differs greatly from women's culture. Although men and women can often perform the same duties from a technical standpoint, there are often symbols to which each gender has a different response. In situations where one gender responds in an alternative manner to their prescribed roles, the other sex may not even accept their deviant gender role. The level of reactions experienced by people exposed to foreign cultures can be compared similarly to the reactions of gender behaviors of the opposite sex. The degree of gender differentiation in a country depends primarily on the culture within that nation and its history.

See also[edit]

Cultural relativism Cultural norms Cultural identity Culture shock National character studies National identity Cross-cultural communication Intercultural communication Intercultural communication principles

International relations Intercultural competence Cross-cultural leadership Emotions and Culture Uncertainty reduction theory Sociology of gender Fons Trompenaars Edward T. Hall

Culture, leadership, and organizations: the GLOBE study of 62 societies (1st ed.). SAGE Publications. 29 April 2004. ISBN 978-07619-2401-2. Text "Robert J. House, et al." ignored (help), Read it

1. ^ Hofstede, Geert, Gert Jan Hofstede and Michael Minkov.Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. 2010. 2. 3. 4. ^ Whatsonmymind, September 2010, Geert Hofstede ^ ^
a b a b

Geert Hofstedes academic website Hofstede, Geert (1984). Culture's Consequences:

International Differences in Work-Related Values (2nd ed.). Beverly Hills CA: SAGE Publications. ISBN 0-8039-1444-X. 5. ^ Minkov, Michael (2007). What makes us different and similar: A new interpretation of the World Values Survey and other crosscultural data. Sofia, Bulgaria: Klasika y Stil Publishing House. ISBN 978-954-327-023-1. [1] 6. ^ Hofstede's cultural dimensions (with world maps of dimensional values) 7. 8. ^ Geert Hofstede Dimensions by Predominant Religion ^ Predominate is here defined as over 50% of the country's population is identified as a member of that religion 9. ^
a b

What are the practical applications for Geert Hofstede's

research on cultural differences?

10. ^ Hofstede, Geert (2001). Culture's Consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-0-8039-7323-7. OCLC 45093960. 11. ^ Beyond Hofstede: Cultural applications for communication with Latin American, William Wardrobe, 2005, Association for Business Communication Annual Convention 12. ^ negotiation styles, Michelle LeBaron, July 2003 13. ^ The influence of national culture on strategic decision making: a case study of the Philippines, Richard P.M.Builtjens and Niels G. Noorderhaven, Tilburg University and Institute for Research on Intercultural Cooperation 14. ^ Hofstede's consequences: The impact of his work on consulting and business practices, An Executive Commentary by John W. Bing, Academy of Management Executive, February 2004, Vol. 18, No. 1 15. ^ Culture in the Workplace Questionnaire 16. ^ The Hofstede model Applications to global branding and advertising strategy and research, Marieke de Mooij and Geert Hofstede, International Journal of Advertising, 29(1), pp. 85 110, 2010 Advertising Association, [www.warc.com Warc] 17. ^ Cultural Dimensions and Global Web Design: What? So What? Now What?, Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc. 18. ^ Ailon, G. (2008). Mirror, mirror on the wall: Culture's Consequences in a value test of its own design. The Academy of Management Review, 33(4):885904 19. ^ Tilburg University

External links[edit]

Geert Hofstede's academic website Geert Hofstede Consortium Hofstede Model for organisational culture measurement Culture in the Workplace Questionnaire Hofstede's dimensions simplified

Intercultural Business Communication tool The impact of Dr. Hofstede's work on business practices

Categories: Cross-cultural psychology Cultural studies Nationality Organizational culture

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Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions

Understanding Workplace Values Around the World


We know that we are living in a global age. Technology has brought everyone much closer together. This means that people of different cultures find themselves working together and communicating more and more. This is exciting, but it can also be frustrating and fraught with uncertainty. How do you relate to someone of another culture? What do you say, or not say, to start a conversation right? Are there cultural taboos that you need to be aware of? Building connections with people from around the world is just one dimension of cultural diversity. You will also need to factor it into motivating people, structuring projects, and developing strategy. How can we understand cultural differences? Are we relegated to learning from our mistakes, or are there generalized guidelines to follow? Fortunately, psychologist Dr Geert Hofstede asked himself this question in the 1970s. What emerged after a decade of research and thousands of interviews is a model of cultural dimensions that has become an internationally recognized standard. With access to people working for the same organization in over 40 countries of the world, Hofstede collected cultural data and analyzed his findings. He initially identified four distinct cultural dimensions that served to distinguish one culture from another. Later he added a fifth dimension, and that is how the model stands today. He scored each country using a scale of roughly 0 to 100 for each dimension. The higher the score, the more that dimension is exhibited in society.

