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SYSTEM GUIDE

SYSTEM GUIDE

3BW79255AAAATQZZA Ed. 05

Status Short title

RELEASED SYSTOCB

04/06/2003

All rights reserved. Passing on and copying of this document, use and communication of its contents not permitted without written authorization from Alcatel.

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Contents

Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1 Alcatel 1000 MM E10: a multiservice and multimedia switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 The answer to your changing needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Mobility services access point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 MM E10 and the GSM network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2 MM E10 and the UMTS network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Broadband transport network access point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 VoATM function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.2 CSN MM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Intelligent network service access point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Subscriber connection point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.1 Subscriber line connection via the CSN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.2 Connecting ADSL subscribers via the CSN MM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.3 V5.1 and V5.2 interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.4 Direct primary rate access connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.5 Centrex function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 Transit point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 Architecture of the MM E10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.2 Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Two types of technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 MM E10 with non-HC technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 MM E10 with HC technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Control stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Dedicated SMs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.2 General purpose SMs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.3 A special station: the SCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.4 Structure of the control stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5 Exchange termination units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Control station software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.1 System software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.2 Functional software machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Communication local area network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.1 Local area network with SMCs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.2 Local area network with SMB_C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E10 core subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 Control and connection units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.1 SMs supporting the control function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.2 SM supporting the termination function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.3 SMs supporting auxiliary equipment functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.4 SMs supporting the gateway function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.5 Switching matrix: general . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.6 Switching matrix: RCX specific features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.7 Switching matrix: RCH specific features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.8 Synchronization and time base station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Maintenance control station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Role of the SMM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.2 Organization of the SMM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Other units of the E10 core subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 Alarm multiplexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2 Environment supervision station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.3 Alcatel recorded announcement machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 12 14 14 15 17 17 17 18 20 21 21 24 24 24 26 27 28 28 28 31 31 32 34 34 35 37 37 39 40 41 42 47 47 49 51 52 52 53 54 55 55 56 58 61 63 63 65 67 67 69 69

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3.3.4 Ancillary equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 3.3.5 Ventilation unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 3.3.6 Power supply equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 3.4 Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 4 Server subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 4.2 Nectar platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 4.3 Operation and maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 4.4 CDR formatting with the CDRA application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 4.5 SU2A application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 5 MM E10 configurations for UMTS and VoATM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 5.1 Architecture and interfaces of an MM E10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 5.2 MM E10 configuration for UMTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 5.2.1 Description of the UMTS SSP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 5.2.2 User plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 5.2.3 Control plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 5.2.4 Operation and maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 5.3 MM E10 configuration for VoATM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 5.3.1 Call service function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 5.3.2 Transport function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 5.3.3 VoATM transport operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 6 Dependability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 6.1 E10 core subsystem defense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 6.1.1 Redundancy of the subsystems components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 6.1.2 Automatic fault detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 6.1.3 Failure containment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 6.1.4 Automatic reconfiguration of resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 6.1.5 Local defense and central defense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 6.2 Server subsystem defense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 6.3 Load regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 7 Operation and maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 7.1 Organization of MM E10 operation and maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 7.1.1 E10 core subsystem operation and maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 7.1.2 Server subsystem operation and maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 7.2 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 7.3 Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 7.3.1 Messages and signals generated by the system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 7.3.2 Maintenance support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 7.4 Operator access management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 8 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 8.1 Compliance with standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 8.2 Maximum capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 8.3 Performance excluding IN traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 8.4 Impact of the IN traffic ratio on performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 9 Main technical characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 9.1 Hardware characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 9.1.1 Non-HC technology SM racks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 9.1.2 HC technology SM racks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 9.1.3 19" racks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 9.1.4 23" rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 9.2 Connection interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 9.3 Signaling handled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 9.4 Software characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

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Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

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Figures
Figure 1 : MM E10 in the telecommunications network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Figure 2 : Connecting mobile subscribers via the GSM network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Figure 3 : Connecting mobile subscribers via the UMTS network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Figure 4 : VoATM function: overview of the ATM transport network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Figure 5 : Intelligent network: universal personal number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Figure 6 : Connecting subscribers to the MM E10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Figure 7 : ADSL subscriber connection via a CSN MM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Figure 8 : MM E10: schematic representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Figure 9 : MM E10 with non-HC technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Figure 10 : MM E10 with HC technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Figure 11 : View of a dedicated control station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Figure 12 : View of a general purpose control station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Figure 13 : Control station: block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Figure 14 : Software organization of a control station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Figure 15 : Functional MLs of the MM E10 with non-HC technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Figure 16 : Functional MLs of the MM E10 with HC technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Figure 17 : Communication local area network with SMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Figure 18 : Communication local area network with SMB_C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Figure 19 : Switching matrix divided into 2 branches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Figure 20 : Branch of the RCX, made up of SMXs (maximum configuration) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Figure 21 : Switching principle in the RCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Figure 22 : Branch of an RCH with a capacity of 2048 LR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Figure 23 : Branch of an RCH with a capacity of 16 384 LR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Figure 24 : Architecture of the synchronization and time base station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Figure 25 : Distribution of timing signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Figure 26 : Role of the SMM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Figure 27 : Loading the MLs via the local area network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Figure 28 : Hardware alarm marshalling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Figure 29 : Server subsystem structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Figure 30 : View of a Nectar rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Figure 31 : CDR formatting application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Figure 32 : SU2A application signaling gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Figure 33 : Hardware configuration of the server subsystem with SU2A application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Figure 34 : Functional architecture and interfaces of an MM E10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Figure 35 : UMTS SSPs control and user planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Figure 36 : UMTS SSP operation and maintenance structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Figure 37 : Architecture of the VoATM function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Figure 38 : VC configuration in VoATM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Figure 39 : Example of defense reaction: ML migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

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Figure 40 : Example of defense reaction: ETU backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

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Tables

Tables
Table 1 : Minimum and maximum MM E10 configurations with non-HC technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Table 2 : Minimum and maximum MM E10 configurations with HC technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Table 3 : Redundancy applied to the E10 core subsystem units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Table 4 : Typical tasks by operating domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Table 5 : Performance of the MM E10 with non-HC technology (excluding IN traffic) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Table 6 : Performance of the MM E10 with HC technology (excluding IN traffic) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Table 7 : Impact of the IN on MM E10 performance (100% IN transit network traffic of n 7 signaling) . . . 116 Table 8 : Impact of the IN on MM E10 performance (15% IN fixed network traffic) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

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Preface

Preface
Purpose
This guide explains the Alcatel 1000 MM E10. It describes: how it is used in the telecommunications network, its architecture, its main units, the mechanisms that ensure reliable operation, the operation and maintenance organization, the main features. This guide concerns the MM E10, with High Capacity (HC) technology or non-HC technology.

Audience

This guide is for anyone responsible for administering, operating or maintaining the MM E10.

Contents

Chapter 1

locates the MM E10 in the telecommunications network. It explains the different applications for which this switch is intended. explains the architecture of the MM E10 and describes its changes. It presents the main entities of the system. describes the E10 core subsystem which is the core of the MM E10. describes the server subsystem. It also introduces the Call Detail Record formatting Application (CDRA) and the SU2A server. explains the MM E10s configurations for UMTS and VoATM function.

Chapter 2

Chapter 3 Chapter 4

Chapter 5

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Preface

Chapter 6

describes the mechanisms that ensure uninterrupted service. These are the defense and load regulation mechanisms. covers the organization of operation and maintenance. gives an idea of the MM E10s performance. describes the main technical characteristics of the MM E10. gives all the abbreviations in this guide in their expanded form. defines the key words used to describe the system. lists all the main concepts and where they can be found in the guide.

Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 The list of Abbreviations The Glossary The index

Related documents

The documents related to this guide are: Operation and documentation guide, GDDOC. The MM E10 in mobile networks, MOBILGOP . Connection unit management, URGOP . Telephone environment management, ETGOP . Intelligent network access management, RIGOP . Subscriber management, ABGOP . Operator access management, TPGOP . Catalog of key procedures, RECCLE. Preventive maintenance management, MPGOP . Corrective maintenance management, MCGOP . Site preparation, SITEOCB.

Typographical conventions

The typing conventions below are used in this guide: text in italics: document titles. text in bold: words or phrases designed to attract the readers attention. the symbol indicates an example.

Terminological conventions

The terminological conventions below are used in this guide: The terminology used is the terminology recommended by ITU-T and ETSI standards. The Alcatel 1000 E10 (OCB283) is renamed Alcatel 1000 MM E10. A terminal that supports a particular application is called like the application (for example, WAM terminal is used to designate the terminal that supports the WAM application only).

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1 Alcatel 1000 MM E10: a multiservice and multimedia switch


The MM E10 is a multiservice and multimedia switch. It can be used for a specific function as well as to combine several applications in the same equipment. The multiservice properties of the MM E10 mean that it can be used in widely varying contexts. This chapter explains the different contexts in which the MM E10 is used.

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1.1 The answer to your changing needs


Telecommunications networks are constantly changing. The rapid growth of the digital network, mobile network and intelligent network and the proliferation of new services constantly being offered to subscribers mean that equipment must be continuously adapted to new requirements. The Alcatel 1000 MM E10 switch, also known by its shorter name as the MM E10, is designed for evolving networks and the need to rationalize equipment operation. Its modular architecture means that new services can be added and processing capacity can be increased without interrupting operation of the switch. The various MM E10 configurations provide solutions to suit: the application for which it is intended (local switching center, international switching center, etc.), the environment (urban area, rural area), the volume and type of the traffic to be handled, the resources of the telecommunications network to which it is connected.

The MM E10 in the telecommunications network

The MM E10 can be used for all switching applications: mobility services access point, via the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) and the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) networks, broadband transport network access point (VoATM function), intelligent network services access point, local switching center, regional or national transit center, international transit center. The MM E10 can also provide the Signaling Transfer Point (STP) function of the n 7 signaling network. The operation and maintenance functions of the MM E10 are handled locally or from a central site. The various uses of the switch are shown in figure 1.

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Figure 1 : MM E10 in the telecommunications network

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1.2 Mobility services access point


The MM E10 provides access to both: GSM services, UMTS services. For more information on MM E10 in mobile networks, refer to the operator guide The MM E10 in mobile networks, MOBILGOP .

1.2.1 MM E10 and the GSM network


The MM E10 is a point of access to mobility services. It acts as an Service Switching Point (SSP) and communicates with an Radio Control Point (RCP) which performs the specific mobile radio functions. The combination of SSP and RCP forms an Mobile services Switching Center (MSC). Figure 2 illustrates the MM E10 and the GSM network. Subscriber data in the MSCs coverage area are registered by a Visitor Location Register (VLR) incorporated in the RCP . By combining an RCP with an MM E10, the same switch can be used for connecting both fixed and mobile subscribers. Figure 2 : Connecting mobile subscribers via the GSM network

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1.2.2 MM E10 and the UMTS network


The UMTS architecture, illustrated in figure 3, is similar to that of GSM. This architecture is based on associating an MSC (SSP-RCP combination) with a radio part, within which: the Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) corresponds to the GSM networks Base Station Subsystem (BSS), the Radio Network Controller (RNC) corresponds to the GSM networks Base Station Controller (BSC), the B nodes correspond to the GSM networks Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs), the Radio Access Network Application Part (RANAP) corresponds to the GSM networks Base Station Subsystem Management Application Part (BSSMAP). Figure 3 : Connecting mobile subscribers via the UMTS network

However, the UMTS capabilities of the MSC reflect major changes: voice and data services (in transparent and non-transparent modes) are provided to subscribers via a single network, dialog between the MSC and the radio part is conducted in ATM mode (instead of TDM mode in the GSM architecture), the MSC is equipped with a transcoding function (in the GSM architecture, this function is implemented in the BSC, not in the MSC).

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To support these changes, the MM E10 with HC or non-HC technology, called the UMTS SSP in this environment, has an open-ended configuration that includes: a server subsystem with SU2A application, running on a Nectar platform, an A7670 RSP front end, a TransCoder (TC). For a detailed functional description of this configuration, refer to chapter 5.

Note :

The UMTS network is a circuit mode and packet mode transport network, in which the MSC handles only the circuit switching aspect. The information contained in this document therefore relates to the circuit switching part of the UMTS network (voice and data). When you choose an MSC for UMTS, you also benefit from a GSM network connection capability.

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1.3 Broadband transport network access point


The MM E10 supports connections to broadband transport networks: for transporting voice over an ATM backbone network, using the Voice over ATM (VoATM) function, for transporting Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) subscribers data at high rates, using a multiservice multimedia subscriber digital access unit (CSN MM).

1.3.1 VoATM function


The MM E10 features VoATM function, enabling voice and data to be transported over the ATM network instead of the conventional TDM transit network. The ATM network is used simply as a transit network. Figure 4 gives an overview of the ATM transport network. Figure 4 : VoATM function: overview of the ATM transport network

For detailed information on the VoATM functions of the MM E10, refer to section 5.3.

1.3.2 CSN MM
ADSL technology enables data to be transmitted at high speeds over a conventional subscriber connection line consisting of a copper pair. The subscriber connection equipment used is the CSN MM. For more information on connecting ADSL subscribers using the CSN MM, refer to section 1.5.2.

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1.4 Intelligent network service access point


New services for subscribers are on the increase: payment by card, universal personal number, virtual private network, etc. Managing and processing these new services is often complex. The introduction of the Intelligent Network (IN) in the telecommunications network architecture is designed to centralize service data and processing in servers. The switch communicates with the servers via a standard interface. The switch and the servers use this method to interchange service commands and the service data needed to carry out the call handling tasks. Management of services by the IN has several advantages: It is easy to introduce new services. There is little impact on the network elements in place. The number of services available can be increased. Service management is very flexible. The service supplier has great freedom in customizing a service. Users of the service can also change some of the parameters. The services are available to all types of subscriber (analog, digital, mobile). The intelligence and data storage resources needed to provide the services are concentrated in specialist equipment. The MM E10 is an intelligent network access point. It serves as an SSP and communicates with the Service Control Points (SCPs). Dialog between an SSP and an SCP is conducted over the signaling network using the Intelligent Network Application Protocol (INAP). Some of the IN services available via the MM E10 are listed below: Payment by card. Payment is made by prepaid card or credit card. Free call. The call is free to the calling subscriber and billed to the called subscriber. Universal number. A single number can be used to contact different branches of a company depending on from where the call comes. Universal personal number. Subscribers can be reached via a single number wherever they are, as illustrated in figure 5. The virtual private network. This provides a way of setting up a private dialing plan or abbreviated dialing between private switches and individual lines. Televoting. This is for handling large volumes of calls generated by radio or television broadcasts. Call screening. Incoming and outgoing calls are screened according to preset criteria.

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Typical IN service: the universal personal number

When a universal personal number call is presented, dialog is set up between the switch and an IN server. The server determines the final destination of the call and notifies the switch. The switch can then continue handling the call (see figure 5). The destination selected by the server may depend on the time the call is made or can be defined by the service subscriber.

Figure 5 : Intelligent network: universal personal number

The operator guide Intelligent network access management, RIGOP , describes, in detail, the intelligent network and use of the MM E10 in this context.

