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SUBSIDIA BffiLICA 1. ]ilCQUES X., Index des mots apparentes dans la Septante. Complement des Concordances et Dictionnaires (1972).

XIV, 234 p. ISBN 88-7653-400-8 ]ACQUES X., List of Septuagint Words Sharing Common Elements. plement to Concordance or Dictionary (1972). XIV, 233 p. ISBN 88-7653-401-6 Sup-

2. MARROW S. B., Basic Tools of Biblical Exegesis. A Student's Manual (1976), reprint with addenda et corrigenda (1978). 91, 8 p. ISBN 88-7653-402-4 3. F,TZMYER ]. A., An Introductory Bibliography for the Study of Scripture. Third edition (1990). XVI, 217 p. ISBN 88-7653-592-6 4. MilRTINEZ E. R., Hehrew-Ugaritic Index to the Writings of Mitchell ]. Dahood. A Bibliography with Indices of Scriptural Passages, Hebrew, Ugaritic and Eblaite Words, and Grammatical Observations, Critical Reviews, Doctoral Dissertations and Related Writings (1981). 155 p. ISBN 88-7653-404-4 5. LE DEAUT R., The Message of the New Testament and the Aramaic Bible (Targum), (Revised edition of Liturgie [uiue et Nouveau Testament, 1965). Translated from the French by STEPHEN F. MILETIC (1982). XII, 71 p. ISBN 88-7653-405-9 6. O'CilLLilGHAN ]., EI Nuevo Testamento en las versiones espafiolas (1982). XIV, 257 p. ISBN 88-7653-406-7 7. HOLLY D., Comparative Studies in Recent Greek New Testament Texts: Nestle-Aland's 25th and 26th Editions (1983). XII, 149 p. ISBN 88-7653-581-0 8. WONNEBERGER R., Understanding BHS. A Manual for the Users of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. Translated from the German by DWIGHT R. DilNIELS (1984, '1990). XII, 104 p. ISBN 88-7653-57-8-0
9. ]OVON P., Ruth.

Commentaire pbilologique et exegetique (deuxieme edition anastatique corrigee, 1986). XII, 100 p. ISBN 88-7653-586-1

10. THIEDE C. P., II pin antico manoscritto dei vsngeli? II frammento di Marco di Qumran e gli inizi della tradizione scritta del Nuovo Testamento. Tradotto dal tedesco da C. CARNITI (1987). 63 p. ISBN 88-7653-565-9 11. ALONSO SCHOKEL L., A Manual of Hebrew Poetics. Translated from the Spanish by A. GRAFFY (1988). XII, 228 p. ISBN 88-7653-567-5 12. VANHOYE A., Structure and Message of the Epistle to the Hebrews. Translated from the French by ]. SWETNilM (1989). IX, 120 p. + 1 insert. ISBN 88-7653-571-3

SUBSIDIA BIBLICA
16/1 - - : . - - - - -

subsidia biblica - 16/1

JAMES SWETNAM, S.J.

An Introduction to the Study of New Testament Greek


Part One: Morphology
Volume I: Lessons

EDITRICE PONTIFICIO ISTITUTO BIBLICO -

ROMA 1992

This is the first printed edition, in .revlsed form, of a series of typewritten notes by the same author and bearing the same title, "ad usa degli studenti" of the Pontifical Biblical Institute of Rome, first published in mimeographed form in 1981, and subseauently reproduced unchanged several times.

,'

ISBN 88-7653-600-0

E.P.I.B. - Roma - 1992


Iura editionis et versionis reservantur

EDITRICE PONTIFICIO ISTITUTO BIBLICO

Piazza della Pilotta 35 - 00187 Roma, Italla

For my students-i-past, present, future.

Preface
This, the first printed edition of my mimeographed notes on Greek grammar which initially appeared in 1981, has been long delayed by a variety of causes, some of which where not under my control. But the delay has probably made possible a more thorough and more imaginative reworking of the original version. The latter had a success which I had not foreseen. For this edition as well as the antecedent notes I am grateful above all to my past and present students, especially those of the Pontifical Biblical Institute beginning in 1963, for their help in indicating what might be useful for learning Greek. In particular I am grateful for advice and encouragement to six fellow teachers of Greek: Rev. Leo Arnold, S.J.; Rev. Anthony J. Forte, S.J.; Rev. William J. David Holly, O.S.B.Cam.; Don Carlo Rusconi of the Diocese of Rimini; Rev. Silvano Votto, S.J.; Rev. John Welch, S.J. For the finished product, however, I take full responsibility. I would be grateful for any suggestions or corrections which users may think advisable. Rome Feast of the Epiphany January 6,1992 James Swetnam, S.J.

TAE1LE OF CONTENTS

ix

Table ofContents
Volume I: Lessons
DEDICATION. PREFACE TABLE OF CONTENTS. ABBREVIATIONS. .

vii
ix xxxii 1

INTRODUCTION.

Lesson 1. The Alphabet. Pronunciation. Breathings. Accents. The . Iota Subscript 4 Lesson 2. dill, Present Indicative. The Present Tense. The , Indicative Mood. Person. Number for Verbs. The Movable -v. The Article. Gender. Number for the Article, Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives. Case. Declension of the Article. The Nominative Case. The Sentence. The Clause. The Predicative Use of the Adjective. The Attributive Use of the Adjective.Adjectives as Substantives. Agreement. The Noun
A6yo~

10

Lesson 3. The Imperfect Indicative. gill i, Imperfect Indicative Indicative. The Relative Pronoun. The Accusative Case. The Noun EPYOV. Neuter Plural Subject and Singular Verb 21 Lesson 4. The Infinitive. dill, Present Infinitive. The Imperative. dill, Present Imperative. The Nouns ~w~, a/lCXpTla, 1">6~a. The Adjectives aylO<; and ayae6~. The Stem. The Genitive Case. The Five Principal Punctuation Marks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 26

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Lesson 5. The Subjunctive. slui, Present Subjunctive. The . Demonstrative Pronouns O,)TO~ and hE'ivO~. The Dative Case. The Apostrophe. Crasis. Diaeresis...................... 33 Lesson 6. The Optative. dJll, Present Optative. The Nouns JlaellTrl~ and vwvla~. The Personal Pronoun tyw. Emphasis and the Explicit Use of the Personal Pronoun. The Vocative Case.. 39 Lesson,7. The Participle. eiui, Present Participle. The Personal Pronoun 015 44 Lesson 8. dJll, Future Indicative, Future Participle, Future Infinitive. The Future Indicative. The Future Participle. The Future Infinitive. The Accusative with the Infinitive. The Adjective and Personal Pronoun alho~. The Reflexive and NonReflexive Use of alho~ 49 Lesson 9. The Inflection of Verbs and of Nouns, Pronouns, and Adjectives. The Verbal Systems in -xo and in -Jlt. The Active and Passive Voices. AUW, Present Active Indicative. The Noun oeXp~. Rules for Accents 1. , .. 56 Lesson 10. The Imperfect Active Indicative. ),.15 co, Imperfect Active Indicative. The Augment. Compound Verbs. The Noun "Apnur. Rules for Accents 2 62 Lesson 11. The Future Active Indicative. ),.uw, Future Active Indicative. Various Types of Stems and the Formation of the Future. Verbs Roots Having Present Stems Ending in -~. The Noun tA1l'i~. Rules for Accents 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 68 Lesson 12. The Meaning of the Present Active Imperative. ),.uw, Present Active Imperative. The Nouns 1l'OtJlrlV, dKWV, uriv, and aiwv. The Reflexive Pronouns tJlauToii, oenuro fi, and EaoToii. Rules for Accents 4 74 Lesson 13. The Meaning of the Present Active Subjunctive. ),.uw, Present Active Subjunctive. The Nouns 1l'aTrlp, PIlT<>JP, and OWTrlP. The Reciprocal Pronoun aAArlAwv. Rules for Accents 5.. ................................................... .82 Lesson 14. The Meaning of the Present Active Optative. "UW, Present Active Optative. The Nouns :rro"t~ and iXBv~. The

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Possessive Pronouns tJlOe;, ~ JltTEPO~, oo~, and UJlETEpO~. Rules for Accents 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 87

Lesson 15. The Meaning ofthe Present Active Infinitive. ),.uw, Present Active Infinitive. The Nouns ~aOtAEU~ and voii~.The Interrogative Pronoun ric, Rules for Accents 7 93 Lesson 16. The Meaning of the Present Active Participle. ),.UW, Present Active Participle. The Noun llVEiiJla. The Indefinite Pronoun rrc, Rules for Accents 8 "

99

Lesson 17. The Meaning of the Future Active Infinitive. AUW, Future Active Infinitive. The Meaning of the Future Active Participle. ),.uw, Future Active Participle. The Noun TEpa~. The Demonstrative Pronoun 151iE. Present Verbal Stems Ending in -00. Rules for Accents 9 104 Lesson 18. The Meaning of the Aorist Tense. ),.uw, Aorist Active Indicative. The Noun eVo~. The Relative Pronoun 15oTt~. The Unreal or Contrary-to-Fact Conditions. Rules for Accents 10. 110 Lesson 19. The Meaning of the Aorist Active Imperative. ),.uw, Aorist Active Imperative. The Adjective :rra~. The Numeral E'i~. Rules for Accents 11. 117 Lesson 20. The Meaning of Aorist Active Subjunctive. ),.UW, Aorist Active Subjunctive. The Adjective EKWV. The Numerals Mo, TPE'i~, and TEooapE~. Rules for Accents 12 122 Lesson 21. The Meaning of the Aorist Active Optative. ),.uw, Aorist Active Optative. The Adjective EOeU~. The Conjunction teXv and Its Use in Conditional Clauses. Rules for Accents 13, ... 128 Lesson 22. The Meaning of the Aorist Active Infinitive and Participle. ),.uw, Aorist Active Infinitive and Participle. The Adjective JlEya~. Rules for Accents 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 133 Lesson 23. The Meaning of the Perfect Active Indicative. AUW, Perfect Active Indicative. The Formation of the Reduplication. The Adjective :rrOAU~. Rules for Accents 15 138

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Lesson 24. The Meaning of the Pluperfect Active Indicative. 1..1500,

Pluperfect Active Indicative. The Adjective aloSvlo~. The Alpha Privative. Rules for Accents 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 144
Lesson 25. The Meaning of the Perfect Active Infinitive, Participle, and Subjunctive. 1..1500, Perfect Active Infinitive, Participle, and Subjunctive. The Adjective <iA'1e~~. Rules for Accents 17.... 149 Lesson 26. The Meaning of the Middle Voice. A1500, Present Middle 154 Indicative. The Noun J.luprlJ~. Rules for Accents 18 Lesson 27. 1..1500, Imperfect Middle Indicative and Present Middle

Iniperative. The Comparative Adjective J.lei~wv. The Two Ways of Expressing Adjectival Comparison. Other Uses of the Comparative Adjective. Rules for Accents 19 159
Lesson 28. 1..1500, Present Middle Subjunctive and Optative. The