The Five Dimensions of Culture

Armed with a large database of cultural statistics, Hofstede analyzed the results and found clear patterns of similarity and difference amid the responses along these five dimensions. Interestingly, his research was done on employees of IBM only, which allowed him to attribute the patterns to national differences in culture, largely eliminating the problem of differences in company culture. The five dimensions are:

1. Power/Distance (PD)
This refers to the degree of inequality that exists and is accepted among people with and without power. A high PD score indicates that society accepts an unequal distribution of power, and that people understand "their place" in the system. Low PD means that power is shared and well dispersed. It also means that society members view themselves as equals. Application: According to Hofstede's model, in a high PD country such as Malaysia (104), you would probably send reports only to top management and have closed door meetings where only a select few, powerful leaders were in attendance. Characteristics Tips

High PD

Centralized companies. Strong hierarchies. Large gaps in compensation, authority, and respect. Flatter organizations. Supervisors and employees are considered almost as equals.

Acknowledge a leader's power. Be aware that you may need to go to the top for answers. Use teamwork Involve as many people as possible in decision making.

Low PD

2. Individualism (IDV)
This refers to the strength of the ties people have to others within the community. A high IDV score indicates loose connections. In countries with a high IDV score there is a lack of interpersonal connection, and little sharing of responsibility beyond family and perhaps a few close friends. A society with a low IDV score would have strong group cohesion, and there would be a large amount of loyalty and respect for members of the group. The group itself is also larger and people take more responsibility for each other's well being. Application: Hofstede's analysis suggests that in the Central American countries of Panama and Guatemala where the IDV scores are very low (11 and 6, respectively), a marketing campaign that emphasized benefits to the community or that tied into a popular political movement would likely be understood and well-received. Characteristics Tips

High valuation on people's time and their need for freedom. An enjoyment of challenges, and an expectation of rewards for hard work. Respect for privacy. Emphasis on building skills and becoming masters of something. Work for intrinsic rewards. Harmony more important than honesty.

Acknowledge accomplishments. Don't ask for too much personal information. Encourage debate and expression of own ideas.

High IDV

Show respect for age and wisdom. Suppress feelings and emotions to work in harmony. Respect traditions and introduce change slowly.


3. Masculinity (MAS)
This refers to how much a society sticks with, and values, traditional male and female roles. High MAS scores are found in countries where men are expected to be "tough," to be the provider, and to be assertive. If women work outside the home, they tend to have separate professions from men. Low MAS scores do not reverse the gender

roles. In a low MAS society, the roles are simply blurred. You see women and men working together equally across many professions. Men are allowed to be sensitive, and women can work hard for professional success. Application: Japan is highly masculine with a score of 95 whereas Sweden has the lowest measured value (5). According to Hofstede's analysis, if you were to open an office in Japan, you might have greater success if you appointed a male employee to lead the team and had a strong male contingent on the team. In Sweden, on the other hand, you would aim for a team that was balanced in terms of skill rather than gender. Characteristics Tips

High MAS

Men are masculine and women are feminine. There is a well defined distinction between men's work and women's work.

Be aware that people may expect male and female roles to be distinct. Advise men to avoid discussing emotions or making emotionally based decisions or arguments. Avoid an "old boys' club" mentality. Ensure job design and practices are not discriminatory to either gender. Treat men and women equally.


A woman can do anything a man can do. Powerful and successful women are admired and respected.