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1.5 Subscriber connection point


The MM E10 provides great flexibility to serve all types of subscribers, in urban or rural areas. It can: connect digital as well as analog subscribers, connect subscribers with ADSL, optimize the use of access equipment according to the dispersion of the subscribers, using a subscriber line concentration architecture with 2 levels of concentration, connect access networks through V5.1 or V5.2 interfaces, connect primary rate access directly to the switch, manage private subscriber lines (centrex function). The subscriber digital access unit (CSN) is the unit that connects subscribers to the MM E10. 2 other units, the electronic satellite concentrator (CSE) and the second generation subscriber connection unit (URA2G) are also used to concentrate subscriber lines. Figure 6 illustrates the connection of subscribers to the MM E10. For more information on connection units, refer to the operator guide Connection unit management, URGOP . Figure 6 : Connecting subscribers to the MM E10

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1.5.1 Subscriber line connection via the CSN


The CSN consists of connection and control units and line concentration modules called digital concentrators (CNs). Depending on what is required, the CNs are installed close to or distant from the CSN core. Similarly, a CSN is installed away from or close to a switch. This 2-level subscriber line concentration architecture permits optimal use of equipment for serving areas with dense and sparse concentrations of subscribers. The CSN is connected to the switch via standard Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) links if it is remote or via matrix links (LR) if it is local. It communicates with the MM E10 using the n 7 signaling system. If links are accidentally disconnected from their local switch, the CSN can switch to standalone operation, which means that calls can be set up between the subscribers connected to it. The CSN can be used to connect: analog subscribers with rotary dial sets, analog subscribers with pushbutton DTMF sets, analog subscribers with ADSL access (see section 1.5.2), basic rate digital subscribers (2B + D), primary rate digital subscribers (30B + D).

1.5.2 Connecting ADSL subscribers via the CSN MM


The multiservice multimedia CSN (CSN MM) is a high speed CSN capable of connecting ADSL subscribers. The 2 ends of the line, the subscriber installation and the connection equipment, are fitted with ADSL modems. For data transmission, the ADSL modems use a frequency band above the telephone baseband. Filters at either end separate the telephone traffic from the high rate data traffic. These 2 traffic flows can therefore coexist with no interference. Data transmission is asymmetrical. In the best conditions, the downstream flow (from network to subscriber) can reach a rate of 6 Mbit/s whereas the upstream flow (from subscriber to network) reaches 640 kbit/s. The maximum rates for each direction of flow depend on the distance separating the subscribers installation from the connection equipment.

CSN MM

The CSN MM: houses CN MMs that have terminal units (UTs) for connecting ADSL subscribers and UT for transporting high speed data. The CN MMs can be local or remote. provides Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switching to concentrate the ADSL lines. The CSN MM handles 2 types of traffic: High rate data traffic generated by ADSL subscribers. This is ATM traffic. After concentration, it is transported over Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) lines at 155 Mbit/s. The low rate telephone traffic generated by ADSL subscribers and other types of subscribers (analog and digital).

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Some multiservice multimedia local digital concentrators (CNL MMs) and multiservice multimedia remote CN (CNE MMs) are available. The UTs for connecting ADSL subscribers provide analog and ADSL access. The Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA) technique allows to use low rate links to transport ATM cells with higher rates. The ATM flow can be transmitted using PCM links assigned to an IMA group. Figure 7 shows an ADSL subscriber connected to a CSN MM, how high rate and low rate traffic are separated and the possibility to chain CSN MMs. Figure 7 : ADSL subscriber connection via a CSN MM

Narrowband network access

From the MM E10, the ADSL subscriber is seen as an analog subscriber specifically connected via an ADSL UT. The low rate telephone traffic from this subscriber is handled and managed in the conventional way.

Broadband network access

The high rate data traffic generated by the ADSL subscribers is directed from the CSN MM to a broadband network. Access to the broadband network is managed: using operator commands to declare and maintain the UTs,

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using a specific application called the CSN MM operator terminal (TOP) for configuring service profiles, ATM ports, etc.

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1.5.3 V5.1 and V5.2 interfaces


The V5.1 and V5.2 interfaces are standard interfaces for connecting access networks, as illustrated in figure 6. Any subscriber line concentration equipment with V5.1 or V5.2 interface protocols can therefore be connected to the MM E10. The operators of the Access Network (AN) and of the local exchange have shared responsibilities. The access network operator is responsible for maintaining access and the subscriber lines. The local exchange operator manages the services to subscribers and call charging. The access networks are connected to the switch via 2048 kbit/s PCM links: A V5.1 interface has a single PCM link. Connection to the MM E10 is via a CSN. A V5.2 interface has up to 16 PCM links directly connected to the MM E10. For more information on connection to the MM E10 via a V5.2 interface, refer to the operator guide Connection unit management, URGOP .

1.5.4 Direct primary rate access connection


Primary rate (30B + D) digital accesses can be connected directly to the MM E10. This type of connection, called PRAD (Primary Rate Access Directly connected to the switch), eliminates the need to use special connection equipment. For more information on direct primary rate access connection, refer to: Catalog of key procedures, RECCLE. Connection unit management operator guide, URGOP .

1.5.5 Centrex function


The centrex function enables some of the resources of the MM E10 and of its connection equipment to be used to link geographically-separated offices of a single company and create a virtual private network. A company using the centrex function leases this service from the network operator managing the switch. The company using the centrex function benefits from a number of advantages: It has a private dialing plan with the option of shorter numbers for calls within the company. It has access to many supplementary services which can be granted: to its establishments (called companies), to analog and digital subscriber lines, to operator telephone sets. Operation and maintenance of the connection and switching equipment are the responsibility of the network operator. For more information on management of the centrex function and on supplementary services, refer to the operator guide Subscriber management, ABGOP .

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Private subscriber lines

Within the context of the centrex function, the subscriber lines connected to the MM E10 are called private subscriber lines. These may be: analog, digital, at the basic rate (2B + D), digital, at the primary rate (30B + D). Private user lines are connected: by CSNs. Connection to CSNs can be through CNs or V5.1 interfaces. by access networks via V5.2 interfaces.

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1.6 Transit point


The MM E10 can provide regional, national or international transit facilities.

Network signaling handled

The MM E10 handles: Channel associated signaling. The signaling is associated with the flow of user information. Channel associated signaling uses a reserved time slot of the PCM link used. Common channel signaling n 7. The signaling is not linked to the flow of user information. Common channel signaling can use a separate network specialized in transporting signaling. The MM E10 can be used as an Signaling Transfer Point (STP). This property avoids having to use special equipment when signaling network traffic is light (for example, when a signaling network is being created). The switchs STP function can also be used for backup purposes.

PCM terminations with echo canceling

Changing services (mobility, multiple transfers on a single call, etc.) mean that the echo canceling is becoming necessary for all types of telephone calls. The MM E10 has PCM terminations with echo canceling built in to avoid the need for echo cancelers outside the system.

DCME

The Digital Circuit Multiplication Equipment (DCME) is used to concentrate the traffic on a n 7 circuit group to optimize resources. The DCME is connected to the MM E10 by a PCM link with channel associated signaling.

International transit

The MM E10 has the resources necessary for international transit use. It can handle: the international translation subsystem, echo cancelers and suppressors, international accounting, operator telephone sets.

Connecting operators

2 operator connection subsystems are available: Sysope, which can handle hundreds of local or remote operator telephone sets on one or more sites. OPE283, specific subsystem to the MM E10, which can handle up to 16 operator telephone sets.

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2 System overview

2 System overview
The MM E10 was designed to evolve as operator needs change. It offers 2 major developments: the introduction of High Capacity (HC) technology, the introduction of servers. The various configuration capabilities mean that all or some of these developments can be incorporated. This chapter explains: the general architecture of the system and the 2 technologies used, the organization and role of the control stations (SM), the organization and role of the software machines (ML), the communication local area network.

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2 System overview

2.1 Architecture of the MM E10


The MM E10 is constructed according to an architecture which supports upgrades to a high capacity switch.

2.1.1 Principles
The MM E10 is constructed according to the following principles: it has a modular architecture, system functions are distributed over its component modules. The principle of modularity applies to both hardware and switch software. The systems modular architecture means: ease of customization. The number of different modules can be tailored to the functions the switch performs as well as the volume and characteristics of the traffic handled. reliability. Newly developed modules are tested independently. dependability. The principle of redundancy is applied to each type of system component. Redundancy ensures continuity of service if a unit fails. ease of upgrading. It is easy to add new modules to incorporate technological changes or upgrades.

2.1.2 Organization
The MM E10 comprises: the E10 core subsystem, the subscriber access subsystem, optionally, the server subsystem.

Note :

The subscriber access subsystem is made up of connection units (URs). It is not described in this guide. For more information on URs, see the Connection unit management operator guide, URGOP . The E10 core subsystem is the switch core. It mainly includes: control stations, software machines, a communication local area network. This architecture is complemented with the Synchronization and Time base Station (STS) which provides the timing signals needed to process the digital data.

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2 System overview

Figure 8 is a schematic representation of the MM E10 with the E10 core subsystem and the server subsystem. Figure 8 : MM E10: schematic representation

Control stations

The control stations (SMs) are the hardware modules of the E10 core subsystem. An SM is a set of boards in a shelf powered via converters, as illustrated in figures 11 and 12. The boards supporting the processors and the memory boards are linked via a bus. Each SM is connected to the communication local area network. The SMs are the hardware elements that are handled during operation and maintenance operations. Thus: An SM can be positioned (placed in service, isolated). An SM can be interrogated. An SM can be tested. The structure of the SMs is detailed in section 2.3. The role of each type of SM is described in chapter 3.

Software machines

The software machines (MLs) are the software modules of the E10 core subsystem. An ML is supported by a control station. Several MLs can coexist on the same SM.

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The control station software machine (ML SM) is present in every SM. It operates the station. The other MLs, called functional MLs, are for the switchs main functions (call handling, connection management, etc). The systems various MLs are described in section 2.4.

Local area network

The local area network comprises the E10 core subsystem Local Area Network (OCB LAN) and, where appropriate, the Nectar platform local area network (LSN). General purpose control stations (SMBs) which are equipped with an Ethernet coupler and which use the TCP/IP protocol handle the gateway function between these 2 local area networks. The OCB LAN links the SMs. It supports communication between the software machines supported by the different SMs. An ML can communicate with another ML without having to know where it is in the network. The local area networks structure and characteristics are detailed in section 2.5.

Servers

The servers are optional. They support functions in addition to those handled by the MLs. The server subsystem and the applications currently available are explained in chapter 4.

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2.2 Two types of technology


The MM E10 is gradually evolving into a second generation switch with the following characteristics: Its units work on High Capacity (HC) technology. It can be equipped with servers.

Advantages of HC technology

The HC technology offers numerous benefits: greater connection capacity, greater processing power, more compact equipment, reduced number of boards in the SMs, very significant reduction in the number of cables needed for the switching network, lower electrical consumption, the possibility, ultimately, to connect broadband access points.

HC, non-HC and mixed configurations

The first generation MM E10 with non HC technology, is explained in section 2.2.1. The second generation MM E10 with HC technology, is explained in section 2.2.2. The HC and non-HC technologies are compatible, provided that certain engineering rules are observed. They can coexist on the same switch, only in an MM E10 with non-HC technology in UMTS environment.

2.2.1 MM E10 with non-HC technology


The first generation MM E10 with non-HC technology features: SMs dedicated according to their functions (control, auxiliary, termination, connection, maintenance functions), a narrowband switching network, a maximum configuration connection capacity of 2048 matrix links (LRs). Servers can be added. The gateway function between the OCB LAN and the Nectar platform local area network (LSN) is then supported by a general purpose control station (SMB).

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Hardware architecture in non-HC technology

Figure 9 gives the hardware architecture of the MM E10 with non-HC technology, and the system interfaces. Figure 9 : MM E10 with non-HC technology

2.2.2 MM E10 with HC technology


The second generation MM E10 with HC technology, features: SMs, designated general purpose control stations (SMB), which can support one or more functions of the switch depending on the types of board installed, a high rate switching network, a maximum configuration connection capacity of 16 384 matrix links (LRs), the facility to connect servers with no particular reorganization.

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Note :

Some functions are as yet not available on SMBs. In particular, the following must be used: second generation trunk control stations (SMT2G) for connecting PCM links, an maintenance control station (SMM) for system operation and maintenance.

Hardware architecture in HC technology

Figure 10 shows the hardware architecture of the MM E10 with HC technology, and the system interfaces. The designations SMB_... are used by way of indication to designate the different functions supported by the SMBs.

Figure 10 : MM E10 with HC technology

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2.3 Control stations


Control stations (SM) can be: dedicated in the MM E10 with non-HC technology, general purpose in the MM E10 with HC technology. Sections 2.3.1 to 2.3.3 explain the 2 types of SM followed by the high rate matrix control station (SCH) which is made up of HC and non-HC technology components. Section 2.3.4 explains the structure of the SMs in generic terms. The Exchange Termination Units (ETUs), which are used in some SM and which are managed in a special way, are described in section 2.3.5.

2.3.1 Dedicated SMs


Dedicated SMs are used in the MM E10 with non-HC technology. They are dedicated according to the functions that they provide within the system. There are 5 types of dedicated SM: Main control stations (SMC) support the switching functions (translation, charging, etc.). Auxiliary equipment control stations (SMA) support the auxiliary functions. Trunk control stations (SMT) connect PCM links. Matrix control stations (SMX) form the switching network. Maintenance control stations (SMM) provide system operation and maintenance functions. For more details of the functions provided by the various types of SM, refer to chapter 3. Figure 11 locates the SMC, SMA, SMT, SMX and SMM SMs in their racks.

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Figure 11 : View of a dedicated control station

2.3.2 General purpose SMs


SMBs are used in the MM E10 with HC technology. They can support one or more switch functions according to the types of board installed. Thus, in a minimum configuration, an SMB supports all the switch functions. For convenience, the following designations are used in the documentation: SMB_C designates an SMB supporting the control function. The SMB_C handles the gateway function between the E10 core subsystem and the server subsystem with CDRA application, in an MM E10 with HC technology. SMB_A designates an SMB supporting the auxiliary functions. The SMB_A handles the gateway function between the E10 core subsystem and the server subsystem with SU2A application, in an MM E10 with HC technology. SMB_T designates an SMB supporting the termination function.

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The SMB_T handles the gateway function between the E10 core subsystem and the server subsystem in an MM E10 with non-HC technology in UMTS environment. SMB_X designates an SMB supporting the matrix function. A combined designation is used when an SMB supports more than one function. In small configurations, the designation SMB_CAXT represents an SMB supporting the control, auxiliary, matrix and termination functions.

Note :

SMB_... type designations can be used by way of indication to indicate the functions supported by the SMBs. These designations do not appear on the operator interface. Only the SMB symbol is used. For more details of the functions handled by the SMBs, refer to chapter 3. Figure 12 locates the SMBs in their racks. For more information on MM E10 servers, refer to chapter 4. Figure 12 : View of a general purpose control station

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2.3.3 A special station: the SCH


The high rate matrix control station (SCH) is a station built using both of the technologies described above: the stations control elements use non-HC technology, the elements handling the matrix function use HC technology. The SCHs are deployed to form high rate switching network (RCH) if there are no SMB_X type stations available. SCHs and SMB_Xs are compatible. They can be used in the same RCH. SCHs are housed in racks similar to those containing SMBs, as illustrated in figure 12.

