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COHESION ANALYSIS ON SUGENG HARIYANTOS SHORT STORY NASREDDIN, THE FOOLISH MAN IN THE HUMOROUS STORIES OF NASREDDIN

THESIS

Presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the completion of strata 1 program of English Department specialized in Linguistics

By Yudo Nor Isyak L.H. C11.2005.00625

FACULTY OF LANGUAGES AND LETTERS DIAN NUSWANTORO UNIVERSITY SEMARANG 2010

STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY
I hereby certify that this thesis is definitely my own work. I am completely responsible for the content of this thesis. Opinions or findings of others included in this thesis are quoted or cited with respect to ethical standard.

Semarang, 26 July 2010

Yudo Nor Isyak L.H.

PAGE OF APPROVAL

This thesis has been approved by Board of Examiners, Strata 1 Study Program of English Language, Faculty of Languages and Letters, Dian Nuswantoro University on July 26, 2010.

Board of Examiners

Chairperson

1st Examiner

Sunardi, S.S., M.Pd.

Achmad Basari, S.S., M.Pd.

2nd Examiner

First Adviser as 3rd Examiner

Setyo Prasiyanto C., S.S., M.Pd.

Dra. Sri Mulatsih, M.Pd.

Approved by: Dean of Faculty of Languages and Letters

Achmad Basari, S.S., M.Pd.

MOTTO

As you become more clear about who you really are, you'll be better able to decide what is best for you the first time around." (Oprah Winfrey). "It's not what you do once in a while, it's what you do day in and day out that makes the difference." (Jenny Craig).

DEDICATION

I dedicate my thesis to: My Almighty God (Allah SWT) My beloved Father and Mother My beloved brothers and sisters Myself All people around me who love and care about me

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Alhamdulillahi Robbil Alamin, all praise is due to Allah SWT, the Most Compassionate and the Merciful who always gives me the best way in my life, without him none of this will be possible. At this happy moment, I would like to express my sincere thanks to: 1. Mr. Achmad Basari, S.S., M.Pd., Dean of Faculty of Languages and Letters of Dian Nuswantoro University, who gave me permission to conduct this thesis; 2. Mr. Sunardi, S.S., M.Pd., Head of English Department of Strata 1 program of Languages and Letters of Dian Nuswantoro University, who gave me permission to conduct this research; 3. Mrs. Tri Mulyani Wahyuningsih, S.S., thesis coordinator of English Department of Strata 1 Program of Languages and Letters of Dian Nuswantoro University, who gave me permission to conduct this thesis; 4. Drs. Sri Mulatsih, M.Pd., my first advisor, for her continuous and valuable guidance, advices, and encouragement in completing this thesis; 5. Mr. Raden Arief Nugroho S.S, M.Hum, my second advisor, for his continuous and valuable guidance, advices, and encouragement in completing this thesis; 6. All lecturers at the English Department of Faculty of Languages and Letters of Dian Nuswantoro University, who have taught, motivated, and given me guidance during the writing of this thesis;

7. The Librarians of Dian Nuswantoro University Central Library, for their permission to me to use all the references in writing this thesis; 8. The Staff of Self Access Center of Faculty of Languages and Letters for their permission for me to use some valuable references in writing this thesis; 9. The people in administration room, for the kindness and friendliness during my study at the English Department of Faculty of Languages and Letters of Dian Nuswantoro University; 10. My beloved parents, for their love, support and never ending pray. Thank you very much, you make me know the meaning of a struggle, you always care about me and Im nothing without you. You are the best persons I have ever had. I really love you mom, dad; 11. My big family, for the supports, my sisters and brothers who always support, help and pray; 12. All my friends in Faculty of Languages and Letters of Dian Nuswantoro batch 2005 for the supports; 13. My special thanks for Yuni, Lubis, Tia, Poer, to support and help me in everything; 14. The Last but not least to all people who have supported me for my research. 15. For all people that I cannot mention one by one, thank you very much;

Finally, I do realize that due to my limited ability, this thesis must have shortcomings. However, I do hope that it will bring many benefits to whoever read it.

Semarang, July 2010

Yudo Nor Isyak L.H.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE OF TITLE ..................................................................................................... i STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY.........................................................................ii PAGE OF APPROVAL..........................................................................................iii MOTTO ................................................................................................................. iv DEDICATION ........................................................................................................ v ACKNOWLEDGMENT ........................................................................................ vi TABLE OF CONTENTS ....................................................................................... ix LIST OF TABLE .................................................................................................. xii LIST OF APPENDICES ...................................................................................... xiii ABSTRACT ......................................................................................................... xiv CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Background of the Study ............................................................................... 1 Statement of the Problem............................................................................... 3 Scope of the Study..........................................................................................4 Objective of the Study ................................................................................... 4 Significance of the Study ............................................................................... 4 Thesis Organization ....................................................................................... 5

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 2.2 Language........................................................................................................ 7 Sentence, and Utterance................................................................................. 8

2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6

Text................. ............................................................................................. 10 Short Story...... ............................................................................................. 12 Cohesion...........................14 Cohesion Devices ........................................................................................ 14

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Research Design .......................................................................................... 24 Unit of Analysis ........................................................................................... 24 Source of Data ............................................................................................. 24 Technique of Data Collection ...................................................................... 25 Technique of Data Analysis ........................................................................ 25

CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS 4.1 Cohesion Analysis ....................................................................................... 26

4.1.1 Personal Reference ....................................................................................... 28 4.1.2 Demonstrative Reference ............................................................................ 36 4.1.3 Comparative Reference ................................................................................ 39 4.1.4 Clausal Ellipsis..............................................................................................40 4.1.5 Additive Conjunction....................................................................................43 4.1.6 Adversative Conjunction...............................................................................46 4.1.7 Causal Conjunction.......................................................................................48 4.1.8 Temporal Conjunction..................................................................................50

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 5.1 5.2 Conclusion...... ............................................................................................. 57 Suggestion...... ............................................................................................. 58

BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................. 60 APPENDICES ...................................................................................................... 62

LIST OF THE TABLE

Table 4.1 Grammatical Cohesive Devices On The Nasreddin, The Foolish Man short story.26

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix 1 Nasreddins short story Nasreddin, The Foolish Man ...................... 62 Appendix 2 Nasreddin, The Foolish Man sentences and utterances..75

ABSTRACT

This thesis, entitled Cohesion Analysis of Sugeng Hariyantos Nasreddin, The Foolish Man Short Story is a descriptive research. It has two objectives; to find out kinds of grammatical cohesive devices involved in Sugeng Hariyantos short story Nasreddin, The Foolish Man and to mention and explain kinds of grammatical cohesive devices and their relation to the meaning of the text in Sugeng Hariyantos short story Nasreddin, The Foolish Man. In collecting the data, the writer presents all sentences and utterances which contain grammatical cohesive devices. Next the writer classified the sentences and utterances containing grammatical cohesive devices. Finally, the writer analyzed the sentences and utterances containing grammatical cohesive devices and explained their relation to the text. The data analysis result shows that Sugeng Hariyantos short story Nasreddin, The Foolish Man consists of personal reference, it is 317 or 53.91 %. Meanwhile, I is the dominant Personal Reference, because in this short story I is the main character. The number of demonstrative reference is 32 or 5.44 %, the number of comparative reference is 2 or 0.34 %. They are no nominal ellipsis and verbal ellipsis while, the number of clausal ellipsis is 5 or 0.85 %. While, there are no result of substitution even in nominal, verbal and clausal substitution. The number of additive conjunction is 123 or 20.91%, while adversative conjunction is 22 or 3.74%, and the number of causal conjunction is 27 or 4.59% then at last, the number of temporal conjunction is 60 or 10.20%. The result of the analysis that Sugeng Hariyantos short story Nasreddin, The Foolish Man is cohesive/coherent, because the meaning of this short story is connected to each other. The text uses cohesive devices to create the meaning between paragraph.

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study Language as a means of communication can be used not only for giving informative message, but also for establishing and maintaining social relationship with others. Every person expresses his or her social relationship by language when she or he interacts with others to communicate. As a tool of communication, language has a function to express idea, knowledge, message, feeling, and wishes of someone to others. So, language has an important role in humans life. It describes how people can cooperate and get along with one another. English has been known as an international language and it is used in many countries in the world. In Indonesia, English is taught as a foreign language for many years in all levels of language proficiency. English teaching includes four skills of language, namely: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. However, of all the language skills, the most important skill that should be mastered by a foreign language learner is reading skill, because reading is one way to absorb information from any source of media especially those, which are provided in English.

The materials for reading can be in various types, such as discourses or passages, articles, recipes, letters, stories, instruction, notice, comics, billboard, announcement, advertisement, and etc. There are several kinds of text and one of them is short story. Short story is one kind of text; it is a form of short fictional narrative prose. Short story tends to be more concise and to the point than the longer work of fiction, such as novellas or novels and to be less complex than novels. Usually, a short story will focus on only one incident, has single plot, a single setting, a limited number of characters, and covers a short story period of time. The short story Nasreddin, The Foolish Man contains all criteria above. A short story is an enjoyable reading material. For students who are learning to read, the unified form of the text is very important so they might be able to comprehend within the text easily. Nasreddin, The Foolishman provides the readers a story which is funny, and contains an unified form and meaning relation among its sentences and utterances. A unified form and meaning relation should represent a cohesion. Richard (1985:45) defines cohesion as the grammatical and or lexical relationship between the different elements of a text. This may be the relationship between different parts of a sentence. Cohesion (lexical or referential), being a text feature, is decisive with regard to an individuals comprehension of a passage, particularly to non-natives. Cohesiveness in a text will help the reader to understand the whole topic of a short story. Cohesion can be defined as the links

that hold a text together and give its meaning. The function of cohesion is to relate one part of a text to another part of the same text. Consequently, it lends continuity to a text. By providing this kind of text continuity, cohesion enables the reader or listener to supply all components of the picture to its interpretation.

Cohesion is created in four ways namely reference, ellipsis (including substitution), conjunction, and lexical organization which are involved in a text and then connect them to find whether a text has cohesiveness or not, if it has, then the researcher could find the process of cohesive devices related to the meaning of text in the short story. Having an in this interest issue, the researcher has a motivation to make an analysis about cohesion that occurs in a text, so this research has a title Cohesion Analysis of Sugeng Hariyantos Short Story Nasreddin, The Foolish Man in The Humorous Stories of Nasreddin.

1.2 Statement of the Problem The statement of the problem can be illustrated as follows: 1. What kinds of grammatical cohesive device are found in Sugeng Hariyantos short story Nasreddin, The Foolish Man ?

2.

How do grammatical cohesive devices relate to the meaning of the text in Sugeng Hariyantos short story Nasreddin, The Foolish Man ?

1.3 Scope of the Study This study is to identify cohesion. The data are taken from Sugeng Hariyantos short story Nasreddin, The Foolish Man in The Humorous Stories of Nasreddin. This study analyzes only grammatical cohesive devices used on the short story.

1.4 Objective of the Study In the illustration series of problem, the objectives of the study are resumed as follows: 1. To find out kinds of grammatical cohesive devices which are related within Sugeng Hariyantos short story Nasreddin, The Foolish Man. 2. To mention and explain kinds of grammatical cohesive devices and their relation to the meaning of the text itself which are found the short story.

1.5 Significance of the Study Hopefully, the result of this study can be a contribution to: 1. A contribution for the researcher, to get knowledge about cohesion, cohesive devices, and their relation in a text.

2.

A contribution to Dian Nuswantoro University, especially for students of English Department.

3.

A Contribution for the next researchers who are interested in this subject and have strong commitment to do further research.

4.

A contribution to everybody who reads this thesis. It is expected that by reading this thesis, he/she will be conscious in comprehending the meaning of each sentence which is connected with cohesion.

1.6 Thesis Organization This thesis is organized into five chapters, they are : Chapter 1 is Introduction which consists of background of the study, research question, purpose of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, thesis organization. Chapter II is Review of related literature which discusses the preview of related literature, such as languages, sentence, and utterance, text, short story, cohesion. Chapter III is Research method which describes of research design, unit of analysis, source of data, technique of data collection, and technique of data analysis. Chapter IV present Data analysis to mention the result of the research and the explanation as well.

Chapter V is Conclusion and suggestion which describes of the conclusion of the research and suggestion for the process of the research.

