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del Rosario, Pilar Anna Lou A.

PS3A History of Guidance and Counseling Early Civilizations: Priests, Chieftains, Philosophers, or other Religious Representatives assumed the function of advice giver/counselor. Ancient Greek Philosophers: Recognized the concept of developing ones potential; forces inside to guide and stimulate individual toward beneficial goals. Platoorganized psychological insights into systematic theory. Aristotlestudied people interacting with their environment and others. Hippocratesphysician who recognized mental illness may be caused by internal causes. Educators: Luis Vives (1492-1540)recognized that people should be guided toward occupations according to attitudes and aptitudes. Middle Ages: Churches assumed major responsibility of educating; Priests guided youth toward occupations. Descartes began to study the human body as an organism that reacted or behaved to various stimuli; forerunners to future scientific psychological studies. Rousseau suggested that the growing individual can best learn when free to develop according to his or her natural impulses; advocated learning through doing. Mental illness was treated in the home, for the wealthy, with many retreating to the underground; Religious orders had hospitals to treat the poor. First 75 years of US, there were very few facilities for the treatment of the mentally ill. United States Historical Progression Thomas Jefferson called for a plan to recognize and educate its male youth as a source of national leadership. John Adams called for laws for the liberal education of youths, especially lower class; no expense should be spared. Horace Mann stressed the importance of school systems as a response for educating the abandoned and outcast children for the betterment of society. A. D. Mayo advocated morality and good citizenship as an integral part of education. Herbert Spencer, a biologist, introduced the concept of adjustment; adaptive behavior essential for biological adjustment and survival. Physicists and physiologists began conducting experiments on the physical and physiological aspects of behavior; launched the field of psychology as a separate science in the late 1800s. Wundt opened the first institute of Psychology; the beginning of movement toward systematic investigation in human behavior. Rise in psychiatry as a specialty of medicine supported the organic treatment of mental illness. Mental hospital movement underway which provided care for the seriously mentally ill. Sigmund Freud (early 1900s) introduced psychoanalytic theory; frequently referred to as father of psychology. Development of Counseling and Guidance in US Education The Guidance Movement 1908Parsons established Boston Vocational Bureau; father of guidance movement. Purpose of Bureau was to provide young people with vocational assistance in schools. Parsons trained teachers to serve as vocational counselors. Parsons believed that vocational counselors should have 6 specific traits see p. 7. 1909, Published Choosing a Vocation; 3 factors necessary for wise choice of a vocation: 1. Clear understanding of self, aptitudes, abilities, interests, ambitions, resources, limitations, and other causes. 2. Knowledge of requirements and conditions of success, advantages and disadvantages, compensation,opportunities, and prospects in different lines of work. 3. True reasoning on the relations of these two groups of facts.

1913organization of the National Guidance Association; the term guidance was adopted and referred to vocational choice, preparation, and placement. Jessie B. DavisThe Call Approach; students should be preached to about moral value of hard work, ambition, honesty Standardized Testing Movement Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon introduced the first general intelligence test in 1905. Used to test draftees for WWI Army Alpha Test Translated and Revised in 1916 by Lewis Terman and his colleagues at Stanford University; began to be used in the schools. The Progressive Movement1920s People-oriented philosophy--Stressed the uniqueness of child and dignity of the individual pupil. Teachers and students plan together, childs social environment improved, developmental needs of student considered, psychological environment positive and encouraging. Organized guidance programs emerge with increasing frequency in secondary schools in 1920s. Modeled after college student personnel programs Deans. Remedial Emphasisstudents with academic and personal difficulties sent to Deans for help modifying behavior. ETC. Colleges began using standardized testing for admission and placement; some offered vocational guidance. Label guidance was broadly applied to activities utilized to guide students into appropriate educational choices and career decisions. 1935NY State Teachers Association published report; guidance defined as: the process of assisting individuals in making life adjustment. It is needed in the home, school, community, and in all other phases of the individuals environment. Late 1930s and early 1940strait-factor approach to counseling became increasingly popular. Child Study Movement (1930s)took position that it was the teachers role to provide guidance for each pupil in the self-contained classroom. Found some following in secondary schools Led to every teacher as a guidance worker Carl Rogers (1951)Developed a new counseling theoryClient-Centered Therapy; Client assumed major responsibility for solving his/her own problem. Counseling became a larger part of the guidance program than guidance itself. His methods did not use testing as the key guidance function. Also a significant contributor to group counseling. Feingoldcalled for guidance of the whole childguidance beyond educational direction; outgrowth of child study movement of 1930s Traxler identified emerging trends in guidance 1957Soviet Union launched Sputnik I Stimulated legislation to improve personnel for providing guidance toward careers deemed vital for national well-beingNational Defense Education Act of 1958. NDEAlift-off of Counseling And Guidance Movement; provided: 1. Grants to state & Colleges for establishment, training and maintenance of guidance programs. Followed by establishment of certification standards for school counselors, and criteria for school guidance program evaluation. Counseling personnel became viewed as indispensable to administrators. Expanded role for HS counselor. New approaches included: Small discussion groups , and group counseling. Consideration of the total learning of the child, including personal and social relations of the student. 1964American School Counselor Association approved an official policy statement to:

Effort to specify the role and function of the school counselor. Concept that counselors influence society Counselors need to function as consultant and agent for change. 1970sSchool Counselors Inherit Stereotypes: Stereotype of Responsibilityparents and others believe counselor has responsibility to ensure students take the right courses, select appropriate college, etc. Stereotype of Failurecounselor is responsible for keeping students from failing. Stereotype of Occupational Choicecounselor is the person who can tell a student what occupation to enter. 1973National Commission on the Reform of Secondary Education published report with 32 recommendations for the improvement of secondary education. Accountability Movement of 1970s and 1980s required school counseling programs to develop more relevant data-based programs, and objective assessments. 1983A Nation at Risk Reported decline in standardized testing. Recommendations: Longer school days More effective school discipline Return to Basics 1980s and 1990sSocial Concerns stimulated growth in elementary school counseling: Substance abuse, child abuse, sexual abuse, latchkey children. Led to mandated elementary school counseling programs in 16 states. School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994 Provides framework for creating school-to-work systems in all states. Career Counseling and Guidance are high priority. By 1997 44 states had passed legislation to license counselors. Development of Institutional and Agency Counseling Programs 1908Clifford Beers Patient in mental health institution for several years; suffered from schizophrenia. Wrote statements during his confinement Initiated humanitarian reforms and scientific inquiry into the problems of mental illnesses and treatment Mental Hygiene Movementpurpose was to educate general public to appreciate the plight and treatment of disturbed persons. Major psychological concept emergedpeople are products of environment and heredity. Community Mental Health Center began as response to this movement. Other results: Psychopathic hospitals Community aftercare services Local hospitals developed diagnostic and outpatient clinics Standards were raised for treatment and prevention. Local clinics for children Preventive and early treatment After WWIRehabilitation as a specialization Veterans Bureau provided a continuation of vocational rehabilitation services or veterans; included counseling and guidance. Included rehab. for physical, as well as social and emotional problems. 1904-1929Rapid growth in solid scientific research in many different areas: Statistical analysis Test theory Physiological and sensory psychology Human and animal learning Social and abnormal psychology Empirical bases of psychology as a science

1930s--Alfred Adler, student of Freud, pioneered family counseling and treatment of children . 1940s and 1950s National Mental Health Act established Institute of Mental Health (1946); initiated state level services provided to people with mental illness. Veterans Admin. Provided services under the GI Bill; provided counseling, training and education, rehab and educational services for ex-service personnel. Division 17 (Counseling Psychology) of the American Psychological Association was established; counseling recognized as specialty field of psychology. Carl RogersClient-Centered Theory Marriage and Family Counseling began to emerge in 1950s. Mental Health Study Act (1955)established a joint commission on mental illness and health; report in 1961Action for Mental Health 1955first decline in the number of patients in mental institutions due to community mental health centers Vietnam War created another population in need of mental health counseling. Rise in substance abuse Public awareness of the extent and seriousness of mental health problems led to more research. Specialists for correctional counseling. Specialists for the elderly. Community Mental Health Center Amendments of 1975mandated 12 services (p. 18) Bloom (1984) differentiated between mental health services from traditional clinical practice. (p. 19) Mental Health Systems Actbroadened the scope of care for disturbed children and adolescents. 1980s and 1990s State and Local communities were called upon to provide financial support of their mental health care facilities and programs. New societal problems: AIDS Drug Addiction Abused Children Domestic Violence School Dropout Problems Homeless Resurfacing of Prejudice Bankruptcy Career Needs (Technology?)