Superlative Adjective. The Conjunction amv and Its Use. Rules 165 for Accents 20
Lesson 29. 1..1500, Present Middle Participle and Infinitive. Regular Forms of the Comparative Adjective. Rules for Accents 21. .. 169 Lesson 30. 1..1500, Future Middle Indicative, Infinitive, and

Participle. The Use of iJ<lHov to Form the Comparative Degree of Adjectives. The Use of the Conjunction wore. The Result Clause. Rules for Accents 22 174
Lesson 31. 1..1500, Aorist Middle Indicative and Imperative. The Adjectives IimAoi3~ and XPlJooi3~. Rules for Accents 23. . . . .. 180 Lesson 32. 1..1500, Aorist Middle Subjunctive and Optative. The Adjective cipYlJpoi3~. Rules for Accents 24 185

Lesson 33. 1..1500, Aorist Middle Participle and Infinitive. The Noun XUpl~. Rules for Accents 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 189 Lesson 34. 1..1500, Perfect Middle Indicative, Pluperfect Middle

Indicative, and Perfect Middle Participle. The Perfect Middle of Stems Ending in Palatals, Labials, Dentals, Liquids, and Nasals. Rules for Accents 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 193

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Lesson 35. 1..1500, Perfect Middle Imperative, Infinitive, Subjunctive, and Optative. The Noun Xe:tp. Rules for Accents 27 199 Lesson 36. The Meaning of the Passive Voice. 1..1500, Present-Passive

Indicative, Imperfect Passive Indicative, Present Passive Imperative, Subjunctive, Optative, Infinitive, and Participle. Rules for Accents 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 204
Lesson 37. The Weak Aorist Passive and the Strong Aorist Passive. 1..1500, Aorist Passive Indicative and Imperative. The Noun dvrip.. .................................. : 211 Lesson 38. 1..1500, Aorist Passive Subjunctive and Optative. Rules for Accents 29 : 216 Lesson 39. 1..1500, Aorist Passive Participle and Infinitive. Rules for Accents 30 220 Lesson 40. 1..1500, Future Passive Indicative, Participle, and

Infinitive
Lesson 41. ypu<jlw, Aorist Passive Indicative, Imperative,

224

Subjunctive, Optative, Participle, and Infinitive. ypu<jlw, Future Passive Indicative, Participle, and Infinitive. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 228
Lesson 42. 1..1500, Perfect Passive Indicative, Pluperfect Passive

Indicative, Perfect Passive Imperative, Infinitive, Subjunctive, Optative, and Participle. The Key Forms of 1..1500. The Principal Parts of 1..1500. Rules for Accents 31 233
Lesson 43. Strong Aorist Forms in the Active and Middle Voices.

l3uHw, Aorist Active Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive, Optative, Participle, and Infinitive. Difficult Verbs: l3uAAw. Rules for Accents 32
Lesson 44. l3uAAw, Aorist Middle Indicative, Imperative,

240

Subjunctive, Optative, Participle, and Infinitive. Difficult Verbs: ayw. Rules for Accents 33 : 247
Lesson 45. Deponent Verbs. Middle Deponents. Passive Deponents.

Usages among Compound Verbs. Difficult Verbs: epxoiJal. Rules for Accents 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 253

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Lesson 46. Contract Verbs. Rules of Contraction for -s Contracts. Principal Parts of -t-E Contracts. (jJlMw, Present Active Indicative, Imperfect Active Indicative, Present Active Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. Difficult Verbs: vivoum, Rules for Accents 35 259 Lesson 47. <j>IAiw, Present Middle and Passive Indicative, Imperfect Middle and Passive Indicative, Present Middle and Passive Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. Contraction in -sw Roots of One Syllable. The Non-Lengthening of e in the Non-Contracted Forms of Some -r-E Contracts. Difficult Verbs: Kat-iw, Mw , , 265 Lesson 48. Future Active and Middle Systems of Liquid and Nasal Verbs. oTiAAW, Future Active Indicative and Future Middle Indicative. Aorist Active and Middle Indicative of Liquid and Nasal Verbs. oTiAAW, Aorist Active Indicative and Aorist Middle : 270 Indicative. Difficult Verbs: oTinw, xpi ve, ayyinw Lesson 49. Rules of Contraction for - a Contracts. Principal Parts of -a Contracts. ayarraw, Present Active Indicative, Imperfect Active .Indicative, Present Active Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. Difficult Verbs: opaw, exw. Rules for Accents 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 276 Lesson 50. ayarrciw, Present Middle and Passive Indicative, Imperfect Middle and Passive Indicative, Present Middle and Passive Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. Difficult Verbs: Aiyw, a'(pw. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 283 Lesson 51. Rules for Contraction of -0 Contracts. Principal Parts of -0 Contracts. <j>avspow, Present Active Indicative, Imperfect Active Indicative, Present Active Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. Difficult Verbs: <j>ipw, i:ysipw 288 Lesson 52. <j>avspow, Present Middle and Passive Indicative, Imperfect Middle and Passive Indicative, Present Middle arid Passive Imperative, Participle, and Infinitive. The Periphrastic Construction. Difficult Verbs: Aa/l~aVW, arr08vljoKW 294 Lesson 53. yIVWOKW, Aorist Active Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. ~afvw, Aorist Active

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xv

Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. 300 Difficult Verbs: xopstiourn, rrfrrTw Lesson 54. ollia: Perfect Form, Present Meaning. ollia, Perfect Active Indicative, Pluperfect Active Indicative, Perfect Active Imperative, Participle, and Infinitive. Difficult Verbs: nopetioum, rrirrTw 306 Lesson 55. Verbs in -Ill. Mliw/ll, Present Active Indicative, Imperfect Active Indicative, Present Active Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. Mliw/ll, Aorist Active Indicative, Imperative, Participle, and Infinitive. Rules for 311 Accents 37. Difficult Verbs: Mliw/ll, arroKTsivw Lesson 56. Mliw/ll, Present Middle and Passive Indicative, Imperfect Middle and Passive Indicative, Present Middle and Passive Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. Mliwln, Aorist Middle Indicative. Rules for Accents 38. Difficult , 319 Verbs: ~aw, avoiyw Lesson 57. Ti8'1/lI, Present Active Indicative, Imperfect Active Indicative, Present Active Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. Ti81J/lI, Aorist Active Indicative, Imperative, S,ubjunctJve, Participle, and Infinitive. Difficult Verbs: n8'1/l I, mvw , 325 Lesson 58. Ti81J/lI, Present Middle and Passive Indicative, Imperfect Middle and Passive Indicative, Present Middle and Passive Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. Ti81J/lI, Aorist Middle Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. xsium, Present Passive Indicative, Imperfect Passive Indicative, Present Passive Participle and Infinitive. Difficult Verbs: rrsi8w, orrsipw 332 Lesson 59. 'iOTIJ/ll, Principal Parts. '(OTIJ/lI, Present Active Indicative, Imperfect Active Indicative, Present Active Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. '(OT'1/lI, Aorist Active Transitive and Aorist Active Intransitive. 'tOT'1/l I, Aorist Active Indicative Intransitive, Aorist Active Imperative Intransitive, Aorist Active Subjunctive Intransitive, Aorist Active Participle Intransitive, Aorist Active Infinitive Intransitive. 'fOT'1/lI, Perfect Active, Forms and Meaning. Difficult Verbs: 'iOTIJ/lI, rraaxw 340

r
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Lesson 60. '(aTiHIt, Present Middle and Passive Indicative, Imperfect Middle and Passive Indicative, Present Middle .and Passive Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. The Verbs tordvco and aT~KUl. Difficult Verbs: XlXtpUl, allapTuvUl, ' KAatUl. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 348 Lesson 61. liEtKVOlll, Present Active Indicative, Imperfect Active Indicative, Present Active Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. Difficult Verbs: lIEtKVOlll, '<JTPi<!>w, <l>alvUl..... 354 Lesson 62; lIEtKVOlll, Present Middle and Passive Indicative, Imperfect Middle and Passive Indicative, Present Middle and Passive Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. Difficult Verbs: <j>f;uyUl, i]KUl, IllXv8uVUl 359 Lesson 63. 'IrWl, Present Active Indicative, Imperfect Active Indicative, Present Active Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. 'IrWl, Aorist Active Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle [Summary], and Infinitive. 'ltWl, Middle and Passive Forms in the Present System [Summary]. Middle Forms in the Aorist System [Summary] Difficult Verbs: 'IrWl /, 'tUl, a\peUl, AEtrrUl. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. 364 Lesson 64. arrOnOlll and OIlVOl.ll [Summary]. <l>rWI, Selected Forms. dill, Selected Forms. Comparison of Adverbs. Difficult Verbs: arrOnOlll/ arrOnUUl, OI.lVOl.ll / OI.lVUUl, rrlllrrArWl 371 Lesson 65. lIuVal.lal,Present Deponent Indicative, Imperfect Deponent Indicative, Present Deponent Subjunctive, Optative, Participle [Summary], and Infinitive. , trrl<JTal.lat [Summary]. Comparison ofIrregular Adverbs. Difficult Verbs: lIt5val.llXl, uiuvrjoxouut, TpexUl 377 Lesson 66. Ku8TJl.llXt, Present Deponent Indicative, Imperfect Deponent Indicative, Present Deponent Imperative [Summary], Participle [Summary], and Infinitive. Difficult Verbs: Ku8TJllal, tAeyxUl, rpsmo, TIKTUl, KEplllXlvUl 383 Lesson 67. A System of Transcription. Difficult Verbs: xeUl / XUVVUl, '8' ., l=' , " , ea uo, EOpt<JKUl, ~TJPlXlVW, KalUl, ToyxavUl, EaUl . 387 Explanatory Note at the End of Lessons 1-67................ 392

<.

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Volume TI: Key, Lists ofWords by Categories, Verb Paradigms, Indices

Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1 Lesson 1 , '" , 1

Lesson 2~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Lesson 9 Lesson 10 Lesson 11. Lesson 12. Lesson 13. Lesson 14. Lesson 15. Lesson 16. 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 16 17 18 20

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Lesson 88. John 6:22 - 7:9 Lesson 89. John 7:10 - 8:11 Lesson 90. John 8:12 - 9:12 Lesson 91. John 9:13 - 10:21. Lesson 92. John 10:22 - 11:44 Lesson 93. John 11:45 - 12:43 Lesson 94. John 12:44 - 13:38 Lesson 95. John 14:1 - 15:27 Lesson 96. John 16:1- 17:26" Lesson 97. John 18:1-40 Lesson98. John 19:1-42 Lesson 99. John 20:1-31 , , ,

436 437 439 440 441 443 445 446 447 " 448 450 452

Lesson 100. John 21:1-25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 453

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Volume TI: Key, Lists ofWords by Categories, Verb Paradigms, Indices

Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1 Lesson 1 , '" , 1

Lesson 2~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Lesson 9 Lesson 10 Lesson 11. Lesson 12. Lesson 13. Lesson 14. Lesson 15. Lesson 16. 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 16 17 18 20

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Lesson 17... ......... .... .... .... ................. Lesson 18. Lesson 19. Lesson 20. Lesson 21. Lesson 22.. .... .... Lesson 23. Lesson 24.

