You are on page 1of 70

Cable Glands

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

What is a cable gland?


A device designed to permit the entry of a cable into electrical equipment and which provides sealing and retention. It may also provide other functions such as earthing, bonding, insulation, strain relief or a combination of these.

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

STEEL WIRE ARMOURED CABLE GLAND


GLAND BODY

Entry Thread: normally 10mm thread (15mm thread on Ex equipment)

COMPRESSION GLAND
September 2007 copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007 Compex module 9 cable glands 3

STEEL WIRE ARMOURED CABLE GLAND


GLAND BODY ARMOUR LOCKING RING

Entry Thread TAPERED CONE

COMPRESSION GLAND
September 2007 copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007 Compex module 9 cable glands 4

STEEL WIRE ARMOURED CABLE GLAND


GLAND BODY ARMOUR LOCKING RING

Entry Thread TAPERED CONE

COMPRESSION GLAND
September 2007 copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007 Compex module 9 cable glands 5

STEEL WIRE ARMOURED CABLE GLAND


GLAND BODY ARMOUR LOCKING RING

Entry Thread TAPERED CONE

COMPRESSION GLAND
September 2007 copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007 Compex module 9 cable glands 6

STEEL WIRE ARMOURED CABLE GLAND


OUTER SEAL GLAND BODY ARMOUR LOCKING RING

Entry Thread TAPERED CONE BACK NUT

COMPRESSION GLAND
September 2007 copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007 Compex module 9 cable glands 7

CONSTRUCTION OF STEEL WIRE ARMOURED CABLE GLAND

OUTER SEAL GLAND BODY

ARMOUR LOCKING RING

BACK NUT TAPERED CONE

Entry Thread

COMPRESSION GLAND
September 2007 copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007 Compex module 9 cable glands 8

STEEL WIRE ARMOURED CABLE GLAND


OUTER SEAL GLAND BODY

ARMOUR LOCKING RING

BACK NUT TAPERED CONE

Entry Thread

COMPRESSION GLAND
September 2007 copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007 Compex module 9 cable glands 9

STEEL WIRE ARMOURED CABLE GLAND


OUTER SEAL GLAND BODY

Entry Thread BACK NUT

COMPRESSION GLAND
September 2007 copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007 Compex module 9 cable glands 10

STEEL WIRE ARMOURED CABLE GLAND

GLAND BODY

Entry Thread

COMPRESSION GLAND
September 2007 copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007 Compex module 9 cable glands 11

Cable glands are designed, manufactured and tested to meet the stringent standards laid down by British and International authorities. Glands can be approved for hazardous area locations.

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

12

Standards
All metric glands are designed to BS EN 50262:1999 Imperial glands are designed to BS 6121Part 1:2002 (UK) BS 6121-5: 2005 Code of Practice, selection, installation and inspection of cable glands

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

13

MICC glands designed to EN 60702 EEx e seals meet the requirement of EN 600790. Glands are normally certified as components and must meet the relevant requirements of the appropriate construction standard EN 60079-1 for EEx d EN 60079-7for EEx e

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

14

Cable Glands
There are various types of cable glands from the simple A type gland right through to the superior explosion proof barrier gland kit. This presentation looks at the different types of glands plus the accessories for the glands

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

15

Types of Glands A1
For unarmoured cable, no outer seal IP4x

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

16

Gland Types
Type A1. For unarmoured cable with an elastomeric or plastic outer sheath, where the function of the gland is to secure the outer sheath of the cable. Type A3. As type A1, but with an electrical bond for the metallic inner sheath.

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

17

Types of Glands A2
For unarmoured cable, outer seal IP66

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

18

A* Gland Types
Type A2. As type A1, but with an IP66 seal between the outer sheath and gland. Type A4. As type A2, but with an electrical bond for the metallic inner sheath.

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

19

A2 Gland

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

20

Types of Gland B
For armoured or braided cable, no seals IP30

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

21

Gland Types
Type B. For armoured or wire braid cable, where the function of the gland is to secure the armour or metallic braid and to provide electrical continuity between such armour or braid and the threaded fixing component of the gland.

