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Seismic Detailing of RC Structures (IS:13920-1993)

Seismic Detailing of RC Structures (IS:13920-1993) Sudhir K Jain Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar November 2012
Seismic Detailing of RC Structures (IS:13920-1993) Sudhir K Jain Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar November 2012
Seismic Detailing of RC Structures (IS:13920-1993) Sudhir K Jain Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar November 2012
Seismic Detailing of RC Structures (IS:13920-1993) Sudhir K Jain Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar November 2012
Seismic Detailing of RC Structures (IS:13920-1993) Sudhir K Jain Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar November 2012
Seismic Detailing of RC Structures (IS:13920-1993) Sudhir K Jain Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar November 2012
Seismic Detailing of RC Structures (IS:13920-1993) Sudhir K Jain Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar November 2012
Seismic Detailing of RC Structures (IS:13920-1993) Sudhir K Jain Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar November 2012
Seismic Detailing of RC Structures (IS:13920-1993) Sudhir K Jain Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar November 2012
Seismic Detailing of RC Structures (IS:13920-1993) Sudhir K Jain Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar November 2012
Seismic Detailing of RC Structures (IS:13920-1993) Sudhir K Jain Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar November 2012
Seismic Detailing of RC Structures (IS:13920-1993) Sudhir K Jain Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar November 2012
Seismic Detailing of RC Structures (IS:13920-1993) Sudhir K Jain Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar November 2012
Seismic Detailing of RC Structures (IS:13920-1993) Sudhir K Jain Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar November 2012
Seismic Detailing of RC Structures (IS:13920-1993) Sudhir K Jain Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar November 2012
Seismic Detailing of RC Structures (IS:13920-1993) Sudhir K Jain Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar November 2012

Sudhir K Jain

Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar

November 2012

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This lecture covers:

Covers important clauses of IS13920 With particular emphasis on Buildings

Many important clauses applicable to buildings may not be discussed in this lecture in detail.

How to ensure ductility
How to ensure ductility
How to ensure ductility
How to ensure ductility
How to ensure ductility
How to ensure ductility
How to ensure ductility
How to ensure ductility
How to ensure ductility
How to ensure ductility
How to ensure ductility
How to ensure ductility
How to ensure ductility
How to ensure ductility
How to ensure ductility
How to ensure ductility
How to ensure ductility
How to ensure ductility
How to ensure ductility
How to ensure ductility
How to ensure ductility
How to ensure ductility
How to ensure ductility
How to ensure ductility
How to ensure ductility
How to ensure ductility

How to ensure ductility

How to ensure ductility
How to ensure ductility
How to ensure ductility

Correct collapse mechanism

Adequate ductility at locations likely to form

hinge in collapse mechanism

Need sufficient member ductility to ensure

adequate structural ductility.

Prevent brittle failure mechanisms to take place prior to ductile yielding

Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism

Collapse Mechanism

Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism

Storey Mechanism

Columns require too much ductility

Columns are difficult to make ductile

much ductility  Columns are difficult to make ductile S u d h i r K
much ductility  Columns are difficult to make ductile S u d h i r K
much ductility  Columns are difficult to make ductile S u d h i r K
much ductility  Columns are difficult to make ductile S u d h i r K
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism

Collapse Mechanism

Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism
Collapse Mechanism

Beam Hinge Mechanism (Sway Mechanism)

Preferred mechanism

Ensure that beams yield before columns do

Strong Column Weak Beam Design

before columns do  Strong Column – Weak Beam Design S u d h i r
before columns do  Strong Column – Weak Beam Design S u d h i r
before columns do  Strong Column – Weak Beam Design S u d h i r

Sudhir K. Jain, IITGN

Seismic Design of Buildings / November 2012

Slide 5

R C Members
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R C Members
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R C Members
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R C Members

R C Members
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R C Members

Bond Failure: Brittle Shear Failure: Brittle

Flexural Failure

Brittle: if over-reinforced section (compression

failure)

Ductile: if under-reinforced section (tension

failure)

Hence, Ensure that

Bond failure does not take place

Shear failure does not precede flexural yielding

Beam is under-reinforced.