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE In this chapter, the writer explain about the review of related literature, which is used in this study. This chapter discusses about preview of related literature, such as languages, sentence, and utterance, text, short story, cohesion. The brief explanation for each literature can be seen in the following sub-chapters below: 2.1 Languages According to Jespersen (1924:17) A language is a system of signs (e.g. speech sounds, hand gestures, letters) used to communicate messages. Language is a system of human communication which consists of the structure arrangement of sound into larger units such as morphemes, words, phrases, sentences, utterances, and text. Language is used to communicate with others whether written or spoken. Austin (1962:10) explained that language cannot only be used but also to commit some action. In addition, American linguist, John B. Carrol as quoted by Ramelan (1992:8) defines language is as follows: Language is an arbitrary system of speech sounds or sequences of speech sounds which is used or can be used in interpersonal communication by an aggregation of human beings, and which rather exhaustively catalogs things, processes, and events in the human environment. Moreover, the characteristics of human language according to John B. Carrol (1992: 8) are:

a. Systematic; it implies orderly arrangement of the signaling units used by language. b. Arbitrary; it is based on social agreement (there is no logical or necessary relation between words and their meaning). c. Spoken; all people over the world, regardless of their race or ethnic group, always speak a language. This means that they always have a way of communication ideas by manipulating sounds that are produced by their vocal organs. d. Social; language is only used in a social group which involves at least two persons, the speaker, and the hearer. The ability to speak language, though innate nature, should be developed in a social language. It is not automatically acquired, like instinct of an animal. e. Complete; the use of human language is not limited to biological needs. It is more completed in that it can always be used to communicate about the culture of its native speakers. Language is a system of human communication which consists of the structure arrangement of sound into larger units such as morphemes, words, phrases, sentences, utterances, and text. Language is used to communicate with others whether written or spoken.

2.2 Sentence and Utterance As we know that text may be spoken or written, then it can be categorized that sentence is a kind of written text and utterance is a kind of spoken text. 2.2.1 Definitions of Sentence and Utterance

According to Gerot and Wignell (1994:82) sentence is a unity of written language; it does not apply to spoken language. Meanwhile Hurtford and Heasly (1985: 15) state that a sentence is neither physical events nor physical object. It is conceived abstractly a string of a word put together by the grammatical rules of language. According to Stubbs (1983:5) an utterance is a spoken sentence, clause, sentence fragment, phrase or word; one utterance tends to be uttered in one breath and to be bounded by silent pauses; is also tends to end in a falling or rising intonation. An utterance is a complete unit of speech in spoken language. It is generally but not always bounded by silence. It can be represented and delineated in written language, utterance never exist in written language, only it representation do. 2.2.2 Sentence and Utterance Distinction

Hurford and Heasley (1983:16) distinguish sentence and utterance are as follows: In semantic, we need to make a careful distinction between utterances and sentences. In particular, we need some way of making it clear

when we are discussing sentences and when utterances. We adopt the convention that anything written between double quotation marks represents an utterance and anything italized represents a sentence or (similarly abstract), part of a sentence such as a phrase or word. In this case, Hurtford and Heasley give an example of sentence and utterance: 1. Help, shows an utterance because it is marked by double quotation above it. 2. The positions have been struck by lightning. Shows a sentence because it is unmarked. Text is bigger than sentence and utterance. 2.3 Text Text may be spoken or written, in which it refers to the larger unit of language. A text is regarded as an exemplification of the operation of the linguistic code at an intra-sentential level. Text is combination of sentence as a formal linguistics objects. The use of such a sentence combination refers to discourse. Tarigan (1982:27) defines text as a comprehensive language which is higher than a sentence or clause with the highest cohesion coherence which has continuity and also clear beginning and finishing which expressed both orally and literally.

2.3.1

Standard Criteria of Text

According to Beugrande and Dressler (1981) as cited in the linguistics encyclopedia (1991: 463-469); there are seven standard criteria to fulfill in order to make a text understandable and communicative, namely: 1. Coherence concerns the way in which the things that the text is about, called the text textual world, are mutually accessible and relevant. 2. Cohesion concerns the way in which the linguistic item of which a text is composed are meaningfully connected to each other in a sequence on the basis of the grammatical rules of the language. 3. Intentionality concerns the text procedures intention to produce a cohesive and coherent text that will attain whatever goal she/he has planned that it should attain. 4. Acceptability concerns the receivers wish that the text should be cohesive and coherent and be relevance to him or her. 5. Informativity concerns the extent to which the occurrences of the presented text are expected vs. unespected or known vs. unknown / certain. 6. Situationality concerns the factors which make a text RELEVANT to a SITUATION of occurrence. 7. Intertextuality concerns the way in which the use of a certain text depends on knowledge of other texts.

2.3.2

Kinds of the Text

Based on the purpose of the text, Keraf (1995:6-7) categorized text into: 1. Exposition is a text which has been composed by the writer to give information to the people. 2. Argumentation is a text which has been composed by the writer to convince the reader about the truthfulness, but did not influence the reader to make an argument or action. 3. Persuasion is variation of the argumentation text which disposed to influence the reader than to endure the truthfulness. 4. Description is a text which has been composed by the writer to describe something. 5. Narration is a text which has been composed by the writer to tell how the event takes place, not only the event which has been experienced by the person itself but also the event which has been experienced by someone else. Text may be spoken or written, in which it refers to the larger unit of language. Text devide into 5 kinds of the text. One of kinds of text is naration. Narration usually be found in the short story. 2.4 Short Story According to Mario Klarer (1998: 13) short story is one kind of text; it is form of short fictional narrative prose. Short story tends to be more concise and to the point than the longer work of fiction, such as novellas or novels and

to be less complex than novels. Usually a short story will focus on only one incident, has single plot, a single setting, a limited number of characters, and covers a short story period of time. Short story, a concise form of prose fiction, has received less attention from literary scholars than the novel. As with the novel, the roots of the short story lie in the antiquity and Middle Age. Indirect precursors of the short story are medieval and early modern narrative cycles. These cycles of tales are characterized by a frame narrative such as the pilgrimage to the tomb of Saint Thomas Becket in the Canterbury tales, which unites a number of heterogeneous stories. Short story emerges as a more or less independent text type at the end of the eighteen century, parallel to the development of the novel and the newspaper. Regularly issued magazines of the nineteen century exerted a major influenced on the establishment of the short story by providing an ideal medium for the publication of this prose genre of limited volume. Even today, magazines still function as privileged organs for first publication of short stories. Short story, however, surfaces in comparative definitions of other prose genres such as novel or its shorter variants, novella and novelette. While novel has always attracted the interest of literary theorist, short story has never actually achieved the status held by book-length fiction. Short storys action therefore often commences close to the climax. Reconstructing the preceding

context and plot development through flashback. Due to the restrictions of length, a plot of the short story has to be highly selective, entailing an idiosyncratic temporal dimension that usually focuses on one central moment of action. In the short story, there are many sentences contain cohesion. 2.5 Cohesion Cohesion creates the relationship of parts of a text both in grammatical and lexical. Richard (1985:45) defines cohesion as the grammatical and or lexical relationship between the different elements of a text. This may be the relationship between different parts of a sentence. While, Halliday and Hasan (1976:4) state that the concept of cohesion is a semantic one; it refers to relations of meaning that exist within the text, and that define it as a text. Cohesion occurs where the interpretation of some element in the discourse is dependent on that of another. To know about the cohesion, we should know cohesion devices. 2.6 Cohesion Devices Cohesion in a semantic relation which expresses continuity exists between one part of the text and another. Moreover cohesive relations will constitute a part which show a cohesion grammatical or lexical. Halliday and Hasan (1994:6) state that reference, ellipsis In English, Cohesion is created in four ways, by (including substitution), conjunction, and lexical

organization.

2.6.1

Reference

A reference creates cohesion by creating links between elements. Reference refers to system which introduces and track the identity of participants through text (Gerot and Wignell 1994: 170). In the case of reference, the information to be retrieved is the referential meaning, the identity of the particular thing or class of things that is being referred to; and the cohesion lies in the continuity of reference, whereby the same thing enters into the discourse a second time. A reference item is not of itself exophoric or endophoric; it is just phoricit simply has the property of reference. Any given instance of reference may be either one or the other, or it may even be both at once. Exphoric reference contributes to the creation of text, in that it links the language with the context of situation, but it does not contribute to the integration of one passage with another so that the two passages together form part of the same text. Hence, it does not contribute directly to cohesion as we have defined it. On the other hand, endophoric reference is cohesive. We shall treat endophoric reference as a norm; not implying by this that it is the form of it which plays a part in cohesion, and which therefore has priority in the context of the present study. Endophoric, referring to textual item by anaphora (backward refernce) or cataphora (forward reference).

According to Halliday and Hasan (1976: 37) there are three types of reference: 1. Personal Reference is reference by means of function in the speech situation, through the category of person. The category of personals includes the three classes of personal pronouns (I, we, you, they, he, she, it, one) which function as a subject or object (me, us, you, them, him, her, it, one), possessive determines usually called possessive adjective) such as (my, our, your, their, his, her, its), and possessive pronouns (mine, theirs, yours, his, hers, its, ones). 2. Demonstrative reference is essentially a form o verbal pointing. The speaker identifies the referent by locating it on a scale of proximity. Demonstratives reference can be divided into: a. Nominal demonstrative such as: these, that, and those which refer to the person or certain object. For example : I dont suppose that you know Benny Greep, do you? In the example above, the form nominal demonstrative shows by the change of the word that. b. Circumstantial (Adverbial) demonstrative such as: here, there, now, and then which refer to the location of a process in space or time, and they normally do so directly, not via the location of some person or object that is participating in the process.

For example: If youre been telling me more lies, Ill make sure that you go the prison for six months, because of the fight at Las cabanas. In the example above, the form circumstantial demonstrative shows by the change of the word six months. c. Comparative reference is indirect reference by means of identity or similarity. Comparative reference can be divided into: 1) Adjective which consists of same, identical, equal, similar, other, different, else, and such which are general comparative and better, more, fewer, less, further particular comparative. For example: The door opened and in walked one of the most beautiful women I had ever seen. 2) Adverbial which consists of identically, similarly, so, likewise, differently, and otherwise which constitute of general comparatives, and so, as, more, less, and equally as the particular comparatives. For example: As far as I know, Benny Greeps death doesnt have anything to do with the person Im working for.

2.6.2 Ellipsis and Substitution Another types of cohesive relation are ellipsis and substitution. These can be though of in simplest term as processes within the text; ellipsis as the omission of an item and substitution as the replacement of one item by another. Essentially, the two item are the same process, ellipsis can be interpreted as that form of substitution in which the item is replaced by nothing. The difference between substitution and ellipsis is that in the former a substitution counter occur is slot, and this must therefore be deleted if the presupposed item is replaced, whereas in the latter, the slot is empty. There it has been substituted by zero ( ). Ellipsis can be divided into: 1. Nominal ellipsis By nominal ellipsis we mean ellipsis within nominal group. For example: Do you like apples?- yes but I cant eat ones. In the example above, the form ellipsis shows by the change of the word apples into the word ones. 2. Verbal ellipsis By verbal ellipsis we mean ellipsis within verbal group. a. Have you been shooting?- yes I have b. What have you been doing?- shooting

The two verbal groups in answer, have (in yes I have) in (a) and shooting in (b), are both instance of verbal ellipsis. Both can be said to stand for have been shooting, and there is no possibility of filling out with any other items. So, for example, shooting in (b) could not be interpreted only as I have been shooting, and it could furthermore, be replaced by I have been shooting, since as in all types of ellipsis, the full form and the elliptical one or both possible. 3. Clausal ellipsis Clausal ellipsis is the omission of the clause. For example: Do you come back today?- this evening The zero () marked above example shows the omission of some clause, that is I came back. Substitution can be divided into: a. Nominal Substitution is the replacement within nominal group. The substitution forms are: one, ones, and same. For example: I shoot the birds b. Verbal Substitution is the replacement within verbal group. The substitution form is do. For example: yes I did

c. Clausal substitution is the replacement of clause. The substitution forms are: so and not. For example: No, I didnt 2.6.3 Conjunction

Conjunctive elements are cohesive not in themselves but indirectly, by virtue of their specific meanings; they are not primarily devices for reaching out into the preceding (or following) text, but they express certain meanings which presuppose the presence of other components in the discourse. Conjunction is somewhat different from the other cohesive relations. It is based on the assumption that there are in the linguistic system allows for the parts of a text to be connected to one another in meaning. Conjunction can be divided into: 1. Additive conjunction; it is a conjunction which shows explanation of the previous sentence. The additive conjunction forms are: and, and also, in addition, moreover, or, or else, thus, further, further more, additionally, for instance, alternatively, by the way, in other words, in the same way, similarly. For example: At the end of the narrow street, I turned left and then left again. 2. Adversative conjunction; it is a conjunction which explains contrast meaning of the previous sentence. The adversative conjunction forms

are: in any case, only, but, instead, yet, however, on the other hand, despite this, on the contrary, in fact, anyhow, though, nevertheless. For example: The door to the outer room was open, as usual, but the room was empty. 3. Causal conjunction; it is a conjunction which explains cause-effect relation. The causal conjunction forms are: so, thus, hence, consequently, for this reason, it follows that, from this it appears. For example: Dont sound so surprised, said sergeant Murphy angrily. 4. Temporal conjunction; it is a conjunction which explain the time. The temporal conjunction forms are: then, after, that, an hour later, finally, at last, at once. For example: Do you know that you would go to prison for six months for what you did last night? The sergeant asked. 2.6.4 Lexical Cohesion According to Halliday and Hasan (1976:277), lexical cohesion is basically created by repetition ( reiteration ) of the same lexeme, or general nouns, or other lexemes sharing the majority of semantic features, lexical cohesion can also form a relation pattern in text in a way that links sentences to create an overall feature of coherence with the audience, sometimes over lapping with other cohesion features. The understanding of how content of

sentences in linked helps to identify the central information in texts by means of a possible summary. Moreover, Lexical cohesion refers to relationship among lexical items in a text and in particular among content words. According to Halliday and Hasan (1976:277), the main kinds of lexical cohesion are : 1. Reiteration refers to words that are repeated in the text, as well as words that have changed to reflect tense or number. For example: feel and felt (reflecting a change in tense) and feeling and feelings (reflecting a change in number). 2. Antonym, it refers to opposite or contrastive meaning. For example: Clean and dirty, happy and sad. 3. Synonym, it refers to the relationship between words that are similar in meaning. For example: customers and patrons 4. Hyponymy, it refers classes of lexical items where the relationship is one of general specific or a type of such as: entre and main course in relation to the items food. 5. Meronymy, it refers to lexical items which are in a whole part relation, such as; the relation between main course; potatoes and broccoli, bones, and scales.