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

22

Types of Gland C
For armoured or braided cables, outer seal IP66

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

23

Gland Types
Type C. For armoured or wire braid cable with elastomeric or plastic outer sheath. As type B, but with an IP66 seal between outer sheath and gland. This is the most common non-certified industrial gland

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

24

Types of Gland D
For armoured or braided cables, inner seal IP66

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

25

Gland Types
Type D1. For armoured or wire braid cable with elastomeric or plastic outer sheath. As type B, but with an IP66 seal between inner sheath and threaded fixing component. Type D2. As type D1, but with an electrical bond for the metallic inner sheath.

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

26

Types of Gland E
For armoured or braided cables, inner and outer seal IP66

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

27

Gland Types
Type E1. For armoured or wire braid cable with an extruded elastomeric or plastics inner sheath and elastomeric or plastics outer sheath. As type B, but with an IP66 seal between inner sheath and gland and between the inner sheath and threaded fixing component. Type E2. As type E1, but with an electrical bond for the metallic inner sheath.

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

28

Glands of type B, C, D1, E1 and E2 which are suitable for armoured or wire braid are also identified by a suffix, added to the designation, to indicate the type of protection for which the gland is suitable.

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

29

Suffix Letter BS 6121

Steel wire armoured Pliable wire armoured flexible Wire braided Aluminium strip armoured Tape armour

W T X Y Z

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

30

Construction
All glands used for armoured or braided cables have an armour-locking ring with the exception of the BW. The armour wires are trapped between a locking ring and the armour cone of the threaded fixing component by the action of screwing the gland body to the hub. This ALR will continue to trap the armour wires even if the gland body became loose through heat cycling, vibration or during maintenance. The earth continuity can be electrically tested and visually inspected after installation.
September 2007 copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007 Compex module 9 cable glands 31

Sealing Washers
For use with threaded or clearance holes (IP54) to maintain IP66 a sealing washer is used.

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

32

IP Rating
To maintain IP66 between equipment and cable gland, the use of a nylon/fibre entry seal is recommended. A threaded joint sealed with a suitable setting compound will maintain IP66. Care should be taken however, to preserve any electrical continuity requirement. With this in mind, glands in conjunction with good quality enclosures (at least 6mm thick) will attain the following IP rating without additional materials. Screwed entry-IP54
September 2007 copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007 Compex module 9 cable glands 33

Sealing washers

Improves IP rating between the gland and the equipment. Red Fibre or white nylon available according to customer preference.

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

34

Earth Tags
Used to maintain earth continuity various sizes available.

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

35

Earth Tags
For clearance holes entry situations, it is essential to obtain direct metal to metal contact between the gland, earth tag (if used) and the enclosure. For situations when earth short circuit protective equipment demands positive earth connections leaving minimum armour to earth impedance, a range of integral earth glands are available.

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

36

Earth Tags
Ensures earth continuity is maintained between the gland and equipment. Earth tags are not required on metal boxes, but if they are fitted they must be bonded together with earth cable (green/yellow cable).

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

37

Adaptors and Reducers


Adaptor change the thread type

Reducer-changes the thread size One adaptor/reducer per cable entry


September 2007 copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007 Compex module 9 cable glands 38

Marking of reducer

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

39

Marking of adaptor

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

40

Adaptors and Reducers


Reducers enable a gland with smaller thread size to be installed in larger thread opening. Adaptors enable a larger or equivalent gland to be installed in an opening with a smaller thread form. Reducers and adaptors with alternative thread combinations are available such as: NPT, Pg, BSP and Metric

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

41

All glands shall be marked in accordance with relevant European or national standards. An appropriate part of the gland shall be legibly and permanently marked with the following particulars: the number of this standard, the size designation of the gland Whenever possible, the type of the gland and the appropriate suffix.

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

42

Marking
Name of Manufacturer Type e.g. E1WF Protection concept e.g. EEx d IIC/EEx e II Size e.g.20s ATEX mark II 2 GD IP rating e.g. IP66 Certificate no. e.g. 01ATEX2070X

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

43

IP rating
Minimum IP rating for cable glands are: Gas/Vapours minimum is IP54 Dust minimum is IP64

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

44

Barrier Glands
Barrier glands may be required when direct entry into an Ex d enclosure is required. A filler (compound) is used to consolidate the cores to minimise the effect of explosion pressure, heat and flame. The use of barrier glands is generally advised in the following circumstances:-