22

. . . . . . .. . . .

. ................. 23
24

. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .... .

............. 26

27

. .... .... . . ..... .

29

.......

31

Lesson 25. . Lesson 26

. . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 33 . . .... . ............ 34 ....


............. 36

. .... Lesson 27 . .... ..... . . . . . . . . . Lesson 28 . .... .... Lesson 29.


Lesson 30.

. ................ 37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 39
. 41

.... .... ............... 42

Lesson 32
Lesson 34 Lesson 35.

Lesson 31 . .... ....

. .... .... .............. . .... .....

44

................. 45

Lesson 33. .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... .... ............... 47

. .... .... .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 48


. 49

Lesson 36.

. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .

..

51

Lesson 37... ..... Lesson 38.

.... .................. 52 . . . . . .. ............... 54

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Lesson 39 Lesson 40.

. ..... . ..... .

... . . . . .
Lesson 41.

. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ... 55 . .............. 57
............... 58

. .... .... .. . . ..... .....

Lesson 42 ... . . . . . . ..... .... Lesson 43. Lesson 44 Lesson 45. Lesson 46.

59

" .. 61

. ....

. ... .... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. 62 . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 63 . .... .... . . . . ............... ..


64'

Lesson 47.... . .... .

. ..... .... ................. 65

Lesson 50 Lesson 51.


Lesson 48 Lesson 49 Lesson 52.

. .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 66 . .... .... . .............. 67 . . . . . . .. . .


.... . .....
. .

69

. .... . .... . .... ... .,

. ............. 70
71

Lesson 53..... . .... .... . Lesson 54. Lesson 55.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 72 ..... .... .... .... ..... .............. 73 ...... . .... . . . . . .... . .... .... ..... ............ 74
75

Lesson 56 Lesson 57. "

. . .... . . . . . . . . .

. .... . ... .............. 76

Lesson 58. . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . Lesson 59. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 77

.....

. .... . . . . . . . . . . .............. 79

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Lesson 60. Lesson 61. . Lesson 62. Lesson 63. .. Lesson 64. .. Lesson 65. Lesson 66. Lesson 67 Lesson 68. Lesson 69. Lesson 70. . Lesson 71. Lesson 72. .. Lesson 73. Lesson 74 Lesson 75. . Lesson 76. Lesson 77. Lesson 78. Lesson 79. Lesson 80. .. Lesson 81.

80
81 83 84

85
86

88
88 90 90 91 91 92 92 93 94 94 94 95 95 96 96

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Lesson 82. Lesson 83. .. Lesson 84. Lesson 85. Lesson 86. Lesson 87 Lesson 88. Lesson 89. Lesson 90. Lesson 91.
Lesson 92.

97 97 98 98 99 99

. 100 . 100 . 101 . 101 . 101 . 102


,

Lesson 93. Lesson Bd, Lesson 95.

. 102 . 102
,

Lesson 96. Lesson 97. Lesson 98. Lesson 99. Lesson 100.

. 103 . 103 . 104 . 104


104

Lists ofWords by Categories


Introduction . . . . .. 106

xxiv

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Adjectives [Adj] (with Paradigms)


Adj 1: -o~, -11, -ov. Adj IPro: -o~, -11, -0 Adj2: -o~,-a,-ov Adj 3: -ou~, -11, -ouv Adj 4: -ou~, -a, -OUV Adj 5: Adj 6:
-o~, -o~,

106 106 108 108 110 110 111 112 112 113 114 114 115 115 116 " . . 117 117 118 118

-ov. '" -a

-01, -0.1,

Adj 7: -wv, -ouoa, -OV Adj 8: -wv, -woo., -wv (Contracts in -aw) Adj 9: -wv,-ouoa,-ouv (Contractsin-EW) Adj 10: -wv, -ouoa.-ouv (Contracts in -ow) Adj 11: -cov, -wv, -ov. Adj 12: -a~, -0.00., -avo Adj 13: -a~, -lXIva, -avo Adj 14: -u~, -Eta., -u Adj 15: -11~, -11~, -E~ Adj 16: -11V,-11V,-EV Adj 17: -w~, -uta., -O~ Adj 18:
-EI~,

-Etaa, -EV. ................................. 119 119

Adj 19: -EI~, -~ta., -EV

TABLE OF CONTENTS

xxv
BdKvu~l

Adj 20: Present Active Participles of Four Verbs in -~t: 5 5" I' W~I, iorrun, n#6 11~t. Adj 21: Indeclinable. . Adj 22: Irregular. .

' 120

121 121

Adverbs [Adv]........................................ 123


Adv 1: Place. Adv 2: Time. Adv 3: General. 123 123 124 " 125 126 127 127

Article [Art]: o,~, T6 Conjunctions [Conj] InteIjections [Inter] Negatives [Neg]. Nouns [N] (with Paradigms). .
N 1: -11, -11~, Jj

" 128
128 128 130 131 132 132

N 2: -a,

-a~,

Jj

N 3: -a, -11~. -Jj. N 4: -%, -ou, 6. N 5: -a~, -ou, 6.

N 6m:

-o~,

-ou, 6

,---------xxvi
N 6: f -oe;,
-OV,

TABLE OF CONTENTS
' 'I.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .

, 135
. 135

N7: -OV,-OV, TO N 8m: -" -KOe;, o . '


.

137

N 8f:

-I;,-Koe;,~

. . .... ..... . . . , .. 137 . 138

N 9m: -~. -yo.:;, O

N9f: -I;,-yoc;,

D. D

..... .. .. .. ..

. .. .

. .. , . 138

N 10: -I;, -xoc;,


N 11m:
-1jf,

138 139

-xoc, 6. '"

N llf: -l/l, -xoc, ti

. 139
. 139

N 12:

-1jf,

-Boe;,

N 13m: -C;, -TOC;, 6


N 13f: -e;, -rroc, D

. 139

.
.

140
140
. 140

N 14m: -e;, -60e;, O


N 14f: -e;, -ooe;, ~
' N 15: -C;, - 8 oc;, 'I.

141

N 16:

-~a, -~Otroc;,

TO

_
.

. 141
142

N 17: -C;, -roe;, ro. .

N 18m: -'IV, -EOVOe;, N 18f: -'IV, -EOVOe;,

_ . 143
. 143
143

ti

N 19: -'lV, -'lvoe;, 6. N 20m: -wv, -ovoc;. 6

. 144

N 20f: -wv, -ovoe;, " . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . , ... , .... ....... 144

TABLE OF CONTENTS

xxvii

N 21m: -WV, -WVOC;, 6


N 21f: -wv, -tevoc, ~

"

144 145 145 146 146 146


147

N 22:

-wv, -OVTOe;,

N 23: -Ae;, -Aoe;, O

N 24m: -'1P, -EOPOC;. O


N 24f: -11P, -epoc;,

N 25: -11P, -'IPOC;, 6

N 26: -<.Up, -opoc;, 6

. 147

N 27m:
N 27f:

-UC;,

-uo<:;, 6

. 147
. 148

-VI;,

-tloc;;:. ~

N 28m: N 28f:

-t<;, -00<;,

. 148
.

-11:;, -EWe;;:, ~
-WC;,

149

N 29:

-ewe;, 6

149
150 150 . 151 . 152 156

N 30: -11C;, -Ove;, 6

N 31: -OC;, -OVC;, TO .............................. _


N 32: Indeclinable. . N 33: Irregular Particles [Part]

Prepositions [Prep]

"

156
156

Prep 1: With One Case in the New Testament

xxx
DV 137-154 DV 155-171 DV 172-189 DV 190-207

TABLE OF CONTENTS

196 198 200 202

DV 208-210. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 204

Verb Paradigms

Verbs, Paradigm 1: Thematic Verbs with Root Ending in Consonant or Non-Contracted Vowel, Active Voice Verbs, Paradigm 2: Thematic Verbs with Root Ending in Consonant or Non-Contracted Vowel, Middle Voice Verbs, Paradigm 3: Thematic Verbs with Root Ending in Consonant or Non-Contracted Vowel, Passive Voice Verbs, Paradigm 4: Thematic Verbs, Strong Forms of Aorist Active, Middle, and Passive and of Future Passive

206 208 210 212

Verbs, Paradigm 5: Thematic Verbs With Roots Ending in -ex, -E, and -0 ["Contract Verbs"], Present System, Active Voice..... 214 Verbs, Paradigm 6: Thematic Verbs With Roots Ending in -ex, -E, and -0 ["Contract Verbs"], Present System, Middle and Passive Voices 216 Verbs, Paradigms 7: Non-Thematic Verbs, 'iornui, r,8f]!lI, and lil6w!lt Families, Present System, Active Voice 218 Verbs, Paradigms 8: Non-Thematic Verbs, 'iornui, rLef]!lI, and lil6w!l1 Families, Aorist System, Active Voice 220 Verbs, Paradigms 9: Non-Thematic Verbs, 'irun, 6clKvu!lt, and d!ll Families, Present System, Active Voice 222 Verbs, Paradigms 10: Non-Thematic Verbs, "f]!lt and 6clKvu!lt Families, Aorist System, Active Voice 224

TABLE OF CONTENTS

xxxi

Verbs, Paradigm 11: Non-Thematic Verbs, 'icrnui, rl8f]!lt, and lil6w!lt Families, Present System, Middle and Passive Voices. 226 Verbs, Paradigm 12: Non-Thematic Verbs, 'If]!lt and 6elKVU!lt Families, Present System, Middle and Passive Voices 228

Indices
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 230 Index of Greek Words in Vocabulary Listings 231

Index ofEnglish Words in Vocabulary Listings. . . . . . . . . . . .. 249 Index of Subjects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 282 Index of Scripture Texts Used in Exercises and Syntactical Explanations Index of Scripture Texts Used in Rules for Accents 298 307

xxxii

ABBREVIATIONS

Abbreviations
I. New Testament
Mt Mk Lk Jn Acts Rom 1 Cor 2 Cor Gal Eph Phil Col 1 Th 2 Th 1 Tim 2 Tim Tit Ph Heb Jas 1Pt 2Pt 1Jn 2Jn 3Jn Jude Apoc Matthew Mark Luke John Acts of the Apostles Romans 1 Corinthians 2 Corinthians Galatians Ephesians Philippians Colossians 1 Thessalonians 2 Thessalonians 1 Timothy 2 Timothy Titus Philemon Hebrews James 1 Peter 2 Peter 1John 2John 3 John Jude Apocalypse (Revelation) accusative singular Conjunctions continued dative dative plural dative singular [List of] Difficult Verbs e.g. exempli gratia [for example] f feminine fem. feminine g genitive gp genitive plural gs genitive singular hapax hapax legomenon [once said, i.e., a single occurrence] id est [that is] i.e. Inter Interjections Nouns N N.B. Nota Bene [Note Well] Neg Negatives neut. neuter nominative n np nominative plural nominative singular ns p plural Part Participles Prep Prepositions Pro Pronouns s singular v vocative V Verbs vocative v vocative plural vp vs vocative singular as Conj cont. d dp ds DV