2.3.4 Structure of the control stations


Control stations (SMs) have some elements that are common to all SMs. Other elements are specific to the functions performed by the SMs in which they are used. Figure 13 illustrates the structure of a control station. An SM is constructed using the following elements: Processor units. Processor units support the software machines (MLs). An SM is comprised of a main processor unit (PUP) and possibly secondary processor units (PUSs). The presence of PUSs depends on the type and number of MLs supported. SMB SM processor units each have an interchange memory. The processor units of dedicated SMs share a common memory. Main coupler. The main coupler includes: an main multiplex coupler (CMP), connecting the SM to the E10 core subsystems local area network. The SMBs CMP enables the SMB to be connected to 2 multiplexes. where appropriate, an Ethernet coupler. The Ethernet coupler connects the SMBs to the server subsystems local area network. It includes 2 Ethernet interfaces. The Ethernet coupler is dedicated to SMBs. Secondary multiplex coupler. SMCs, SMB_Cs and SMB_As have secondary multiplex couplers when the CMP is not sufficient to connect all the multiplexes of the local area network described in section 2.5.

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Dedicated couplers. The dedicated couplers perform special processes and are used for connecting to elements outside the SM. The presence, type and number of these couplers depend on the functions handled. For example, an SMA may have dedicated couplers for processing n 7 signaling. Bus. The control station bus is used to exchange information between all the SM elements connected to it. This bus is an MMB for an SMB, an XBUS for an SMM and a BSM for other types of SMs.

Figure 13 : Control station: block diagram

A SM has a basic unit with a main processor unit and a main multiplex coupler, both connected to the station bus. Depending on the SMs functions, this basic equipment will be supplemented by secondary processor units, secondary multiplex couplers or dedicated couplers.

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2.3.5 Exchange termination units


Exchange Termination Units (ETUs) differ from other elements of an SM in that they are covered by special operation and maintenance operations. Thus: An ETU can be positioned (placed in service, isolated). An ETU can be interrogated. An ETU can be tested. Some ETUs are backed up. They can be reconfigured automatically as part of defense reactions (see example described in section 6.1.4). ETUs are boards that may have associated appliques. There are 2 types of ETU depending on whether they belong to an SM or a pair of SMs: A simplex ETU is controlled by the station in which it is installed. A duplex ETU is controlled by the active station of the pair of SMs to which it belongs. First used in the system with ETUs for connecting PCM links in the SMT2Gs, the ETUs are now used in all SMB type stations. These are: ETUs for connecting SDH links (duplex ETU), ETUs for protecting the high rate access links (duplex ETU), echo canceler ETUs (duplex ETU), ETUs for the high rate switching network (simplex ETU) for: time division multiplex channel/composite ATM cell switching, ATM switching, ATC ETUs (duplex ETU), for the transcoding function of the UMTS SSP , IWU ETUs (duplex ETU), for the VoATM function.

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2.4 Control station software


Control stations (SMs) support 2 types of software: system software, application software.

Organization of an SMs software

An SM supports many software modules distributed over the various agents (PUP , PUS, couplers). These programs are software machines (MLs) which can have several components. Figure 14 illustrates the software organization of a control station. The system software is transparent to the operator. It provides the resources needed to run the application software. The system software is described in section 2.4.1. The application software modules are the functional MLs of the MM E10. The operator responsible for operation and maintenance can interrogate the system to determine how the different functional MLs are implemented in the system. The functional MLs are described in section 2.4.2. Figure 14 : Software organization of a control station

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2.4.1 System software


The system software manages the functional ML environment. It relieves the functional MLs of all the low level tasks. The system software includes: the hypervisor, the supervisor, the control station software machine (ML SM).

Hypervisor

The hypervisor is the SMs operating system. It handles: access to the SMs hardware resources (timers, etc), time sharing between the different MLs supported by one processor, communication between MLs, irrespective of their locations, file access, ML observation (time consumption, supervision of communication queues).

Supervisor

The supervisor enables an ML to operate. It handles the sequencing of the processes executed by an MLs various components.

ML SM

The ML SM is the SMs management software. Its main tasks are: initialization of the SM, defense, loading of functional MLs.

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2.4.2 Functional software machines


The functional MLs represent the switchs main functions. These are the functions that are defended by central defense. The functional MLs have the following characteristics: An ML is supported by an SM. Several MLs can be present on the same SM. The redundancy principle is applied to the MLs. An ML exists in as many copies as load and dependability require. The various copies of a single ML can operate in load sharing mode. If a station fails, an ML can migrate from one SM to another. The MLs are stored on disk and loaded when the SMs are initialized. These characteristics provide a high level of configuration flexibility and facilitate system defense. Figures 15 and 16 show, on the basis of configurations of the MM E10, the different functional MLs and an example of their location in the system.

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Figure 15 : Functional MLs of the MM E10 with non-HC technology

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Figure 16 : Functional MLs of the MM E10 with HC technology

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MLs associated with the control function

The SMCs and SMB_Cs support the control software machines: Call handler ML (ML MR). The ML MR analyzes the signaling and supervises the setting up and clearing of calls. Subscriber and analysis database manager ML (ML TR). The ML TR controls and translates the number dialed by the subscriber or received from a circuit into information that can be used by the call handling function. It determines the call routing and the charging mode. Call charging and traffic measurement ML (ML TX). The ML TX performs the calculations needed to charge for the calls. It also carries out the observation tasks on circuits and subscribers. SS N 7 controller ML (ML PC). Message distributor ML (ML MQ). The ML MQ is responsible for formatting and distributing messages sent to the SMs supporting termination, auxiliary and connection functions. matrix system handler ML (ML GX). The ML GX centralizes the management and defense of the matrix switching system. IN and mobile server controller ML (ML GS). Call control ML (ML CC). The ML CC helps with call handling for accessing intelligent network and mobile network services.

MLs associated with the termination function

The SMTs support the PCM controller MLs (ML URMs) which manage the PCM links and their conversion into matrix links. The SMB_Ts support the termination management MLs: high rate line controller ML (ML HD) to manage SDH lines, PCM controller ML (ML URM) for managing 2 Mbit/s links.

MLs associated with the gateway function

The SMB_Ts support the gateway MLs (ML GWs) which enable the dialog between the SMAs and the server subsystem with SU2A application, in an MM E10 with non-HC technology in UMTS environment.

MLs associated with auxiliary functions

The SMAs and SMB_As support a range of software machines: Auxiliary equipment manager ML (ML ETA). SS N 7 protocol handler ML (ML PUPE). access network ML (ML AN). The ML AN handles: the V5.2 interfaces used for connecting access networks, the Primary Rate Access Directly connected to the switch (PRADs).

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MLs associated with the matrix function ML associated with the operation and maintenance function

The SMXs, SMB_Xs and SCHs support the matrix switch controller ML (ML COM) which manages the matrix switching.

The SMM supports the message router ML (ML OC) which is the interface between the Operation and Maintenance software (OM) and the rest of the system. The ML OC helps with the defense functions. It hosts the local area networks ring manager. The SMM also supports the OM which provides the telephone application operation and system operation and maintenance. The OM is not an ML. For more details of OM, refer to section 3.2.2.

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2.5 Communication local area network


The local area network supports communication between the control stations (SMs) of the MM E10 and, where appropriate, between the SMs and the servers. The SMs communicate, between themselves and with the servers, by exchanging messages over the network. The E10 core subsystem Local Area Network (OCB LAN) is made up of a multiplex. One multiplex consists of 2 ring configuration carriers. Message interchanges obey a token ring type protocol (IEEE 802.5 standard). The Nectar platform local area network (LSN) is based on Ethernet technology. It is duplicated to protect communication between the Nectar stations (SNs) of the platform and communication with the SMs of the E10 core subsystem. The structure of the local area network and the technologies used mean that: an SM can be added or removed without interrupting service, the system can be dimensioned with a minimum of constraints (up to 255 SM for each multiplex), dependability can be guaranteed (1+1 or n+1 protection). The architecture of the communication local area network depends on the types of stations to be connected (dedicated SMs or general purpose SMs).

2.5.1 Local area network with SMCs


OCB LAN
With SMCs, the local area network of the E10 core subsystem can have up to 5 communication multiplexes: The inter control station multiplex (MIS) supports the transfer of messages between the SMCs and the SMM. The main control station access multiplexes (MASs) support the transfer of messages between the SMCs and the SM that support the termination, connection and auxiliary functions, and when appropriate, the gateway function. Depending on the configuration, the local area network will have 0, 2, 3 or 4 MASs. In a compact configuration, the local area network has only 1 communication multiplex (the MIS) to which all the SMs are connected. Both rings of each multiplex operate in load sharing mode. However, each ring is capable of handling all traffic on the multiplex. So duplication of the ring safeguards the transfer of all messages (1+1 protection). The unit bit rate of the rings is 4 or 16 Mbit/s, depending on the configuration.

Gateway with the LSN

When the control function is supported by SMC type stations, the gateway function between the OCB LAN and the LSN is handled by SMB_Gs connected to the MIS and, where appropriate, the MAS.

Typical architecture

Figure 17 shows a typical communication local area network architecture with an SMC type control station, when the OCB LAN has 1 MIS and 2 MASs.

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Figure 17 : Communication local area network with SMC

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2.5.2 Local area network with SMB_C


OCB LAN
With SMB_Cs, the E10 core subsystems local area network has up to 4 communication multiplexes. The various multiplexes operate in the same way. The designations MIS and MAS are retained for convenience: The inter control station multiplex (MIS) is the first multiplex created. It connects the SMM. The main control station access multiplexes (MASs) are the other multiplexes. Depending on the configuration, the local area network will have 0, 1 or 3 MASs. The SMB_Cs and SMB_As that support the SS N 7 control function are connected to all the multiplexes. The other SMs are distributed over the various multiplexes. 2 given SMs share 2, 4 or 8 rings depending on their type and the number of multiplexes in the local area network. In normal operation, load is shared between the common rings. If a ring goes down, traffic is carried on the remaining rings (n+1 protection). The unit bit rate of the rings is 16 Mbit/s.

Gateway with the LSN

When the control function is supported by SMB_C stations, the gateway function between the OCB LAN and the LSN is handled by: SMB_Cs when the server subsystem supports the CDRA application. SMB_As when the server subsystem supports the SU2A application.

Typical architecture

Figure 18 shows a typical communication local area network architecture with an RCH and SMB_C type control, when the OCB LAN has 2 multiplexes.

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Figure 18 : Communication local area network with SMB_C

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3 E10 core subsystem


The E10 core subsystem is the core of the switch. If there are no servers, it constitutes the MM E10. This chapter explains: the role of the control and connection units, the role of the maintenance control station, the other units of the E10 core subsystem (alarm multiplex, environment supervision station, etc.), an overview of the range of configurations available.

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3.1 Control and connection units


The MM E10 control and connection unit mainly comprise control stations (SMs). These are: SMs supporting the control function, SM supporting the termination function, SMs supporting auxiliary equipment functions, SMs supporting the gateway function, the switching matrix, the synchronization and time base station.

3.1.1 SMs supporting the control function


The SMs supporting the control function are: main control stations (SMCs), or general purpose control stations - main function (SMB_Cs). The functions handled by the SMCs or SMB_Cs are: call handling (setting up and clearing calls), translation (management of routings and charging modes using databases), charging, circuit observation, connection management, SS N 7 network management, server management. The SMB_Cs can also, optionally, provide the gateway function for access to the server subsystem. The SMs supporting the control function have a particular role within the communication local area network. In the case of a network with more than one multiplex, these SMs are connected to the inter control station multiplex (MIS) and to the control station access multiplexes (MASs). They can communicate with all the SMs on the local area network and are used to transfer messages between the SMs connected to the different multiplexes (see section 2.5).

Equipment

In addition to the basic equipment of an SM, the SMCs and SMB_Cs have: secondary processor units (PUSs), to handle the various control functions, secondary multiplex couplers (CMSs), for connection to the MASs. In the case of an SMB_C, the main coupler has an Ethernet coupler for access to the servers.

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Backup

Optionally, a backup SMC (or SMB_C) can take over from a defective SMC (or SMB_C). If an SM supporting the control function fails, the functions provided by this SM are transferred to the backup SM, at the command of the systems central defense function, so the switchs full handling capacity is restored.

3.1.2 SM supporting the termination function


The SMs supporting the termination function are: trunk control stations (SMTs), general purpose control stations - Termination function (SMB_Ts). The SMs supporting the termination function are the interfaces between the MM E10 and the remote network elements (switches, subscriber connection units, etc).

SMTs

The SMTs are for connecting the PCM link and preprocessing the channel associated signaling. There are 2 SMT versions: the SMT1G capable of connecting 32 PCM links. This cannot be used in an MM E10 with HC technology. the SMT2G capable of connecting 128 PCM links. This can be used in an MM E10 with HC technology.

SMT1G

An SMT1G includes: a duplicated control logic that operates in active-standby mode, interfaces with the PCM links, duplicated acquisition modules for processing the PCM links, interfaces for connection to the 2 branches of the switching matrix.

SMT2G

An SMT2G includes: 2 individual stations, SMTA and SMTB, which control the SMT and operate in active-standby mode. Each individual station has basic control station equipment (CMP , PUP , common memory) and couplers linking with the Exchange Terminations (ETs). exchange terminations for connecting the PCM links. The ETs are not duplicated and can be controlled by either of the individual stations. interfaces for connection to the 2 branches of the switching matrix. The ETs are supported by Exchange Termination Units (ETUs). Some types of ETUs have ETs with built-in echo cancelers (see section 9.2). In particular, the SMT2Gs connect access networks via V5.2 interfaces and connect Primary Rate Access Directly connected to the switch (PRADs).

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SMB_T

An SMB_T is an SMB with duplex ETUs. For a list of duplex ETUs, refer to section 2.3.5. The SMB_T has echo cancelers supported by special ETUs. The echo cancelers form a pool that is dynamically managed by the call handling function (see section 9.2). The termination and connection functions are both handled by ETUs, and are often linked in the same SMBs. When they are, the designation SMB_XT can be used. An SMB_T can be connected to an RCX via an IASAB applique which converts the high rate access links (LAHs) into matrix link groups (GLRs). The SMB_T can, optionally, also handle the gateway function for access to the server subsystem.

3.1.3 SMs supporting auxiliary equipment functions


The SMs supporting auxiliary equipment functions are: auxiliary equipment control stations (SMAs), general purpose control stations - Auxiliary function (SMB_As). The SMA and SMB_A functions are: management of voice frequency signals: receipt and generation of frequencies for setting up calls, management of conference circuits, tone generation, V.23 modulation. time management. processing of common channel signaling system n 7. processing of the V5.2 interfaces for connecting access networks. processing of Primary Rate Access Directly connected to the switch (PRADs). An SMA contains the basic SM equipment plus, depending on requirements, couplers dedicated to the functions listed above. The SMB_A can, optionally, also handle the gateway function for access to the server subsystem.

