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Bharat Stage emission standards

Bharat Stage emissions standards are emissions standards instituted by the Government of the Republic of India (Bharat) that regulate the output of air pollutants (such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), particulate matter (PM), soot, and, where applicable, sulfur oxides (SOx)) by internal combustion engine powered equipment, including motor vehicles, or other air polluting facilities or equipment. In many cases they are similar to European emissions standards.

INTRODUCTION:The first Indian emission regulations were idle emission limits which became effective in 1989. These idle emission regulations were soon replaced by mass emission limits for both petrol (1991) and diesel (1992) vehicles, which were gradually tightened during the 1990s. Since the year 2000, India started adopting European emission and fuel regulations for four-wheeled light-duty and for heavy-dc. Indian own emission regulations still apply to two- and three-wheeled vehicles. Current requirement is that all transport vehicles carry a fitness certificate that is renewed each year after the first two years of new vehicle registration. On October 6, 2003, the National Auto Fuel Policy has been announced, which envisages a phased program for introducing Euro 2 - 4 emission and fuel regulations by 2010. The implementation schedule of EU emission standards in India is summarized in Table 1.

TABLE 1 INDIAN EMISSION STANDARDS Indian Emission Standards (4-Wheel Vehicles) Standard India 2000 Reference Euro 1 Date 2000 Region Nationwide

2001 Bharat Stage II Euro 2 2003-04 2004-05 2005-04 Bharat Stage III Bharat Stage IV * National Capital Region (Delhi) Euro 4 Euro 3 2004-10 2010-04

NCR*, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai NCR*, 10 Cities Nationwide NCR*, 10 Cities Nationwide NCR*, 10 Cities

Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur and Agra The above standards apply to all new 4-wheel vehicles sold and registered in the respective regions. In addition, the National Auto Fuel Policy introduces certain emission requirements for interstate buses with routes originating or terminating in Delhi or the other 10 cities. For 2-and 3-wheelers, Bharat Stage II (Euro 2) will be applicable from April 1, 2005 and Stage III (Euro 3) standards would come in force from April 1, 2010.

Comparison between Bharat Stage and Euro norms:The Bharat Stage norms have been styled to suit specific needs and demands of Indian conditions. The differences lie essentially in environmental and geographical needs, even though the emission standards are exactly the same. For instance, Euro-III is tested at sub-zero temperatures in European countries. In India, where the average annual temperature ranges between 24 and 28 degree Celsius, the test is done away with.

Another major distinction is in the maximum speed at which the vehicle is tested. A speed of 90 km/h is stipulated for BS-III, whereas it is 120 km/h for Euro-III, keeping emission limits the same in both cases. In addition to limits, test procedure has certain finer points too. For instance, the mass emission test measurements done in g/km on a chassis dynamometer requires a loading of 100 kg weight in addition to unloaded car weight in Europe. In India, BS-III norms require an extra loading of 150 kg weight to achieve the desired inertia weight mainly due to road conditions here.

Overview of the emission norms in India:

1991 - Idle CO Limits for Gasoline Vehicles and Free Acceleration Smoke for Diesel Vehicles, Mass Emission Norms for Gasoline Vehicles. 1992 - Mass Emission Norms for Diesel Vehicles. 1996 - Revision of Mass Emission Norms for Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles, mandatory fitment of Catalytic Converter for Cars in Metros on Unleaded Gasoline. 1998 - Cold Start Norms Introduced. 2000 - India 2000 (Eq. to Euro I) Norms, Modified IDC (Indian Driving Cycle), Bharat Stage II Norms for Delhi. 2001 - Bharat Stage II (Eq. to Euro II) Norms for All Metros, Emission Norms for CNG & LPG Vehicles. 2003 - Bharat Stage II (Eq. to Euro II) Norms for 13 major cities. 2005 - From 1 April Bharat Stage III (Eq. to Euro III) Norms for 13 major cities. 2010 - Bharat Stage III Emission Norms for 4-wheelers for entire country whereas Bharat Stage - IV (Eq. to Euro IV) for 13 major cities. Bharat Stage IV also has norms on OBD (similar to Euro III but diluted)

Emission control norms in SI engine.


Level Emission Norms 2-Stroke 4-Stroke 4-Stroke of ## 2/3 Wheelers 4 Wheelers

* exhaust,

Intake, * engine technology

* Intake, exhaust, 4-Stroke combustion optimization *Carburetor optimization

combustion Euro I 2000 * Catalytic converter /India optimization

* Secondary air * Hot tube Euro II / Bharat Stage II injection *

* Fuel injection

* Secondary air * Catalytic converter Catalytic injection * CNG / LPG (3 wheelers * Fixed EGR * Multi-valve * CNG/LPG

converter * CNG / LPG

(3 wheelers only) only)

* * Fuel injection * EuroIII/ Bharat * Fuel injection

Fuel

injection

+catalytic converter * Variable EGR

Catalytic * Carburetor+ catalytic

converter

Stage III

converter

Variable

valve

timing * Multi-valve * On-board

diagnostics system * CNG/LPG * Direct cylinder Euro IV / Bharat Stage IV * To be * Lean burn * injection+ catalytic converter * injection Fuel * Multi-brick catalytic converter On-board

developed

diagnostics system

Emission standards for gasoline vehicles (GVW 3,500 kg) are summarized in Table 2. Ranges of emission limits refer to different classes of light commercial vehicles (compare the EU light-duty vehicle emission standards page). The lowest limit in each range applies to passenger cars (GVW 2,500 kg; up to 6 seats).