Failure of RC Section
Failure of RC Section
Failure of RC Section
Failure of RC Section
Failure of RC Section
Failure of RC Section
Failure of RC Section
Failure of RC Section
Failure of RC Section
Failure of RC Section
Failure of RC Section
Failure of RC Section
Failure of RC Section
Failure of RC Section
Failure of RC Section
Failure of RC Section
Failure of RC Section
Failure of RC Section
Failure of RC Section
Failure of RC Section
Failure of RC Section
Failure of RC Section
Failure of RC Section
Failure of RC Section
Failure of RC Section
Failure of RC Section

Failure of RC Section

Failure of RC Section
Failure of RC Section
Failure of RC Section

Yielding of tension bars

Ductile

Tension failure

Under-reinforced section

Crushing of compression concrete

Brittle

Compression failure

Over-reinforced section

R C Section
R C Section
R C Section
R C Section
R C Section
R C Section
R C Section
R C Section
R C Section
R C Section
R C Section
R C Section
R C Section
R C Section
R C Section
R C Section
R C Section
R C Section
R C Section
R C Section
R C Section
R C Section
R C Section
R C Section
R C Section
R C Section

R C Section

R C Section
R C Section
R C Section

Tension failure more likely if:

Less tension reinforcement

More compression reinforcement

Higher grade of concrete

Lower grade of steel

Lower value of axial compression

Section ductility increases as
Section ductility increases as
Section ductility increases as
Section ductility increases as
Section ductility increases as
Section ductility increases as
Section ductility increases as
Section ductility increases as
Section ductility increases as
Section ductility increases as
Section ductility increases as
Section ductility increases as
Section ductility increases as
Section ductility increases as
Section ductility increases as
Section ductility increases as
Section ductility increases as
Section ductility increases as
Section ductility increases as
Section ductility increases as
Section ductility increases as
Section ductility increases as
Section ductility increases as

Section ductility increases as

Section ductility increases as
Section ductility increases as
Section ductility increases as
Section ductility increases as
Section ductility increases as
Section ductility increases as

Grade of concrete improves

Grade of steel reduces

Tension steel reduces

Compression steel increases

Axial compression force reduces

Generally, columns are less ductile than beams

Capacity Design Concept
Capacity Design Concept
Capacity Design Concept
Capacity Design Concept
Capacity Design Concept
Capacity Design Concept
Capacity Design Concept
Capacity Design Concept
Capacity Design Concept
Capacity Design Concept
Capacity Design Concept
Capacity Design Concept
Capacity Design Concept
Capacity Design Concept
Capacity Design Concept
Capacity Design Concept
Capacity Design Concept
Capacity Design Concept
Capacity Design Concept
Capacity Design Concept
Capacity Design Concept
Capacity Design Concept
Capacity Design Concept

Capacity Design Concept

Capacity Design Concept
Capacity Design Concept
Capacity Design Concept
Capacity Design Concept
Capacity Design Concept
Capacity Design Concept
Ductile Brittle Link Link
Ductile
Brittle
Link
Link

The chain has both ductile and brittle elements. To ensure ductile failure, we must ensure that the ductile link yields before any of the brittle

links fails.

Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)

Capacity Design Concept (contd…)

Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)

Assess required strength of chain from code.

Apply suitable safety factors on load and

material

Design/detail ductile element(s).

Assess upper-bound strength of the ductile element Design brittle elements for upper-bound load Ensures that brittle elements are elastic when the ductile elements yield.

Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)

Capacity Design Concept (contd…)

Capacity Design Concept (contd…)
Capacity Design Concept (contd…)

For instance, in a RC member

Shear failure is brittle

Flexural failure can be made ductile

Element must yield in flexure and not fail in shear

Capacity Design of Frames
Capacity Design of Frames
Capacity Design of Frames
Capacity Design of Frames
Capacity Design of Frames
Capacity Design of Frames
Capacity Design of Frames
Capacity Design of Frames
Capacity Design of Frames
Capacity Design of Frames
Capacity Design of Frames
Capacity Design of Frames
Capacity Design of Frames
Capacity Design of Frames
Capacity Design of Frames
Capacity Design of Frames
Capacity Design of Frames
Capacity Design of Frames
Capacity Design of Frames
Capacity Design of Frames
Capacity Design of Frames
Capacity Design of Frames
Capacity Design of Frames
Capacity Design of Frames
Capacity Design of Frames
Capacity Design of Frames