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3.1.4 SMs supporting the gateway function


The general purpose control stations (SMBs) which support the gateway function provide access to the server subsystem. They are equipped with an Ethernet coupler and use the TCP/IP protocol. The gateway function is optional. The gateway function is supported by: SMB_Cs when the MM E10 with HC technology is equipped with a server subsystem with CDRA application. SMB_As when the MM E10 with HC technology is equipped with a server subsystem with SU2A application. SMB_Ts in an MM E10 with non-HC technology in UMTS environment.

3.1.5 Switching matrix: general


The switching matrix sets up the connections between the different time-division multiplex channels that come from the connection units (SMs supporting the termination function, SM supporting auxiliary functions, local CSNs). It is composed of 2 identical branches, A and B. For each call, the connections are set up simultaneously in both branches. A control unit selects the branch that is active for that call. The switching matrixs 2-branch structure provides connection defense capability. Figure 19 illustrates the 2 branches of the switching matrix. Figure 19 : Switching matrix divided into 2 branches

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Matrix links

The matrix links (LRs) are links connecting to the switching network. An LR is a synchronous link with 32 time-division multiplex channels of 16 bits per 125 microsecond frame. This means that an LR operates at 4 Mbit/s. The 8 bits of a PCM link time slot are supplemented by an additional 8 bits, of which 3 are used for control purposes. These control bits provide defense for the connections. Seen from a branch of the switching network, the matrix links are divided into incoming matrix links (LREs) and outgoing matrix links (LRSs).

Branch selection and amplification

The branch selection and amplification devices (SABs) are the interface between the connection units and the 2 branches of the switching matrix. They are located in the connection units or in the switching network when it comprises SMB_Xs. The SABs: amplify the LRs, sending and receiving, receive the timing signal from the switching network branches and distribute them in the connection unit, select the active branch, for each time division multiplex channel. For a given call, the active branch is selected by comparing, bit for bit, the timedivision multiplex channel from the 2 branches of the switching network and by processing the control bits.

3.1.6 Switching matrix: RCX specific features


The branches of the narrowband switching network (RCX) are made up of basic elements, called time switches, that can switch the time-division multiplex channels from 64 LRE to 64 LRS. The branches have as many outgoing links as incoming links. The juxtaposition of the time switches increases the capacity of an RCX branch to 2048 LRE by 2048 LRS. To increase the capacity of the branches, one need only is to add the equipment that supports new time switches. So switching capacity can be increased progressively, as required, with no lack of continuity. Each connection uses a single time switch. The switching matrix therefore has only one time stage T. This feature ensures that: there is no blocking, call setup times are short, cross-switch time is the same for all connections.

Matrix control stations

From a hardware point of view, the 2 branches of the RCX consist of matrix control stations (SMXs). In a maximum configuration, each branch has 8 SMXs each processing 256 LREs and 256 LRSs. Each SMX receives the incoming switching links (LCXEs) from the other SMXs. Figure 20 illustrates the branch of the RCX, made up of SMXs in maximum configuration.

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An SMX comprises the basic SM equipment, plus: a control interface, matrix link interfaces, the equipment for setting up the RCX. Figure 20 : Branch of the RCX, made up of SMXs (maximum configuration)

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3.1.7 Switching matrix: RCH specific features


The high rate switching network (RCH) uses ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) technology. The ATM scheme used minimizes transit-time in the switching network. It is called composite ATM. The RCH has a maximum connection capacity of 16 384 LR.

RCH operation

The branches of the RCH have 3 stages: The first stage includes up to 128 T/AC (switching of synchronous time division multiplex channels into composite ATM channels) switching elements, each receiving 128 LRs. It converts the received LRs into ATM cells. Each ATM cell simultaneously contains several calls, but a single sample of each. At the output of this stage, the cells are placed on 622 Mbit/s ATM link. The second stage comprises an ATM switching network (RC ATM). It switches the incoming ATM cell to the output stage. The configuration of the RC ATM depends on the total capacity of the RCH and is, itself, made up of 1 or 2 ATM switching stages. The third stage comprises AC/T (switching of composite ATM cells into synchronous time division multiplex channels) switching elements. It converts the ATM cells into LRs. The branches of the RCH are folded. The input stage (T/AC) is combined with the output stage (AC/T) in a single function called TCA (time division multiplex channel/composite ATM cell switching element). Figure 21 illustrates the theory of operation of the 3-stage RCH. Figure 21 : Switching principle in the RCH

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SMB_X or SCH

From a hardware point of view, each branch of the RCH is made up of general purpose control stations - matrix function (SMB_Xs) or high rate matrix control station (SCH). Unlike SMB_Xs, the control part of the SCHs is in non-HC technology. The SMB_Xs and SCHs are equipped with: time division multiplex channel/composite ATM cell switching element (TCA) type ETUs which comprise T/AC and AC/T functions, ATM Switching Element (ASE) type ETUs which constitute the ATM switching network (RC ATM).

ATM switching network

Depending on the configuration, the RC ATM: may be omitted. Each branch of the RCH comprises only a single TCA type ETU and an ATM link looped back on itself. The capacity is then 128 LR. has an ATM switching stage. The connection capacity can be extended to 2048 LR, as illustrated in figure 22. has 2 ATM switching stages. The connection capacity can then be extended to 16 384 LR, as illustrated in figure 23. Figure 22 : Branch of an RCH with a capacity of 2048 LR

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Figure 23 : Branch of an RCH with a capacity of 16 384 LR

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3.1.8 Synchronization and time base station


The Synchronization and Time base Station (STS) generates the timing signals needed to process digital data. The three oscillators (RCHOR boards) used to generate the timing signals form the Time Base (TB). All three are powered independently. These three oscillators must be synchronized via a synchronization unit. This unit receives up to four external synchronization links which can be: a receive clock from a PCM link in an SMT2G, a receive clock from an SDH line in an SMB_T. An additional input clocked at 2048 kHz provides external synchronization based on a very high stability local clock (atomic clock or GPS). The synchronization unit addresses the possibility of external synchronization faults by a high stability local oscillator (RCHIS board) which may be backed up by a second oscillator. The synchronization unit selects, according to the quality of signals and a predefined order of priority, the link which synchronizes the TB. Master-slave synchronization is used. This device ensures accuracy and stability of the frequencies of the timing signals generated, in accordance with Recommendation G.811 of the Telecommunications Standardization Sector of ITU (ITU-T). Figure 24 illustrates the architecture of the synchronization and time base station. Figure 24 : Architecture of the synchronization and time base station

The timing signals delivered by the STS are transmitted to both branches of the switching matrix. In each branch, a majority logic selection mechanism chooses the timing signal which is distributed in the switching network branch. This timing signal is then distributed to the SMs supporting the termination function, the SMs supporting auxiliary functions and the CSNLs. Figure 25 illustrates the distribution of timing signals.

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Operating mode

The STS can operate in different modes: Synchronized. An external synchronization link is used. It is based on a very high stability clock which can be local or in another switch on the network. Standalone. The link with the very high stability clock has been lost. The frequency stability of the high stability local clock within the temperature range (corresponding to 10 a steady state) is greater than 4.10 for a period of 72 hours. Free-running oscillation. There was never a link with the very high stability clock. The frequency of the high stability local clock within the temperature range corresponding to a 9 steady state is greater than 1.10 (at time of commissioning). Figure 25 : Distribution of timing signals

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3.2 Maintenance control station


The maintenance control station (SMM) handles the operation and maintenance of the system. It plays a key role in that it guarantees the dependability of the MM E10.

3.2.1 Role of the SMM


The SMMs purpose includes: system management (administration, configuration, initialization), operating the switch, supervising the system and its environment (defense, alarms), maintaining the equipment (tests, settings), archiving data. The control and connection units of the switch can operate independently, but it is the central defense function handled by the SMM that ensures continuity of service. Figure 26 illustrates the role of the SMM.

Connecting operating equipment

The SMM supports the connection of: computer devices and operating terminals, locally, operation and maintenance equipment, remotely via a Q3 interface supported by X.25 links.

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Figure 26 : Role of the SMM

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3.2.2 Organization of the SMM


The SMM is fully duplicated. The 2 subsystems, SMMA and SMMB, are called processing subsystems and operate in active-standby mode. In addition to an SMs basic equipment, each processing subsystem has: a dedicated coupler for managing switchovers from the active subsystem to the standby subsystem, a dedicated coupler for connecting to 2 Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) buses which provide access to mass memory, a dedicated coupler for access to a bus, called the telecommunications bus, to which are connected: central alarm couplers, for concentrating hardware alarms (see section 3.3.1), V.24 asynchronous link couplers, for access to the operation and maintenance devices, X.25 link couplers for remote operation and maintenance.

Mass memory

The mass memory consists of different types of devices: Disk drives. 2 fixed disks are used to store all the systems software and data. They operate in mirror mode, which means that data is written in parallel on both disks irrespective of which system is active. The systems software and data stored on disks, are loaded in MLs, via the local network. Figure 27 illustrates the loading of the MLs via the local network. The disks are also used for temporary backup of itemized billing information. Magnetic tape drives. It is possible to copy the information stored on fixed disk to magnetic tape in order, for example, to send the information to a processing center. The tape drives are fitted with formatting devices. The tape drives are optional. Streamer. The streamer is used mainly for loading the system at the outset. It is also used for routine backup operations.

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Figure 27 : Loading the MLs via the local area network

SMM software

The Operation and Maintenance software (OM) is the SMMs functional software. It has a particular structure designed to ensure that the software is independent of the supporting machine. The interface with the SMs is provided by the ML OC. The OM includes: the Real Time Operating System (RTOS), which is the Alcatel 8300 operating system supporting the SMM, OM subsystem (SSOM), OM applications. Because of this software structure and the SMMs role in the system, operation and maintenance of the SMM is different from that of the control and connection units. A special terminal and command set are used for this purpose.

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3.3 Other units of the E10 core subsystem


The E10 core subsystem equipment also includes: the alarm multiplexes (MALs) for marshalling alarms, the environment supervision station (SSE), the Alcatel digital announcement machine (MPNA) for broadcasting announcement, ancillary equipment, the ventilation units (UVs) of the SMBs and SCHs, power supply equipment.

3.3.1 Alarm multiplexes


The MALs marshal alarms detected by couplers that are distributed throughout the system. These couplers are called secondary alarm couplers. The alarm multiplexes marshal hardware alarms: power faults (converter failures, etc.), timing signal faults, ventilation unit faults (only with RCH type switching networks), problems detected by the sensors monitoring the environment. Figure 28 illustrates the hardware alarm marshalling. The alarm multiplexes are also used to activate remote control circuits telling the operator that alarms have been generated. Several methods of indication can be activated in this way: lamp signals (lamps panel), audible signals, automatic calls to remote operators. Remote control interfaces are also available. Through them, the operator can use customized signaling methods.

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Figure 28 : Hardware alarm marshalling

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3.3.2 Environment supervision station


The SSE contains secondary alarm couplers that monitor the state of the MM E10 environment. These secondary alarm couplers generate alarms concerning the infrastructure (power, fire, ventilation, etc.) to the central defense function via an alarm multiplex (see section 3.3.1). The SSE also contains equipment supporting remote control interfaces designed mainly to notify the operator in the event of an alarm.

3.3.3 Alcatel recorded announcement machine


The MPNA simultaneously broadcasts up to 60 announcements over two 2 Mbit/s PCM links. Each announcement is generated constantly in a time-division multiplex channel on one of the PCM links, with a pause between successive transmissions. The maximum broadcasting capacity is 17 minutes. The MPNA is installed in an SMM shelf. It is managed from a special handheld terminal.

3.3.4 Ancillary equipment


As an option, MM E10 racks can support the following ancillary equipment: SDH network access station (STH). The STH provides direct connection to the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) network. An STH supports up to 6 synchronous multiplexers. Each multiplexer supports 63 2 Mbit/s PCM links from SMT2Gs that are multiplexed into 155 Mbit/s link connected to the SDH network. Digital Announcement Machine (DAM). The DAM provides a large range of interactive and multi-language voice services over 2 PCM links. The DAM: stores 1 Gbyte, equivalent to 60 hours of voice stored in ADPCM 32 bit/s mode. The maximum duration per announcement is 20 minutes. supports up to 10 CA/s. is operated from a specific device (PC) which manages up to 24 DAMs. The alarms generated by the ancillary equipment are transmitted to the MM E10 operation and maintenance system. A special device (PC) is required to initialize, customize and download software updates of the DAM.

3.3.5 Ventilation unit


Ventilation units provide forced cooling of the SMBs and SCHs. Each ventilation unit includes 2 fans. The speed at which the fans rotate depends on the temperature of the rack. The ventilation units are n+1 protected. They send overheating alarms to the system (see section 3.3.1).

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3.3.6 Power supply equipment


The MM E10 power supply is provided via one of the following units: Modular power supply station (SAM). The SAM converts, stores and distributes power throughout the system. From a 380 V AC power source, the SAM provides a backed up DC (48 V) and AC (230 V) power supply. The SAM delivers a maximum power of 12 kW. The SAM is an MM E10 option. Modular Power Rack with 24 rectifiers (MPR24). The MPR24 provides the same functions as the SAM. It delivers a power of 2 to 70 kW. With the power extension, up to five MPR24s can be linked. The MPR24 is an MM E10 option. Power supply station (SDE). If the power plant is external to the MM E10, the SDE is a secondary (48 V) power protection and distribution interface for the units of the system. It is not used when power is provided by an SAM or an MPR24.

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3.4 Configurations
The MM E10 has many configuration options. The choice of configuration depends on: the application for which the MM E10 is intended, the telecommunication network elements to which it is connected, the volume of traffic to be handled, the characteristics of the calls (percentage of IN calls, etc). The systems modularity means that the system can be dimensioned to suit requirements: in terms of switching network type (RCX or RCH), in terms of SM type, in numbers of SMs for each SM type, in terms of type and number of dedicated couplers used in the SMs. The following tables give an overview of the possible options with the following configurations: MM E10 with non-HC technology (refer to table 1), MM E10 with HC technology (refer to table 2).

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MM E10 with non-HC technology

Table 1 gives the number of components in an MM E10 with non-HC technology, in minimum and maximum configurations.

Table 1 : Minimum and maximum MM E10 configurations with non-HC technology Equipment SMC Minimum configuration 2 Maximum configuration 12 64 including up to: SMA 2 31 with ML ETA 14 + 1 with ML PUPE 16 pairs with ML AN SMT2G (with 2 basic stations per SMT) SMX (with 2 processing subsystems) SMM (with 2 processing subsystems) SMB_T STS Local area network (MIS and MAS) 1 1 1 (with 80 LR) 8 (with 256 LR) 1 (with 48 PCM links) 16 (with 128 PCM links)

0 1 1 MIS

2 1 1 MIS and 4 MAS

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MM E10 with HC technology

Table 2 gives the number of components in an MM E10 with HC technology, in minimum and maximum configurations. Table 2 gives, separately: the control part of the termination and matrix functions (SMB_CAXT or SMB_XT), the T modules that house the connecting ETUs, the X modules that house the switching networks ETUs.