II. General
a Adj Adv ap accusative Adjectives Adverbs accusative plural

ABBREVIATIONS

xxxiii

VP x

Verbs, Paradigms symbol for "times" [i.e., "2x" indicates that a word occurs twice on the page indicated]

INTRODUCTION

Lessons

Introduction
No textbook is ever entirely satisfactory except, possibly, to its author. The present author is under no illusions in the matter. He simply offers this grammar as a result of a number of years of teaching students from a wide variety of backgrounds (over one thousand, from eighty-five countries). His hope is that it will prove helpful for other teachers by way of direct use or as an incentive for writing their own. But this book is especially written for students who are constrained by circumstances to attempt to study New Testament Greek without the aid of a teacher, even though its use as a class text is not precluded. This textbook is based on a number of the author's views which in turn are based on his experience: 1) Learning New Testament Greek is not easy; except for persons who are abnormally gifted it requires considerable, persevering effort. On the other hand, any person of normal intelligence can learn much of the language, provided that he or she is willing to do a sufficient amount of work. 2) Learning New Testament Greek demands a sense of achievement if the student is to persevere to a point where mastery of the language is rewarding in terms of the ability to read the New Testament text. 3) Learning New Testament Greek is ordinarily best achieved by an approach which is both deductive (involving the memorization of vocabulary, paradigms, and rules) and inductive (involving contact with the New Testament text). 4) Learning New Testament Greek can be made less difficult by the careful presentation of new material in such a way that essentials are set forth clearly and non-essentials are assigned a subordinate place or relegated to a subsequent treatment. In line with the above opinions this textbook is characterized by the following features: 1) There are no short-cuts offered. Everywhere it is presumed that the student is interested in learning the language well and will pay the price to achieve this learning. 2) The lessons are structured in such a way that a

INTRODUCTION

continuing progress in understanding the text of the New Testament is verified. ' 3) The deductive approach is honored by giving vocabulary, paradigms, rules, and exercises from English to Greek. The inductive approach is honored by presenting exercises from Greek to English and by placing the student in contact with the Greek text of the New Testament starting with Lesson 1, beginning with the first verses of the Gospel of Mark. 4) Clarity of presentation is aimed at by a format of one hundred lessons, each with its own carefully defined material. Each lesson can be considered sufficient for at least one class period, if the book is used in connection with class presentation. The normal beginner will require at least three or four additional hours to-master the material in each lesson, however. Some lessons have more material than others and accordingly will require more private study. Periods of repetition are advisable if for no other reason than to let the student catch his breath. The general structure of the book is as follows: a) Paradigms of the verb: The verb dill is presented first, followed by the thematic verb ;\1500. Only when ;\1500 is fully presented are major "variations" given (e.g., "contract" verbs, irregular verbs, deponent verbs, and non-thematic verbs). b) Paradigms of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives: These are presented as soon as possible: first the second declension, then the first, and finally, the third. c) Prepositions: The most important prepositions are presented gradually, but steadily, so that by Lesson 30 the student has seen all those which are essential for facility in reading the New Testament. d) Adverbs: These are presented gradually as a feature of almost every lesson's vocabulary. e) Vocabulary: All New Testament words, excluding proper nouns, occurring more than twelve times are presented, where possible, in conjunction with the presentation of the appropriate paradigms. f) New Testament readings: The Gospel of Mark is presented in the first sixty-seven lessons in conjunction with the presentation of the paradigms and a basic vocabulary; then the same Gospel is presented again in Lessons 68 to 81. The Gospel of John is presented in Lessons 82-100. g) Syntax: Sufficient syntax is given to enable the student to read the New Testament text on the level of a basic comprehension. A second part for this Introduction to the Study of

INTRODUCTION

New Testament Greek is envisaged which will give a more comprehensive treatment of syntax. h) Lists and paradigms: An elaborate system of vocabulary lists has been devised which ties in various types of words with their initial presentation in the text of Volume I and with the paradigms in the text and at the end of Volume II. The lists are intended to aid the student in seeing how individual words fit into the categories of the language. They can also be used as a device to help memorization. The mode of presentation in this grammar will undoubtedly be accused of clarificatory over-kill. The author pleads guilty in advance, having read one computer instruction manual too many without the benefit of a teacher. If there is one thing that stands out in his experience of twenty-eight years as a teacher of Greek it is this: Repetitio mater scientiae ---"Repetition is the mother of learning". This mode of proceeding is particularly necessary with regard to such basics as voice, mood, and tense. But simple repetition is not sufficient: a beginner's textbook in grammar should provide the possibilities for an interplay of perspectives, perspectives which can generate a repetition leading to evergrowing understanding. The detail with which the forms and vocabulary are categorized also constitutes an attempt to counter the lack of a knowledge of grammar, a lack which has manifested itself more and more in recent years among students who speak an IndoEuropean language. It is also an attempt to aid students from language families other than Indo-European who will study Greek from this grammar, or from a translation based on it. Throughout the book references to the New Testament are used wherever feasible in order to give the student maximum exposure to the sacred text, a knowledge of which is the ultimate goal of the present work. The "key" to this textbook should enable the student to work through the grammar and exercises intelligently. A teacher, of course, is recommended: a good textbook is an excellent teacher, but an excellent teacher is something more than a good textbook; An unwise use of the key could prove to be counterproductive.

LESSON 1

I I
~

=r=
=n:::
:I{L

tau

upsilon

il (see below)

<I>

<P

phi

ph

X
~

=7:=
=1\L
N

chi

ch

'I'

1JI

psi

ps

H
-

co

omega

o (as in old)

Pronunciation.
Gamma (V) is pronounced as nu (v) when it immediately precedes kappa (K), chi (X), or another gamma (V). For example: aYY~Ao<; is pronounced angelos, (with the accent on the first syllable); aVKlJpa is pronounced allkyra, (with the accent on the first syllable). (The accent and its placement is not related to the sound of the gamma.) . Sigma is written as 0 at the beginning of a word or within a word, and as <; at the end of a word. But the pronunciation is the same in both instances. Upsilon has no real equivalent sound in English. It is akin to the French u or the German ii. An approximate description of how it is formed is as follows: with the lips rounded, tongue high, and the sound focussed in the middle of the mouth, the u of tune is pronounced with the introduction of the e sound of sheen. Chi is pronounced like the ch of loch.

LESSON 1

The letters a, e, 1], t, 0, u, and ware vowels. The rest are consonants. I] and to are always long'' ~ and 0 are always short a , t " and u can bl e ong or short, but the length is not indicated by the ortho~aph~ and can be i~erred, if at all, only by the accent of the word III which the vowel IS present. (In specialized linguistic treatments the length of the ambiguous vowels a t and u is sometimes specified by the following signs. A - [called a macron] over one of these vowels indicates that it is long [e.g., ('x], a ~ over one of these vowels indicates that it is short [e.g., a].) But ordinarily in Greek texts these signs are not given. There are eight diphthongs, i.e., combinations of two vowels pronounced as one sound:

Pronounced like ai in aisle.

Pronounced like ei in eight.

01

Pronounced like oi in toil.

lJt

Pronounced like uee in queen.

au

Pronounced like ow in owl.

Pronounced like e in end and shading into the w of win.

LESSON 1

T]1l

Pronounced like a in ale and shading into the w of win.

Oil

Pronounced like

00

in moon.

The above system of pronunciation is to some extent arbitrary, and is designed to facilitate communication among contemporary students of New Testament Greek in the United States of America and in countries where English is spoken. Students working in a different tradition should not hesitate to adopt the standards of New Testament Greek pronunciation in their area.

Breathings.
A vowel or diphthong at the beginning of a word always has a "breathing", which is either "smooth" (' ) or "rough" (' ). A smooth breathing is not pronounced; a rough breathing is prounounced like the English h. When a single vowel begins a word, the breathing is written directly over this vowel if it is a small letter (d, Ii), or immediately in front of it if it is a capital letter (' A, 'A). When a diphthong begins a word, the breathing is placed over the second vowel regardless if the first vowel is a small letter or a capital letter (au, au, Au,Au). The consonant p, when found at the beginning of a word, always has a rough breathing: p.

Accents.
Accents in Greek were originally devised to indicate the musical pitch of the voice used in pronouncing a word. Eventually (possibly even by New Testament times), accents came to indicate stress on a syllable in the pronunciation of a word. The rules for placing accents in Greek are complicated and will therefore be introduced only gradually in the lessons which follow. Accents are

LESSON 1

important principally for pronunciation (by indicating the syllable of a word which is to be stressed) and, occasionally, for providing a means of distinguishing between different words with the same spelling (e.g., ric, who?, and ric, someone). There are three types of accent in Greek: the acute ( ), the circumflex (- ), and the grave ( , ). Accents are written over single vowels or diphthongs. Accents over diphthongs are always written over the second vowel. When a breathing occurs over the same letter as an accent, the breathing is always written first, except in the case of a circumflex, in which instance it is written under the accent (a, ti, CII, cit, a, a).
The Iota Subscript.

For certain words an iota is written under the long vowels a, and co, This iota is called the "iota subscript" and does not affect the pronunciation (i.e., o, 1), and 4l are pronounced the same as a, T], and co).
T],

Exercises for Lesson 1.

I. Memorize the alphabet and the diphthongs both actively and passively. II. Practice writing the letters until you can reproduce them from memory. III. Work through the first five verses of Chapter 1 of the Gospel of Mark (Mk 1:1-5), checking the text against the information given above. Pronounce the words of all five verses until there is no need to check the information given in the lesson to see if the pronunciation is correct. [Any critical edition of the Greek New Testament may be used to do the exercises for this grammar. The text followed in the composition of this grammar is that of The Greek New Testament, Third Edition, published by The United Bible Societies in 1975.)

10

LESSON 2

dill, Present Indicative. The Present Tense. The Indicative Mood. Person. Number for Verbs. The Movable-v. The Article. Gender. NumberfortbeArticle, Nouns; Pronouns, AdJectives. Case. Declension of tbe Article. The Nominative Case. The Sentence. The Clause. The Predicative Use of tbe AdJective. The Attributive Use of tbe Adjective. AdJectives as Substantives. Agreement. The Noun
A6yo~.

Lesson 2
El1I1, Present Indicative. The Verb to be in Greek is used much as it is in English, either to indicate existence (God is), or to link a subject with an adjective as predicate (God is good). In the present tense of the indicative mood it is conjugated as follows (cf. V 16, DV 51, VP 9 [for an explanation of these abbreviations see below in this lossonl):
Singular
1st Person

silli
gaTI(v)

Plural SOJjv

2nd Person 3rd Person

El

EOrf.
E;a1(v)

lam
You (sg.) are He (She, It) is
The Present Tense. The Indicative Mood.