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

45

EEx d Cable Selector chart

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

46

When cables directly enter Flameproof Type d equipment and; cable used is not round, extruded bedded and suitably filled The enclosure contains an internal ignition source, is approved for Zone 1 use and the internal free volume exceeds 2 litres. There is a risk of gas migration via the cable from a hazardous area to a safe area, or in transition of zones. used in IIC environment
September 2007 copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007 Compex module 9 cable glands 47

Glands must be certified, Certified gland will be marked according to the certificate Thread preferably metric pitch 1.5mm. Threaded entry minimum of 6 full threads At least 5 full threads of the gland to be engaged Thread length of glands are normally 15mm. Where Intrinsically safe circuits involve cables entering an EEx d enclosure appropriate EEx d glands must be used, even a barrier gland if necessary
September 2007 copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007 Compex module 9 cable glands 48

Barrier Gland

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

49

Compound or Barrier gland


Compound

The use of the correct gland is negated if the gland is either incorrect for the cable or made off incorrectly. Also the thread on the gland must match the thread on the apparatus.
September 2007 copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007 Compex module 9 cable glands 50

Compound or Barrier gland

The setting time is normally 4 hours the gland must not be disturbed during this time,

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

51

Barrier gland braided cable

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

52

Barrier Glands
Used with EEx d equipment and also certain types of cable. Additional components to provide a pressure tight seal between the inside of the enclosure and the interstices of the cable. Different methods may be used to ensure that the filler is well compacted around the conductors over the required distance. Setting time of the compound will depend on a number of factors ambient temperature, age of the compound etc.
September 2007 copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007 Compex module 9 cable glands 53

MICC Cable Glands


MICC (Mineral Insulated Copper Conductor) may be used in most situations. Standard pots maybe used with EEx d, p and n equipment For EEx e equipment only EEx e pots maybe used- this is to meet the required wider clearances.

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

54

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

55

Dual certified glands


Most manufacturers of cable glands, over the last few years, have developed a dual certified gland. Certified as both EEx d and EEx e. This removes the confusion on what type of gland to use in any particular circumstance.

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

56

Ex d/Ex e gland

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

57

EEx e Glands
Certified gland will be marked according to the certificate. A lock nut and seal washer are required when less than 5 threads are engaged or gland is used in a clearance hole. A star washer can be used to maintain earth continuity Armouring must be clamped Earth tag (if required) to be fitted between gland body and seal washer.

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

58

EEx e glands
Amouring must be clamped Earth tag (if required) to be fitted between gland body and seal washer. However it is prudent to use the appropriate gland for the protection concept being used. e.g. use EEx e glands or dual certified glands on Ex e equipment.

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

59

EEx n
Glands for use in zone 2 with EEx n apparatus do not require to be certified, a standard industrial gland is suitable. Must maintain IP54

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

60

Gland Body Material


Normally Brass. Nickel and chromium plate glands are available for corrosive atmospheres Aluminium is not preferred for EEx d flameproof glands due to chemical interaction between aluminium and rust. Locknuts can be brass or mild steel. In outdoor environments it is better to use brass, ensures better earth continuity, better resistant to corrosion.
September 2007 copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007 Compex module 9 cable glands 61

Cable Glands EEx d


Sealing Washer

Correct
September 2007 copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Incorrect
Less than 5 threads fully engaged.
Compex module 9 cable glands 62

Blanking Plugs Ex e

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

63

Marking of blanking plug

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

64

Blanking Plugs
Ex d

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

65

Shrouds
PCP or PVC Used to achieve IP66 or IP67 or IP68, only as good as standard of installation

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

66

Locknuts
Two types Mild steel Brass

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

67

Cold Flow
"Cold flow" can be more fully described as thermoplastic materials which flow when subjected to pressure at ambient temperature, i.e. the inner sheath bedding material will flow away from any pressure applied to it, including that of a cable gland inner seal of the compression or displacement type, the effect being that there may no longer be an effective seal on the inner sheath of the cable.

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

68

Summary
Ex d enclosures use Ex d glands Ex e enclosures use Ex e glands Determine whether the enclosure is direct or indirect entry On Ex d enclosures free volume is important. Consider cable type e.g. braided, Steel wired armoured etc. Maintain IP rating of enclosure

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

69

End of Section

September 2007

copyright Epsilon Compliance 2007

Compex module 9 cable glands

70