Table 2 : Minimum and maximum MM E10 configurations with HC technology Equipment SMB_CAXT SMB_C SMB_A SMB_XT T modules X modules SMT2G (with 2 basic stations per SMT) SMM (with 2 processing subsystems) STS Local area network (MIS and MAS) 1 1 1 (with 128 PCM links) 32 (with 128 PCM links) Minimum configuration 2 2 1 (controlled by SMB_CAXT) 1 (controlled by SMB_CAXT) Maximum configuration 12 14 + 1 with ML PUPE 16 32 (controlled by SMB_XT) 32 (controlled by SMB_XT)

1 1 MIS

1 1 MIS and 3 MAS

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4 Server subsystem
The optional server subsystem supports services to supplement the functions handled by the E10 core subsystem. This chapter explains: the server subsystem, the architecture of a Nectar platform, server operation and maintenance, the Call Detail Record formatting Application (CDRA) supported by the server subsystem, the SU2A application supported by the server subsystem.

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4 Server subsystem

4.1 Introduction
The volume of data handled by switches is increasing substantially due to the increased connection capacity of the MM E10 with HC technology and the proliferation of new services offered to subscribers. The use of servers gives the MM E10: greater data storage capacity, greater processing power. Also, the user interfaces for managing the service applications offer greater operator convenience. In particular: They are easy to master because they are based on standard computer application operation. They can be used to administer a large volume of data in a single operation (bulk operation).

Server subsystem

The MM E10 server subsystem is based on a secured computer platform called Nectar, which houses the service applications. The Nectar platform comprises one or more stations communicating via an Ethernet local area network called Nectar platform local area network (LSN). Communication with the E10 core subsystem takes place via SMB stations supporting the gateway function. Figure 29 illustrates the structure of the MM E10 server subsystem. Figure 29 : Server subsystem structure

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4.2 Nectar platform


A Nectar platform is a computer platform designed to accommodate real time applications which require a high level of availability. In the context of the MM E10, the Nectar platform accommodates the service applications. A Nectar platform has the following features: It is equipped with standard computer hardware. It is protected: The LSN is duplicated. The 2 elements of the LSN operate in load-sharing mode. Platform management is handled by a pair of stations operating in activestandby mode. This pair is designated a duplex pilot station. The other units that are essential to platform operation are duplicated, as illustrated in figure 30. The service applications are based on the Unix operating system and the Nectar platforms middleware.

Middleware

The Nectar platforms middleware is a software layer between the applications and the Unix operating system. The middleware provides resources to: ensure continuity of service, support platform operation and maintenance, provide the basic functions for the computer applications (protected file management, data management system), provide basic functions for the telephone applications (administration to Q3 standard, SS N 7 protocol stacks).

Hardware configuration

A Nectar platform comprises at least: a duplex pilot station, a pair of Ethernet switches for connecting to the LSN, an asynchronous link concentrator for connecting local devices, a pair of routers for connecting remote operation and maintenance equipment, a pair of inverters to provide a protected power supply. These inverters are managed by the SMM.

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Rack installation

Figure 30 displays the elements of a Nectar platform when installed in a 19" rack.

Figure 30 : View of a Nectar rack

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4.3 Operation and maintenance


Operation and maintenance of the server subsystem includes: operation and maintenance of the Nectar platform, which is totally independent of E10 core subsystem operation and maintenance, operation of service applications implemented in the platform. These are operated via dedicated user interfaces. Access to the operation and maintenance operations is controlled. Each application has resources for administering rights of access to the different operations.

Centralized operation and maintenance

Service applications and Nectar platform supervision can be controlled remotely: for the CDRA application, from an Network Management Center (NMC) equipped with the A1360 SMC E10 for servers. The A1360 SMC E10 for servers can manage a number of Nectar platforms, each seen as an Network Element (NE). For more information on centralized server operation and maintenance, refer to the documentation on the A1360 SMC E10 for servers. for the SU2A application, from an Operation and Maintenance Center-Circuit Switched (OMC-CS).

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4.4 CDR formatting with the CDRA application


The Call Detail Record formatting Application (CDRA) is a service application of the server subsystem. The CDRA application increases the capacity to process Call Detail Records (CDRs) from 200 CDR/s to 700 CDR/s. The CDRA application: converts CDRs generated by the system into Q.825 standardized format, transmits the formatted CDRs to a billing center via a CDR collector. Figure 31 illustrates the CDRA application and its operating environment. Figure 31 : CDR formatting application

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4.5 SU2A application


The SU2A application is a service application of the server subsystem used in the UMTS SSP to manage broadband signaling and resources. Signaling is transported via an ATM transport network. The SU2A application must be present to perform the UMTS SSP function. The SU2A application handles the following functions: The ATM Adaptation Layer type 2 (AAL2) control function, which uses the Access Link Control Application Protocol (ALCAP) to allocate the AAL2 transport resources (CID, AAL2 path) needed for mobile radio communication via the UMTS network. The signaling gateway function, which, by providing adaptation between the broadband and narrowband n 7 signaling systems, handles message interchanges between the RNC and the RCP , using the Radio Access Network Application Part (RANAP) protocol. The n 7 signaling termination function. This function uses broadband and narrowband n 7 signaling, to provide communication services to the AAL2 control function and to the signaling gateway function, enabling them to communicate with the RNC and RCP . At control plane, 2 protocols are employed between the RNC and the MSC: the RANAP protocol, used to transport signaling messages between the RNC and RCP , the ALCAP protocol, used to allocate, in Virtual Channel (VC) connections, the AAL2 transport resources needed to establish voice channels in the SSP . Figure 32 illustrates the signaling protocols used by the SU2A application signaling gateway for communication between the RNC, SSP and RCP .

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Figure 32 : SU2A application signaling gateway

To locate the SU2A application in the UMTS SSP architecture, refer to figure 35.

Connection of the server subsystem with SU2A application

For dialog with the RNC, the server subsystem with SU2A application is connected to the A7670 RSP front end via the Nectar platforms ATM coupler. The server subsystem with SU2A application is connected to the SMBs via the Nectar platform local area network (LSN), and communicates with the call handling function (ML PUPE) of the E10 core subsystem. For operation and maintenance purposes, the server subsystem with SU2A application is connected by the LSN to the Operation and Maintenance Center Circuit Switched (OMC-CS), via a Data Communication Network (DCN).

Nectar platform minimum hardware configuration

For the SU2A application, the Nectar platform is configured as described in section 4.2, and fitted with a CMIC subrack containing 4 couplers, 2 for each station. The subrack provides the PCM interface between the server subsystem with SU2A application and the RCP .

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Hardware configuration of the server subsystem with SU2A application

The hardware configuration of the server subsystem with SU2A application includes: a pair of stations, which also control the Nectar platform. These stations implement the AAL2 resource management functions and, depending on the configuration and required capabilities, the n 7 signaling function (termination and gateway). a set of 8 stations maximum, controlled in simplex mode with n+1 load sharing, on which the n 7 signaling functions are implemented. The hardware configuration is described in figure 33.

Figure 33 : Hardware configuration of the server subsystem with SU2A application

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5 MM E10 configurations for UMTS and VoATM

5 MM E10 configurations for UMTS and VoATM


The MM E10, a multiservice and multimedia switch, can handle both: mobility services in the UMTS network, the VoATM function in the fixed network (for an MM E10 with HC technology only).

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5.1 Architecture and interfaces of an MM E10


The UMTS and VoATM elements are both independent and compatible. The functional architecture of an MM E10 including the UMTS and VoATM functions is shown in figure 34.

Figure 34 : Functional architecture and interfaces of an MM E10

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5.2 MM E10 configuration for UMTS


The functions handled by the MM E10, acting as UMTS SSP , are described below. These functions are divided into 2 planes: the user plane, corresponding to voice and data transport, on user VCs, between the TransCoder (TC) and the RNC. the control plane: which is concerned with the transport of signaling, on signaling Virtual Channels (VCs), between the server subsystem with SU2A application and the RNC, which includes the SSPs call handling function. Figure 35 locates the various entities involved in the control and user planes, and indicates the signaling protocols and interfaces used between the RNC, SSP and RCP .

Figure 35 : UMTS SSPs control and user planes

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5.2.1 Description of the UMTS SSP


The MM E10 as a UMTS SSP consists of: the E10 core subsystem, the server subsystem with SU2A application, an A7670 RSP front end.

A7670 RSP front end

The A7670 RSP front end is an ATM switch used to set up semi-permanent or switched connections. It is used in the SSP for setting up semi-permanent connections between the RNC and MSC, on the user and control planes.

5.2.2 User plane


On the user plane, the SSPs transport function includes: the switching function, supported by an high rate switching network (RCH) or an narrowband switching network (RCX), the TDM termination function, supported by the SMT2Gs PCM interface, or the SMB_Ts SDH interface, the transport function for ATM traffic, supported by the A7670 RSP front end, which provides the ATM interface between the SSP and the RNC. The A7670 RSP front end provides: the Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC) service. the ATM termination function, with an 155 Mbit/s SDH line (STM-1) interface. the ATM concentrator function. The A7670 RSP front end terminates the RNCs Virtual Paths (VPs) and switches the VCs to: the ATC ETU, for the user plane, the SU2A application, for the control plane. the transcoding function, supported by the ATC ETU and its applique. This function is for converting AMR/AAL2 format voice signals to a G.711/TDM format compatible with narrowband circuit switching. This function also converts data in transparent and non-transparent modes.

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5.2.3 Control plane


SU2A application
The SU2A application is responsible for: the AAL2 control function, for processing information from the ALCAP protocol, managing the allocation of ATM transport resources, and communicating with the SSPs call handling function, the signaling gateway function, for interworking between the broadband and narrowband n 7 signaling systems, the n 7 signaling termination function, enabling the above 2 functions to communicate with the RNC and the RCP . For more information on the SU2A application, refer to section 4.5.

Call handling

Changes in the SSPs call handling mechanism concern the allocation of transport resources, managed jointly with the SU2A applications AAL2 control function. To manage the resources assigned to support communications between the SSP and the RNC, the AAL2 control function must: communicate with the SSPs call handling function, establish a correlation between the references of the ATM resources, at RNC level (RNC_Id, CID, AAL2 path_Id), and the references of the TDM resources, at SSP level (circuit group, CIC). This dialog is based on a TCP/IP-type transport protocol. The application protocol between the SU2A application and the SSPs call handling system is made up of MM E10 format messages.

5.2.4 Operation and maintenance


Operation and maintenance of the SSP can be carried out locally from a site front-end PC (PCFS) or remotely from an Operation and Maintenance Center Circuit Switched (OMC-CS). Figure 36 illustrates the UMTS SSP operation and maintenance structure. The OMC-CS manages: the MM E10 (SMM remote management), the Home Location Register (HLR), the Radio Control Point (RCP), the UMTS specific functions: SU2A application management: management of the n 7 signaling terminations via the CMPS interface, management of the Nectar platform via the Q3 interface, management of the ATM transport resources via the CORBA interface, management of ATM front-end broadband transport via the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and Calling Line Interface (CLI), management of UMTS call handling specific data via the Q3iC interface.

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UMTS SSP specific operation and maintenance includes operation of the E10 core subsystem (UMTS call handling), the server subsystem with SU2A application and the A7670 RSP front end and can be performed from the OMC-CS only. The OMC-CS has a cooperative management function which automatically, transparently and coherently sequences all the actions needed to implement an UMTS object. The UMTS objects that remain managed by operators are: the RNC, the AAL2 path access point. Figure 36 : UMTS SSP operation and maintenance structure

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5.3 MM E10 configuration for VoATM


The VoATM function in the MM E10, is used to transport voice and transparent and non-transparent data over an ATM backbone network. It is implemented according to the architecture principles of New Generation Networks (NGNs). Its architecture is based on separating call handling and transport functions. Figure 37 illustrates the architecture of the VoATM function.

5.3.1 Call service function


The Call Service Function (CSF) manages call handling and signaling. The CSF communicates with: the remote CSF, via the Bearer Independent Call Control (BICC) protocol. The BICC is a n 7 signaling protocol which, as a variant of the Integrated Services digital network User Part Version 2 (ISUPV2), enables the use of the packet network. the Bearer InterWorking Function (BIWF), via the Bearer Control Function (BCF) for setting up and releasing connections between the TDM transport network and the ATM transport network. The connection time between a narrowband circuit and an AAL2 channel is limited to the duration of the call. The CSF is incorporated into the MM E10s narrowband call handling function and, as such, provides the same services (intelligent network, supplementary services, etc). It is implemented on an SMB.

5.3.2 Transport function


The BIWF transports user information between the ATM and TDM networks. On a CSF request, the BIWF dynamically allocates the physical resources and manages the interconnection of a TDM transport resource and of an AAL2 transport resource. The role of the BIWF is to interconnect a circuit identified by a Circuit Identification Code (CIC), transported by an high rate access link (LAH) and of an AAL2 channel, identified by a Channel IDentifier (CID). It manages the SDH, TDM, ATM and AAL2 terminations. The BIWF communicates with: the CSF, via the BCF, which manages the ATM and AAL2 signaling and totally controls the connection. the ATM network, using the User-Network Interface 4.0 (UNI) protocol to set up and release the VC connections in Switched Virtual Circuit (SVC) mode. the remote BIWF, using the AAL2 signaling protocol to handle assignment of the CIDs at AAL2 level.

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Figure 37 : Architecture of the VoATM function

Interworking between ATM and TDM networks

Interworking between the ATM and TDM networks is handled in the BIWF. The BIWF is supported by the IWU ETU implemented in an SMB_T. The IWU ETU and its applique form the physical interface between the MM E10 and the ATM network, responsible for transporting voice and data by AAL2 signaling. The IWU ETU is connected to the ATM network via a 155 Mbit/s SDH line (STM-1).

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5.3.3 VoATM transport operation


Entities implemented
The VoATM function is based on the ATM Adaptation Layer type 2 (AAL2) protocol. The physical resources allocated by the BIWF are AAL2 channels. Each AAL2 channel is identified by a CID. The AAL2 channels are multiplexed in an AAL2 path which is carried by a VC connection to a common call destination. At the output of an IWU ETU, the VCs are supported by a VP which is terminated in the first ATM network node. This node extracts the VCs from this VP and switches them. The VCs are then transported in the ATM network on other VPs. VCs from different origins are grouped and multiplexed in the VP set up between the last node of the ATM network and the destination IWU ETU.

User information and signaling information traffic

Circuit switching, via the ATM network, between an MM E10 and a remote node generates 2 types of traffic: traffic transporting user information, traffic transporting ATM (UNI 4.0) signaling information for connection to the ATM network and AAL2 signaling for connection to the far end. With the UNIs SVC services, VC connections can be set up between the 2 BIWFs supporting: The user information flow transported by VC connections which use the AAL2 protocol. These VC connections are AAL2 as described in section 5.3.3. The AAL2 signaling information flow transported by a VC connection which uses the ATM Adaptation Layer type 5 (AAL5) protocol. This type of connection (AAL5) also transports UNI 4.0 signaling. Each IWU ETU is considered an independent entity, separately addressable, that has only one STM1 link for each BIWF. A single VC transporting the UNI 4.0 signaling, associated with a single AAL2 signaling VC between each IWU ETU to control all transport VCs. The transport characteristics are described in figure 38. Figure 38 : VC configuration in VoATM

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The operator can request: a transparent mode service, a non-transparent mode service. The traffic classes, Constant Bit Rate (CBR) and Variable Bit Rate with Real Time constraint (VBR-RT), can also be configured by the operator. For further information on implementing the VoATM function, refer to the operator guide Telephone environment management, ETGOP .