We are You (pl.) are They are

"Tense" and "mood" are difficult to define and their function in the Greek verbal system is complex. For the time being, the student need only think of the "present tense of the indicative mood" as referring to present time in contrast to the past and future. For

LESSON 2

11

the indicative mood the student need only know that it is used to express simple statements (e.g., It is raining.) and to ask ordinary questions (e.g., How tall are you?).

Person.
"Ist person" is used to refer to the person speaking: I, we; "2nd person" is used to refer to the person spoken to: you, whether one or more than one; "3rd person" is used to refer to the person or thing spoken of: he, she, it, they. .
Number for Verbs. "Singular" refers to "one"; "plural", to "more than one". TheMovable-v.
In the third person singular and plural the v in parentheses indicates that the complete form can be either gaTI I dat or gan v I sloiv. The forms without the v are normally used if there is a word which follows that begins with a consonant; forms with the v are normally used if there is a word which follows that begins with a vowel, or if the verb form ends the sentence. But the usage is not rigid.

The Article. In English there is a definite article, the, and an indefinite article, a or an. In Greek only the definite article exists. Hence a simple Greek word like AOYOC; may be translated either as word or as a word, depending on the context. But the use of the Greek article parallels the use of the definite article in English to a large extent. The differences are often too subtle to be treated in an introduction. Attention should be paid to the way the article is used in the Greek and English exercises which follow and in the New Testament. The Greek article often acts like an adjective, agreeing with the word it modifies in gender, number, and case.

12

LESSON 2

Gender. Greek divides nouns into three groups which are distinguished according to the articles they are consistently found associated with. Thus A6yo~ is associated with 6 and is called "masculine" Nouns which are associated with ~ are called "feminine", and those with TO are called "neuter". "Gender" is thus primarily grammatical. But where appropriate it often, although not always, follows natural gender. For example, a man is masculine gender, a woman is feminine gender. But a child can be referred to by a word which is associated with a neuter article. Number for the Article, Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives. New Testament Greek divides the article, nouns, pronouns, and adjectives into two groups---those referring to one person or thing, and those referring to more than one person or thing. In other words, it has the same force as the use of number for the verb. Case. "Cases" (nominative [n], vocative [v], genitive [g], dative ldl. accusative [a)) are expressions of the ways in which a noun, pronoun, or adjective may be used in a sentence. The meaning of the cases will be introduced gradually in the course of the following lessons. Declension of the Article. The Greek article is declined as follows (cf. Adj IPro and Art [for the explanation of these abbrviations see below in this lesson)).
,Masculine
Singular Feminine
Neuter
TO TOU T<ji TO

g d a

0 TOU

TOV

T<f

~ T"~

rriv
Plural Feminine

T~

Masculine

Neuter

LESSON 2

13

n g

Ot TWV

, eu
TWV
T(Xi~

Ta TWV Ta

roic
TOt5~

Ta~

roic ,

In this and in the other paradigms which follow and in the exercises for translation, the accents will be written to familiarize the student with the way the words in question actually appear in the New Testament text. But active command of the accents is not advisable in memorizing paradigms and vocabulary, at least in the early stages of studying Greek. Exceptions are to be made where the accent is necessary or useful for distinguishing between two words otherwise alike (e.g., 6, masculine nominative singular of the article, should be carefully distinguished from 0, the neuter nominative singular of the relative pronoun). The rules for accents will. begin in Lesson 9.

The Nominative Case. The Sentence. The Clause. The nominative case is used principally to indicate the "subject "of a sentence or clause. It expresses the. main topic being considered, the "subject" of discourse, that which is being talked about. A "sentence" is a word or words stating or implying a complete judgment with regard to some aspect of existence, and usually is expressed as an assertion, a question, a command, a wish, or an exclamation. Ordinarily a sentence contains a subject and a predicate, i.e., a substantive and a verbal form, which are -either expressed or implied. Examples of sentences: God is good. [Assertion]. Is God good? [Question]. Come! [Command---the nominative case "You", singular or plural, is understood]. May God come. [Wish]. Oh God! [Exclamation---some verb is to be understood, depending on the context]. A "clause" is a word or words which do not state or imply a complete judgment with regard to some aspect of existence. Examples of clauses: .,. when he comes . . . ; ... in which he lives ... ; ... although she is still alive ... , Sometimes sentences are referred to as "main clauses". In the context of such usage, what are here termed simply as "clauses", are accordingly called "subordinate clauses". Inasmuch as clauses cannot stand grammatically by themselves, they must be found as part of a sentence. Such

14

LESSON 2

sentences are called "complex sentences". The part stating or implying a complete judgment is called a "main clause". The "clause" is specified as a "subordinate clause". Examples of complex sentences: When he comes [subordinate clause], we shall be happy [main clause]. Although she is still alive [subordinate clause], she is unwell [main clause]. Sentences containing two or more main clauses are called "compound sentences": God is always good, but humans are sometimes evil. Compound sentences containing one or more subordinate clauses are called "compound-complex sentences":

God, who is creator, is always good, but humans, who are creatures, are sometimes evil.
The Predicative Use of the Afljective. The verb E\)11 is peculiar in that it can be used not only to indicate existence (6 6EOC:; ianv---God is), but also to link the subject with an adjective as a "predicate" (6 6EOC:; ian v d.ya6oc:;---God is good). In the latter example,"goodness" is being "predicated" of God, i.e. affirmed. The verb d)11 in the present tense can be omitted in the indicative mood, if its meaning is clear from the context. This omission is usually indicated by the position ofthe article, which is normally not found with a predicate. Thus the sentence (, AOYOC:; ian v aylOC:; (The word is holy) can also be expressed as (, AOYOC:; ayLO':; or ayLOC:; 6 AOYOC:; (the difference in word order implies no difference in the basic meaning). Such a use of an adjective is called "predicative" because the adjective functions as the predicate of a sentence, with some form of the verb d)11 understood. That is to say, the adjective is used to affirm something about the subject. "Holiness" is being affirmed about "the word" in both expressions: it is the point being made. When an adjective is thus used predicatively, the mind can rest in what has been stated because that which has been stated is implicitly a sentence.

The Atlributive Use ofthe Afljective.


In each of the three examples of the "predicative" use of an adjective (1. (, aYYEAo.:; soriv ayLOC:;, 2. (, ayyeAoc:; aylO':;, 3. aylOC:; (, aYYEAo.:;) the adjective stands outside the combination 6 ayyeAoc:;. If the adjective stands inside the combination 6 ayyeAoc:; so that the

LESSON 2

15

words run 6 ayLO':; ayyeAo.:; or if the adjective is given its own article so that the words run 6 ayyeAoc:; 6 aylO':;, the usage is called "attributive". When an adjective is used attributively the word d)11 is not implied. Thus no complete judgment is made; the mind cannot rest in what has been stated because what has been stated is not a sentence, not even implicitly. "Holiness" is not the point being made; something else is. This usage of the article to distinguish between predicative and attributive use of an adjective is not uniform. Adjectives which do not use the article in this way will be noted as they occur in the lessons which follow. (They are few in number.) Distinction between predicative and attributive use of an adjective can also occur independently of the use of the article. Finally, use or non-use of the article need not always have relevance to the distinction between predicative and attributive use of an adjective. The distinction between the predicative and attributive use of the adjective is also found in other cases, but it is particularly used in regard to the nominative. The examples given above have been in the singular; but the distinction between attributive and predicative is equally applicable to the pIural. Afljectives as Substantives. Not only do many adjectives have the same ending as nouns, (i.e., they are declined in the same way as nouns) but also many adjectives (normally of the first and second declen'sions) can be used as a noun. Thus aylO':;, holy, is normally an adjective: 6 aylOC:; AOYO':;, the holy word. But the adjective can be used by itself, in which instance it can be translated as a noun: 6 aylOC:;, the holy man, or aYlO':;, a holy man.

Agreement.
Implicit in the above discussion about the use of adjectives with nouns is the basic rule that adjectives can "modify" nouns or pronouns, that is, they can be used to qualify nouns or pronouns, In these instances the adjective "agrees" with the noun or pronoun in gender, number, and case. This rule is seen in the examples of adjectives given above.

16

LESSON 2

A noun or pronoun can be explicitly mentioned when used as the subject of a verb or it can be implied. For example, in the sentence 6 UYY~AO<; aya6o<; scriv the noun UYY~AO<; is explicitly mentioned when used used as the subject of eonv. But in the sentence aya6o<; eonv, the adjective aya6o<; agrees with the subject he which is implicit in the third person singular form soriv, as is clear from its being in the nominative case. Hence it must refer to a nominative---in this instance, the implied subject of sortv. aya6o<; is also masculine in gender and singular in number (see below for the declension, in Lesson 3), indicating that the implicit subject of sonv is also masculine and singular. Hence the translation He is good for the sentence aya6o<; sorw.
The Noun AOyO<;.

The noun AOYO<;, word, is a masculine noun of the second declension, i.e., the second of the three main categories of nouns in Greek. It is presented before nouns in the first declension because it is similar in its forms to the masculine of the article and because it is a sub-category of the second declension found very frequently. Further, many masculine adjectives are declined in the same way.
Singular Plural n

y g
d a

AOYO<;
AOy~

AOYOU AOY<P AOYOy

AOYOl AOYOl AOYWV AOY01<; AOYOU<;

Vocabulary for Lesson 2.


In the vocabulary listings of this and subsequent lessons, only the most fundamental distinctions among the various meanings of a word are given. For the various shades of meaning a detailed dictionary is indispensable. In the vocabulary each word is followed by one or more abbreviations, usually with numbers. The abbreviations and numbers refer to the lists and/or paradigms at the back of Volume Two of this grammar. There are two types oflists: "Lists of Words by Categories" and "List of Difficult Verbs". In addition there are twelve sets of 'Verbs, Paradigms". (There are also paradigms for

LESSON 2

17

all the categories of adjectives and nouns, but these paradigms are included in the "Lists of Words by Categories". Thus a reference to a category for an adjective or noun will automatically include access to the appropriate paradigm.) The paradigms at the end of Volume" Two are repetitions of the paradigms which are presented in the lessons. (Only the paradigms of the irregular nouns and adjectives provide an exception to this rule of a two-fold presentation.) As illustrations for the explanation given in the preceding paragraph the following should serve: The entry "ou, OUK, OUX" is followed by the entry "[Neg]", which means that the words OU, OUK, OUX are to be found in the category "Negatives", along with a number of other words. The word "AOYO<;" is followed by the entry "[N 6m]", which means that the word AOYO<; is to be found in the category "Nouns" under the number "Bm", together with a number of other words and the paradigm for its declension. Some words are found in more than one list. Thus, the entry "[Adj 1Pro]" and ''[Art]'' after "6, ~, TO" indicates that the article is to be found listed both as an adjective, under the heading "Adjective 1Pronoun", and under the heading "Article". All verbs are found in the appropriate category of "Lists of Words by Categories" (some verbs are found in more than one category---the norms for defining the categories are not rigorously scientific [which would demand a carefully-elaborated but possibly confusing system of sub-categories], but fundamentally pedagogical). In addition, most verbs are illustrated by one of the paradigms found in the separate 'Verbs, Paradigms", as mentioned above. Finally, a large number of verbs (210) are to be found in the "List of Difficult Verbs" (as mentioned above). For example, the entry "dill" is followed by the entry 'V 16, DV 51, VP 9", which indicates that dill is found in the "Lists of Words by Categories" under 'Verbs 16", in the "List of Difficult Verbs" under Number 51, and in the "Verbs, Paradigms" in Section 9. A certain degree of redundancy will be honored in giving vocabulary listings for nouns and adjectives. Even though the references to vocabulary lists are enough to place a given word in a category, an abbreviated form of the genitive of nouns will be given with the nominative case, together with the appropriate article. Adjectives will be given with the nominative in all three genders. This redundancy will aid in memorization. Verbs are indicated in the vocabulary normally by a citation of the first person singular of the present tense, active voice, indicative mood. Thus "dill, I am". (dill, strictly speaking, has no "voice.)