Capacity Design of Frames

Capacity Design of Frames
Capacity Design of Frames
Capacity Design of Frames

Choose yield mechanism

Locate desirable hinge locations

Estimate reasonable design seismic force on the

building

Design the members at hinge locations (upper bound type) Assess the member forces at other locations under the action of “capacity” force

Design other locations for that force; need not detail these for high ductility

Materials in RC Members
Materials in RC Members
Materials in RC Members
Materials in RC Members
Materials in RC Members
Materials in RC Members
Materials in RC Members
Materials in RC Members
Materials in RC Members
Materials in RC Members
Materials in RC Members
Materials in RC Members
Materials in RC Members
Materials in RC Members
Materials in RC Members
Materials in RC Members
Materials in RC Members
Materials in RC Members
Materials in RC Members
Materials in RC Members
Materials in RC Members
Materials in RC Members
Materials in RC Members
Materials in RC Members
Materials in RC Members
Materials in RC Members

Materials in RC Members

Materials in RC Members
Materials in RC Members
Materials in RC Members

Concrete and steel have very different

characteristics

Steel ductile: strain capacity: ~12% to 25%

Concrete brittle: strain capacity: ~0.35%

~12% to 25%  Concrete brittle: strain capacity: ~0.35% HYSD Mild Steel 20-25% 0.35% S u
HYSD Mild Steel 20-25%
HYSD
Mild Steel
20-25%
0.35%
0.35%
Confinement of concrete
Confinement of concrete
Confinement of concrete
Confinement of concrete
Confinement of concrete
Confinement of concrete
Confinement of concrete
Confinement of concrete
Confinement of concrete
Confinement of concrete
Confinement of concrete
Confinement of concrete
Confinement of concrete
Confinement of concrete
Confinement of concrete
Confinement of concrete
Confinement of concrete
Confinement of concrete
Confinement of concrete
Confinement of concrete
Confinement of concrete
Confinement of concrete
Confinement of concrete

Confinement of concrete

Confinement of concrete
Confinement of concrete
Confinement of concrete
Confinement of concrete
Confinement of concrete
Confinement of concrete

Considerably improves its strain capacity

of concrete  Considerably improves its strain capacity Stress-strain relationship for concrete proposed by

Stress-strain relationship for concrete proposed by Saatcioglu and Razvi, (1992)

Confinement of Column Sections
Confinement of Column Sections
Confinement of Column Sections
Confinement of Column Sections
Confinement of Column Sections
Confinement of Column Sections
Confinement of Column Sections
Confinement of Column Sections
Confinement of Column Sections
Confinement of Column Sections
Confinement of Column Sections
Confinement of Column Sections
Confinement of Column Sections
Confinement of Column Sections
Confinement of Column Sections
Confinement of Column Sections
Confinement of Column Sections
Confinement of Column Sections
Confinement of Column Sections
Confinement of Column Sections
Confinement of Column Sections
Confinement of Column Sections
Confinement of Column Sections

Confinement of Column Sections

Confinement of Column Sections
Confinement of Column Sections
Confinement of Column Sections
Confinement of Column Sections
Confinement of Column Sections
Confinement of Column Sections
Confinement of Column Sections Fig. from Paulay and Priestley, 1992 S u d h i r

Fig. from Paulay and Priestley, 1992

Main Steps
Main Steps
Main Steps
Main Steps
Main Steps
Main Steps
Main Steps
Main Steps
Main Steps
Main Steps
Main Steps
Main Steps
Main Steps
Main Steps
Main Steps
Main Steps
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Main Steps
Main Steps
Main Steps
Main Steps
Main Steps
Main Steps
Main Steps
Main Steps
Main Steps

Main Steps

Main Steps
Main Steps
Main Steps

Weak Girder Strong Column Philosophy

Shear Failure Prevented by Special Calculations

(Capacity Design Method)

Good Development Length

Regions Likely to have Hinges Confined with

Closely-spaced and Closed Stirrups

Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)
Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)
Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)
Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)
Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)
Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)
Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)
Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)
Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)
Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)
Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)
Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)
Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)
Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)
Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)
Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)
Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)
Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)
Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)
Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)
Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)
Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)
Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)

Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)

Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)
Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)
Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)
Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)
Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)
Applicability of Code (Cl. 1.1.1)

Originally, this code was applicable for:

All structures in zones IV or V

Structures in zone III with I > 1.0

Industrial structures in zone III

More than 5-storey structures in zone III

After the Bhuj earthquake, the code made

applicable to all structures in zones III, IV and

V.