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6 Dependability
The MM E10 is designed to provide uninterrupted service in all circumstances. The systems defense function reacts automatically to unit failures in the switch or to abnormal situations which may be due to circumstances outside the switch. From the defense point of view, the E10 core and server subsystems are independent. This chapter explains: the E10 core subsystem defense mechanisms, the server subsystem defense mechanisms, the regulation mechanisms that minimize the effects of any overload problems.

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6 Dependability

6.1 E10 core subsystem defense


The MM E10 meets the overall, standard objective of dependability which is set at a maximum total unavailability time of 3 minutes per year. It also meets the following objectives: call loss rate: 5 10
5

reliability of an established connection: 2 105, maintenance load: < 40 hardware failures per year per 10 000 subscribers. E10 core subsystem defense is based on the following principles: redundancy of the systems components, automatic fault detection, containment of failures, automatic reconfiguration of resources. The defense reactions are managed centrally. They are based on on-going monitoring conducted locally by each of the units.

6.1.1 Redundancy of the subsystems components


The redundancy principle can be summarized as follows: any component essential to the smooth operation of the system is at least duplicated. This principle applies to both hardware and software components. Depending on the type of component and the systems configuration, redundancy takes a range of forms (n + 1 redundancy, active-standby mode, etc.). It is often accompanied by load-sharing between the duplicated components. The diversity of forms of redundancy is explained by the need to observe the twin imperatives of: ensuring dependability, using the systems resources to best advantage. Table 3 summarizes the redundancy modes applied in the E10 core subsystem.

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Table 3 : Redundancy applied to the E10 core subsystem units Units Redundancy mode The control MLs (ML MR, ML GS, ML CC, ML TX, ML TR, ML MQ, ML GX, ML PC) are redundant. They operate by load-sharing or using the active-standby mode. In addition, a standby SMC or SMB_C (not available in very small configurations) can support any SMC of the same type. The 2 control logic subsystems operate in active-standby mode. The ML GWs are redundant. They operate on a load-sharing basis. The ML ETAs and ML ANs operate on a load-sharing basis. There is one standby ML PUPE (n + 1 redundancy). The 2 processor subsystems operate in active-standby mode. The switching network has 2 branches. For each call, the connections are set up in both branches. Some ETUs have a backup ETU (for example, ETU for connecting SDH lines). The time base station has 3 separately powered oscillators. Each of the 2 branches of the switching network chooses the timing signal to be broadcast throughout the branch and then to the connection units. The external synchronization device is duplicated. Local area network Alarm multiplex Data backup Power supply Ventilation unit The multiplexes (MIS, MAS) consist of 2 load sharing rings. Depending on the configurations of the MM E10, the communication local area network is 1+1 or n+1 protected. Each alarm multiplex has 2 alarm marshalling circuits. 2 disks operate in mirror mode (data duplication). The stations are supplied by 2 converters. Each converter is connected to 2 power supplies. The ventilation units of the SMBs and SCHs are n+1 protected.

SM supporting the control function (SMC or SMB_C)

SM supporting the termination function (SMT or SMB_T) SM supporting auxiliary functions (SMA or SMB_A) SMM Switching network ETU

STS

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6.1.2 Automatic fault detection


The MM E10 constantly audits its units. The audit operates on 2 levels: locally, with each SM supervising its components and environment. centrally, with the defense function marshalling the information and correlating the events signaled. Several methods are used to detect faults: hardware detection devices, background task event counting, routine tests, statistical analysis of detected malfunctions. In addition to fault detection, the tests are designed to identify and locate the faulty items to facilitate maintenance tasks.

6.1.3 Failure containment


When a serious fault is detected, the faulty unit is taken out of service to prevent the fault handicapping the system. A unit can be taken out of service because of the redundancy and the resource reconfiguration possibilities. For example, if the faulty unit is an SM, taking it out of service prevents: the local area network or other SMs from being disrupted, unacceptable messages being sent to it.

6.1.4 Automatic reconfiguration of resources


When a unit is taken out of service, the exchange can have some of its handling capacity cut (degraded operation linked to load-sharing). The defense function then uses a back-up resource. It assigns the functions that were previously handled by the faulty unit to the back-up resource. This automatic reconfiguration allows the switch to recover its original processing capacity. Figures 39 and 40 give examples of the systems defense reactions with automatic resource reconfiguration: In the first case, illustrated in figure 39, a failed SM is backed up. If the functions concerned are not backed up elsewhere, they are transferred to the backup SM. In the case of an SMB type SM, some MLs are preloaded on the backup SMB to reduce the functions unavailability time. In the second case, illustrated in figure 40, a failed ETU for connecting SDH lines is backed up by a backup ETU, via a redundancy applique.

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Figure 39 : Example of defense reaction: ML migration

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Figure 40 : Example of defense reaction: ETU backup

6.1.5 Local defense and central defense


The MM E10 defense function is divided into: local defense, handled by each unit, central defense, located in the SMM.

Local defense

Each unit (SM, communication multiplex) detects and reports its own malfunctions. When a serious fault appears, an SM can shut itself down (self-positioning).

Central defense

Supervision of the entire system is centralized. Central defense controls the states of all units and initiates reconfigurations. If necessary, central defense can initiate a general restart or a system reset. Central defense also notifies the operator when operating faults occur. It uses various signaling methods: messages (alarms, anomalies, etc.), lamp signals, audible signals. The signals are graduated to reflect the seriousness of the fault. In the case of an MM E10 equipped with servers, the central defense function permanently monitors the accessibility of the servers and generates alarm messages if one becomes inaccessible.

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6.2 Server subsystem defense


Defense of the server subsystem is independent of E10 core subsystem defense. It is responsible for ensuring that the E10 core subsystem has access to the servers at all times. The server subsystem consists of a Nectar platform, the defense of which is based on the following principles: The hardware components are redundant. In particular: The Nectar platform local area network (LSN) is duplicated. Control of the platform is handled by a pair of Nectar stations operating in active-standby mode. The non-pilot stations are also redundant. All equipment used to power the platform, archive data and handle communication with the operation and maintenance tools is duplicated. The service applications are made up of distributed Unix processes. The Nectar platforms middleware supervises the platforms hardware and software and ensures continuity of service. It provides the service applications with secured data storage resources.

Example of defense reaction with CDRA application

When the active station of the pair of Nectar stations supporting the Call Detail Record formatting Application (CDRA) fails, the defense mechanisms are as follows: 1. Failure of the active Nectar station. The CDRA application becomes temporarily inaccessible. The CDRs generated by the E10 core subsystem are no longer sent to the CDRA application. They are stored in a buffer area. 2. The Nectar platforms defense function initiates automatic reconfiguration on the standby Nectar station. 3. Reconfiguration is completed. The CDRA application becomes accessible again. The flow of CDRs, sent from the E10 core subsystem to the CDRA application, resumes at the point at which it was interrupted.

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6.3 Load regulation


Sophisticated regulation mechanisms take effect to avoid congestion in the switch when there is an exceptional overload. Monitoring of unit load is distributed throughout the system: Observation of processor load (occupancy ratio, number of items queued) is used to indicate possible local overloads. Counting the number of calls demanded and the number of calls accepted gives the overall load level in the switch. If an overload occurs, calls are selectively rejected to maintain the load at an acceptable level. Selective rejection ensures that priority calls are accepted. When the regulation mechanisms take effect, alarm messages are sent to the operator. Overloads should be exceptional (for example, a sudden surge of calls following a disaster). The frequent occurrence of an overload indicates that the system is under-dimensioned or operation of the switch has not been optimized.

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7 Operation and maintenance

7 Operation and maintenance


This chapter briefly describes the operation and maintenance tasks and the tools used. For more details on operation and maintenance tasks, refer to the operator guide Operation and documentation guide, GDDOC. Apart from section 7.1.2 which explains operation and maintenance of the server subsystem, this chapter applies mainly to E10 core subsystem operation and maintenance.

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7.1 Organization of MM E10 operation and maintenance


Operation and maintenance of the E10 core subsystem is independent of server subsystem operation and maintenance.

7.1.1 E10 core subsystem operation and maintenance


Operation and maintenance of the E10 core subsystem is based on terminals connected to the SMM (see figure 26).

Local or remote operation and maintenance

Operation and maintenance can be: local: the terminals are connected to the SMM via asynchronous links. remote: the terminals used are those of the Telecommunications Management Network (TMN). These 2 modes can be combined for mixed mode operation and maintenance.

Interactions with the system

The MM E10 operation and maintenance operator communicates with the system via the operation interface to: transmit commands. observe command results. observe system reactions (messages).

Operation and maintenance terminals

The operator has the following types of terminal: command input and message display consoles, PC workstations, workstations (for remote operation and maintenance), printers, teleprinters. The input and display consoles are specific to individual tasks. They are used to manage the connection and control units (OM dialog terminal), manage the SMM (WAM terminal) and output command results and unsolicited outputs (output terminal). The TI/PGS is a PC with the TI (intelligent terminal) application for entering commands in assisted mode. This PC also supports the PGS (general supervisory station) application, which gives a graphic display of the systems status and displays the alarms. The TOP (CSN MM operator terminal) is an application for managing the broadband ports of ADSL subscribers connected to a multiservice multimedia subscriber digital access unit (CSN MM). The TOP is connected to the CSN MM via dedicated data links. The Operation and Maintenance PC (OMPC) and the PCFS with the OMPC application combine on one workstation all the tools used in operation and maintenance (OM, WAM, TI, PGS and TOP applications, and output). They can therefore

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be used to perform all E10 core subsystem operation and maintenance tasks. The PCFS is only used for local operation. For more information on operation and maintenance terminals and their applications, refer to the operator guide Operator access management, TPGOP .

7.1.2 Server subsystem operation and maintenance


Operation and maintenance of the server subsystem is handled: remotely, from a Network Management Center (NMC) equipped with A1360 SMC E10 for servers for the CDRA application management. The operation and maintenance of the CDRA application covers: operation and maintenance of the Nectar platform, operation of the Call Detail Record formatting Application (CDRA). locally from a site front-end PC (PCFS) or remotely from an Operation and Maintenance Center - Circuit Switched (OMC-CS) for the SU2A application. The SU2A application operation and maintenance covers: management of the n 7 signaling terminations via the CMPS interface, management of the Nectar platform via the Q3 interface, management of the ATM transport resources via the CORBA interface. For more details on: the server subsystem, see chapter 4. the UMTS configuration, see chapter 5.

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7.2 Operation
The operation tasks are divided into domains that reflect the switchs main functions. Table 4 shows the MM E10 operating domains illustrated by examples of the tasks to be performed. The operator uses a command set supplied via the operating interface to carry out these tasks. Table 4 : Typical tasks by operating domain Domain Typical tasks required Construct and manage circuit groups Construct and manage a n 7 signaling network Telephone environment Manage data links Manage the frame service Supervise PCM link quality Manage preanalysis, analysis and routing Translation Define charging parameters Manage network control mechanisms (regulation, forwarding, call gapping, etc.) Manage charging parameters and codes Charging Define the charging calendar Manage itemized billing Monitor load on switch units Monitor load on connection units Monitor load on circuit groups (circuits and channels) Observations Observe traffic dispersion Observe the call non-completion causes Observe behavior of subscriber lines and subscriber line groups Support intelligent network specific features (telephone environment, translation, charging, observations) Manage activation of an IN service Support mobile network specific features (telephone environment, translation, charging, observations) Manage and store CDRs Manage subscriber lines (analog and digital) Subscribers Supervise subscriber lines Manage supplementary services Install line groups

Intelligent network access

Mobile network access

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7.3 Maintenance
Maintenance ensures that the system operates correctly. It is divided into: preventive maintenance, which combines all the routine system servicing tasks, corrective maintenance, which covers the operations required to restore the system following a unit failure. When a fault occurs, defense function allows the system to continue operating (see chapter 6). However, when a unit is out of service, the system is more vulnerable because the back-up resources are in use. Maintenance operations therefore aim to restore a full set of resources and ensure dependability.

7.3.1 Messages and signals generated by the system


The maintenance operator observes the messages the system generates. Several types of message are used, but the main ones are alarm messages. Alarm messages are classified by priority: alarms requiring no immediate intervention (SI category), deferred intervention alarms (ID category), immediate intervention alarms (IM category). Depending on the urgency, lamp and audible signals may accompany the alarm message. Remote control interface circuits enable the operator to link specific signaling resources to alarms to suit the particular needs of the system. As an option, the PGS makes supervision of the MM E10 particularly easy. It gives a graphic view of the systems units and their operating status. The appearance of an alarm is indicated by a change in color of the unit causing the problem. The color of the unit depends on the seriousness of the alarm (SI, ID or IM category). By clicking on the faulty unit, the operator can obtain the alarm messages. For more information on PGS, refer to the operator guide Operator access management, TPGOP . For more information on alarms, refer to the operator guide Corrective maintenance management, MCGOP .

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7.3.2 Maintenance support


The system makes maintenance tasks easier: It runs automatic tests to determine the origin of a fault. It can run verification tests after repairs. It provides the option of running operating tests.

Automatic fault location tests

When an operating fault is identified, the defense mechanisms run a test on the faulty unit. This LOCAVAR test serves to identify and locate the faulty item. An alarm message is generated at the end of the test. Whenever possible, it gives the precise address of the item to be replaced. In this case, maintenance merely requires: 1. replacing the item specified in the message, 2. checking out operation, 3. returning to service the unit that was taken out of service by the defense function.

Verification tests after repairs

When a unit has been replaced (for example, an SM board), the operator runs a LOCAVAR test which analyzes each of the units elements. This test is designed to check that the new item is operating correctly. It is run by operator command. For more information on LOCAVAR tests, refer to the operator guide Corrective maintenance management, MCGOP .

Operating tests

As part of preventive maintenance or to run checks when faults have been identified, the system provides: circuit tests, analog subscriber line tests. The analog subscriber telephone and line tests use special equipment called testers that are installed in the subscriber line connection units (CSN, CSE). For more information on circuit and subscriber line tests, refer to the operator guide Preventive maintenance management, MPGOP .

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7 Operation and maintenance

7.4 Operator access management


Access to MM E10 operator commands is protected. The operator responsible for managing access defines: commands that can be accessed from a terminal, commands that can be used by particular operators. This organization of access rights can be used to customize terminals for preset tasks. It also provides the option of protecting access to sensitive commands.

Command classes and passwords

The systems operator commands are divided into 16 classes. There is one command class for each type of operating task (for example, management of subscribers and supplementary services). The allocation of commands to the different classes can be changed. The use of a terminal is restricted to the commands in the classes assigned to that terminal. Some of the command classes assigned to the terminal require a password and the others have open access. Each operator has a password for access to certain command classes. When a command is entered, the system runs a double check: on the rights assigned to the terminal being used, on the rights assigned to the user. For more information on operator access management, refer to the operator guide Operator access management, TPGOP .

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8 Performance

8 Performance
The performance of a switch is closely linked to its environment. The performance of the MM E10 is therefore calculated against a benchmark environment defined by: a MIX of calls (percentage of completed calls, unanswered calls, busy conditions, false seizures, etc.), operating conditions (percentage usage of different signaling types, itemized billing, telecharging, etc.). The figures shown in the rest of this section are indicative only. They are based on an average benchmark environment. They take account of international quality of service standards, including ITU recommendation Q.543. The figures concerning mobile subscribers are based on the different traffic conditions encountered within the European GSM network.