18

LESSON 2

But until the conjugation of other verbs can be presented, some verb forms will be given in the third person, as "dlfE(v), He (She, It) spoke; He (She, It) said", and "SPXETal, He (She, It) is coming", (If there is no expressed subject for a verb in Greek, he, she, or it is to be understood from the context, as was stated above.) Other forms of such verbs given in the third person should not be used by the student until they have been adequately presented later on in the course of the lessons. The third persons forms are given to help in creating variety in the exercises of translation at the end of the early lessons. elui [V 16, DV 51, VP 9] I am; I exist. EhE(v) [from the verb Myw: cf. Lesson 50] he (she, it) spoke; he (she, it) said. The plural form is dlfov, they spoke, they said. SPXETal [from the verb sPxoJ.!m: cf. Lesson 45) he (she, it) comes or arrives; he (she, it) is coming or is arriving, The plural form is sPxoVTat, they arrive, they are coming, they are arriving, 6,
~,

TO [Adj 1Pro, Art] the. -Oil, 6 [N 6m] angel, messenger. 6 [N 6m] brother, [blood] relative.

aYYEAo~,

a5EA<l>0~, -ou, avBpwlfo~,

-Oil, 6 [N 6m] usually man in the sense of human being; but occasionally man in the sense of male. This word can at times be translated advantageously as personis) or people in a non-technical sense.

BEO<;, -ou, 6 [N 6m] God; god.


KOaJ.!o~,

-Oil, 6 [N 6m] world, universe.

Kt5plO~,

-Oil, 6 [N 6m] Lord; lord; sir [in forms of address). By convention this word is not capitalized in some editions of the Greek text when it refers to God or to Christ. 6 [N 6m] word, discourse.

AOYO~, -Oil, oupavo~,

-ou, 6 [N 6m] heaven; heavens, sky.

LESSON 2

19

1110~,

OU, 6 [N 6m] son; descendant. [Adj 1] [Masculine form of the adjective, declined like good.
AOyO~.]

ayaBo~

aytO~

[Adj 2] [Masculine form of the adjective, declined like AOyO<;.] holy, consecrated. [Adj 1] [Masculine form of the adjective, declined like AOYO~,] beautiful; good.

KaAo~

OAO~

[Adj 1] [Masculine form of the adjective, declined like AOyO~.] whole, entire, complete. When used with the article in the New Testament this adjective is always in the predicative position. For example, OAO~ 6 AOYO~ means "The entire word" and not "The word (is) entire".

OU OUK, OUX [Neg) not; no. This negative is ordinarily used with , the indicative mood. ou is used before words beginning with a consonant OUK is used before words beginning with a vowel having a ;mooth breathing; and oux is used before words beginning with a vowel having a rough breathing.

Exercises for Lesson 2.

4fI

In the exercises which follow, the reference to the New Testament indicates a text useful in some way for understanding the sentence in question (and vice versa). At first, this usefulnes~ will be minimal and the references will have only a tenuous relation to the particular exercise in question. But as the exercises become more complex the references will become more meaningful, until they eventually become a handy tool for becoming acquainted with the New Testament text. Preference will be given to the gospels, wherever possible, in giving references.

1. Translate into English: 1. 6 1110~ EhEv, slui. (Mt 14:62) 2. 1110~ TOU avBpuSlfoll Kt5ptO~ sorw. (Mk 2:28) 3. SPXETat 6 a5EA<l>o~ 6 KaAO~. (Mk 3:31) 4. 6 avBpwlfo~ sPXETat. (Mk 6:1) 5. 01 avBpwlfOl oux aYlOl sloiv. (Mk 1:24) 6. 6 BEO~ dlfEv. (Mk 2:19)

20

LESSON 2

7. 6 ayyeAOe; 6 aYlOe; O1JK epxeraL. (Mk 8:38) 8. QAOe; 6 KOO/lOe; KaA6e; eonv. (Mk 14:9) 9. 6 oupavoe; ou KaAoe; eonv. (Mt 13:31) 10. 6 viDe; TOU Beau eonv ayaBoe;. (Mk 3:11)

N.B. The absence of accents on certain words, and the presence of more than one accent on some words will be explained beginning in the "Rules for Accents" i~ Lesson 9.
II. Translate into Greek:
1. The sons are not holy. (Mk 2:19) 2. The heavens of God are beautiful. (Mk 1:10) 3. The good brother is coming. (Mk 10:18)

III. Work trn:ough the first five verses of Chapter 1 of the Gospel

~ccordin~ to ~ark .(Mk 1:1-5), checking the text against the information given m Lesson 2. Do not be discouraged by the many aspects of the text which remain unclear. As the lessons progress, the texts will become clearer and clearer.

LESSON 3

21

The Imperfect Indicative. tilli, Imperfect Indicative. The Relative Pronoun, The Accusative Case. The Noun lpyov. Neuter Plural Subject and Singular Verb.

Lesson 3
The Imperfect Indicative.
The imperfect tense of a verb is used to express past action which is continuous or repeated. Inasmuch as the imperfect tense of the verb ei/ll is the only past tense which the verb has, the imperfect serves to indicate any type of past action, even if it is not being viewed as continuous or repeated. The imperfect tense is found only in the indicative mood. el/ll, Imperfect Indicative. The imperfect indicative of the verb dill is conjugated as follows (cf V 16, DV 51, VP 9):
Singular
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person
~<; , (~o6a)

Plural

ifll"lv
"Iv

~Te

iflle6a (~Ilev)

fiacxv

I was You (sg.) were He (She, It) was


~o6a

We were You (pl.) were They were

is an alternative form for ~<;; ~Ilev is an alternative form

for iflle6a

The Relative Pronoun.

22

LESSON 3

The relative pronoun is declined as follows (cf Pro):


Masculine
n

Singular Feminine

Neuter

g d a

OC; Oil
~

fi
fI~

0 Oil
~ a

ov

l! flv
Plural Feminine

Masculine
n

Neuter

g d

o'{ wv
Ot~

cit wv
at~

Ot~

wv r

oue;

a~

"

Care should be taken to distinguish the following forms of article and relative pronoun: at -

" Ot

cxi - aI

6- 0

In Greek the relative pronoun follows much the same grammatical rules as in English. The pronoun agrees with its antecedent (i.e., the word it refers to) in gender and number, but takes its case from its use in its own clause: 6 AOYO~ o~ sorrv aya8o~ ean KaAo~. The word which is good is beautiful.

6 AOYOC; Bv elxev 6 eeoc; ayt6c; eonv. The word which God spoke is holy.
The Accusative Case.
A noun or pronoun can be used in the accusative case in Greek as the object of a verb:

6 8eo~ dlle roy AOyOV. God spoke the word.

A noun or pronoun can be put in the accusative case as the object of a preposition:

r
The Noun lpyov.
Singular n

LESSON 3

23

6 Kiiptoc ipxerat d~ roy xdouov, The Lord comes into the world.

The word ipyov, work, a neuter noun of the second declension, is declined as follows (cf N 7):
Plural

v
g d a

f:pyov ipyov ipyoll f:PY4l ipyov

ipya ipya ipywv


ipyot~

ipya

The neuter forms of adjectives like aya86~ (which is declined like A6yo~ in the masculine forms) are declined like ipyov. It should be noted that the neuter nominative and accusative forms of f:pyov, in both the singular and the plural, are alike. This is true of all neuter nouns and adjectives in Greek.

Neuter Plural Subject and Singular Verb..

A noteworthy aspect of the neuter gender in Greek is that a neuter plural subject usually governs a singular verb:
ra ipya roil 8wil aya8ci. sorw. The works of God are good. But the plural form of the verb is also found on occasion with a neuter plural subject: ra ipya roil 8wil aya8ci. eiorv. The works of God are good.

Vocabulary for Lesson 3.


d~

[Prep 1J Always governs the accusative case: into; towards; for (purpose).

24
oe;,

LESSON 3

ii, 0

[Pro] who, which.

lialJ.lOV10V, -OU, TO [N 7] demon; evil spirit. EpyOV, -OU, TO [N 7] work; deed; thing made. euayyE.AlOV, -OU, TO [N 7] Gospel, Good News.

iepov, -06, TO [N 7] temple, sanctuary.


\J.lunOV, -OU, TO [N 7] garment; outer garment.

onueiov, -OU, TO [N 7] sign.


The adjectives aya6oe;, aY1Oe;, KaAOe;, and OAOe; of Lesson 2 are declined in the neuter like epyov. The following adjectives hepoe;, '(li1Oe;, vsxpdc, and rrpWTOe; are declined like Aoyoe; in the masculine and like EPYOV in the neuter. ITepoe; [Adj 2] other; another. '(li1Oe; [Adj 2] one's own; proper to one. veKpOe; [Adj 2] dead. This word is often used as a noun with the meaning "[the] dead" [N 6m]. rrpwTOe; [Adj 1] first. aKooele; [from aKoow: cf. Lesson 10] you (sg.) hear, listen to; you (sg.) are hearing, are listening to. This verb governs the genitive or the accusative with no easily distinguishable difference. exw [cf. Lessons 9 and 49] I have, I am having; I possess, I am

possessing.
Myel [from AE.yW: cf. Lessons 9 and 50] he (she, it) speaks, says; he (she, it) is speaking, is saying. rrpWTov [Adv 2] first; first of all.

r
LESSON 3

25

Exercises for Lesson 3.