Even though the code title says “structures”, it was written primarily for buildings.

Background Materials
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Background Materials

Background Materials
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Background Materials

The code emerged from the following. These also

provide commentary:

Medhekar M S, Jain S K and Arya A S, "Proposed Draft for IS:4326 on Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete

Structures," Bulletin of the Indian Society of Earthquake

Technology, Vol 29, No. 3, September 1992, 15 - 35.

Medhekar M S and Jain S K, "Seismic Behaviour, Design,

and Detailing of R.C. Shear Walls, Part I: Behaviour and

Strength," The Indian Concrete Journal, Vol. 67, No. 7, July

1993, 311-318.

Medhekar M S and Jain S K, "Seismic Behaviour, Design,

and Detailing of R.C. Shear Walls, Part II: Design and

Detailing," The Indian Concrete Journal, Vol. 67, No. 8,

September 1993, 451-457.

Concrete Grade
Concrete Grade
Concrete Grade
Concrete Grade
Concrete Grade
Concrete Grade
Concrete Grade
Concrete Grade
Concrete Grade
Concrete Grade
Concrete Grade
Concrete Grade
Concrete Grade
Concrete Grade
Concrete Grade
Concrete Grade
Concrete Grade
Concrete Grade
Concrete Grade
Concrete Grade
Concrete Grade
Concrete Grade
Concrete Grade

Concrete Grade

Concrete Grade
Concrete Grade
Concrete Grade
Concrete Grade
Concrete Grade
Concrete Grade

Originally, as per Cl.5.2: buildings more than 3 storeys high, minimum concrete grade shall

preferably be M20.

Now, word “preferably” has been dropped.

Most codes specify higher grade of concrete for seismic regions than that for non-seismic

constructions. Examples:

ACI allows M20 for ordinary constructions, but a

minimum of M25 for aseismic constructions.

Euro code allows M15 for non seismic, but

requires a min grade of M20 for low-seismic and

M25 for medium and high seismic regions.

Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)
Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)
Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)
Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)
Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)
Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)
Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)
Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)
Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)
Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)
Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)
Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)
Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)
Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)
Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)
Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)
Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)
Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)
Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)
Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)
Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)
Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)
Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)

Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)

Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)
Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)
Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)
Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)
Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)
Steel Grade (Cl. 5.3)

Originally, the code required that steel

reinforcement of grade Fe415 or less only be

used.

Higher grade of steel reduces ductility. Hence,

there is usually an upper limit on grade of steel

required.

Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)

Steel Grade (Contd…)

Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)

Recently, the code relaxed this requirement. Cl.5.3 now reads as

5.3 Steel reinforcements of grade Fe415 (see IS 1786:1985) or less

only shall be used.

However, high strength deformed steel bars, produced by

the thermo-mechanical treatment process, of grades

Fe500 and Fe550, having elongation more than 14.5

percent and conforming to other requirements of IS

1786:1985 may also be used for the reinforcement.

Thus, higher grades of steel are now allowed in the Indian code subject to the above restrictions

on ductility of bars.

Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)

Steel Grade (Contd…)

Steel Grade (Contd…)
Steel Grade (Contd…)

ACI has two additional requirements on steel reinforcement:

Actual yield strength must not exceed specified

yield strength by more than 120 MPa.

The shear or bond failure may precede the flexural hinge

formation.

If the difference is very high, the capacity design concept

will not work.

Ratio of actual ultimate strength to actual yield strength should be at least 1.25.

To develop inelastic rotation capacity, need adequate length

of yield region along axis of the member. This attempts to

ensure that.