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8.1 Compliance with standards


The MM E10 is designed to comply with all international switching standards. In particular, the MM E10 complies with ITU-T Recommendation Q.543, which defines the performance objectives for digital switching systems. For each performance objective in Recommendation Q.543, the following process is applied: 1. The characteristics of the traffic to be handled are defined. 2. The task to be evaluated is divided into basic processes. 3. The time taken for each basic process is calculated using models produced for each system entity. 4. The systems overall response time is calculated, based on the total times taken by the basic processes. This modeling of system behavior ensures that MM E10 performance meets the standards from the earliest design phase. The MM E10 is a multiservice and multimedia switch. One standard specification switch can support all these applications.

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8.2 Maximum capacity


The MM E10 with High Capacity (HC) technology offers performance levels that are significantly different from those of the MM E10 with non-HC technology. The HC technology, broadly speaking, multiplies: maximum connection capacity by 8, maximum call handling capacity by 7.

MM E10 with non-HC technology

The maximum call handling capacity of the MM E10 with non-HC technology is 1.2 Million Busy Hour Call Attempts (MBHCA), which is the equivalent of 333 Call Attempts per second (CA/s). In a maximum configuration, the switching network can connect 2048 PCM links or 60 000 circuits. So it can handle traffic of 25 000 erlangs. The characteristics of the MM E10 with non-HC technology provide the capacity to connect: 200 000 fixed subscribers, 400 000 to 900 000 GSM mobile subscribers, 150 000 UMTS mobile subscribers (server subsystem with SU2A application limited to a duplex).

MM E10 with HC technology

The maximum call handling capacity of the MM E10 with HC technology is 8 MBHCA, which is the equivalent of 2222 CA/s. In a maximum configuration, the switching network can connect the equivalent of 16 384 2 Mbit/s links, or 480 000 circuits. It can therefore handle traffic of 200 000 erlangs. The MM E10 with HC technology offers the capacity to connect: ultimately, 400 000 fixed subscribers, 1 600 000 to 3 600 000 GSM mobile subscribers, 200 000 to 1 000 000 UMTS mobile subscribers.

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8.3 Performance excluding IN traffic


Tables 5 and 6 show MM E10 performance, excluding IN traffic, by configuration type and application type. The ranges indicate the switchs performance in a high call efficiency context (the first value) and then in a low call efficiency context (second value).

High efficiency Low efficiency

In a high call efficiency context, the rate of completed calls is high.

In a low call efficiency context, the rate of calls on busy or on failure is high. The rate of completed calls is low.

Table 5 : Performance of the MM E10 with non-HC technology (excluding IN traffic) Configuration To: 144 KBHCA 172 KBHCA To: 950 KBHCA 1200 KBHCA To: 615 KBHCA 686 KBHCA Fixed subscribers To: 104 KBHCA 125 KBHCA GSM mobile subscribers To: 104 KBHCA 125KBHCA To 193 KBHCA To: 863 KBHCA (100% SS N 7) 1200 KBHCA (50% SS N 7) UMTS mobile subscribers To: 144 KBHCA 172 KBHCA Transit

Small (2 or 3 SMCs)

Medium and large (from 4 to 12 SMCs)

Table 6 : Performance of the MM E10 with HC technology (excluding IN traffic) Configuration Small (2 or 3 SMB_Cs) Medium and large (from 3 to 12 SMB_Cs) To: 7056 KBHCA 8000 KBHCA To: 605 KBHCA 726 KBHCA To: 4307 KBHCA 4804 KBHCA Fixed subscribers To: 369 KBHCA 403 KBHCA To: 3445 KBHCA 3851 KBHCA GSM mobile subscribers To: 295 KBHCA 323 KBHCA To: 6831 KBHCA 8000 KBHCA UMTS mobile subscribers To: 605 KBHCA 726 KBHCA Transit (SS N 7)

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Specific performance to the server subsystem with SU2A application

The maximum call handling capacity of the MM E10 equipped with a server subsystem with SU2A application is 216 to 1080 KBHCAs. The MM E10 equipped with a server subsystem with SU2A application can connect 200 000 to 1 000 000 UMTS mobile subscribers. Overloads are subject to regulation mechanisms in broadband n 7 signaling (no loss) and in the n 7 signaling gateway (deletion of the first call message or location message). The operator may use operator commands to manage the Connection Admission Control (CAC).

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8.4 Impact of the IN traffic ratio on performance


For performance measurement, IN services are divided into: simple services. These use few resources (for example, call screening). complex services. These use a range of resources, including intelligent peripherals, and require several interchanges with the servers (for example, payment by credit card). Table 7 shows the impact of IN traffic on MM E10 performance, assuming 100% IN transit traffic of n 7 signaling. The figures are for a large configuration in a high efficiency context.

Table 7 : Impact of the IN on MM E10 performance (100% IN transit network traffic of n 7 signaling) Technology Non HC HC 0% IN transit 863 KBHCA 6831 KBHCA 60% IN transit 646 KBHCA 4908 KBHCA 100% IN transit 499 KBHCA 3490 KBHCA

Table 8 shows the impact of IN traffic on MM E10 performance, assuming 15% IN fixed network traffic. The figures are for a large configuration in a high efficiency context. Table 8 : Impact of the IN on MM E10 performance (15% IN fixed network traffic) Fixed network 0% IN 950 KBHCA 7056 KBHCA Fixed network 15% IN simple 857 KBHCA 6002 KBHCA Fixed network 15% IN complex 710 KBHCA 4975 KBHCA

Technology Non HC HC

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9 Main technical characteristics

9 Main technical characteristics


This chapter describes the MM E10s main technical characteristics: hardware characteristics, connection interfaces, signaling handled, software characteristics. For the list of facilities available to subscribers, see the operator guide Subscriber management, ABGOP .

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9.1 Hardware characteristics


The MM E10 consists of control stations (SMs) which communicate via a local area network. The SMs and ancillary equipment are housed in shelves installed in racks. Optionally, the MM E10 can have servers. 3 types of rack are used: racks accommodating non-HC technology SMs (SMC, SMT, SMA, SMX and SMM), racks accommodating HC technology SMs (SMB and SCH), 19" racks accommodating Nectar platforms if the switch is equipped with servers, 23" rack accommodating A7670 RSP front end. Refer to Site preparation, SITEOCB for details on the layout of a switch room or supervision room, power supplies and environmental conditions.

9.1.1 Non-HC technology SM racks


Rack dimensions with their ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC) cladding are: height: 2200 mm, width: 900 mm, depth: 650mm. Each rack has 5 or 6 shelves separated by air baffles. Cooling is by natural convection. Each rack has a duplicated power supply system. The converters have 2 power sources using separate runs.

Shelves

Shelf dimensions are: height: 234 mm (8U standard), width: 782 mm (154 steps of 5.08 mm). The shelf backplanes are multi-layer printed circuits.

Connection Boards

All links between shelves and racks are via shielded cables.

There are 32 types of boards with the following dimensions: height: 234 mm (8U standard), length: 350 mm, thickness: 1.6 mm. The boards are multi-layer (6 to 8 layers). For handling, the boards have a hard plastic strip that prevents direct electrostatic discharge. The strip has a latching and release device with 2 extraction levers.

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The boards are fitted with CMOS technology surface mount components. Average board consumption is less than 7 watts.

Local area network

The E10 core subsystem Local Area Network (OCB LAN) consists of multiplexes. Each multiplex has 2 token rings complying with the IEEE 802.5 standard.

9.1.2 HC technology SM racks


The dimensions of the racks accommodating HC technology SMs are: height: 2200 mm, width: 900 mm, depth: 650 mm. The racks are made up of a maximum of 3 subracks. Cooling is provided by 2 to 4 ventilation units, with each subrack installed bracketed by 2 ventilation units.

Subracks

Subrack dimensions are: height: 375 mm, width: 824 mm (161 slots with a pitch of 30 mm for the boards and 35 mm for the converters). The subrack backplanes are multi-layer printed circuits. Each subrack has duplicated power distribution. The converters have 2 power sources that use different paths.

Connection Boards and appliques

All links between subracks and racks are via shielded cables.

Board dimensions are: height: 265 mm, length: 285 mm, thickness: 1.6 mm to 2.1 mm. The boards have multi-layer printed circuits. The applique dimensions are: height: 265 mm, length: 95 mm. The boards and appliques are connected via the backplanes. The boards and appliques are fitted with BGA components. Board consumption is between 20 and 50 watts and applique consumption is 20 watts maximum.

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Local area network

The E10 core subsystem Local Area Network (OCB LAN) consists of multiplexes. Each multiplex has 2 token rings complying with the IEEE 802.5 standard.

9.1.3 19" racks


In the case of an MM E10 equipped with servers, a 19" rack can accommodate a Nectar platform. The dimensions of this rack are: height: 2000 mm, width: 600 mm, depth: 900 mm.

9.1.4 23" rack


With the MSC/SSP , a 23" rack can accommodate: a single-shelf A7670 RSP front end, optical fiber coil drawers. The dimensions of this rack are: height: 2 000 mm, width: 700 mm, depth: 900 mm.

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9.2 Connection interfaces


The MM E10 is connected via: 2 Mbit/s PCM links, 155 Mbit/s SDH lines (SDH network).

UMTS SSP specific connection

The A7670 RSP front end, in single shelf configuration, offers maximum STM-1 connection capacities of: 224 without Equipment Protection Switch (EPS) or Automatic Protection Switching (APS), 112 with EPS or APS. It enables 56 Gbit/s switching and supports up to 1 500 000 connection terminations.

VoATM

The VoATM function is dimensioned to support a maximum connection capacity of 4096 PCM links.

Echo cancelers

The echo cancelers can be: external. The echo cancelers are managed statically. built into the connection ETUs (in SMT2Gs). The echo cancelers built into the SMT2G connection ETUs are managed statically. located in special ETUs (in SMB_Ts). The echo cancelers located in the special SMB_T ETUs are managed dynamically.

DCME

According to the overloading, the DCME is activated or inhibited. To manage echo cancelers and DCME functions, refer to the operator guide Telephone environment management, ETGOP .

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9.3 Signaling handled


The range of signaling handled by the MM E10 is very extensive. In particular it handles the signaling listed below.

User-network signaling

Analog subscribers: dial tone, pulse and V.23 modem signaling. Digital subscribers: ETSI and VN7 protocols.

Network signaling

Common channel: any ISUP-type signaling (SSURF, SSURN, ISUPV2, BICC, international ISUPV2, international ISUP), SSUTR2, TUP , broadband MTP , narrowband MTP , SCCP , TCAP , INAP , ALCAP , ATM forum UNI 4.0. Channel associated: ITU-T R2, N 5, decadic codes. For more information on the signaling handled by MM E10, refer to the operator guide Telephone environment management, ETGOP .

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9.4 Software characteristics


The MM E10 software is organized into MLs that are totally independent of the SMs that support them. Depending on the configuration and operating environment, an SM supports one or more MLs. The software is stored on disk where it is organized into archives. It is loaded into the SMs via the local area network when the system is initialized. The software is developed using: CHILL language, C language, object technology, C++ language and the CORBA environment for the servers. Some software is generated automatically based on specifications written in Specification and Description Language (SDL).

Functional upgrades

Upgrades to the MM E10 do not require the system to be shut down. They are carried out: by automatic software upgrade procedures, by adding or replacing equipment. It is possible to download software from the operation and maintenance network.

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Abbreviations

Abbreviations
A
AAL2 AAL5 AC/T ADPCM ADSL ALCAP AN APS ASE ATM ATM Adaptation Layer type 2 ATM Adaptation Layer type 5 switching of composite ATM cells into synchronous time division multiplex channels Adaptative Differential Pulse Code Modulation Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line Access Link Control Application Protocol Access Network Automatic Protection Switching ATM Switching Element Asynchronous Transfer Mode

B
BCF BICC BIWF BSC BSM BSS BSSMAP BTS Bearer Control Function Bearer Independent Call Control Bearer InterWorking Function Base Station Controller control station bus Base Station Subsystem Base Station Subsystem Management Application Part Base Transceiver Station

C
CA/s CAC CBR CDR CDRA CHILL CIC CID CLI CMOS CMP CMS CN CNE MM CNL MM CORBA CSE CSF CSN MM CSN CSNL Call Attempts per second Connection Admission Control Constant Bit Rate Call Detail Record Call Detail Record formatting Application CCITT HIgh Level Language Circuit Identification Code Channel IDentifier Calling Line Interface Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor main multiplex coupler secondary multiplex coupler digital concentrator multiservice multimedia remote digital concentrator multiservice multimedia local digital concentrator Common Object Request Broker Architecture electronic satellite concentrator Call Service Function multiservice multimedia subscriber digital access unit subscriber digital access unit local subscriber digital access unit

D
DAM DCME DCN Digital Announcement Machine Digital Circuit Multiplication Equipment Data Communication Network

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Abbreviations

DTMF

Dual Tone Multi-Frequency

E
EMC EPS ET ETSI ETU ElectroMagnetic Compatibility Equipment Protection Switch Exchange Termination European Telecommunications Standards Institute Exchange Termination Unit

G
GLR GSM matrix link group Global System for Mobile communications

H
HC HLR High Capacity Home Location Register

I
IEEE IMA IN INAP ISDN ISUP ISUPV2 ITU ITU-T Institution of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inverse Multiplexing for ATM Intelligent Network Intelligent Network Application Protocol Integrated Services Digital Network Integrated Services digital network User Part Integrated Services digital network User Part Version 2 International Telecommunications Union Telecommunications Standardization Sector of ITU

L
LAH LCXE LOCAVAR LR LRE LRH LRS LSN high rate access link incoming switching link fault tracing matrix link incoming matrix link high rate matrix link outgoing matrix link Nectar platform local area network

M
MAL MAS MBHCA MIS ML AN ML CC ML COM ML ETA ML GS ML GW alarm multiplex main control station access multiplex Million Busy Hour Call Attempts inter control station multiplex access network software machine call control software machine matrix switch controller software machine auxiliary equipment manager software machine IN and mobile server controller software machine gateway software machine

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Abbreviations

ML GX ML HD ML MQ ML MR ML OC ML PC ML PUPE ML SM ML ML TR ML TX ML URM MM E10 MMB MPNA MPR24 MSC MTP

matrix system handler software machine high rate line controller software machine message distributor software machine call handler software machine message router software machine SS N 7 controller software machine SS N 7 protocol handler software machine control station software machine software machine subscriber and analysis database manager software machine call charging and traffic measurement software machine PCM controller software machine short form of Alcatel 1000 MM E10 Multiprocessor Memory Bus Alcatel digital announcement machine Modular Power Rack with 24 rectifiers Mobile services Switching Center Message Transfer Part

N
NE NGN NMC Network Element New Generation Network Network Management Center

O
OCB LAN OM OMC-CS OMPC OPE283 E10 core subsystem Local Area Network Operation and Maintenance software Operation and Maintenance Center - Circuit Switched Operation and Maintenance PC MM E10 operator system