I. Translate into English: 1. ~ KOP~O~ eJrre TO euayyE.A1OV. (Mk 1:14) 2. exw T<X tucenu. (Mk 2:10) 3. TO onusiov KaAOv ~v. (Mk 8:11) 4. <'>, l;ep,oe; ayyeAoe; EPxeT<Xl de; TO KaAOv ispov. (Mk 16: 12) 5. T<X lJ.laT1a ~v KaAu. (Mk 9:3) 6. ~UK ,aKoode; TWV av6pwrrwv. (Mk 9:7) 7. 0 xupioc OUK Ean veKpOe;. (Mk 9:26) 8. T<X ~alJ.lOVla OUK eiatv aya6u. (Mk 1:34) 9. 0 .K~plOe; _EPxe~<X1 ~ie; TO t,epov. (Mk 11:11) 10. e\ 0. zpcoroc oc Aeyel TOUe; AoyoUe;. (Mk 9:35) 11. T<X epya ~v KaAU. (Mk 14:6) 12. TO ispdv KaAov ~v. (Mk 11:15) 13. T<X '(lila iJ.luT1a KaAu sortv. (Mt 22'5) 14. oi AOY01 oile; elrrev <'> KUp1Oe; aya60{ slow. (Mk 2:10) II. Translate into Greek: 1. The work was holy. (Mk 14:6) 2. The human being who is coming into the temple is good (Mk 10:18) . 3. You are not holy. (Mk 1:24) III. W?rk thro~gh ~k 1:6-10, checking the text against the information given above and in Lesson 2. Read the verses aloud at least three times.

26

LESSON 4

The Infinitive. &IJi!, Present Infinitive. The Imperative. &lJi!, Present Imperative. The Nouns ClolJf. aJiapna. Mea. The Adjectives ~o~ and aya1l6~. The Stem. The Genitive Case. The Five Principal

Punctuation Marks.

Lesson 4
The Infinitive. The infinitive in Greek corresponds approximately to the English infinitive, e.g., to see, 9>!'tO the English gerund, e.g., Seeing is believing. The Greek infinitfve is considered to be a verbal noun. Like a verb, it has voice, mood, and tense. These are the aspects under which it is normally treated. On occasion, its aspects as a noun also need to be analyzed. Eij!l, Present Infinitive. The present infinitive of the verb dj!l is elvco. The Imperative. The imperative mood is used to express a command. It is found only in the second and third persons. Elj!l, Present Imperative. The present imperative ofthe verb dl!l is as follows (cf, V 16, DV 51, VP9):
Singular 2nd Person Plural

laSt

laTe

LESSON 4
Srd Person

27

tam (or Tim)

taT(uaav (or TiTwaav)

You (sg.) be! Let him (or her or it) be!


ta8t a.ya86<;. Be good!
,;.

You (pl.) be! Let them be!


taTE aya80l. Be good! taTE aya8ai. Be good!

....

'ia8t aya8~. Be good!

tot(J) ayaeo~. Let him be good!

toni) ayaBri.

Eon.uaav dyaBot.

Let her begood!

Let them be good!

The Nouns tWtl. al!apTla. 116~a. The nouns of the first declension are feminine or masculine. The feminine nouns are divided into three categories: 1) Nouns ending in -~ in the nominative singular (cf N 1):
n
Singular ~w~ ~w~
~wfj ~w~v

Plural
~wai ~wat ~wwv

v
g d a

~w*

twa,c;
~wa<;
t,

2) Nouns ending in -a preceded by E,


Singular
n

or p (cf N 2):

Plural

v
g

aj!apTia al!apTta al!apTtac;


al!apTi~

d a

al!apTtaV

al!apTtm al!apTlm al!apnwv al!apTiatc; aj!apTiac;


i,

3) Nouns ending in -C( not preceded by E,


n
v

or p (cf N3):

g d a

M~C(v

Singular 66~a 66~a 66~% 66~1J

66~atC; M~ac;

Iio~wv

Plural 156~at 66~at

28

LESSON 4

The Adjectives aYloe; and dyaBoe;. The Stem.


In adjectives of the first and second declensions,the presence of an a preceded bye, I, or p in the feminine nominative singular indicates that all singular endings of the"feminine have a, like a/lapna (cf, Adj 2):
Masculine
n v
g

Singular Feminine

aylO~

aytE

ayia ayia
aytav
aYLa~ aYL~

Neuter CiYlav aYlov

aYlou aYL4'
aytov
Masculine aYlOl
aYlOl

uviou
ayi~

aytov
Neuter

Plural Feminine

ayuX!

ayux
nyux ayloov
ayt01.<;

v
g

aylwv
aYLol~
ay[olJ~

ayt<u ayt{J)v
aYLal~ aYLa~

d a

aYHx

In the same way as aylO~, aYLa, aylOv are declined hepo~, hepa, repov -- 'i1ho~, iMa, 'ililOv -- veKp6~, vexpd, vsxpov.

Adjectives which do not have an e, I, or p before the ending of the feminine nominative singular, have the feminine nominative singular ending in -1]. All adjectives of the first and second declensions which are not contracted (see below, Lessons 31 and 32) \ and which are not limited to two endings (cf below, Lesson 24), are divided into two categories, those whose feminine nominative singular ends in an -a because the stem of the adjective ends in an e-, 1-, or P-, and those whose stem ends in a letter different from these, in which instance the ending is -1]. The "stem" of a word (the concept is applicable to all verbs, nouns, and pronouns as well as adjectives) is that part of a word which is constant in relation to its variable part or "ending". Thus, the adjective aYla has a stem aYI-, and the ending a, in the feminine nominative singular. Because the stem ends in \-, the ending is in -a. Stems ending in eor p- also have -a as an ending. All other stems have 1] as the ending. The adjective aya6o~ is in the latter category (cf. Adj 1):

LESSON 4
Singular Feminine aya6~ ayaB~ dyaBfj~

29

Masculine ayaB6~

Neuter

v
g

d a

ayaBe ayaBou ayaBw aya66v


Masculine

ayaBfj
ayaB~v

ayaBov ayaB6v ayaBoil ayaB<i3 aya60v


Neuter

v g. d

ayaBOL ayaBOl ayaBwv


aya6oi~ aya6ot5~

Plural Feminine

aya6al ayaBal ayaBwv


aya6ai~ aya6ci~

aya6ci aya6ci ayaBwv


aya6oi~

aya6a

np05T1],

Thus also: KaAO~, KaA~, KaAOv -- OA~~, OA1], OAOV -- npwTo~, npWTov.

The Genitive Case. The genitive case is used to signify possession.

6 A6yo~ TOU 6eou the word of God


~e genitive case can also be used as the object of certain preposttions:

h Toil iepoil from the temple . . These are only two of the most fundamental uses of the genitive case. The Five Principal Punctltation Marks. The five principal punctuation marks are as follows:
English Greek Comment and Example

The same as in English: AOyO~. The same as in English: A6yo~,

30

LESSON 4

Dot above line: AOYO~' Dot above line: AOYO~' Like English semi-colon:

AOYO~;

Greek" distinguishes the period from the comma as does English, and uses the same marks to indicate them. Greek does not distinguish a colon and semi-colon, but uses a dot above the line to indicate a stop which is less than that indicated by a period but more than that indicated by a comma. Greek uses what looks like an English semi-colon to indicate a question mark at the end of a sentence. There are no quotation marks or exclamation point in Greek.

Vocabulary for Lesson 4. (bro [Prep 1J Always governs the genitive case: from; away from.

h [prep 1J Always governs the genitive case: from; out of. Before
vowels the f.K becomes ayaJr11, -%,1\ [N 1J love.
yij, -ij~,
f.~.

1\ [N 1J earth, land. 1\ [N 1J life. 1\ [N 1J voice; sound.


a~,

~wti, -ij~,

<!>wvti, -ij~, aM8Eta, -

1\ [N 2J truth. 1\ 1\
[N 2J sin; mistake, error.

eXlwpTla, -a~, paOlAEta, -a~, f.KKA 11 ala, - c,


f.~ouoia, -a~,

1\ [N 2J kingdom.
[N 2J assembly; church.

1\ [N 2J authority; power.

1\ lIip a, -

a~,

1\ [N 2J day.

Kap1ifa, -a~,

1\ [N 2J heart.

LESSON 4

31

yAWOOa, -11~,
56~a, -11~,

1\ [N 3J tongue; language. 1\ [N 3J table.

1\ [N 3J glory; splendor.
-ti, -ov [Adj 1] beloved,dear.

ipaJrE~a, -%,
ayaJr11To~, sKaoTo~,

-11, -ov [Adj 1] each, each one [as a noun). This word is not used with the article. -ov [Adj 1] faithful; believing.

mOTO~, -ti,
1ifKatO~,

-a, -ov [Adj 2]just, righteous.

JrOV11PO~,

-a, -ov [Adj 2] evil.

llti [Neg, Conj] not. This negative is parallel to the negative 00. 00 is normally used with the indicative mood, whereas llti is normally used with all other moods. Exceptions to this general rule do occur. Exercises for Lesson 4.
1. Translate into English: 1. 6 uio~ EPXETat aJro TaU aya80u av8pwJrou. (Mk 5:35) 2. EXW TtlV f.~oualav ~ f.K TOU 8wu sortv. (Mk 3:14) 3. 1\ <!>wvtl TOU uiou KaAtl ~v. (Mk 9:7) 4. TO liatllOvtOv EPXETat f.K TOU av8pwJrou. (Mk 5:8) 5. 6 aIiEA<!>o~ OOK ~v Ii1KatO~. (Lk 2:25) 6. TO liatllOVtOV JrOV11POV ~v' 6 aYYEAo~ aya80~ ~v. (Mk 7:22) 7. 6 aIiEA<!>o~ EPXHat d~ TtlV ~wtiv. (Mk 9:43) 8. 1\ li6~a TOU 8wu OOK Eonv 1\ li6~a TWV av8pwJrwv. (Lk

2:9)

9. 6
10. 11. 12. 13.

E!JrEV TtlV aAti8Etav. (Mk 5:33) TOU xupiou eXYla soriv. (Lk 1:9) IItl EOTE JrOV11POl. (Mk 5:34) OOK f.OTE Jrov11POl. (Mk 13:11) SKaoTo~ uio~ ayaJr11To~ rlv. (Lk 6:44)

aIiEA<!>o~

1\

TpaJrE~a

32

LESSON 4

14. E1 JrlOTO<;; (Mk 14:61) 15. ~ a.va1r'1 TOU 6eou KaAr] scnv. (In 5:42) 16. ~ f;~ollola eK TOU 6eou scnv. (Lk 22:53) 17. eK TWV Kaplilwv TWV a.V6pW1rUlV SPXETa1 ~ ullapTla. (Mk
7"21)

18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

eaatAEla TOU 6eou e~ oupzrvof ~v. (Mk EKKA'l0la TOU xuoiou uvfa soriv. (Acts ~ vij OUK sony oupavo<;. (Mk 13:31) ~ VAwooa TOU aV6pW1rOll KaAr] scnv. (Lk SPXETal ~ ~IlEpa TOU xuotou. (Lk 22:7) 6 llio<; ava1r'1To<; eonv. (Mk 1:11) ai ullapnat TOU KOOIlOll ou KaAal ~oav.
~

4:26) 9:31) 1:64) (Mk 2:5)

II. Translate into Greek: 1. Is it beautiful to exist? [Is to exist beautiful?] (Mk 9:5) 2. The authority of the assembly is from God. (Lk 22:53) 3. We are not holy. (Lk 17:10) III. Work through Mk 1:11-15,checking the text against the information given above and in the previous lessons. Read the verses aloud at least three times.