6. Collocation describes association between words that tend to co-occur, such as; combinations of adjectives and nouns as in quality product, snide remarks and discerning customers. It also includes tge relationship between verbs and nouns such as; eat and food, and a pair of nouns such as; friends and neighbors.

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD

3.1 Research Design This study is using descriptive research which aims at identifying cohesive devices in a short story Nasreddin, The Foolish Man. Isaac and Michael (1987: 46) state descriptive method has a purpose to describe systematically a situation or area of interest factually and accurately. The study focuses on finding grammatical cohesive devices involved in a short story Nasreddin, The Foolish Man and to explain how those grammatical cohesive devices be related to the meaning of the text in the Nasreddin, The Foolish Man . 3.2 Unit of Analysis The unit of analysis of this study is the grammatical cohesive devices found in Sugeng Hariyantos short story Nasreddin, The Foolish Man.

3.3 Source of Data The data of this study are written data. The data are taken from a book entitled Nasreddin, The Foolish Man which consists of 15 stories. The short story, written by Sugeng Hariyanto, was originally published by Kanisius, Yogyakarta Indonesia, in 1995.

3.4 Technique of Data Collection Technique of data collection is the way the researcher collects and gets the data. The following were three steps of the data collection technique: 1. The first step is reading the humorous stories Nasreddin of the Nasreddin, The Foolish Man. 2. The second is rewriting the cohesions that occur on Nasreddin, The Foolish Man. 3. The last is classifying the data based on the features of cohesions.

3.5 Technique of Data Analysis The researcher used descriptive qualitative method to analyze the data. Because, the aim of research is to observe, to inspect, and to explain the analysis that is the use of cohesive device in any sentence or text. The technique of data analysis were: 1. Segmenting the sentences into clauses. 2. Rewriting the cohesive device that occur on Nasreddin, The Foolish Man. 3. Identifying the kinds of cohesive devices in each paragraph 4. Classifying the kinds of cohesive devices 5. Interpreting the data.

CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS

From the data analysis of the grammatical cohesive devices in Nasreddin, The Foolish Man, cohesion is created in four ways : reference, ellipsis, and substitution, conjunction, and lexical cohesion. The distribution of the using of the grammatical cohesive devices is to identify the inclination of grammatical cohesive devices used in short story, in which, one of the devices is greater in quantities than the others or the opposite, and how many times those devices are mentioned in text. On the other hand, grammatical cohesive devices show how the relation among the sentences or utterances is created. The following list serves the data analysis outcome. Table 4.1 Grammatical Cohesive Devices On Sugeng Hariyantos Nasreddin, The Foolish Man short story. No. Kinds of The Grammatical Cohesive Devices 1 Reference Personal Reference Demonstrative Reference Comparative Reference 2 Ellipsis Nominal ellipsis Verbal ellipsis Number 317 32 2 Percentage 132.08% 13.34% 0.84% -

Substitution

Conjunction

Clausal ellipsis Nominal substitution Verbal substitution Clausal substitution Additive Conjunction Adversative Conjunction Causal Conjunction Temporal Conjunction(TC)

Total

5 123 22 27 60 588

0.85% 20.91% 3.74% 4.59% 10.20% 100%

Table 4.1 above shows us the number of grammatical cohesive devices occurs in the data. The first is the use of reference. The use of references is

dominant. The second is the use of substitution, then the last is the use of conjunction. Ellipsis is not being used in this story, because this story book has a simple story. This book is consumed by children so the story presents the sentences clearly. References relate each sentence in the book story. The last is the use of conjunction. Conjunction also helps to build this story but not as many as reference. Each paragraph has several cohesive devices which are noted by the Bold word. It uses the convention to make the cohesive devices understandable.

4.1

Cohesion Analysis The cohesive devices found in the sentences and utterances on each point of

the research will be described. The cohesive ties will be described through the preceding and following sentences and utterances. The cohesive relation on every sentence and utterance will help us to know whether the text is cohesive or not.

4.1.1

Personal Reference Personal Reference is a reference by means of function in the speech situation,

through the category of person. The category of personals includes the three classes of personal pronouns (I, we, you, they, he, she, it, one) which function as a subject or object (me, us, you, them, him, her, it, one), possessive determines usually called by possessive adjective (my, our, your, their, his, her, its), and possessive pronouns (mine, theirs, yours, his, hers, its, ones). The number of Personal references which has been used in the short story Nasreddin, The Foolish Man is about 317 references or 53,91%. The excerpts of the data analysis can be seen as follow: Excerpt 1: Every Saturday Nasreddin went to the market to buy the household s need (1). He put the goods in a big basket (2). But, he was not able to carry the heavy basket since he was only an old man (3). Instead, he asked someone else to do it for him and gave him a suitable payback (4). Cohesion Analysis: Personal reference he (2,3,4) refers back to something that has been mentioned after Nasreddin (1). This anaphoric function of he (2,3,4), occurs in the

text, refers to something mentioned later, that is Nasreddin (1). Him (4) could be categorized as a personal reference which refers back to Nasreddin (4). Personal reference Him (4) refers to something that is mentioned before (anaphoric to) Nasreddin (1). The personal reference he (2,3,4) refers back to Nasreddin (1) as a cataphoric or anaphoric. Although those personal references have different phoric tendencies, those reference create relations which show cohesion in text, so that we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentence together constitutes a text or rather, the form of the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the items such as he and him which may typically refer to something that mentioned later or refer back to something that goes before the cohesion is affected by the presence of the references and item that refers to. Excerpt 2: He is the man who stole your basket last week(8)."Nasreddin, however, hid behind a small shop instead of catching the man(9). Cohesion Analysis In the text above, the personal reference that occur are he (8) and your (8) which can be categorized as personal pronoun. This personal reference he refers back to something that is mentioned before (anaphoric to) Nasreddins friend. Your refers back to something that is mentioned before (anaphoric to) Nasreddin This anaphoric function on he and your which occur in the text create cohesion in the text. It happens because he refers back to something that is mentioned before, that is Nasreddins friend and your refers back to something that is mentioned before, that

is Nasreddin, so we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentence together constitutes a text or rather, they form part of the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the items such as he and your which may typically refer back to something that go before, but cohesion in a text is not only affected by the presence of the reference alone but also the items that they refer to. Excerpt 3: "What can I do for you, Sir? You're looking for a bed, chairs?"(24)."Well, well! Wait a minute said Nasreddin, "First, I want to ask you some questions(25).' Cohesion Analysis: In the text above, the personal references that occur are I and you (24, 25), they can be categorized as personal pronouns. The personal reference I refers back to something that is mentioned before (anaphoric to) Salesman. You refers back to something that is mentioned before (anaphoric to) Nasreddin. I refers back to something that is mentioned before (anaphoric to) Nasreddin. You refers back to something that is mentioned before (anaphoric to) Salesman. This anaphoric function on I and You which occur in the text create cohesion in the text, because I refers back to something that is mentioned before, that is Salesman, you refers back to something that is mentioned before, that is Nasreddin. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as I and you which may typically refer back to something that go before, but cohesion in a text is not only affected by the presence of the reference alone but also the items that they refer to. Excerpt 4:

After a while they said that they were very hungry (34). Soon Nasreddin invited them to have breakfast at his house half an hour later (35). Then Nasreddin went home (36). Cohesion Analysis: In the text above, the personal references that occur are they (34), them (35) and his (35) can be categorized as personal pronoun. The personal reference they refers back to something that is mentioned before (anaphoric to) Nasreddin and his friend. Them refers back to something that is mentioned before (anaphoric to) Nasreddin and his friend. His refers back to something that is mentioned before (anaphoric to) Nasreddin. This anaphoric function of they, them, and his which occur in the text create cohesion in the text because they, them, and his refer back to something that are mentioned before, they are Nasreddin and his friend and Nasreddin, so we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentence together constitutes a text or rather, they form part of the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the items such as they, them and his which may typically refer back to something that go before, but cohesion in a text is not only affected by the presence of the reference alone but also the items that they refer to. Excerpt 5: Outside he started looking for the ring (101). He could not find it even he has been searching for it for a quite long time (102).

Cohesion Analysis: In the text above, the personal reference that occur are he (101) and it (102) which can be categorized as personal pronouns. The personal reference he refers back

to something that is mentioned before (anaphoric to) Nasreddin. It refers back to something that is mentioned before (anaphoric to) the ring. The anaphoric function on he and it which occur in the text create cohesion in the text, because he refers back to something that is mentioned before, that is Nasreddin and it refers back to something that mentioned before, that is the ring, so we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentences together constitute a text or rather, they form part of the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as he and it which may typically refer back to something that go before, but cohesion in a text is not only affected by the presence of the reference alone but also the items that they refer to. Excerpt 6: Nasreddin was working for a rich man(111). One day his master called him and said, "Nasreddin, come on in (112)." Cohesion Analysis: In the text above, the personal reference that occur are his (112), possesive pronoun and him (112), personal pronoun. The personal reference him refers back to something that is mentioned before (anaphoric to) nasreddin. His refers back to something that is mentioned before (anaphoric to) Nasreddin who was working for a rich man. This anaphoric function of him and his which occur in the text create cohesion in the text because him refers back to something that is mentioned before, they are Nasreddin and his refers back to something that are mentioned before, that is Nasreddin who was working for a rich man. So we interpret them as a whole;

the whole sentence together constitutes a text or rather, they form part of the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the items such as him and his which may typically refer back to something that go before, but cohesion in a text is not only affected by the presence of the reference alone but also the items that they refer to. Excerpt 7: Nasreddin came in and sat in a chair(113). His master said further, "You are a very good man(114). Cohesion Analysis: In the text above, the personal reference that occurs is you (114) which can be categorized as personal pronoun and his (114) categorized as a possessive pronoun. The personal reference you refers back to something that is mentioned before (anaphoric to) Nasreddin. In addition, his refers back to something that is mentioned before (anaphoric to) Nasreddins master. This anaphoric function on you and his which occur in the text create cohesion in the text, because you refers back to something that is mentioned before that is Nasreddin and his refers back to something that is mentioned before that is Nasreddins master, so we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentences together constitute a text or rather, they form part of the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as you and his which may typically refer back to something that go before, but cohesion in a text is not only affected by the presence of the reference alone but also the items that they refer to.