Flexural Members S u d h i r K . J a i n ,
Flexural Members S u d h i r K . J a i n ,
Flexural Members S u d h i r K . J a i n ,
Flexural Members S u d h i r K . J a i n ,
Flexural Members S u d h i r K . J a i n ,
Flexural Members S u d h i r K . J a i n ,
Flexural Members S u d h i r K . J a i n ,
Flexural Members S u d h i r K . J a i n ,
Flexural Members S u d h i r K . J a i n ,
Flexural Members S u d h i r K . J a i n ,
Flexural Members S u d h i r K . J a i n ,
Flexural Members S u d h i r K . J a i n ,
Flexural Members S u d h i r K . J a i n ,
Flexural Members S u d h i r K . J a i n ,
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Flexural Members S u d h i r K . J a i n ,
Flexural Members S u d h i r K . J a i n ,
Flexural Members S u d h i r K . J a i n ,
Flexural Members S u d h i r K . J a i n ,
Flexural Members S u d h i r K . J a i n ,
Flexural Members S u d h i r K . J a i n ,
Flexural Members S u d h i r K . J a i n ,
Flexural Members S u d h i r K . J a i n ,
Flexural Members S u d h i r K . J a i n ,
Flexural Members S u d h i r K . J a i n ,
Flexural Members S u d h i r K . J a i n ,
Flexural Members S u d h i r K . J a i n ,
Flexural Members S u d h i r K . J a i n ,
Flexural Members S u d h i r K . J a i n ,

Flexural Members

Positive Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement

Positive Reinforcement

Positive Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement

At a joint face, positive reinforcement should be at least

50% of the negative reinf. Negative steel (A t ) Negative steel (A t )
50% of the negative reinf.
Negative steel (A t )
Negative steel (A t )
Positive steel (A b
0.5A t )
Positive steel (A b
0.5A t )

Two reasons:

Need adequate compression reinforcement to ensure ductility.

Seismic moments are reversible.

See next slide.

Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)
Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)
Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)
Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)
Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)
Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)
Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)
Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)
Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)
Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)
Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)
Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)
Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)
Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)
Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)
Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)
Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)
Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)
Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)
Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)
Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)
Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)
Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)
Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)
Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)
Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)

Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)

Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)
Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)
Reinforcement Elsewhere (Cl. 6.2.4)

Steel at top and bottom face anywhere should be at least 25% of max negative moment steel

at face of either joint. 8 Nos 20 12 Nos 20 Min 3 Nos 20
at face of either joint.
8 Nos 20
12 Nos 20
Min 3 Nos 20
Min 4 Nos 20
Min 6 Nos 20
Reinforcement (Contd…)
Reinforcement (Contd…)
Reinforcement (Contd…)
Reinforcement (Contd…)
Reinforcement (Contd…)
Reinforcement (Contd…)
Reinforcement (Contd…)
Reinforcement (Contd…)
Reinforcement (Contd…)
Reinforcement (Contd…)
Reinforcement (Contd…)
Reinforcement (Contd…)
Reinforcement (Contd…)
Reinforcement (Contd…)
Reinforcement (Contd…)
Reinforcement (Contd…)
Reinforcement (Contd…)
Reinforcement (Contd…)
Reinforcement (Contd…)
Reinforcement (Contd…)
Reinforcement (Contd…)
Reinforcement (Contd…)
Reinforcement (Contd…)
Reinforcement (Contd…)
Reinforcement (Contd…)
Reinforcement (Contd…)
Reinforcement (Contd…)

Reinforcement (Contd…)

Reinforcement (Contd…)
Reinforcement (Contd…)

Reasons:

Actual moments away from joint may be higher

than the design moment.

We do not want to reduce large amount of steel abruptly away from the joint.

External Joint of Beam with Column
External Joint of Beam with Column
External Joint of Beam with Column
External Joint of Beam with Column
External Joint of Beam with Column
External Joint of Beam with Column
External Joint of Beam with Column
External Joint of Beam with Column
External Joint of Beam with Column
External Joint of Beam with Column
External Joint of Beam with Column
External Joint of Beam with Column
External Joint of Beam with Column
External Joint of Beam with Column
External Joint of Beam with Column
External Joint of Beam with Column
External Joint of Beam with Column
External Joint of Beam with Column
External Joint of Beam with Column
External Joint of Beam with Column
External Joint of Beam with Column
External Joint of Beam with Column
External Joint of Beam with Column
External Joint of Beam with Column
External Joint of Beam with Column
External Joint of Beam with Column

