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Facts and Figures about FACTS

Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT

by Naresh Acharya

EPSM, Energy, Asian Institute of Technology, December 16, 2004

Presentation Outline
Introduction
Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT

History of Development & Current Status


Semiconductor devices development 1st Generation of FACTS (SVC &TCSC) 2nd Generation of FACTS (STATCOM & SSSC) 3rd Generation of FACTS (UPFC) Most Recent Development (Convertible Static Compensator) SVC and STATCOM TCSC and UPFC Cost Structure Cost Considerations Economic Mix

Cost of FACTS Controllers


Introduction
Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT

Problems with AC transmission (1) Stability limits, (2) Voltage Limits and (3) Loop Flows

Promising Solution - FACTS


Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT Elevation = Voltage Profile Amount of Laundry = transmission loading Keep clothes off ground = stability criteria Distance above ground = stability margin Main supports = on line generators Improved Post-Contingency Voltage Profile due to Dynamic Reactive Support by SVC, STATCOM, SC Props = intermediate reactive power compensation, e.g. SVC, STATCOM, SC

History of Development
Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT

Technological change over time Trend in deployment of FACTS devices Where the World is heading Where do we stand What options are available

Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT

Semiconductor Devices Development

1st Generation of FACTS SVC


Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT

SVCs are available since 1970 First SVC demonstration was in Nebraska and commercialized by GE in 1974 More than 800 SVC are installed worldwide both in Utilities and in Industries (electric arc furnace and rolling mills) ABB is the pioneer in its development and has installed 55% of total installations. Half of it were installed during 80s. 13% of utility scale SVC supplied by ABB is in Asian Countries

1st Generation of FACTS SVC


Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT

Three SVCs in EGAT Power System Chumphon 115 kV substation: 80 MVAR, installed in 1986 Tha Tako 500 kV substation: 2 X 190 MVAR, installed in 1989. Bang Saphan 230 kV substation: -50 MVAR to +300 MVAR, installed in 1995

Bang Saphan SVC-Thailand


Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT

To improve transient stability of tie line connecting major load center (Bangkok area) with generating station in the south. Length of tie around 700 km. Tie line consists of one double circuit 230 kV and one double circuit 115 kV line. This was considered to be the weak part.

Utility scale SVC in Asia


Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT
S.N. Year Instal led 1981 1981 1986 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987 1987 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 Country Capacity, MVAR 120 120 80 290 270 300 200 200 20 80 100 50 45 45 45 20 Voltage level (kV) 500 500 115 500 500 420 380 380 132 132 230 230 132 132 132 132 CNTIC - Wu Han II CNTIC - Wu Han I EGAT - Chumphon Guangdong Gen. Pow. Co. - Jiang Men CNTIC - Dalian Tavanir - Omdieh SCECO E - Shedgum SCECO E - Faras CEB - Galle YGEC Alsthom - Sanaa Kallang Basin Substation Labrador substation TNEB - Madurai TNEB - Trichur TNEB - Singaropet CEB - Chunnakam Place

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

China China Thailand China China Iran Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Srilanka Yemen Singapore Singapore India India India Srilanka

Utility Scale SVC in Asia


S.N. Year Installed 1989 1989 1991 1991 1992 1992 1992 1995 1995 1999 1999 1999 Country Thailand Thailand Malaysia Malaysia India India Iran Indonesia Thailand South Korea Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Japan Japan Capacity, MVAR 190 190 200 200 280 280 300 -25 to 50 -50 to 300 200 150 150 -20 to +80 -40 MVA Voltage level (kV) 500 500 275 275 400 400 420 150 230 345 380 380 500 Place EGAT - Tha Tako 1 EGAT - Tha Tako 2 NEB - K1 North2 NEB - K1 North1 NTPC - Kanpur 2 NTPC - Kanpur 1 TAVINIR Omedieh Jember substation (Bali) EGAT - Bang Saphan KEPCO - Seo-Daegu SCECO C - Riyadh I SCECO C - Riyadh II Tokyo Osaka

Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

New Concept for Changing Environment - Relocatable SVC


Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT

Mainly used in NGC in UK, after deregulation of electric industry in 1990. There are twelve 60 MVAR RSVC in NGC system.
Conventional SVCs Relocatable SVCs

1st Generation of FACTS TCSC


Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT

Commercially available since 1990s. Worlds first 3 phase, 2 X 165 MVAR TCSC installed in 1992 in Kayenta substation, Arizona raises capacity of line by 30%, by ABB. Worlds first TCSC for subsynchronous resonance (SSR) mitigation installed in Stode, Sweden in 1998, by ABB. No TCSC in ASIA, but two projects are under construction: in China and India

TCSC Installations
SN Year Installed Country FACTS Type FC + TCSC Capacity, MVAR

Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT

Voltage level (kV) 230

Purpose

Place

1992

USA

2x165

To increase power transfer capability Controlling line power flow and increased loading SSR mitigation

Kayenta substation, Arizona

1993

USA

TCSC

208

500

C.J.Slatt substation on the SlattBuckley 500 kV line in Northern Oregon Stde

1998

Sweden

FC + TCSC

400

1999

Brazil

FC + TCSC

500

To damp interarea low freq (0.2 Hz) osicllation

1. FC at Maraba (348MVAR) 2. FC at Imperatriz (161MVAR) 3. FSC at Colinas (2x161MVAR) 4. FC at Miracema (161MVAR) 5. TCSC at Imperatriz (107MVAR) 6. TCSC at Sarra de Mesa

Under Constru ction Under Constru ction

China

FC + TCSC

55 controlled 350 fixed 118 controlled 788 fixed

500

Series compensation Compenstion, Damping of interregional Power oscillation

Pingguo substation

India

FC + TCSC

400

Raipur substation

TCSC - Brazil
Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT

To increase power transfer limit and to damp the low frequency oscillations. Length of interconnection 1020 km.