Excerpt 8: "I'm sorry, Sir, I'm a fool (119). I won't do the same thing again in the future (120). I'll do everything at once (121)." Cohesion Analysis: In the text above, the personal reference that occurs is I (119, 120,121), which can be categorized as a personal pronoun. The personal reference I refers back to something that is mentioned before (anaphoric to) Nasreddin. The anaphoric function on I, which occurs in the text, creates cohesion in the text, because I refer back to something that is mentioned before that is Nasreddin and so, we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentences together constitute a text or rather, they form part of the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as I which may typically refers back to something that goes before, but cohesion in a text is not only affected by the presence of the reference alone but also the items that they refer to. Excerpt 9: Nasreddin was looking for firewood for his wife (284). He climbed a tree and sat on a trunk while he was sawing it (285). Cohesion Analysis: In the text above, the personal reference that occur are his (284), he (285) and it (285), which can be categorized as personal pronouns. The personal reference his refers back to something that is mentioned before (anaphoric to) Nasreddins wife. He refers back to something that is mentioned before (anaphoric to) Nasreddin. That it refers back to (anaphoric to) tree. The anaphoric function on his, he and it which

occur in the text create cohesion in the text, because his refers back to something that is mentioned before, that is Nasreddins wife, he refers back to something that is mentioned before, that is Nasreddin, and it refers back to something that is mentioned before, that is tree, so we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentence together constitutes a text or rather, they form part of the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the items such as his, he and it which may typically refer back to something that go before, but cohesion in a text is not only affected by the presence of the reference alone but also the items that they refer to.

4.1.2

Demonstrative Reference

Demonstrative reference is essentially a form of verbal pointing. The speaker identifies the referent by locating it on a scale of proximity. The number of demonstrative references which has been used in short story Nasreddin, The Foolish Man is reaching 32 references or 5,44%. The excerpts of the data analysis can be seen as follows : Excerpt 10: Nasreddin, however, hid behind a small shop instead of catching the man (9). He stayed there until the man stealing his basket had left the market (10). Cohesion Analysis: In the text above, the demonstrative reference that occurs in the text is there (10). The word there can be categorized as an adverbial (circumstantial) demonstrative. This demonstrative reference refers back to (anaphoric to) the location

of a process in space that is a small shop. The anaphoric function of there which occurs in the text creates cohesion in the text because there refers back to the location that is mentioned before, so we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentence together constitute a text or rather, they form part of the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as there which may typically refers back to the location that goes before, but cohesion in a text is not only effected by the presence of the reference alone but also the items that they refer to.

Excerpt 11: He walked into a furniture shop (22). There he was welcome nicely by the salesman (23). Cohesion Analysis: In the text above, the demonstrative reference that occurs in the text is there (23), which can be categorized as adverbial (circumstantial). This demonstrative reference refers back to (anaphoric) the location of a process in space that is furniture shop. The anaphoric function of there which occurs in the text creates cohesion in the text because there refers back to the location circumstance that has been said before, so we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentences together constitute a text or rather, they form part of the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as there which may typically refers back to something that has been said before, but cohesion in a text is not only effected by the presence of the reference alone but also the item that they refer to.

Excerpt 12: I was inside this coat, I should have died already and you must have been a widow now, said he sadly (254). Nasreddin went to the market (255). Cohesion Analysis: In the text above, the demonstrative reference that occurs in the text is this (254). The word this can be categorized as an adverbial (circumtantion) demonstrative. This demonstrative reference refers back to (anaphoric) the coat. The anaphoric function of this which occurs in the text creates cohesion in the text because there refers back to the location that is mentioned before, so, we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentences together constitute a text or rather, they form part of the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as this which may typically refers back to something that has been said before, but cohesion in a text is not only effected by the presence of the reference alone but also the items that they refer to. Excerpt 13: A doctor usually gives us a prescription(129). Here I get a medicine man who will make the medicine prescribed for you(130). Cohesion Analysis: In the text above, the demonstrative reference that occurs in the text is here (130). The word here (130) can be categorized as an adverbial (circumtantion) demonstrative. This demonstrative reference refers back to (anaphoric) something that is mentioned after the prescription. The anaphoric function of here which occurs in the text creates cohesion in the text because there refers back to the location that is mentioned before, so we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentences

together constitute a text or rather, they form part of the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as here which may typically refers back to that has been said after, but cohesion in a text is not only effected by the presence of the reference alone but also the items that they refer to.

4.1.3

Comparative Reference

The number of comparative references which has been used in short story Nasreddin, The Foolish Man is reaching 2 references or 0,34%. The excerpts of the data analysis can be seen as follows : Excerpt 14: "Sure," answered the neighbor (146). "Ask my wife how far I should take a walk to get better," said Nasreddin, "I have been very exhausted (147)."Meanwhile Nasreddin kept on walking (148). Cohesion Analysis: In the text above, the comparative reference that occurs in the text is better (147).The word better can be categorized as a comparative adjective. This comparative reference refers back to something that is mentioned after (anaphoric to) how far I should take a walk to get. The anaphoric function of better which occurs in the text creates cohesion in the text because better refers back to the something that is mentioned later, so, we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentences together constitute a text or rather, they form part of the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as better which may typically

refers back to that goes later, but cohesion in a text is not only effected by the presence of the reference alone but also the items that they refer to. Excerpt 15: Nasreddin looked gloomy and weak (139). His wife said, "Why don't you take a walk to get fresh air! It will make you better "(140). Cohesion Analysis: In the text above, the comparative reference that occurs in the text is better (140). The word better can be categorized as a comparative adverb. This comparative reference refers back to (anaphoric) something that is mentioned after the take a walk to get fresh air. The anaphoric function of better which occurs in the text creates cohesion in the text because better refers back to the something that is mentioned later, so, we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentences together constitute a text or rather, they form part of the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as better which may not typically refers back to that goes later, but cohesion in a text is not only effected by the presence of the reference alone but also the items that they refer.

4.1.4

Clausal Ellipsis

The number of Clausal Ellipsis which has been used in the the short story Nasreddin, The Foolish Man is reaching 5 ellipses or 0,85%. The excerpts of the data analysis can be seen as follows : Excerpt 16: "Did you see me when I walked into this shop!" asked Nasreddin (28). Yes, Sir, of course," answered the salesman (29).

Cohesion Analysis: In the text above, the ellipsis that occurs can be categorized as a clausal ellipsis, it occurs as a direct response of yes/no question or polar question. Yes (29) means that the answer is positive, or Yes(I see you when you walked into this shop). Since Yes answer ' Did you see me when I walked into this shop!, then both of the sentences have cohesion because Yes refers back to question mentioned before, so we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentences constitute a text or rather, they form part of the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as Yes which may typically refers back to question that goes before, but cohesion in a text is not only effected by the presence of the ellipsis alone the items that are omitted. Excerpt 17: "Have you ever met me before!" said Nasreddin further (30)."No, Sir. Never." (31). Cohesion Analysis: In the text above, the ellipsis that occurs can be categorized as a clausal ellipsis, it occurs as a direct response of yes/no question or polar question. No (31) means that the answer is negative, or No (I never met you before). Since No answers Have you ever met me before, then both of the sentence have cohesion because No refers back to the question mentioned before, so we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentences constitute a text or rather, they form part of the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as No which may typically refers back to the question that goes before, but cohesion in

a text is not only effected by the presence of the ellipsis alone but also the items that are omitted. Excerpt 18: Nasreddin turned round to see the men (186). He answered, 'Don't worry, I'm one of the dead bodies buried here (187)."Can a dead body wake up at night?" asked the man again (188)."Yes", "What for?" (189). To get fresh air," Nasreddin answered (190). Cohesion Analysis: In the text above, the ellipsis that occurs can be categorized as a clausal ellipsis, it occurs as a direct response of yes or no question or polar question. Yes (189) means that the answer is positive, or Yes (a dead body wake up at night). Since Yes answers Can a dead body wake up at night, then both of the sentence have cohesion because Yes refers back to the question mentioned before, so we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentences constitute a text or rather, they form part of the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as Yes which may typically refers back to question that goes before, but cohesion in a text is not only effected by the presence of the ellipsis alone but also the items that are omitted. Excerpt 19: One of them said, "Do dead men need air?"(192) "Yes, you are right (193). Sorry, I'm wrong, Nasreddin answered(194). Cohesion Analysis: In the text above, the ellipsis that occurs can be categorized as a clausal ellipsis, it occurs as a direct response of yes or no question or polar question. Yes (193) means that the answer is positive, or Yes( tell the name of men need air ). Since Yes answers with "Do dead men need air?, then both of that sentences have

cohesion because Yes which back to the question mentioned before, so we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentences constitute a text or rather, they form part of the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as Yes which may typically refers back to question that goes before, but cohesion in a text is not only effected by the presence of the ellipsis alone but also the items that are omitted.

4.1.5

Additive Conjunction

The number of Additive Conjunction which has been used in the short story Nasreddin, The Foolish Man is reaching 123 conjunctions or 20,91%. The excerpts of the data analysis can be seen as follows : Excerpt 20: He thought that the moon was lost in the well (59). And, therefore, he thought it was very dangerous because the night would be completely dark (60). Cohesion Analysis: It is clear that and which is mentioned in the text above is a conjunction which shows an additive explanation to (anaphoric) the first statement he thought that the moon was lost in the well. The anaphoric function of and which is correlated with some additive explanation to the statement he thought that the moon was lost in the well, which creates cohesion in the text, so we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentences constitute a text or rather, they form part of the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as and which may typically relates to some statement that is mentioned in the following statement or

sentence, but cohesion in a text is not only effected by the presence of conjunction alone but also the items that are related by the conjunction itself.

the

Excerpt 21: Several days later, Nasreddin went to the market again to buy a donkey (277). And Nasreddin saw his lost donkey was being sold at the market among the other donkeys with a high price (278). Cohesion Analysis: It is clear that and which is mentioned in the text above is a conjunction which shows an additive explanation to (anaphoric) the first statement Nasreddin went to the market again to buy a donkey. The anaphoric function of and which is correlated with some additive explanation to the statement, Nasreddin went to the market again to buy a donkey, which creates cohesion in the text, so we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentences constitute a text or rather, they form part of the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as or which may typically relates to some statement that is mentioned in the following statementor sentence, but cohesion in a text is not only effected by the presence of the conjunction alone but also the items that are related by the

conjunction itself. Excerpt 22: He thought that the moon was lost in the well (59). And, therefore, he thought it was very dangerous because the night would be completely dark. Cohesion Analysis: It is clear that and (59) which is mentioned in the text above is a conjunction which has shown an additive explanation to (anaphoric) the first statement He thought that the moon was lost in the well. The anaphoric function of and which is

correlared with some additive explanation to the statement He thought that the moon was lost in the well, which creates cohesion in the text, so that we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentences constitute a text or rather, the form part of the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as and which may typically has contrast meaning to the statement that goes before or related to some statement that gives an additive explanation to the statement that is mentioned in the following statement or sentence, but cohesion in a text is not only effected by the presence of the conjunction alone but also the items that are related by the conjunction itself.

4.1.6

Adversative Conjunction

The number of Adversative Conjunction which has been used in the the short story Nasreddin, The Foolish Man is reaching 22 conjunctions or 3,74%. The excerpts of the data analysis can be seen as follows : Excerpt 23: Every Saturday Nasreddin went to the market to buy the household s need (1). He put the goods in a big basket (2). But, he was not able to carry the heavy basket since he was only an old man (3). Cohesion Analysis: It is clear that but which is mentioned in the text above is a conjunction which has a contrast meaning to (anaphoric to) the first statement he put the goods in a big basket. The anaphoric function of but which has a contrast meaning to the statement he put the goods in a big basket, creates cohesion in the text, so that we interpret

them as a whole; the whole sentences constitute a text or rather, the form part of the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as but which may typically has a contrast meaning to the statement that goes before or related to some statement that gives an additive explanation to the statement that is mentioned in the following, but cohesion in a text is not only effected by the presence of the conjunction alone but also the items that are related by the conjunction itself. Excerpt 24: Nasreddin did what his wife suggested him (141). He took a walk (142). But he still kept on walking even though he had been walking for more than two days (143). Cohesion Analysis: It is clear that but which is mentioned in the text above is a conjunction which has a contrast meaning to (anaphoric to) the first statement he took a walk. This anaphoric function of but which has contrast meaning to he took a walk, creates cohesion in the text, so that we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentences constitute a text or rather, the form part of the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as but which may typically has a contrast meaning to the statement that goes before or related to some statement that gives an additive explanation to the statement that is mentioned in the following, but cohesion in a text is not only effected by the presence of the conjunction alone but also the items that are related by the conjunction itself.