External Joint of Beam with Column

External Joint of Beam with Column
External Joint of Beam with Column
External Joint of Beam with Column

Very important to ensure adequate

anchorage of

beam bars in the

column

to ensure adequate anchorage of beam bars in the column S u d h i r
External Joint (Contd…)
External Joint (Contd…)
External Joint (Contd…)
External Joint (Contd…)
External Joint (Contd…)
External Joint (Contd…)
External Joint (Contd…)
External Joint (Contd…)
External Joint (Contd…)
External Joint (Contd…)
External Joint (Contd…)
External Joint (Contd…)
External Joint (Contd…)
External Joint (Contd…)
External Joint (Contd…)
External Joint (Contd…)
External Joint (Contd…)
External Joint (Contd…)
External Joint (Contd…)
External Joint (Contd…)
External Joint (Contd…)
External Joint (Contd…)
External Joint (Contd…)
External Joint (Contd…)
External Joint (Contd…)
External Joint (Contd…)
External Joint (Contd…)

External Joint (Contd…)

External Joint (Contd…)
External Joint (Contd…)

Notice the top bar of beam is shown to go into column well below soffit of the beam.

This is a problem in the construction.

One would cast the columns up to beam soffit

level before fixing the beam reinforcement.

Problem arises since Indian code does not

require minimum column width.

If column is wide enough, this will not be a

problem.

Seismic codes generally require column width to be at least 20 times the largest beam bar dia.

More on column width later in the section on joints.

Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)
Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)
Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)
Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)
Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)
Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)
Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)
Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)
Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)
Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)
Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)
Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)
Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)
Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)
Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)
Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)
Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)
Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)
Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)
Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)
Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)
Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)
Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)
Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)
Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)
Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)

Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)

Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)
Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)
Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)

Lap length

Lap Splice (Cl. 6.2.6)  Lap length development length in tension  Due to reversal of

development length in tension

Due to reversal of seismic loads, the bar could

be in compression or tension.

Lap splice not to be provided

Within a joint Within a distance of 2d from joint face

Within a quarter length of member where yielding may occur due to seismic forces.

Lap splices are not reliable under cyclic inelastic deformations and hence not to be provided in the critical

regions.

Lap Splice (Contd…)
Lap Splice (Contd…)
Lap Splice (Contd…)
Lap Splice (Contd…)
Lap Splice (Contd…)
Lap Splice (Contd…)
Lap Splice (Contd…)
Lap Splice (Contd…)
Lap Splice (Contd…)
Lap Splice (Contd…)
Lap Splice (Contd…)
Lap Splice (Contd…)
Lap Splice (Contd…)
Lap Splice (Contd…)
Lap Splice (Contd…)
Lap Splice (Contd…)
Lap Splice (Contd…)
Lap Splice (Contd…)
Lap Splice (Contd…)
Lap Splice (Contd…)
Lap Splice (Contd…)
Lap Splice (Contd…)
Lap Splice (Contd…)
Lap Splice (Contd…)
Lap Splice (Contd…)
Lap Splice (Contd…)
Lap Splice (Contd…)

Lap Splice (Contd…)

Lap Splice (Contd…)
Lap Splice (Contd…)

Wherever longitudinal bar splices are provided:

Hoops @ not more than 150 mm c/c should be

provided over the entire splice length

150 mm c/c should be provided over the entire splice length L d = development length

L d = development length in tension d b = bar diameter

Web Reinforcement
Web Reinforcement
Web Reinforcement
Web Reinforcement
Web Reinforcement
Web Reinforcement
Web Reinforcement
Web Reinforcement
Web Reinforcement
Web Reinforcement
Web Reinforcement
Web Reinforcement
Web Reinforcement
Web Reinforcement
Web Reinforcement
Web Reinforcement
Web Reinforcement
Web Reinforcement
Web Reinforcement
Web Reinforcement
Web Reinforcement
Web Reinforcement
Web Reinforcement

Web Reinforcement

Web Reinforcement
Web Reinforcement
Web Reinforcement
Web Reinforcement
Web Reinforcement
Web Reinforcement

Most important requirement in seismic regions

 Most important requirement in seismic regions S u d h i r K . J
 Most important requirement in seismic regions S u d h i r K . J

Sudhir K. Jain, IITGN

Seismic Design of Buildings / November 2012

Slide 32

Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)

Web Reinforcement (Contd…)

Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)

Several actions by web reinforcement:

Shear force capacity

Confinement of concrete

Lateral support to compression reinforcement bars

Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)

Web Reinforcement (Contd…)

Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)

Vertical hoops

Shear direction may reverse during earthquake

shaking

Hence, inclined bars not effective.