4. Uncertainty/Avoidance Index (UAI)

This relates to the degree of anxiety society members feel when in uncertain or unknown situations. High UAI-scoring nations try to avoid ambiguous situations whenever possible. They are governed by rules and order and they seek a collective "truth." Low UAI scores indicate the society enjoys novel events and values differences. There are very few rules and people are encouraged to discover their own truth. Application: Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions imply that when discussing a project with people in Belgium, whose country scored a 94 on the UAI scale, you should investigate the various options and then present a limited number of choices, but have very detailed information available on your contingency and risk plans. (Note that there will be cultural differences between French and Dutch speakers in Belgium.) Characteristics Tips

High UAI

Very formal business conduct with lots of rules and policies. Need and expect structure. Sense of nervousness spurns high levels of emotion and expression. Differences are avoided.

Be clear and concise about your expectations and parameters. Plan and prepare, communicate often and early, provide detailed plans and focus on the tactical aspects of a job or project. Express your emotions through hands gestures and raised voices. Do not impose rules or structure unnecessarily. Minimize your emotional response by being calm and contemplating situations before speaking. Express curiosity when you discover differences.


Informal business attitude. More concern with longterm strategy than what is happening on a daily basis. Accepting of change and risk.

5. Long Term Orientation (LTO)

This refers to how much society values long-standing as opposed to short-term traditions and values. This is the fifth dimension that Hofstede added in the 1990s after finding that Asian countries with a strong link to Confucian philosophy acted differently from western cultures. In countries with a high LTO score, delivering on social obligations and avoiding "loss of face" are considered very important. Application: According to Hofstede's analysis, people in the United States and United Kingdom have low LTO scores. This suggests that you can pretty much expect anything in this culture in terms of creative expression and novel ideas. The model implies that people in the U.S. and U.K. don't value tradition as much as many others, and are therefore likely to be willing to help you execute the most innovative plans as long as they get to participate fully. (This may be surprising to people in the UK, with its associations of tradition.) Characteristics Tips

High LTO

Family is the basis of society. Parents and men have more authority than young people and women. Strong work ethic. High value placed on education and training.

Show respect for traditions. Do not display extravagance or act frivolously. Reward perseverance, loyalty, and commitment. Avoid doing anything that would cause another to "lose face." Expect to live by the same standards and rules you create. Be respectful of others. Do not hesitate to introduce necessary changes.


Promotion of equality. High creativity, individualism. Treat others as you would like to be treated. Self-actualization is sought.

For a list of scores by dimension per country and more detailed information about Hofstede's research, visit his website. You can also find out more about his research in the books " Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations" and "Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind." Note: Hofstede's analysis is done by country. While this is valid for many countries, it does not hold in the countries where there are strong subcultures that are based on ethnicity of origin or geography. In Canada, for instance, there is a distinct French Canadian culture that has quite a different set of norms from those of English-speaking Canada. And in Italy, masculinity scores would differ between north and south.

Key Points
Cultural norms play a large part in the mechanics and interpersonal relationships of the workplace. When you grow up in a culture, you take your norms of behavior for granted. You don't have to think about your reactions, preferences, and feelings. When you step into a foreign culture, suddenly things seem different. You don't know what to do or say. Using Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions as a starting point, you can evaluate your approach, your decisions, and actions based on a general sense of how the society might think and react to you. Of course, no society is homogenous, and there will be deviations from the norms Hofstede found. However, with this as your guide you won't be going in blind. The unknown will be a little less intimidating and you'll get a much-needed boost of confidence and security from studying this cultural model.

Apply This to Your Life

Take some time to review the scores by country for the various cultural dimensions Hofstede identified. Pay particular attention to the countries that the people you deal daily come from. In light of these scores, think about some interactions you've had with people in other countries. Does your conversation or association make more sense given this newly found insight?

Challenge yourself to learn more about one culture in particular. If your work brings you in contact with people from another country, use that country as your point of reference. Apply Hofstede's scores to what you discover and determine the accuracy and relevance for you. The next time you are required to work with a person from a different culture, use Hofstede's scores and make notes about your approach, what you should be prepared to discuss, and why you feel the way you do. Afterward, evaluate your performance and do further research and preparation for the next time. Above all, make cultural sensitivity a daily part of your life. Learn to value the differences between people and vow to respect the things that make people unique.

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