4.1.7

Causal Conjunction

The number of Causal Conjunction which has been used in the short story Nasreddin, The Foolish Man is reaching 27 conjunctions or 4,59%. The excerpts of the data analysis can be seen as follows : Excerpt 25: The evening was coming and it was getting darker (52). Nasreddin thought it was the time for a Moslem to take a pray (53). So he looked for some water to wash his face (54). Cohesion Analysis: It is clear that so (54) which is mentioned in the text above is a conjunction which has some cause and effect relation to other statement, in which Nasreddin thought it was the time for a Moslem to take a pray is the cause of some event and he looked for some water to wash his face is the effect, and anaphoric to the first statement. The anaphoric function of so which has some cause and effect relation between two statements, create cohesion in the text, so we interpret them as whole; the whole sentences constitute a text or rather, they form part of the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as so which may typically relates cause and effect relation between two statements, but cohesion in the text is not only effected by the presence of the conjunction alone but also the items that are related by the conjunction itself. Excerpt 26: At home Nasreddin told his wife that he had invited his friends to come and have breakfast there (37). His wife was very upset because they had nothing to cook (38). Cohesion Analysis:

It is clear that because (38)

which is mentioned in the text above is a

conjunction which has some cause and effect relation to other statement, in which his wife was very upset is the cause of some event and they had nothing to cook is the effect, and anaphoric to the first statement. The anaphoric function of because which has some cause and effect relation between two statements, create cohesion in the text, so we interpret them as whole; the whole sentences constitute a text or rather, they form part of the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as because which may typically relates cause and effect relation between two statements, but cohesion in the text is not only effected by the presence of the conjunction alone but also the items that are related by the conjunction itself. Excerpt 27: Nasreddin was asked to get a doctor (123). When he came back, his master was surprised because he did not only get a doctor, but also many other men (124). Cohesion Analysis: It is clear that because (124) which is mentioned in the text above is a

conjunction which has some cause and effect relation to other statement, in which his master was surprised is the cause of some event and he did not only get a doctor, but also many other men is the effect, and anaphoric to the first statement. The anaphoric function of because which has some cause and effect relation between two statements, create cohesion in the text, so we interpret them as whole; the whole sentences constitute a text or rather, they form part of the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as because which

may typically relates cause and effect relation between two statements, but cohesion in the text is not only effected by the presence of the conjunction alone but also the items that are related by the conjunction itself.

4.1.8

Temporal Conjunction

The number of Temporal Conjunction which has been used in the short story Nasreddin, The Foolish Man is reaching 60 conjunctions or 10,20%. The excerpts of the data analysis can be seen as follows : Excerpt 28: Nasreddin was visiting a city that he had never visited before (15).He felt that nobody knew him (16). Then he walked along the street with the hope he might meet some of his acquaintances (17). Cohesion Analysis: It is clear that Then (17) which is mentioned in the text above is a temporal conjunction which shows the time when some events take place. This temporal conjunction creates cohesion in the text, so we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentences constitute a text or rather, they form the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as Then which may typically shows the time when some events take place, but cohesion in a text is not only effected by the presence of the temporal conjunction alone but also the event that takes place. Excerpt 29: Soon Nasreddin invited them to have breakfast at his house half an hour later (35). Then Nasreddin went home (36). Cohesion Analysis:

It is clear that then (36) which is mentioned in the text above is a temporal conjunction shows the time when some events take place. This temporal conjunction creates cohesion in the text, so we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentences constitute a text or rather, they form the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as then which may typically shows the time when some events take place, but cohesion in a text is not only effected by the presence of the temporal conjunction alone but also the event that takes place. Excerpt 30: He could hardly pull the rope with the stone (68). When the stone was about to come near the lip of the well, it fell down again to the bottom of the well (69). Cohesion Analysis: It is clear that when (69) which is mentioned in the text above is a temporal conjunction which shows the time when some events take place. This temporal conjunction creates cohesion in the text, so we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentences constitute a text or rather, they form the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as when which may typically shows the time when some events take place, but cohesion in a text is not only effected by the presence of the temporal conjunction alone but also the event that takes place. Excerpt 31: They always kept an eye on him (88). When Nasreddin tried to find a rope to tie up the sack, he left the sack for a while (89). Cohesion Analysis:

It is clear that when (89) which is mentioned in the text above is a temporal conjunction which shows the time when some events take place. This temporal conjunction creates cohesion in the text, so we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentences constitute a text or rather, they form the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as when which may typically shows the time when some events take place, but cohesion in a text is not only effected by the presence of the temporal conjunction alone but also the event that takes place. Excerpt 32: One night Nasreddin went into the tool shed to get a ladder (98). When he was taking the ladder from its place, he dropped his ring (99).

Cohesion Analysis: It is clear that when (99) which is mentioned in the text above is a temporal conjunction which shows the time when some events take place. This temporal conjunction creates cohesion in the text, so we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentences constitute a text or rather, they form the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as when which may typically shows the time when some events take place, but cohesion in a text is not only effected by the presence of the temporal conjunction alone but also the event that takes place. Excerpt 33: He was curious why the owner discarded it (153). As a matter of fact, it was still good (154).Then he looked into the mirror (154).

Cohesion analysis: It is clear that then (154) which is mentioned in the text above is a temporal conjunction which shows the time when some events take place. This temporal conjunction creates cohesion in the text, so we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentences constitute a text or rather, they form the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as then which may typically shows the time when some events take place, but cohesion in a text is not only effected by the presence of the temporal conjunction alone but also the event that takes place. Excerpt 34: The stream of the water inside was very strong (168). When Nasreddin opened it, the water sprayed toward his face so strongly that he fell backward (169). Cohesion Analysis: It is clear that when (169) which is mentioned in the text above is a temporal conjunction which shows the time when some events take place. This temporal conjunction creates cohesion in the text, so we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentences constitute a text or rather, they form the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as when which may typically shows the time when some events take place, but cohesion in a text is not only effected by the presence of the temporal conjunction alone but also the event that takes place. Excerpt 35: His wife washed his coat while she was waiting for him (224). She finished washing

it at the afternoon, but Nasreddin had not come yet (225). Then his wife hung the coat on a rope in the front yard (226). Cohesion Analysis: It is clear that then (226) which is mentioned in the text above is a temporal conjunction which shows the time when some events take place. This temporal conjunction creates cohesion in the text, so we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentences constitute a text or rather, they form the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as then which may typically shows the time when some events take place, but cohesion in a text is not only effected by the presence of the temporal conjunction alone but also the event that takes place. Excerpt 36: The man shook his body but he did not say anything or move any inch (307). Then the man left him in the street (308). He told his friends about it (309). Cohesion Analysis: It is clear that then (308) which is mentioned in the text above is a temporal conjunction which shows the time when some events take place. This temporal conjunction creates cohesion in the text, so we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentences constitute a text or rather, they form the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as then which may typically shows the time when some events take place, but cohesion in a text is not only effected by the presence of the temporal conjunction alone but also the event that takes place.

Excerpt 37: Nasreddin who was in the coffin felt very annoyed to hear the foolish quarrel (318). He looked out of the coffin and said, "You all are fools (319). When I was alive, the shortest way to the cemetery is the one that turns right (320)." Cohesion Analysis: It is clear that when (320) which is mentioned in the text above is a temporal conjunction which shows the time when some events take place. This temporal conjunction creates cohesion in the text, so we interpret them as a whole; the whole sentences constitute a text or rather, they form the same text. It is important to make this point because we should pay attention on the item such as when which may typically shows the time when some events take place, but cohesion in a text is not only effected by the presence of the temporal conjunction alone but also the event that takes place.

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

5.1 Conclusion From the analysis of the grammatical cohesive devices in Sugeng Hariyantos short story Nasreddin, The Foolish Man, it can be concluded that the story uses grammatical cohesive devices in the form of text and cohesion that occur in the sentences. Those grammatical cohesive devices may help the reader to understand the whole topic of the story and its meaning easily. Grammatical cohesive devices consist of Reference, Substitution, Ellipsis and Conjunction. In Sugeng Hariyantos short story Nasreddin, The Foolish Man, the total cohesive devices found is reaching 558 words. The grammatical cohesive that become the greatest number of grammatical cohesive device is personal reference, it is reaching 317 words or 53.91 %. And I is the dominant Personal Reference, because in this short story I is the main character. The number of demonstrative reference is reaching 32 words or 5.44 %, the number of comparative reference is reaching 2 words or 0.34 % and it is the fewest number in reference. And 5 words of clausal ellipsis or 0.85 %. The number of additive conjunction is reaching 123 words or 20.91%, while adversative conjunction is reaching 22 words or 3.74%, and the number of causal conjunction is reaching 27 words or 4.59% then at last, the number of temporal conjunction is reaching 60 words or 10.20%. There is no nominal ellipsis

and verbal ellipsis. And while, there is no result of substitution even in nominal, verbal and clausal substitution.

In Sugeng Hariyantos short story Nasreddin, The Foolish Man the relations occur between two elements of text which is linked by the grammatical cohesive devices whether it is in anaphoric and cataphoric way, but the relations are excessively happened in anaphoric relation. The function of anaphoric and cataphoric relation create cohesion in the text and also create the meaning of text.

5.2 Suggestion Having analyzed the cohesion in Nasreddin, The Foolish Man, the writer has several suggestions, In this research the writer found some difficulties. The students should concern and pay attention to the cohesion of the text when they write or read a short story, because cohesion in the text will help them to understand the meaning of a short story. The students should also have to pay attention that the use of grammatical cohesive devices is very important, especially to comprehend a reading passage. They should be able to make a unified sequence of sentences, which have a relation in meaning. By doing this, it is expected that the result will increase the study of discourse especially on cohesion. Besides it can be achieved by the occurrences of grammatical cohesive devices such as reference, ellipsis, substitution, and conjunction, which create a relation between sentences. Grammatical cohesive

devices also help the students to manage their vocabulary and to avoid the use of monotonous words, when they write a short story.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Austin, J.L. 1962. How to Do Things with Words Oxfords: Clarendom Press. Beugrande and Dressler. 1981. Text Types in English. Macmillan, Australia. Carthy, Michael, Mc. 1991. Discourse Analysis for language Teacher. Cambridge Language Teaching Library. Cambridge University Press. Gerot, Linda and Peter Wignell. 1994. Making Sense of Functional Grammar. Sydney : Gerd Stabler. Halliday,M.A.K,. Ruqaiya Hassan. 1976. Cohesion in English. England: Longman. Halliday, M.A.K. 1994. An Introduction to Functional Grammar. 2nd ed. London : Edward Arnold. Hurtford, James R and Brendan Heasley. 1983. Semantics : A Course Book. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. Isaac, S and Michael, W. B. 1987. Handbook in Reasearch and Evaluation. San Diego : EdIT Publisher. Johnstone, B.Carrol. 1992. Discourse Analysis. Blackwell Publishers. Jesperson, Mc. 1924. Discourse Analysis for language Teacher. Cambridge Language Teaching Library. Cambridge University Press. Keraf, Gorys. 1995. Exposisi. Jakarta : PT. Grasindo Nunan, David. 1992. Research Methods in Language Learning. New York : Cambridge University Press. Paltridge, Brian. 2000. Making Sense of Discourse Analysis. Australia : Merino Lithographic. Brisbane. Richard, Jack, et. Al. 1985. Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistic. England : Longman Group Limited. Ramelan. 1999. English Phonetics. Semarang: IKIP Semarang Press.

Stubb, Michael. 1983. Discourse Analysis: the sociolinguistics Analysis of Natural Language. England: Brasil Blacwell. Ltd.

Appendix 1. Sugeng Haryantos short story Nasreddin, The Foolish Man

NASREDDIN
THE FOOLISH MAN

1
One Week's Salary
Every Saturday Nasreddin went to the market to buy the household s need. He put the goods in a big basket. But, he was not abte to carry the heavy basket since he was only an old man. Instead, he asked someone else to do it for him and gave him a suitable payback. When Nasreddin was on the way home from the market, one day. he walked in front of the man who helped him carry his basket Nasreddin did not realize that the man had run away and brought all the goods. The next Saturday, Nasreddin was going to the market. His friend said, "Nasreddin, look at him! He is the man who stole your basket last week." Nasreddin, however, hid behind a small shop instead of catching the man. He stayed there until the man stealing his basket had left the market. His friend was wondering and asked, "What are you doing there!" He said, "The man has been carrying my heavy basket for a week. I am afraid he will ask for his salary. I do not have enough money to pay him the amount of money for the whole week. Even the basket and the goods are not sufficient to pay him."

2
Unknown
Nasreddin was visiting a city that he had never visited before. He felt that nobody knew him. Then he walked along the street with the hope he might meet some of his acquaintances. But nobody greeted him. He was very sad. He finally came to the market. It was just the same-nobody knew him. He walked into a furniture shop. There he was welcome nicely by the salesman. The salesman asked him warmly, "What can I do for you, Sir? You're looking for a bed, chairs, ...?" "Well, well! Wait a minute/ said Nasreddin, "First, I want to ask you some questions.' The salesman was very glad. He thought that Nasreddin wanted to ask something about the furniture. "Did you see me when I walked into this shop!" asked Nasreddin. Yes, Sir, of course," answered the salesman.