2nd Generation of FACTS STATCOM


Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT

Commercially available since 1990s. Around 20 in numbers and includes both utility and industrial installations. Successfully applied in countries like Japan, USA, UK. Also in service in China, developed by Tsinghua Unversity and Henan Power Authority. World 1st STATCOM (+/- 80 MVAR) installed in 1991 in Inumaya substation in Japan and developed by Mitsubishi Electric Power Products, Inc.

Utility Scale STATCOM


Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT
S. Year NInstalled 1991 Country Capacity, MVAR Voltage level (kV) 154 Purpose Power system and voltage stabilization Place

Japan

80 MVA
50 MVA

Inumaya substation Shin Shinano Substation, Nagona

1992

Japan

500

1995

USA

100 MVA

161

To regulate bus voltage reactive compensation, improve system stability and damp system oscillation

Sullivan substation in TVA power system

1996

China

20 MVA

China

2001

UK

0 to +225

400

Dynamic reactive compensation dynamic reactive compensation for fast voltage support during critical contingencies to relieve transmission system constraints in the area through dynamic var control during pak load conditions

East Claydon 400 kV Substation

2001

USA

-41 to +133

115

VELCO Essex substation

2003

USA

100

138

SDG&E Talega substation

Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT

STATCOM SDG&E Talega

STATCOM-Sullivan, USA
Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT

STATCOM, Sullivan substation, TVA, USA 27 X 15 m

Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT

Layout arrangement comparison of STATCOM and SVC

2nd Generation of FACTS - SSSC


Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT

Not in commercial operation as independent device.

3rd Generation of FACTS - UPFC


Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT

The first utility demonstration of UPFC is located at Inez substation of American Electric Power (AEP) area in 1998. Only two UPFC in operation.

S.N

Year Installed

Country

Capacity, MVA

Voltage level (kV)

Purpose

Place

1998

USA

320

138

Dynamic voltage support and added real power supply facility

AEP Inez substation

2003

South Korea

80

154

Gangjin substation

UPFC Inez, USA


Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT UPFC at AEP Inez substation, USA 61 X 30, 5 m

Latest Development Convertible Static Compensators (CSC)


Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT

CSC offer full flexibility by allowing its converters to be connected in shunt (STATCOM), in series (SSSC), shunt/series (UPFC) and series/series (IPFC). The worlds first CSC is installed at New York Power Authoritys Marcy 345 kV substation, which is capable of operating in 11 different control modes. The shunt portion of CSC came into operation in 2001 and full scale CSC came into operation in early 2004. It consists of two 100 MVA inverters, two 100 MVA series transformers and one 200 MVA shunt transformers

Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT

Investment cost for SVC and STATCOM

Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT

Investment cost for TCSC and UPFC

Cost Components
Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT

12%

4%

4%

Hardware Eng & Project Mgmt. Installation Civil Works Commissioning Insurance

10% 15%

55%

Cost Consideration
Technology

Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT

Reconductor lines Fixed or Switched Shunt Reactors Fixed or Switched Shunt Capacitors Fixed or Switched Series Capacitors Static VAR Compensators Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation (TCSC) STATCOM STATCOM w/SMES

Transmission Line Transfer Enhancement Increase thermal capacity Voltage reduction Light Load Management Voltage support and stability Power flow control, Voltage support and Stability Voltage support and stability Power flow control, Voltage support and stability Voltage support and stability Voltage support and stability

Cost Range $50K to $200K per mile $8-$12 kVAR $8-$10 kVAR $12-$16 kVAR

Operating principle Increases thermal limit for line Compensates for capacitive varload Compensates for inductive varload Reduces inductive line impedance

Procurement Availability Competitive Competitive Competitive Competitive

$20-$45 kVAR $25-$50 kVAR

Compensates for inductive and/or Competitive capacitive var-load Reduces or increases inductive Limited line impedance competition Compensates for inductive and capacitive var-load Compensates for inductive and/or capacitive var-load plus energy storage for active power SVC and TCSC functions plus phase angle control Limited competition Limited

$80-$100 kVAR $150-$300 kW

Power flow control, $150-$200 kW Sole source Voltage support, and Stability Unified Power Flow Power flow control $250-$350 kW SVC and TCSC functions plus Sole source Controller (UPFC) w/SMES Voltage support and voltage regulator, phase angle Stability, controller and energy storage Shaded area indicates technologies that are either permanently connected or switched on or off with mechanical switches. (i.e. these are not continuously controllable)

Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC)

Economic Mix: FACTS and Conventional


Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT
100% Power Electronics Delta-P4 Delta-P2

Delta-P3

100% Conventional

Delta-P1

Cost of System

Economic Mix
Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT

Sometimes, mixed of conventional and FACTS provides least cost solution Concern with FACTS - Losses will increase with higher loading and FACTS equipment more lossy than conventional ones

Training Workshop on FACTS Application, Energy, AIT