P
PABX PC PCFS PCM PGS PRAD PUP PUS PVC Private Automatic Branch eXchange Personal Computer site front-end PC Pulse Code Modulation general supervisory station Primary Rate Access Directly connected to the switch main processor unit secondary processor unit Permanent Virtual Circuit

R
RANAP RC ATM RCH RCP RCX RNC Radio Access Network Application Part ATM switching network high rate switching network Radio Control Point narrowband switching network Radio Network Controller

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Abbreviations

S
SAB SCCP SCH SCP SCSI SDH SDL SM SMB SMB_A SMB_C SMB_CAXT SMB_X SMB_XT SMC SMM SMT SMT1G SMT2G SMX SN SNMP SS N 7 SSE SSOM SSP SSURF SSURN SSUTR2 STH STM-1 STP STS SVC Sysope branch selection and amplification device Signaling Connection Control Part high rate matrix control station Service Control Point Small Computer System Interface Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Specification and Description Language control station general purpose control station general purpose control station - Auxiliary functions general purpose control station - main function general purpose control station - main/auxiliary/matrix/termination functions general purpose control station - matrix function general purpose control station - matrix and termination functions main control station maintenance control station trunk control station first generation trunk control station second generation trunk control station matrix control station Nectar station Simple Network Management Protocol Signaling System N 7 environment supervision station OM subsystem Service Switching Point third party network user part (customer application specific) national network user part (customer application specific) ISDN version 2 user part (customer application specific) SDH network access station 155 Mbit/s SDH line Signaling Transfer Point Synchronization and Time base Station Switched Virtual Circuit operator system

T
T/AC TB TC TCA TCAP TCP/IP TDM TI TMN TOP TUP switching of synchronous time division multiplex channels into composite ATM channels Time Base TransCoder time division multiplex channel/composite ATM cell switching element Transaction Capabilities Application Part Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Time Division Multiplexing intelligent terminal Telecommunications Management Network CSN MM operator terminal Telephone User Part

U
UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System

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Abbreviations

UNI URA2G UTRAN UV

User-Network Interface second generation subscriber connection unit Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network ventilation unit

V
VBR-RT VC VLR VoATM VP Variable Bit Rate with Real Time constraint Virtual Channel Visitor Location Register Voice over ATM Virtual Path

W
WAM SMM management terminal

X
XBUS extended bus

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Abbreviations

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Glossary

Glossary
Access Network (AN)
Subscriber line concentration system connected to the MM E10 by one or more V5.1 or V5.2 interfaces.

ADSL technology

A technology used on conventional telephone lines to achieve high rates of digital transmission.

agent applique auxiliary equipment control station (SMA)

A plug-in hardware element of an SM (board, applique, converter, etc.).

An SM agent which plugs into the racks backplane.

An SM for connecting the auxiliary equipment (tone generators, frequency receivers, etc.) for processing n 7 signaling and managing V5.2 interfaces and primary rate access directly connected to the MM E10.

broadband

Qualifies a telecommunications system capable of routing data at rates higher than the primary rate.

central defense

A software unit of the OM which supervises and manages SM states. It reacts automatically in the event of system failure.

centrex function

Function of a public network switch, enabling a particular organization to benefit from supplementary services which are normally available only via a PABX.

containment control station (SM)

Defense mechanism to isolate a faulty unit and take it out of service.

A hardware entity of the MM E10 that supports 1 to n MLs. There are 2 types of SM: non-HC technology SMs (SMC, SMA, SMT, SMX and SMM), HC technology SMs (SMB and SCH). The SMs are interconnected by communication multiplexes (MIS and MAS).

download

Remote data transfer, from the TMN to the SMM. Downloading is used to update software without disrupting service.

E10 core subsystem

Central part of the MM E10 consisting of the OCB LAN and all the SMs connected to it.

E10 core subsystem Local Area Network (OCB LAN)

Set of at least 1 MIS and up to n MASs for interconnecting the SMs of the MM E10.

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Glossary

general purpose control station (SMB)

HC technology control station which, depending on its configuration, may simultaneously or separately handle control, termination, matrix and server subsystem access functions and auxiliary functions. The SMB has a multi-agent and multi-bus architecture accommodating up to 10 boards and 10 appliques.

general purpose control station - Auxiliary functions (SMB_A) general purpose control station - main function (SMB_C)

General purpose control station which handles the auxiliary functions (n 7 signaling processing, V5.2 and PRAD interface management, clock management, etc.) and optionally the gateway function to access the server subsystem.

A general purpose control station providing the various control functions (translation, charging, etc.) and the server subsystem access gateway function. The SMB_C is connected to all the communication multiplexes (MIS, MAS and LSN).

general purpose control station - matrix function (SMB_X) general purpose control station - Termination function (SMB_T)

General purpose control station which consists of a subset of the RCH and is used to set up connections. The SMB_X is a station like the SCH. SMB_X control is based on HC technology.

General purpose control station used to connect high bit rate lines and which handles, in an MM E10 with non-HC technology, the gateway function to access the servers.

HC technology

New technology which provides greater processing power and greater connection capacity. It is based on PowerPC technology for the processor functions and ATM technology for the switching functions.

high rate matrix control station (SCH)

Control station comprising a subset of the RCH and used for setting up connections. The SCH is a station like the SMB_X. SCH control is based on non-HC technology.

high rate switching network (RCH) Intelligent Network (IN)

The central part of the switching matrix consisting of 2 identical and independent branches, each made up of 1 to n SMB_Xs or SCHs.

A telecommunications network architecture with the flexibility to facilitate the introduction of new capacity and new services, including user-controlled services.

inter control station multiplex (MIS)

Secure communication carrier consisting of 2 token rings operating in load sharing mode. The MIS is the communication multiplex that consists of at least the OCB LAN, and which connects the SMM.

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Glossary

main control station (SMC)

Control station that handles switching functions (translation, charging, etc.). The SMC is connected to the MIS and to the MASs.

main control station access multiplex (MAS)

Secure communication carrier consisting of 2 token rings operating in load sharing mode. The MAS is a communication multiplex to supplement the MIS for exchanging messages between the stations.

maintenance control station (SMM) matrix control station (SMX)

Control station dedicated to operation and maintenance of the MM E10. It provides access to the mass memories, the dialog terminals and the TMN.

Control station which includes a subset of the RCX and is used to set up the connections.

narrowband

Qualifies a telecommunications system capable of routing voice and data signals at rates not exceeding 64 kbit/s.

narrowband switching network (RCX)

The central part of the switching matrix which consists of 2 identical and independent branches, each comprising 1 to n SMXs. The RCX has a single time stage T structure.

Nectar platform

Information processing platform consisting of n Nectar stations interconnected by a secured Ethernet-based local area network (LSN), which supports telecommunication applications (CDRA, etc.). A Nectar platform consists of a pilot duplex station and, optionally, up to n nonpilot stations.

PCM link Primary Rate Access Directly connected to the switch (PRAD) private subscriber line redundancy

2 Mbit/s link using pulse code modulation.

Primary rate access (30B + D), directly connected to the SMT2G of the MM E10.

A subscriber line managed by the centrex function of a public network switch.

Existence of more of a resource than is strictly needed to perform a function required in a functional unit.

SDH network connection station (STH)

Station consisting of up to 6 synchronous multiplexers that multiplex the PCM links of the SMT2G into 155 Mbit/s links to the SDH network.

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Glossary

server subsystem

Optional part of the MM E10 consisting of up to n Nectar platforms, handling application-oriented functions for the E10 core subsystem.

software machine (ML) subscriber digital access unit (CSN)

Software which performs one of the MM E10 functions and is supported by an SM.

Unit used for the local or remote connection of analog subscriber lines and ISDN subscriber access. In the MM version, the CSN is used to connect ADSL subscribers.

switch

Set of switching and auxiliary units in a telecommunications network node through which connections can be set up to suit the subscribers requirements.

switching matrix

Fully duplicated system consisting of the switching network (RCX or RCH), LRs and/or LRH and a branch selection and amplification device.

Synchronization and Time base Station (STS) Telecommunications Management Network (TMN) time-division multiplex channel/ composite ATM cell switching element (TCA) trunk control station (SMT)

Station consisting of a triplicated time base which generates the timing signals needed to operate the switching matrix, CSNLs, SMTs, SMAs, SMB_Ts and SMB_As.

Network connected to the switch via a Q3 interface, for centralized and remote management and supervision of the network elements.

Exchange termination unit which switches synchronous time division multiplex channels into composite ATM cells at the input of the RCH, and vice versa at the RCH output.

An SM consisting of 2 basic SMs that operate in active-standby mode and share the couplers providing the interface for PCM link connection, resynchronization and channel associated signaling processing.

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Index

Index
A
A7670 RSP front end . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 AAL2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81, 89, 93 Access network, See V5.x interfaces connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 54 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 ADSL definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 description of the CSN MM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 TOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 ADSL subscriber broadband network access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 narrowband network access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Agent definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Alarm multiplex central alarm couplers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 remote control circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 secondary alarm couplers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 ALCAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Alcatel 1000 MM E10 applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 architecture with RCH and SMB_C . . . . . . . . . . 33 architecture with RCX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 compliance with standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71, 85 for UMTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 for VoATM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 connection methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 defense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 dependability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 functional upgrades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 hardware characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 IN access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 mobile network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 operation and maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 signaling handled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 software characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 subscriber connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 transit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Application CDRA, See CDRA SU2A, See SU2A ATC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 ATM switching network description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Automatic reconfiguration central defense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

B
BCF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 BIWF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Broadband definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Broadband transport networks access point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Broadcasting announcements DAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 MPNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

C
Capacity - connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31, 32, 58, 59, 113 - processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 CDRA description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Centrex (function) definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 private subscriber lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 CMIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Configurations description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 HC MM E10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32, 73 non-HC MM E10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31, 72 Control station, See SM auxiliary functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28, 29, 34 gateway function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 gateway SMB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 main function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 matrix function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56, 59 SCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 SMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 SMB_A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 SMB_C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 SMB_T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 SMB_X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 SMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 SMM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 SMT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 SMX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56, 59 software organization of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 termination function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

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Index

types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 CSN ADSL subscribers on CSN MM . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 IMA technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 line tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 subscriber line connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 V5.1 interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

F
Fault containment definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

G
Gateway SMB description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 General purpose SMs, See SMB GSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

D
Data, See Mass memory DCME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26, 121 Defense - connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 automatic reconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 fault containment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98, 131 fault detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 high rate connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 narrowband connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96, 101 redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96, 133 typical reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98, 99 Download definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 functional upgrades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

H
HC technology advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 connection capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 MM E10 with . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 SM racks in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 High capacity, See HC technology

I
IMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 IN definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Intelligent network access point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 example of service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 impact on performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 list of services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

E
E10 core subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 defense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Echo canceling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 ETU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 in SMB_T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 in SMT2G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Environment supervision station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 ETU - ATC type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 - duplex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 - for connecting SDH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 - in SMT2G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 - IWU type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 - simplex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 ASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 ETU backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 TCA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

L
Load regulation description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Local area network, See LSN, OCB LAN - with SMB_Cs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 - with SMCs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 definition of MAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 definition of MIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28, 30 description of the LSN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 description of the OCB LAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 number of multiplexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72, 73 redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

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structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 LSN, See Local area network description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 gateway with the OCB LAN . . . . . . . . . . . . 47, 49

M
Mass memory access to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 in the SMM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 magnetic tape drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 streamer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Matrix link connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31, 32 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Mobile network access point GSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 UMTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 access point to - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

description of maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 operating tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 operation domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 operator access management . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 role of the SMM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Operation and maintenance terminal OMPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 TOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 104 Operators connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

P
PCM link connection of CSN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Performance - of the MM E10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 excluding IN traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 HC technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 impact of IN traffic ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 maximum processing capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 non-HC technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Power converters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 modular power rack with 24 rectifiers . . . . . . . 70 modular power supply station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 power supply equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 power supply station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 PRAD connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 53 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45, 54 Private subscriber line connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Purpose of this guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

N
Narrowband definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Nectar platform definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 middleware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 rack installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 view of a rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Non-HC technology configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 connection capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 MM E10 with . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 SM racks in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

R
Racks - accommodating servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78, 120 - HC technology SM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36, 119 - non-HC technology SM . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35, 118 19" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 23" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 RANAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 RCH ATM switching network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 RCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87, 89 RCX branch of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

O
OCB LAN, See Local area network compliance with standards . . . . . . . . . . 119, 120 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 definition of MAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 definition of MIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 gateway with the LSN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47, 49 OMC-CS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82, 89 Operation and maintenance - ETUs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 - SMs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 definition of TMN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

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definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Redundancy definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 RNC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87, 89

S
SCH definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37, 59 software machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 SDH, See SDH line SDH line connection of CSN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 ETU for connecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 ML for managing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 SMB_T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Server subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 defense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Servers, See Server subsystem description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Signaling channel associated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 common channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 network user . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 signaling handled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 SM, See Control station - dedicated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 - general purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 view of a dedicated SM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 view of a general purpose SM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 SMA definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 number of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 software machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 SMB definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 SMB_A definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 number of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 software machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 SMB_C definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 number of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 software machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

SMB_T definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 number of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 software machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 SMB_X definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 number of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 software machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 SMC definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 number of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 software machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 SMM definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 number of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72, 73 organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 software machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 software of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46, 66 SMT definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 number of SMT2G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72, 73 redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 SMT1G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 SMT2G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 software machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 SMX definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56, 57, 59 number of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 software machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Software, See Software machine - for the SMM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 functional software machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 in an SM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 SMMs functional software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 system software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Software machine characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28, 29 functional MLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 in an SM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 loading via the local area network . . . . . . . . . . 66 ML AN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 ML CC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 ML COM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 ML ETA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 ML GS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

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ML GW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 ML GX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 ML HD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 ML MQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 ML MR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 ML OC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 ML PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 ML PUPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 ML SM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 ML TR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 ML TX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 ML URM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 MLs associated with the auxiliary functions . . . 45 MLs associated with the control function . . . . . 45 MLs associated with the gateway function . . . . 45 MLs associated with the matrix function . . . . . . 46 MLs associated with the operation and maintenance function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 MLs associated with the termination function . 45 MLs of the MM E10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 SS7 N 7 signaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81, 89 STS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 SU2A description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Subscriber connection access networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 centrex function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 general . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 PRAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 via the CSN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 via the CSN MM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 via the IMA technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Subscribers, See Connecting subscribers ADSL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 21 analog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 digital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Switch definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Switching matrix, See Switching matrix with RCH, Switching matrix with RCX definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 matrix links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 SAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Switching matrix with RCH description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 matrix links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 SAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 SCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 SMB_X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Switching matrix with RCX description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

matrix links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SMX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Switching network - high rate, See RCH - narrowband, See RCX redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56 56 56

97

T
TCA definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

U
UMTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15, 87 UMTS SSP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 control plane call handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 SU2A application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 PVC service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 user plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 A7670 RSP front end . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

V
V5.x interfaces description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 V5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 V5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24, 45, 54 Ventilation unit description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 VoATM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 121 VoATM function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 ATM/TDM interworking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 BCF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 BIWF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 SVC services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 user and signaling information traffic AAL2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 AAL5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

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