"Have you ever met me before!" said Nasreddin further. "No, Sir. Never." "Well, how do you know that the person who walked in is Nasreddin and not someone else!'

3
Through the Back Door
One morning Nasreddin and his friends had a chat at a cafe. After a while they said that they were very hungry. Soon Nasreddin invited them to have breakfast at his house half an hour later. Then Nasreddin went home. At home Nasreddin told his wife that he had invited his friends to come and have breakfast there. His wife was very upset because they had nothing to cook. Why did you invite them to have breakfast here? We dont have anything to cook," his wife complained. "Sorry, I didnt remember it, said Nasreddin. Then they saw from a distance that Nasreddin's friends were coming. He went out through the back door and hid behind the house. A moment later the guests knocked at the door. His wife opened the door and said that Nasreddin was out. "But I saw he was here just now' said one of the guests. Nasreddin's wife was so confused that she could not answer. Nasreddin heard it. He felt a pity on her. Then he said through the back window, "You are right. But I can go out through the back door, though."

4
Saving the Moon
Nasreddin was walking home alone. The evening was coming and it was getting darker. Nasreddin thought it was the time for a Moslem to take a pray. So he looked for some water to wash his face. Unfortunately, he only found a well near the street. He looked into it to see whether there was any water. He was very surprised to see that the moon was there. Actually, it was the shadow of the moon. He thought that the moon was lost in the well. And, therefore, he thought it was very dangerous because the night would be completely dark.

"I have to save the moon, he thought, "If I don't, it will stay there and the whole world will be dark this night." Then he looked for a pole but he could not find any. Instead, he only found a long rope. He held one end of the rope and dropped the other one into the well. "Hold the rope firmly and I will pull you up," he said. Unfortunately, the rope got entangled with a big stone in the bottom of the well. So, Nasreddin had to work hard to pull the rope up. He thought that he pulled the moon. He could hardly pull the rope with the stone. When the stone was about to come near the lip of the well, it fell down again to the bottom of the well. Because he lost his balance, Nasreddin fell backward with the rope in his hands. At that time he saw the moon was shining in the sky. Nasreddin smiled happily and said, "Finally I can save you. Now the whole world will not be dark any longer."

5
The God's Pumpkins
Nasreddin wanted to plant pumpkins. He spread pumpkin seeds in his fields. He told his wife, "I will plant them in two gardens. One garden is for us, the other is for God. I will sell the harvest of God's pumpkins and give the money to orphanage and the poor people as our alms." "Amen," said his wife. Then he planted his own pumpkin seeds on the very fertile garden but he planted the God's pumpkin seeds in the arid infertile garden. Several months later Nasreddin was disappointed to see his pumpkins did not grow well although he had planted them in the fertile garden. Many of them even died. On the other hand, he saw that the God's pumpkins could grow well and had much more fruits. Nasreddin decided to steal the Gods pumpkins. The following night he prepared a big sack and broke into the God's garden. There he picked 20 big pumpkins and put them into the sack. So far, he never realised that he has been followed by five men. They always kept an eye on him. When Nasreddin tried to find a rope to tie up the sack, he left the sack for a while. Quickly the five men stole the sack that was full of big pumpkins. A moment later Nasreddin went back. He was very frightened to find that his sack was missing. Soon he ran home. He said to his wife, "He caught me red-handed. He had caught me red-handed while I was stealing His pumpkins."

6
Looking for a Ring
There was a toolshed beside Nasreddin's house. The shed, where he kept his tools, had no window at all. So, it was always dark inside although it was at noon. But there was a lamp at the corner outside. One night Nasreddin went into the toolshed to get a ladder. When he was taking the ladder from its place, he dropped his ring. He put the ladder back and went out soon. Outside he started looking for the ring. He could not find it even he has been searching for it for a quite long time. His friend saw him searching for something. He approached him and said, "What are you looking for, Nasreddin?" "I'm looking for my ring. I just dropped it," he answered while he continued searching. "Let me help you. Anyway, where did you drop it?" asked his friend. "Inside the shed," answered he. His right hand pointed the shed. His friend was surprised and said, "Why don't you look for it inside the shed?" "Are you kidding? Inside the shed it was very dark. I cannot see anything there. How can I find it? While it is very bright here because of the lamp. So I may see my ring here," explained Nasreddin.

7
Do Everything at Once
Nasreddin was working for a rich man. One day his master called him and said, "Nasreddin, come on in." Nasreddin came in and sat in a chair. His master said further, "You are a very good man. But It's a pity that you are so slow in doing anything. You never do something at once. If I, for example, ask you to buy three eggs, you will go to the shop and go home with one egg. Then you go for the second egg and so forth." "I'm sorry, Sir, I'm a fool. I won't do the same thing again in the future. I'll do everything at once." Several days later, his master was sick. Nasreddin was asked to get a doctor. When he came back, his master was surprised because he did not only get a doctor, but also many other men. He brought all into his master's bedroom.

Excuse me, Sir. I got them already," he said. "Got them? Who are they? I just asked you to get a doctor, asked his master. Then Nasreddin explained, "Excuse me, Sir. A doctor usually gives us a prescription. Here I get a medicine man who will make the medicine prescribed for you. And the medicine man, of course, will make the medicine from roots of plants. Here I get someone who sells the ingredients for such medicine. I also get a coal seller, because usually we boil the medicine first. And it needs coal." "Who is the last?" said the master. He saw one more person in the room that had not been introduced yet. "There is also a possibility that the doctor cannot help us. You may die. So I get a grave digger. Sir, I do it at once."

8
Taking a Walk
Nasreddin looked gloomy and weak. His wife said, "Why don't you take a walk to get fresh air! It will make you better." Nasreddin did what his wife suggested him. He took a walk. But he still kept on walking even though he had been walking for more than two days. One of his neighbour met him and asked him, "Why don't you go home! I think you have been walking for two days, Nasreddin." "Would you help me!" said Nasreddin. "Sure," answered the neighbour. "Ask my wife how far I should take a walk to get better," said Nasreddin, "I have been very exhausted." Meanwhile Nasreddin kept on walking. The sun started shining brightly. On the way he saw something giving in the middle of the street. He approached it and picked it up. It was a mirror. He examined it closely. He was curious why the owner discarded it. As a matter of fact, it was still good. Then he looked into the mirror. He saw a face on the mirror. Of course, it was his own face but he did not think so. Suddenly he looked sad and disappointed. He said, "This is a bad mirror. That is the reason why the owner discarded it here." Then he threw the mirror back to the street, and he walked away.

It was almost midday. He was very thirsty. A moment later he looked glad as he saw a water pipe across the street. He walked there. He found that the end of the pipe was closed with a piece of wood. Because he could not help being thirsty he placed his open mouth in front of the end of the pipe and pulled the wood. The stream of the water inside was very strong. When Nasreddin opened it, the water sprayed toward his face so strongly that he fell backward. Then he put the wood back to the end of the pipe quickly. "Oh, now I know why they closed you with the wood. Because you always hit every man very strongly so that they had to close you with the wood. Yeah, you never learn from experience," Nasreddin said and walked away.

9
Sorry, I'm Wrong
One evening Nasreddin attended a party in his town. The party ended at 10 o'clock at night. It was a long distance from the place where the party was held to Nasreddin's house. If Nasreddin took the usual street, he would have come home very late. So, Nasreddin took a shortcut through a cemetery. When he was in the middle of the cemetery, he saw a group of people riding horses toward him. Nasreddin thought that they were robbers who just started their robbery. As he was afraid of them, he ran and hid in a newly dug grave. The grave would be used to bury a corpse the next morning. The group of horsemen saw a head stuck out from a grave. They were curious and stopped beside the grave. "How are you?" said one of them. Nasreddin turned round to see the men. He answered, 'Don't worry, I'm one of the dead bodies buried here." "Can a dead body wake up at night?" asked the man again. "Yes." "What for?" 'To get fresh air," Nasreddin answered. Then men laughed together. One of them said, "Do dead men need air?" "Yes, you are right. Sorry, I'm wrong, Nasreddin answered. He lay down again in the grave.

10
Where Is My Sixth Donkey?
One sunny morning, Nasreddin went to the market and brought six donkeys with him. He wanted to sell them. Nasreddin felt tired and then rode one of the donkeys. A moment later he wanted to make sure that he did not lose any of the donkeys. Sitting on the back of his donkey, Nasreddin counted his donkeys but skipping the one he was riding on. So, he was confused because there were only five donkeys left, while he brought six donkeys from his house. He got down from his donkey and started to count again. He was very glad at that time because the donkeys were six. He rode one of them again. Five minutes later he started counting the donkeys again. And he was confused again because he only got five donkeys. Coincidentally one of his friends came and asked him, Why do you look very confused, Nasreddin?" Nasreddin answered, "Yes, I'm very confused. This morning I left my house and brought six donkeys with me. Because I was tired I rode on one of them. I counted my donkeys. There were only five donkeys. Then I got down from my donkey. I counted again and there were six donkeys. I was wondering and also glad because my lost donkey was back. Then I rode one of them again. Now, I count them again and there are only five donkeys left." His friend said, "There are six donkeys here." "No, there are only five. Let me count again, one, two, three, four, five. There are only five!" Nasreddin answered. "Yes, you just counted five donkeys, and you are riding on the other one and you didn't count it. So, there are six donkeys," his friend explained.

11
Destiny Is Kind to Me
One day Nasreddin went out of town. His wife washed his coat while she was waiting for him. She finished washing it at the afternoon, but Nasreddin had not come yet. Then his wife hung the coat on a rope in the front yard. When the evening came she forgot to take the coat. At about 7 o'clock Nasreddin came home. Because he was very tired, he went to bed soon after having dinner. At midnight he woke because he heard something outside. He peeped out to see what was going on. Suddenly he was very surprised to see a shadow in the front yard. The moon light made the shadow just like a man. Nasreddin thought that it was a thief.

He took his old rifle quickly. After he loaded it with some bullets, he aimed at the shadow carefully. A shot was heard,- the shadow jerked and fell down. Nasreddin was very glad because he shot the shadow accurately. He shouted happily and so loudly that his wife woke up. "What's wrong?" asked his wife. 'There was a thief near the fence. He wanted to break into our house. So I took my rifle quickly and shot him. But don't worry, he's dead. Now, just sleep again. Tomorrow we will bury the corpse," Nasreddin answered. The next morning, they got up early and went to the yard. They saw neither corpse nor drops of blood there. They only found Nasreddin's coat that was washed by his wife the day before lying on the ground. Nasreddin took it and examined it. There was a shot hole on the coat. He showed it to his wife. "My wife, destiny is really kind to me. Imagine if. I was inside this coat, I should have died already and you must have been a widow now," said he sadly.

12
A Donkey Thief
Nasreddin went to the market. He wanted to buy a donkey there. At the market he chose the best donkey and bought it. He loved the donkey so much that he did not ride on its back when he went home. He walked and pulled his donkey behind him. He did never know that two thieves were following him. On the way home, one of the thieves untied the donkey so carefully that Nasreddin did not know about it. As the change, the thief put the tie around his friend's neck. And he ran away with the donkey. When Nasreddin arrived home, he was surprised to see that his donkey changed itself into a man. "Who are you? Where is my donkey?" asked Nasreddin to the man angrily. "I'm sorry, Sir," said the thief, "I was the donkey." "I don't believe you. How can a donkey change itself into a man?" said Nasreddin. "Once I hurt my mother. And then she cursed me into a donkey. And I was sold at the market by my uncle. Now I become a man again because the person that bought me is a wise and good man like you," the thief said. Nasreddin said to the thief, "Now, go home. Don t hurt your mother again."

The thief thanked Nasreddin. He went away quickly. Several days later, Nasreddin went to the market again to buy a donkey. And Nasreddin saw his lost donkey was being sold at the market among the other donkeys with a h.gh price. Yes, the other thief sold the donkey again Nasreddin came to the thief who sold the donkey. He did not speak to him, but did speak to the donkey. He said, "Hey, young man, you never listen to good advice and never learn from experience. Now, you become a donkey again. But 1 don't want to buy you."