Closed stirrups

Open stirrups cannot confine concrete

135 degree hooks

As against normal 90 degree hooks

Provides good anchorage to stirrups

10 dia extension (

Provides good anchorage to stirrups  10 dia extension ( 75 mm)  As against 4

75 mm)

As against 4 dia extension

Provides good anchorage.

Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)

Web Reinforcement (Contd…)

Web Reinforcement (Contd…)
Web Reinforcement (Contd…)

Two pieces allowed:

U-stirrup and a cross tie Both with 135 degree hooks at either end.

This is more conservative than the ACI Code

See next slide for ACI provision.

Hoops as per ACI318
Hoops as per
ACI318
Spacing of Hoops
Spacing of Hoops
Spacing of Hoops
Spacing of Hoops
Spacing of Hoops
Spacing of Hoops
Spacing of Hoops
Spacing of Hoops
Spacing of Hoops
Spacing of Hoops
Spacing of Hoops
Spacing of Hoops
Spacing of Hoops
Spacing of Hoops
Spacing of Hoops
Spacing of Hoops
Spacing of Hoops
Spacing of Hoops
Spacing of Hoops
Spacing of Hoops
Spacing of Hoops
Spacing of Hoops
Spacing of Hoops

Spacing of Hoops

Spacing of Hoops
Spacing of Hoops
Spacing of Hoops
Spacing of Hoops
Spacing of Hoops
Spacing of Hoops

Hoop spacing over 2d length at either end of beam not to exceed

d/4

 8 times dia of smallest longitudinal bar Spacing >d/4 >8d b 2d 2d 2d
 8 times dia of smallest longitudinal bar
Spacing >d/4
>8d b
2d
2d
2d
Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)
Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)
Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)
Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)
Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)
Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)
Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)
Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)
Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)
Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)
Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)
Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)
Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)
Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)
Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)
Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)
Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)
Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)
Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)
Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)
Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)
Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)
Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)
Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)
Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)
Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)
Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)

Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)

Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)
Spacing of Hoops (Contd…)

But, hoop spacing need not be less than 100

mm

To ensure space for needle vibrator.

Also, close spacing of hoops over 2d on either side of any other location where flexural yielding

is likely

Elsewhere, hoop spacing to not exceed d/2

As against 3d/4 permitted by IS:456

First hoop should be placed within 50 mm of the

joint face.

Shear Design
Shear Design
Shear Design
Shear Design
Shear Design
Shear Design
Shear Design
Shear Design
Shear Design
Shear Design
Shear Design
Shear Design
Shear Design
Shear Design
Shear Design
Shear Design
Shear Design
Shear Design
Shear Design
Shear Design
Shear Design
Shear Design
Shear Design

Shear Design

Shear Design
Shear Design
Shear Design
Shear Design
Shear Design
Shear Design

Shear reinforcement to be designed for:

Factored shear forces as per calculations for

applied design loads.

Shear forces that will develop when flexural yielding takes place at either end of the beam

Capacity design concept to ensure shear failure (brittle failure) will not precede the flexural yielding.

Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear

Capacity Design for Shear

Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear

Cantilever Beam Example

Factored design load 100 kN, Height of 5m

Design moment at base =100

x 5 = 500 kNm

Design for this moment.

Generally, the actual

reinforcement may be

somewhat higher than

calculated.

100kN (Factored Design Load)

5m
5m

Say the moment capacity of the section is 600 kNm (instead of 500

kNm).