Table 2 EMISSION STANDARDS FOR GASOLINE VEHICLES (GVW 3,500 KG), G/KM Year 1991 Reference CO 14.3-27.1 HC 2.0-2.9 HC+NOx

1996 1998* 2000 2005

Euro 1 Euro 2

8.68-12.4 4.34-6.20 2.72-6.90 2.2-5.0

3.00-4.36 1.50-2.18 0.97-1.70 0.5-0.7

* for catalytic converter fitted vehicles earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1

Gasoline vehicles must also meet an evaporative (SHED) limit of 2 g/test (effective 2000).Emission standards for 3- and 2-wheel gasoline vehicles are listed in the following tables 3.

Table 3 EMISSION STANDARDS FOR 3-WHEEL GASOLINE VEHICLES, G/KM Year 1991 1996 2000 12-30 6.75 4.00 CO 8-12 Table 4 HC 5.40 2.00 HC+NOx

EMISSION STANDARDS FOR 2-WHEEL GASOLINE VEHICLES, G/KM Year 1991 1996 2000 12-30 4.50 2.00 CO 8-12 HC 3.60 2.00 HC+NOx

Emission control norms in CI engine

Level Of Emission Norms

Technology Options

Retarded injection timing Euro I / India 2000 Open/re-entrant bowl, Intake, exhaust and combustion optimisation FIP~700-800 bar, low sac injectors High swirl Naturally aspirated Turbocharging Injection pressure > 800 bar, moderate swirl Euro II / Bharat Stage II High pressure inline / rotary pumps, injection rate control VO nozzles

Re-entrant combustion chamber Lube oil consumption control Inter-cooling (optional, depends on specific power), EGR (may be required for high speed car engines) Conversion to CNG with catalytic converter Multi valve, Low swirl high injection pressure > 120 bar Rotary pumps, pilot injection rate shaping Electronic fuel injection Euro III / Critical lube oil consumption control

Bharat Stage Variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) III Inter-cooling Oxycat & EGR CNG/LPG High specific power output Particulate trap NOx trap Euro IV / IV On board Diagnostics system

Bharat Stage Common rail injection-injection pressure>1600 bar Fuel Cell CNG/LPG

Emission standards for new heavy-duty diesel enginesapplicable to vehicles of GVW > 3,500 kgare listed in Table 5. Emissions are tested over the ECE R49 13-mode test (through the Euro II stage).

Table 5 EMISSION STANDARDS FOR DIESEL TRUCK AND BUS ENGINES, G/KWH Year 1992 1996 2000 2005 2010 Euro I Euro II Euro III Reference CO 17.3-32.6 11.20 4.5 4.0 2.1 HC 2.7-3.7 2.40 1.1 1.1 0.66 14.4 8.0 7.0 5.0 NOx 0.36* 0.15 0.10 PMM

* 0.612 for engines below 85 kW earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1

Emission standards for light-duty diesel vehicles (GVW 3,500 kg) are summarized in Table 3. Ranges of emission limits refer to different classes (by reference mass) of light commercial vehicles; compare the EU light-duty vehicle emission standards page for details on the Euro 1 and later standards. The lowest limit in each range applies to passenger cars (GVW 2,500 kg; up to 6 seats).

Table 6 EMISSION STANDARDS FOR LIGHT-DUTY DIESEL VEHICLES, G/KM

Year 1992 1996 2000 2005 -

Reference

CO 17.3-32.6 5.0-9.0 2.72-6.90 1.0-1.5

HC 2.7-3.7 -

HC+NOx 0.14-0.25 0.08-0.17

PM

2.0-4.0 0.97-1.70 0.7-1.2

Euro 1 Euro 2

earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1

The test cycle has been the ECE + EUDC for low power vehicles (with maximum speed limited to 90 km/h). Before 2000, emissions were measured over an Indian test cycle. Engines for use in light-duty vehicles can be also emission tested using an engine dynamometer. The respective emission standards are listed in Table 1

Table 7 EMISSION STANDARDS FOR LIGHT-DUTY DIESEL ENGINES, G/KWH Year 1992 1996 2000 2005 Euro I Euro II Reference CO 14.0 11.20 4.5 4.0 3.5 2.40 1.1 1.1 HC NOx 18.0 14.4 8.0 7.0 0.36* 0.15 PM

* 0.612 for engines below 85 kW earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 1

Emissions Testing:

Given the norms, obviously the government needs to have methods to test the exhaust fumes also. For this purpose a gas analyzer is used. A typical exhaust gas analyzer has a long sample hose with a probe at the end of hose. The probe is inserted to the vehicles tailpipe. When the analyzer is turned on, an internal pump moves an exhaust sample from tail pipe through the sample hose and the analyzer. A water trap and filter in the hose removes moisture and carbon particles. The pump forces an exhaust sample through a sample cell in the analyzer. In the sample cell, a beam of infra red light passes through the exhaust sample. Using light spectography, the analyzer then determines the quantities of HC and CO (if the analyzer is a two gas analyzer) or HC, CO, CO2 and O2 if its a four gas analyzer. Some analyzers called five gas analyzers can also measure NOX. Nearly all analyzers currently used are four or five gas machines. Most of gas analyzers measure the gases in percentages or parts per million. The Maximum limits for the measures gases are ser by government for particular vehicle as mentioned in tables above

Excessive HC emissions may be caused by


Ignition system misfiring Improper ignition timing Excessively lean or rich air/Fuel ratio Low cylinder compression Defective valves, guides, or filters Defective rings, pistons or cylinders Vacuum leaks

All these issues lead to incomplete combustion, thus releasing HC into the air. Excessive CO emissions are caused by

Rich air/fuel mixtures Dirty air filter Faulty injectors Higher than normal fuel pressures Defective system input sensor

Excessive HC and CO emissions caused by


Plugged Positive Crank case Ventilation system (PCV system) Excessively rich air/Fuel ratio Stuck open heat riser valve AIR pump inoperative or disconnected Engine oil diluted with gasoline

Higher than normal NOX emissions may be caused by


An overheated engine Lean air/fuel mixtures Vacuum leaks Over advanced ignition timing Defective EGR system

Fuels
The fuel specifications of Gasoline and Diesel have been aligned with the Corresponding European Fuel Specifications for meeting the Euro II, Euro III and Euro IV emission norms. The use of alternative fuels has been promoted in India both for energy security and emission reduction Delhi and Mumbai have more than 100,000 commercial vehicles running on CNG fuel. Delhi has the largest number of CNG commercial vehicles running any where in the World. India is planning to introduce Biodiesel, Ethanol Gasoline blends in a phased manner and has drawn up a road map for the same. The Indian auto Industry is working with the authorities to facilitate for introduction of the alternative fuels. India has

also setup a task force for preparing the Hydrogen road map. The use of LPG has also been introduced as an auto fuel and the oil industry has drawn up plans for setting up of Auto LPG dispensing station in major cities.

Indian Gasoline specifications:Table 8 Bharat Bharat Bharat Stage IV 720-775

Sl. No

Characteristics

Unit

Stage II Stage III 710770 720-775

1 2

Density 15 Distillation

Kg/m3

a) Recovery up to 70 0 C(E70) b) Recovery up to 100 0 C (E100) c) Recovery up to 180 0 C (E180) d) Recovery up to 150 0 C (E150) e) Final Boiling Point (FBP), Max f) Residue Max

%Volum e %Volum 10-45 e 40-70 %Volum 90 e %Volum 210 e


0

10-45 40-70 75min 210 2

10-45 40-70 75min 210 2

% Volume 88 84 (AKI) 91 91

Research Octane Number (RON), Min Anti Knock Index (AKI)/ MON, Min

81 (MON)

81 (MON)

6 7 8

Sulphur, Total , Max Lead Content(as Pb), Max Reid Vapour Pressure (RVP), Max Benzene, Content, Max

% mass g/l Kpa

0.05 0.013 35-60 -

150 mg/Kg 0.005 60

50mg/Kg 0.005 60

a) b)

For Metros For the rest

% Volume

3 5

10

Olefin content, Max

% Volume % Volume

21

21

11

Aromatic Content, Max

42

35

Indian diesel specifications:Table 9 S. No

Characteristic

BSII

BSIII

BSIV

Density Kg/m3 15

820800 500 48

820845 350 51

820-845

Sulphur Content mg/kg max

50 51 and 46

3(a) Cetane Number minimum 3(b) and / or

or 46 and 46

Cetane Index 4 5 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Distillation


0

11

11

(a) Reco. Min. At 350

85 95 -

360

360

(b) Reco. Min. At 370 0C (c) 95%Vol Reco at 0o C max

Ineffectiveness of present pollution control system:Presently, all vehicles need to undergo a periodic emission check (3 months/ 6 months) at PUC Centres at Fuel Stations and Private Garages which are authorised to check the vehicles. In addition, transport vehicles need to undergo an annual fitness check carried out by RTOs for emissions, safety and roadworthiness. The objective of reducing pollution not achieved to a large extent by the present system. Some reasons for this are: Independent centres do not follow rigorous procedures due to inadequate training Equipment not subjected to periodic calibration by independent authority Lack of professionalism has led to malpractice Tracking system of vehicles failing to meet norms non-existent

Conclusions:Emission norms are controlled by government and the same implemented at manufacturer plant itself. The same applied to fuels also. Hence customers need not worry much about whether their vehicle is BS III version or BS IV version, since any new car they purchase will conform to existing norms. An already registered BS III version car can be used in city where BS IV norms are introduced, until or unless government declares specific restrictions about the same. That being said, the aim of this article is to give brief information about the pollutants from an automobile perspective and explain the necessity of introducing norms from time to time and causes for difference in emissions.

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