13
Annoyed
Nasreddin was looking for firewood for his wife. He climbed a tree and sat on a trunk while he was sawing it. A man was passing by the street beneath the tree. He saw Nasreddin was sawing the trunk. He said, "Watch out, Nasreddin. You will fall. You shouldn't sit on the trunk you are cutting!" Nasreddin thought that the man was just teasing him. He answered, "Am I so foolish that I believe you? You are not a fortune-teller, how do you know my future?" The man said, "Everybody knows that you will fall if you sit on a trunk that you are cutting." But Nasreddin did not believe him. And the man walked away. A moment later, Nasreddin and the trunk fell together. He soon got up and ran after the man who had told him that he would fall down. When he was behind the man, Nasreddin said, "Great! Your prediction is really accurate. I fell down along with the trunk." The man stopped and turned round to see Nasreddin. When they were walking side by side, Nasreddin said, "Now, tell me when I will die?" The man, of course, could not tell him anything about it. He was not a fortuneteller. But Nasreddin urged the man to tell him about his death. Finally, the man left annoyed and said, "You will die right now." As the man said that he would die soon, Nasreddin fell down in the street and made no movement. The man shook his body but he did not say anything or move any inch. Then the man left him in the street. He told his friends about it. A moment later the other neighbours came and woke him up. Because he behaved like a dead man, then they brought him to his wife. His wife knew that her husband was not dead. But, Nasreddin behaved like a dead man. His wife asked her neighbours to put him to the cemetery.

On the crossroad, they quarreled about which way they should take. One of them said that they had to go straight ahead for about 10 metres before turning right and the rest said that they should turn left. The quarrel was getting worse. Nasreddin who was in the coffin felt very annoyed to hear the foolish quarrel. He looked out of the coffin and said, "You all are fools. When I was alive, the shortest way to the cemetery is the one that turns right."

14
Selling a Cow
Nasreddin's wife suggested that her husband sell their cow because it did not give much milk anymore. Nasreddin accepted the suggestion and planned to take the cow to the market the next day. Early in the morning on the next day he had arrived at the market. He chose the best place to sell his cow The place was near the main entrance so that most of the people would see him there with his cow. Many people came and asked for information about the cow. Nasreddin always said, "We decided to sell this cow because it does not give us much milk anymore. So, if you buy it you will not get much milk either. But it surely will push you with the horns when it gets hungry and there is no grass before it." Of course, nobody was interested in buying the cow Therefore, until about midday the cow was not sold yet' Nasreddin was very tired. Many times he swept the sweat from his face with his white handkerchief. One of his friends, who was a merchant, came to the market. He saw Nasreddin trying to sell his cow. He also paid attention to the way Nasreddin offered his cow. Then the merchant came to him. "Nasreddin, I think you will not sell your cow if you offer it m that way. Let me help you," said the merchant. Nasreddin gave the cow to the merchant. And the merchant started walking and pulling the cow behind him. Nasreddin sat and saw his friend. Every time he met a man, the merchant always said, "See this cow. She is very healthy. No cow compares to her. If you buy her, you will not be disappointed. She will give you many bowls of milk every day. Don't be late. Buy her right now." A man seemed very interested in the cow. He came to the merchant and started bargaining it. Nasreddin saw the way his friend tried to sell his cow. He also saw the man bargaining it. Then he rushed toward them. Quickly he snatched the rope from his friend's hand and said, "Foot if it could give us many bowls of milk every day, we would not sell it."

15
In The Heaven
One day Nasreddin went to another town. He rode his donkey. On the way he met a man. The man suddenly asked a strange question, "Please, tell me when I will die?" Of course, Nasreddin was confused to answer the question. He said, "How do I know about It? Don't be ridiculous. But the man insisted him on answering the question. Nasreddin kept on saying that actually he could not answer the question. The man looked disappointed. "Nasreddin, even though you cannot tell me when I will die, but I can tell you when you will die," said man. "Then tell me when I will die?" asked Nasreddin "You will die if your donkey has brayed three times, said the man. Then Nasreddin continued his journey. Suddenly his donkey brayed three times. Soon he lay down on the street and murmured, "I die now." His donkey went away. A minute later he saw the donkey was caught by a big fox. The big fox devoured the donkey. Nasreddin said sadly, "My donkey, finally the death comes to you and me at the same time." In that night Nasreddin did not go home. His wife was very worried. She asked her neighbours for their help to find him. Fortunately they found him. His wife asked, "Why don't you go home!" "My dear wife, I cannot go home because I'm already dead now. You should take and bury me well," answered he. His wife and his neighbours tried to convince him that he had not died yet. But they failed. Nasreddin kept thinking that he had been dead. So, his wife and neighbours took him home and announced his death to the other neighbours. After a series of prayer, he was brought to the cemetery. But his wife asked the people not to cover the grave with anything. She hoped that someday her husband would realise that he actually has not died yet . About two hours later Nasreddin heard a strange noise. Actually the sound came from a donkey bringing plates and bowls. The donkey was followed by a man, he was the seller. When the sound was getting closer, he lifted his head to see what was coming. When he showed his head the donkey was very surprised and frightened. It was galloping for a while before it ran quickly. It dropped all its load. The plates and bowls were broken into pieces. Seeing that, the seller got angry with him that he hit Nasreddin over and over.

"Why do you hit me? I'm dead. You cannot hit a dead man," Nasreddin shouted. The seller did not hear whatever he said and kept on hitting him. Finally he could not bear it and ran home. His wife was very glad that he was back home. So did the neighbours. One of the neighbours asked him, "Nasreddin, you have been in the Heaven. Tell us, how did you feel in the Heaven." He answered, "I felt very well, cool, and peaceful unless I frightened a donkey bringing a lot of plates and bowls.

Appendix 2. Nasreddin, The Foolish Mans Sentence and Utterance.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. Every Saturday Nasreddin went to the market to buy the household s need. He put the goods in a big basket. But, he was not able to carry the heavy basket since he was only an old man. Instead, he asked someone else to do it for him and gave him a suitable payback. When Nasreddin was on the way home from the market, one day. he walked in front of the man who helped him carry his basket Nasreddin did not realize that the man had run away and brought all the goods. The next Saturday, Nasreddin was going to the market. His friend said, "Nasreddin, look at him! He is the man who stole your basket last week." Nasreddin, however, hid behind a small shop instead of catching the man. He stayed there until the man stealing his basket had left the market. His friend was wondering and asked, "What are you doing there!" He said, "The man has been carrying my heavy basket for a week. I am afraid he will ask for his salary. I do not have enough money to pay him the amount of money for the whole week. Even the basket and the goods are not sufficient to pay him." Nasreddin was visiting a city that he had never visited before. He felt that nobody knew him. Then he walked along the street with the hope he might meet some of his acquaintances. But nobody greeted him. He was very sad. He finally came to the market. It was just the same-nobody knew him. He walked into a furniture shop. There he was welcome nicely by the salesman. The salesman asked him warmly, "What can I do for you, Sir? You're looking for a bed, chairs, ...?" "Well, well! Wait a minute/ said Nasreddin, "First, I want to ask you some questions.' The salesman was very glad. He thought that Nasreddin wanted to ask something about the furniture. "Did you see me when I walked into this shop!" asked Nasreddin. Yes, Sir, of course," answered the salesman. "Have you ever met me before!" said Nasreddin further. "No, Sir. Never." "Well, how do you know that the person who walked in is Nasreddin and not someone else!' One morning Nasreddin and his friends had a chat at a cafe. After a while they said that they were very hungry. Soon Nasreddin invited them to have breakfast at his house half an hour later.

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Then Nasreddin went home. At home Nasreddin told his wife that he had invited his friends to come and have breakfast there. His wife was very upset because they had nothing to cook. Why did you invite them to have breakfast here? We dont have anything to cook," his wife complained. "Sorry, I didnt remember it, said Nasreddin. Then they saw from a distance that Nasreddin's friends were coming. He went out through the back door and hid behind the house. A moment later the guests knocked at the door. His wife opened the door and said that Nasreddin was out. "But I saw he was here just now' said one of the guests. Nasreddin's wife was so confused that she could not answer. Nasreddin heard it. He felt a pity on her. Then he said through the back window, "You are right. But I can go out through the back door, though." Nasreddin was walking home alone. The evening was coming and it was getting darker. Nasreddin thought it was the time for a Moslem to take a pray. So he looked for some water to wash his face. Unfortunately, he only found a well near the street. He looked into it to see whether there was any water. He was very surprised to see that the moon was there. Actually, it was the shadow of the moon. He thought that the moon was lost in the well. And, therefore, he thought it was very dangerous because the night would be completely dark. "I have to save the moon, he thought, "If I don't, it will stay there and the whole world will be dark this night." Then he looked for a pole but he could not find any. Instead, he only found a long rope. He held one end of the rope and dropped the other one into the well. "Hold the rope firmly and I will pull you up," he said. Unfortunately, the rope got entangled with a big stone in the bottom of the well. So, Nasreddin had to work hard to pull the rope up. He thought that he pulled the moon. He could hardly pull the rope with the stone. When the stone was about to come near the lip of the well, it fell down again to the bottom of the well. Because he lost his balance, Nasreddin fell backward with the rope in his hands. At that time he saw the moon was shining in the sky. Nasreddin smiled happily and said, "Finally I can save you. Now the whole world will not be dark any longer." Nasreddin wanted to plant pumpkins. He spread pumpkin seeds in his fields.

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He told his wife, "I will plant them in two gardens. One garden is for us, the other is for God. I will sell the harvest of God's pumpkins and give the money to orphanage and the poor people as our alms." "Amen," said his wife. Then he planted his own pumpkin seeds on the very fertile garden but he planted the God's pumpkin seeds in the arid infertile garden. Several months later Nasreddin was disappointed to see his pumpkins did not grow well although he had planted them in the fertile garden. Many of them even died. On the other hand, he saw that the God's pumpkins could grow well and had much more fruits. Nasreddin decided to steal the Gods pumpkins. The following night he prepared a big sack and broke into the God's garden. There he picked 20 big pumpkins and put them into the sack. So far, he never realised that he has been followed by five men. They always kept an eye on him. When Nasreddin tried to find a rope to tie up the sack, he left the sack for a while. Quickly the five men stole the sack that was full of big pumpkins. A moment later Nasreddin went back. He was very frightened to find that his sack was missing. Soon he ran home. He said to his wife, "He caught me red-handed. He had caught me red-handed while I was stealing His pumpkins." There was a tool shed beside Nasreddin's house. The shed, where he kept his tools, had no window at all. So, it was always dark inside although it was at noon. But there was a lamp at the corner outside. One night Nasreddin went into the tool shed to get a ladder. When he was taking the ladder from its place, he dropped his ring. He put the ladder back and went out soon. Outside he started looking for the ring. He could not find it even he has been searching for it for a quite long time. His friend saw him searching for something. He approached him and said, "What are you looking for, Nasreddin?" "I'm looking for my ring. I just dropped it," he answered while he continued searching. "Let me help you. Anyway, where did you drop it?" asked his friend. "Inside the shed," answered he. His right hand pointed the shed. His friend was surprised and said, "Why don't you look for it inside the shed?" "Are you kidding? Inside the shed it was very dark. I cannot see anything there. How can I find it? While it is very bright here because of the lamp. So I may see my ring here," explained Nasreddin. Nasreddin was working for a rich man. One day his master called him and said, "Nasreddin, come on in." Nasreddin came in and sat in a chair. His master said further, "You are a very good man.

115. But It's a pity that you are so slow in doing anything. 116. You never do something at once. 117. If I, for example, ask you to buy three eggs, you will go to the shop and go home with one egg. 118. Then you go for the second egg and so forth." 119. "I'm sorry, Sir, I'm a fool. 120. I won't do the same thing again in the future. 121. I'll do everything at once." 122. Several days later, his master was sick. 123. Nasreddin was asked to get a doctor. 124. When he came back, his master was surprised because he did not only get a doctor, but also many other men. 125. He brought all into his master's bedroom. 126. Excuse me, Sir. I got them already," he said. 127. "Got them? Who are they? I just asked you to get a doctor, asked his master. 128. Then Nasreddin explained, "Excuse me, Sir. 129. A doctor usually gives us a prescription. 130. Here I get a medicine man who will make the medicine prescribed for you. 131. And the medicine man, of course, will make the medicine from roots of plants. 132. Here I get someone who sells the ingredients for such medicine. 133. I also get a coal seller, because usually we boil the medicine first. 134. And it needs coal." 135. "Who is the last?" said the master. 136. He saw one more person in the room that had not been introduced yet. 137. "There is also a possibility that the doctor cannot help us. 138. You may die. So I get a grave digger. Sir, I do it at once." 139. Nasreddin looked gloomy and weak. 140. His wife said, "Why don't you take a walk to get fresh air! It will make you better." 141. Nasreddin did what his wife suggested him. 142. He took a walk. 143. But he still kept on walking even though he had been walking for more than two days. 144. One of his neighbour met him and asked him, "Why don't you go home! I think you have been walking for two days, Nasreddin." 145. "Would you help me!" said Nasreddin. 146. "Sure," answered the neighbour. 147. "Ask my wife how far I should take a walk to get better," said Nasreddin, "I have been very exhausted." 148. Meanwhile Nasreddin kept on walking. 149. The sun started shining brightly. 150. On the way he saw something giving in the middle of the street. 151. He approached it and picked it up. It was a mirror. 152. He examined it closely. 153. He was curious why the owner discarded it. 154. As a matter of fact, it was still good. 155. Then he looked into the mirror. 156. He saw a face on the mirror.