Cantilever example (Contd…)
Cantilever example (Contd…)
Cantilever example (Contd…)
Cantilever example (Contd…)
Cantilever example (Contd…)
Cantilever example (Contd…)
Cantilever example (Contd…)
Cantilever example (Contd…)
Cantilever example (Contd…)
Cantilever example (Contd…)
Cantilever example (Contd…)
Cantilever example (Contd…)
Cantilever example (Contd…)
Cantilever example (Contd…)
Cantilever example (Contd…)
Cantilever example (Contd…)
Cantilever example (Contd…)
Cantilever example (Contd…)
Cantilever example (Contd…)
Cantilever example (Contd…)
Cantilever example (Contd…)
Cantilever example (Contd…)
Cantilever example (Contd…)
Cantilever example (Contd…)
Cantilever example (Contd…)
Cantilever example (Contd…)
Cantilever example (Contd…)

Cantilever example (Contd…)

Cantilever example (Contd…)
Cantilever example (Contd…)

Design assumes steel stress as 0.87f y (due to partial safety factor of 1.15) But, steel can take upto say 1.25f y (due to strain hardening).

Hence, section can take moment upto about 860

kNm (= 600x1.25/0.87).

When moment at base is 860 kNm, the shear force must be 172 kN (= 860/5).

Hence, to prevent shear failure prior to flexural

yielding, design shear force is 172 kN

As against 100 kN factored shear force!

Capacity Design (Contd…)
Capacity Design (Contd…)
Capacity Design (Contd…)
Capacity Design (Contd…)
Capacity Design (Contd…)
Capacity Design (Contd…)
Capacity Design (Contd…)
Capacity Design (Contd…)
Capacity Design (Contd…)
Capacity Design (Contd…)
Capacity Design (Contd…)
Capacity Design (Contd…)
Capacity Design (Contd…)
Capacity Design (Contd…)
Capacity Design (Contd…)
Capacity Design (Contd…)
Capacity Design (Contd…)
Capacity Design (Contd…)
Capacity Design (Contd…)
Capacity Design (Contd…)
Capacity Design (Contd…)
Capacity Design (Contd…)
Capacity Design (Contd…)
Capacity Design (Contd…)
Capacity Design (Contd…)
Capacity Design (Contd…)
Capacity Design (Contd…)

Capacity Design (Contd…)

Capacity Design (Contd…)
Capacity Design (Contd…)

Ratio 1.25 / 0.87 = 1.44 has been rounded off to 1.4 in the code (Cl. 6.33)

Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear

Capacity Design for Shear

Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear
Capacity Design for Shear

Consider beam part of a frame.

Capacity Design for Shear  Consider beam part of a frame. EQ Force Sagging Hogging EQ
Capacity Design for Shear  Consider beam part of a frame. EQ Force Sagging Hogging EQ
Capacity Design for Shear  Consider beam part of a frame. EQ Force Sagging Hogging EQ
Capacity Design for Shear  Consider beam part of a frame. EQ Force Sagging Hogging EQ

EQ Force

EQ Force
for Shear  Consider beam part of a frame. EQ Force Sagging Hogging EQ Force Hogging
for Shear  Consider beam part of a frame. EQ Force Sagging Hogging EQ Force Hogging
for Shear  Consider beam part of a frame. EQ Force Sagging Hogging EQ Force Hogging
for Shear  Consider beam part of a frame. EQ Force Sagging Hogging EQ Force Hogging
for Shear  Consider beam part of a frame. EQ Force Sagging Hogging EQ Force Hogging
for Shear  Consider beam part of a frame. EQ Force Sagging Hogging EQ Force Hogging
Sagging Hogging EQ Force
Sagging
Hogging
EQ Force
Hogging Sagging
Hogging
Sagging
frame. EQ Force Sagging Hogging EQ Force Hogging Sagging  Flexural yielding will be in sagging
frame. EQ Force Sagging Hogging EQ Force Hogging Sagging  Flexural yielding will be in sagging

Flexural yielding will be in sagging at one end and hogging at the other end, and vice versa.

Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)

Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)

Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)

M SA

Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…) M SA M L HB Shear force = M SA +

M

Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…) M SA M L HB Shear force = M SA +
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…) M SA M L HB Shear force = M SA +

L

HB

Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…) M SA M L HB Shear force = M SA +

Shear force =

M SA + M HB

L

M HA

M

SA M L HB Shear force = M SA + M HB L M HA M
SA M L HB Shear force = M SA + M HB L M HA M
SA M L HB Shear force = M SA + M HB L M HA M

L

SB

M L HB Shear force = M SA + M HB L M HA M L

Shear force =

M HA + M SB

L

Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)
Capacity Design for Shear (Contd…)