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Of course, it was his own face but he did not think so. Suddenly he looked sad and disappointed. He said, "This is a bad mirror. That is the reason why the owner discarded it here." Then he threw the mirror back to the street, and he walked away. It was almost midday. He was very thirsty. A moment later he looked glad as he saw a water pipe across the street. He walked there. He found that the end of the pipe was closed with a piece of wood. Because he could not help being thirsty he placed his open mouth in front of the end of the pipe and pulled the wood. The stream of the water inside was very strong. When Nasreddin opened it, the water sprayed toward his face so strongly that he fell backward. Then he put the wood back to the end of the pipe quickly. "Oh, now I know why they closed you with the wood. Because you always hit every man very strongly so that they had to close you with the wood. Yeah, you never learn from experience," Nasreddin said and walked away. One evening Nasreddin attended a party in his town. The party ended at 10 o'clock at night. It was a long distance from the place where the party was held to Nasreddin's house. If Nasreddin took the usual street, he would have come home very late. So, Nasreddin took a shortcut through a cemetery. When he was in the middle of the cemetery, he saw a group of people riding horses toward him. Nasreddin thought that they were robbers who just started their robbery. As he was afraid of them, he ran and hid in a newly dug grave. The grave would be used to bury a corpse the next morning. The group of horsemen saw a head stuck out from a grave. They were curious and stopped beside the grave. "How are you?" said one of them. Nasreddin turned round to see the men. He answered, 'Don't worry, I'm one of the dead bodies buried here." "Can a dead body wake up at night?" asked the man again. "Yes.""What for?" 'To get fresh air," Nasreddin answered. Then men laughed together. One of them said, "Do dead men need air?" "Yes, you are right. Sorry, I'm wrong, Nasreddin answered. He lay down again in the grave. One sunny morning, Nasreddin went to the market and brought six donkeys with him. He wanted to sell them. Nasreddin felt tired and then rode one of the donkeys.

199. A moment later he wanted to make sure that he did not lose any of the donkeys. 200. Sitting on the back of his donkey, Nasreddin counted his donkeys but skipping the one he was riding on. 201. So, he was confused because there were only five donkeys left, while he brought six donkeys from his house. 202. He got down from his donkey and started to count again. 203. He was very glad at that time because the donkeys were six. 204. He rode one of them again. 205. Five minutes later he started counting the donkeys again. 206. And he was confused again because he only got five donkeys. 207. Coincidentally one of his friends came and asked him, Why do you look very confused, Nasreddin?" 208. Nasreddin answered, "Yes, I'm very confused. 209. This morning I left my house and brought six donkeys with me. 210. Because I was tired I rode on one of them. I counted my donkeys. 211. There were only five donkeys. 212. Then I got down from my donkey. 213. I counted again and there were six donkeys. 214. I was wondering and also glad because my lost donkey was back. 215. Then I rode one of them again. 216. Now, I count them again and there are only five donkeys left." 217. His friend said, "There are six donkeys here." 218. "No, there are only five. 219. Let me count again, one, two, three, four, five. 220. There are only five!" Nasreddin answered. 221. "Yes, you just counted five donkeys, and you are riding on the other one and you didn't count it. 222. So, there are six donkeys," his friend explained. 223. One day Nasreddin went out of town. 224. His wife washed his coat while she was waiting for him. 225. She finished washing it at the afternoon, but Nasreddin had not come yet. 226. Then his wife hung the coat on a rope in the front yard. 227. When the evening came she forgot to take the coat. 228. At about 7 o'clock Nasreddin came home. 229. Because he was very tired, he went to bed soon after having dinner. 230. At midnight he woke because he heard something outside. 231. He peeped out to see what was going on. 232. Suddenly he was very surprised to see a shadow in the front yard. 233. The moon light made the shadow just like a man. 234. Nasreddin thought that it was a thief. 235. He took his old rifle quickly. 236. After he loaded it with some bullets, he aimed at the shadow carefully. 237. A shot was heard,- the shadow jerked and fell down. 238. Nasreddin was very glad because he shot the shadow accurately. 239. He shouted happily and so loudly that his wife woke up. 240. "What's wrong?" asked his wife.

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'There was a thief near the fence. He wanted to break into our house. So I took my rifle quickly and shot him. But don't worry, he's dead. Now, just sleep again. Tomorrow we will bury the corpse," Nasreddin answered. The next morning, they got up early and went to the yard. They saw neither corpse nor drops of blood there. They only found Nasreddin's coat that was washed by his wife the day before lying on the ground. Nasreddin took it and examined it. There was a shot hole on the coat. He showed it to his wife. "My wife, destiny is really kind to me. Imagine if. I was inside this coat, I should have died already and you must have been a widow now," said he sadly. Nasreddin went to the market. He wanted to buy a donkey there. At the market he chose the best donkey and bought it. He loved the donkey so much that he did not ride on its back when he went home. He walked and pulled his donkey behind him. He did never know that two thieves were following him. On the way home, one of the thieves untied the donkey so carefully that Nasreddin did not know about it. As the change, the thief put the tie around his friend's neck. And he ran away with the donkey. When Nasreddin arrived home, he was surprised to see that his donkey changed itself into a man. "Who are you? Where is my donkey?" asked Nasreddin to the man angrily. "I'm sorry, Sir," said the thief, "I was the donkey." "I don't believe you. How can a donkey change itself into a man?" said Nasreddin. "Once I hurt my mother. And then she cursed me into a donkey. And I was sold at the market by my uncle. Now I become a man again because the person that bought me is a wise and good man like you," the thief said. Nasreddin said to the thief, "Now, go home. Dont hurt your mother again." The thief thanked Nasreddin. He went away quickly. Several days later, Nasreddin went to the market again to buy a donkey. And Nasreddin saw his lost donkey was being sold at the market among the other donkeys with a high price. Yes, the other thief sold the donkey again Nasreddin came to the thief who sold the donkey.

280. He did not speak to him, but did speak to the donkey. 281. He said, "Hey, young man, you never listen to good advice and never learn from experience. 282. Now, you become a donkey again. 283. But I don't want to buy you." 284. Nasreddin was looking for firewood for his wife. 285. He climbed a tree and sat on a trunk while he was sawing it. 286. A man was passing by the street beneath the tree. 287. He saw Nasreddin was sawing the trunk. 288. He said, "Watch out, Nasreddin. 289. You will fall. 290. You shouldn't sit on the trunk you are cutting!" 291. Nasreddin thought that the man was just teasing him. 292. He answered, "Am I so foolish that I believe you? You are not a fortune-teller, how do you know my future?" 293. The man said, "Everybody knows that you will fall if you sit on a trunk that you are cutting." 294. But Nasreddin did not believe him. 295. And the man walked away. 296. A moment later, Nasreddin and the trunk fell together. 297. He soon got up and ran after the man who had told him that he would fall down. 298. When he was behind the man, Nasreddin said, "Great! Your prediction is really accurate. 299. I fell down along with the trunk." 300. The man stopped and turned round to see Nasreddin. 301. When they were walking side by side, Nasreddin said, "Now, tell me when I will die?" 302. The man, of course, could not tell him anything about it. 303. He was not a fortune-teller. 304. But Nasreddin urged the man to tell him about his death. 305. Finally, the man left annoyed and said, "You will die right now." 306. As the man said that he would die soon, Nasreddin fell down in the street and made no movement. 307. The man shook his body but he did not say anything or move any inch. 308. Then the man left him in the street. 309. He told his friends about it. 310. A moment later the other neighbours came and woke him up. 311. Because he behaved like a dead man, then they brought him to his wife. 312. His wife knew that her husband was not dead. 313. But, Nasreddin behaved like a dead man. 314. His wife asked her neighbours to put him to the cemetery. 315. On the crossroad, they quarreled about which way they should take. 316. One of them said that they had to go straight ahead for about 10 metres before turning right and the rest said that they should turn left. 317. The quarrel was getting worse. 318. Nasreddin who was in the coffin felt very annoyed to hear the foolish quarrel.

319. He looked out of the coffin and said, "You all are fools. 320. When I was alive, the shortest way to the cemetery is the one that turns right." 321. Nasreddin's wife suggested that her husband sell their cow because it did not give much milk anymore. 322. Nasreddin accepted the suggestion and planned to take the cow to the market the next day. 323. Early in the morning on the next day he had arrived at the market. 324. He chose the best place to sell his cow. 325. The place was near the main entrance so that most of the people would see him there with his cow. 326. Many people came and asked for information about the cow. 327. Nasreddin always said, "We decided to sell this cow because it does not give us much milk anymore. 328. So, if you buy it you will not get much milk either. 329. But it surely will push you with the horns when it gets hungry and there is no grass before it." 330. Of course, nobody was interested in buying the cow. 331. Therefore, until about midday the cow was not sold yet Nasreddin was very tired. 332. Many times he swept the sweat from his face with his white handkerchief. 333. One of his friends, who was a merchant, came to the market. 334. He saw Nasreddin trying to sell his cow. 335. He also paid attention to the way Nasreddin offered his cow. 336. Then the merchant came to him. 337. "Nasreddin, I think you will not sell your cow if you offer it m that way. 338. Let me help you," said the merchant. 339. Nasreddin gave the cow to the merchant. 340. And the merchant started walking and pulling the cow behind him. 341. Nasreddin sat and saw his friend. 342. Every time he met a man, the merchant always said, "See this cow. 343. She is very healthy. 344. No cow compares to her. 345. If you buy her, you will not be disappointed. 346. She will give you many bowls of milk every day. 347. Don't be late. 348. Buy her right now." 349. A man seemed very interested in the cow. 350. He came to the merchant and started bargaining it. 351. Nasreddin saw the way his friend tried to sell his cow. 352. He also saw the man bargaining it. 353. Then he rushed toward them. 354. Quickly he snatched the rope from his friend's hand and said, "Foot if it could give us many bowls of milk every day, we would not sell it." 355. One day Nasreddin went to another town. 356. He rode his donkey. 357. On the way he met a man. 358. The man suddenly asked a strange question, "Please, tell me when I will die?"

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Of course, Nasreddin was confused to answer the question. He said, "How do I know about It? Don't be ridiculous. But the man insisted him on answering the question. Nasreddin kept on saying that actually he could not answer the question. The man looked disappointed. "Nasreddin, even though you cannot tell me when I will die, but I can tell you when you will die," said man. "Then tell me when I will die?" asked Nasreddin "You will die if your donkey has brayed three times, said the man. Then Nasreddin continued his journey. Suddenly his donkey brayed three times. Soon he lay down on the street and murmured, "I die now." His donkey went away. A minute later he saw the donkey was caught by a big fox. The big fox devoured the donkey. Nasreddin said sadly, "My donkey, finally the death comes to you and me at the same time." In that night Nasreddin did not go home. His wife was very worried. She asked her neighbours for their help to find him. Fortunately they found him. His wife asked, "Why don't you go home!" "My dear wife, I cannot go home because I'm already dead now. You should take and bury me well," answered he. His wife and his neighbours tried to convince him that he had not died yet. But they failed. Nasreddin kept thinking that he had been dead. So, his wife and neighbours took him home and announced his death to the other neighbours. After a series of prayer, he was brought to the cemetery. But his wife asked the people not to cover the grave with anything. She hoped that someday her husband would realise that he actually has not died yet. About two hours later Nasreddin heard a strange noise. Actually the sound came from a donkey bringing plates and bowls. The donkey was followed by a man, he was the seller. When the sound was getting closer, he lifted his head to see what was coming. When he showed his head the donkey was very surprised and frightened. It was galloping for a while before it ran quickly. It dropped all its load. The plates and bowls were broken into pieces. Seeing that, the seller got angry with him that he hit Nasreddin over and over. "Why do you hit me? I'm dead. You cannot hit a dead man," Nasreddin shouted. The seller did not hear whatever he said and kept on hitting him. Finally he could not bear it and ran home. His wife was very glad that he was back home. So did the neighbours.

400. One of the neighbours asked him, "Nasreddin, you have been in the Heaven. 401. Tell us, how did you feel in the Heaven." 402. He answered, "I felt very well, cool, and peaceful unless I frightened a donkey bringing a lot of plates and bowl.