LESSON 5

33

The Subjunctive. tllli, Present Subjunctive. The Demonstrative Pronouns O1ho~ and tKtivo~. The Dative Case. The Apostrophe. Crasis. Diaeresis.

lesson 5
The Subjunctive.
The subjunctive mood in Greek, being found in both main clauses and subordinate clauses, is used much more extensively than the subjunctive mood in English. Some of these uses will be explained in the following lessons of this volume. These uses have a common element in that they tend to put in relief the mental attitude of the agent of an action, or, of the attitude of an agent to a reality, even when that reality is not under the control of the agent. (For example, in certain types of conditions.) Perhaps the most widespread use of the subjunctive mood in New Testament Greek is to express "purpose", that is, the intended effect of some action. The use of the subjunctive in the subordinate clause after the introductory conjunctions 'ivo: or 01tUl<; (no difference in meaning) is only one way in which purpose is expressed in New Testament Greek. dill, Present Subjunctive. The present tense of the subjunctive mood of dill is conjugated as follows (cf V 16, DV 51, VP 9):
Singular

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

W ,
~<;

Plural ,

1J

~TE Wat(v)

UlIlEV

34

LESSON 5

The iota subscript is written under the n of the second and third person singular. The use of the term "present" to describe the subjunctive of elui.is otiose, inasmuch as this is the only subjunctive which Ei/li has. As was stated above, the most common use of the subjunctive in New Testament Greek is the expression of purpose in a subordinate clause introduced by 'iva or, less commonly and with no change in meaning, i5lrW~:
"~'~ l' EpXETal EI~ TO IEpOV rvn aylO~ lJ. He is coming into the temple in order to be holy.
" t

6 6EO~ AEYEI i5lrW~ av6pWlrOi <'XYlOL WOlV. God speaks in order that human beings may be holy.
The particle /l ~ is used to negate the verb in a purpose clause. This particle may be used with 'iva or i5lrW~, or it may be used by itself, to introduce a negative purpose clause: AEYEI 'iva aV6pWlrOl /.l~ WOI lrOV!]POl. AEYEI /l~ aV6pWlrOl WOl novnpoi . AEYEI i5lrW~ aV6pWlrOl /l" WOl lrOV!]POl. God speaks in order that humans may not be evil.

6 6 6

6EO~ 6EO~ 6EO~

The Demonstrative Pronouns olhoc; and EKE1VOC;. Greek has two principal demonstrative pronouns, i.e., pronouns which "point out" or "indicate" some reality. They can be used as adjectives, agreeing with a noun in gender, number, and case, or they can be used as substantives. O(jTO~ means this and is used to indicate someone or something near at hand; tKdvo~ means that and is used to indicate someone or something at a distance.
Masculine
n
OUTO~

Singular Feminine

Neuter

aUT!]
TatlT!]~

g d

TOtlTOU
TOUTC.p

TOUTOV

mtlTlJ rmirnv

TOUTO TOtlTOU TOtlT<p TOUTO

LESSON 5

35

Masculine
n

OIJTot

Plural Feminine

curet

Neuter

TOUTWV

TOllTWV
TatlT(U~

d a

rocroic
TOtlTOIJ~

TailTa TOllTWV ,
TailTa

TOIJTOI~

TatlTa~

The absence of final v in the nominative and accusative neuter singular should be noted.
Masculine tKdvo~ , ,
f,KlVQU

Singular Feminine

Neuter

n g d

EKStVq'l
f.KElVOV

hEiv!] tKdv% EKf,lvTJ


f,KE.1VllV
Plural Feminine

EKEiVQ
EKE1VOU

f.Kdvw
eKeiv~

Masculine
n

Neuter

EKelvOl
EKelVtOv
tKdvOI~ tKdvou~

hdVal sxsivcov
tKdval~ EKdva<;

EKe'iva EKelvwv
hdvOl~

d a

EKElva

It should be noted that pronouns have no vocative case. When used as adjectives, O(jTO~ and tKElvo~ do not come between the article and the noun they modify even though they are used attributively. In other words, by position they are predicative, but in meaning they are attributive.

epXETal tK TOtlTOU TOU iEpou. He (she, it) is coming out of this temple. As was stated above, OUTO~ and hdvo~ can also be used as substantives, and when so used, normally do not have an accompanying article.

.Ke1Vl1 epXETal. That woman is coming.


The Dative Case.

36

LESSON 5

.The dative case is used to express the "indirect" object of a verb, r.e., the person to or for whom something is done: (, KUPlO~ Myet TIji ayygA19.

The Lord speaks to the angel.


EXW OTl/le10V TW Otw.

I have a sign fo'r the son.


The dative case also can be governed by a preposition: EPxeTat OU,V TIji Otlji.

He (she, it) is coming with the son.

'" Crasis. Diaeresis. The ApostrOphe.


In addition to the punctuation marks explained in Lesson 4 several signs---the apostrophe indicating elision, the smooth breathing indicating crasis, the two dots indicating diaeresis---are important for understanding the Greek text of the New Testament. Apostrophe is the sign used to indicate the elision (dropping) of a vowel. It is the same sign as that used to indicate a smooth breathing ( , ). Such elision takes/place when a word ending in a vowel drops the vowel before a wo~d beginning with a vowel. Thus the phrase arr' o opdvou, from heaven, results when the final 0 of' the word arro is dropped before the vowel, 0, of the word oupavou. The apostrophe ( , ) indicates the omission of the o. This omission of the 0 does not affect the meaning in any way. Crasis (from the Greek Kpaot~, meaning mingling) is the "fusing" of two words into one and is marked by a coronis (from the Greek KOPWVt~, meaning hook). Thus, the words Kat EYW become through crasis, KayuS. This is a phenomenon involving only sound. The meaning is not affected in any way. Diaeresis (from the Greek 5wlpeOt~, meaning separation) is the phenomenon in which two vowels which might otherwise be read as a diphthong are distinguished so that they are pronounced separately. The sign to indicate the diaeresis consists of two dots placed over the second of the two vowels. Thus the word 'Ioa'fa Isaiah, is pronounced as four syllables and not as three. The word Mwoafj~, Moses, is pronounced as three syllables and not as two, (In the early stages of the development of the Greek language the

LESSON 5

37

combination wo had the force of a diphthong.) Note that the sign for diaeresis is written only over t or 0.

Vocabulary for Lesson 5.

i [Prep 1] Preposition governing the dative case: in; within.


oiiv [Prep 1] Preposition governing the dative case: with, together

with.

'Iva [Conj] in order that; that. (This word can also be used with different meanings which correspond to other functions. Cf., for example, Lesson 75.)
orrw~

[Conj] in order that, that. aAA 11, aAAo [Adj IPro, Pro] other; another. This word is used with regard to two, or more than two things. t.Ke1VO [Adj 1Pro, Pro] that.

aAAo~,

t.Kelvo~, EKelv11, OOTO~, aVT11 ,

TOUTO [Adj 1Pro, Pro] this.

TOlOUTO~, TOtaUT11,

TOlOUTO [Adj 1Pro, Pro] such, of such a type. This word is declined by prefixing TOt- to OOTO~, aVTl], TOOTO with the initial T of the latter omitted wherever it occurs.

Exercises for Lesson 5.


1. Translate into English: 1. EV f.Kelvat~ ral~ ~~gpat~ OOTO~ (, a5eA<l>o~ tiv 1TtoT6~. (Mk 1:9) 2. at f.KKAl]Olat rorcfirm OUK ayaBal sioiv. (Mk 6:2) 3. (, ayyeAo~ EPxeTat ouv TO"i~ avBpuSrrot~, (Mk 8:34) 4. TWV TOlOUTWV tiv ~ ~aOtAela TWV oupavwv, (Mk 10:14) 5. (, KUPlO~ EPxeTat 'Iva Ot avBpwrrot walv aytol. (Mk 3:14) 6. aAAOt OUK tiaav EV TIji teplji. (Mk 4:36) 7. EV t.KelvlJ Tfj ~~gpq tiv onusiov f.K TWV oupavwv. (Mk 8:1)

38

LESSON 5

8. /) eeoc; elrrev TOV AOYOV I.hrwc; Ill) ~ a/l(Wna lj EV Tfj EKKAT\Olq. (Mk 5:33) 9. aAAOl a/ieAol slotv tv TU EKKAT\Olq. (Mk 4:36) 10. OOTOl eloiv oi oiol ayarrT\ToL (Mk 9:7) 11. tKeivT\ ij EV Tfj l3aOlAeiq Eonv aYla EOTlV. (Mk 4:20) 12. OOTOC; /) a/ieAoc; iipxeTal EK T06 iepo6. (Mk 7:6) 13. iixw TaOTT\V T~V ytlv. (Mk 4:5)

II. Translate into Greek:


1. That brother is coming in order that the assembly may not be bad. (Mk 3:9) 2. This is the brother who is coming. (Mk 12:7) 3. Other garments were with that son. (Mk 4:36)
III. Mk 1:16-20.

LESSON 6

39

The Optative. .ill t, Present Optative. The Nouns llaBT\Ttf~ and v.avta~. The Personal Pronoun tyw. Emphasis and the Explicit Use of the Personal Pronoun. The Vocative Case.

Lesson 6
The Optative. The optative mood is used principally in New Testament Greek to express a wish.

slui, Present Optative.


The Present Optative of d/ll is conjugated as follows (cf. V 16, DV 51, VP9):
Singular 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person Plural
" T einusv or siuev " T smrs or errs sinccv or sisv
" T

dn v elf\<;
e'{Jl

The optative is used in the main clause of a sentence to express a wish: el TJ ayae". May she be good! elT\oav /ilKaLOl. May they be just! The Nouns /laBT\TJ1C; and vsnviac,

40

LESSON 6

The majority of nouns in the first declension are feminine. But some masculine nouns occur which have the following forms (cf, N 4 and N 5):
Singular n
v
g

Plural

a
n

v
g

J.la6I1Trle; J.la6I1TU J.la6I1TOO J.l a6l1 Tfj J.la611 Trl V , veaV1ae; , veaV1a vsoviou veavtt veoviuv

J.la6T]Tat J.la6l1Tat J.l a 6I1 TWV J.I a6 11 Tale; J.la6T]TUe;


vsovim vsnvim vsovuov , vecvimc veavtae;

It should be noted that the genitive singulars of both nouns have the same ending as the genitive singular of the second declension, where many of the nouns are of masculine gender (e.g., Aoyoe;). It should be noted also that nouns like vwviae; have only s, 1, or p as the final letter of the stem, whereas nouns like J.la6I1Trlc; can have any other letter as the final letter of the stem.

The Personal Pronoun EVIlS. A "personal pronoun" is a pronoun which refers to a person or persons without specifying a name. In Greek there are personal pronouns for the singular and plural of all three persons. The personal pronoun of the first person singular and plural, that is, for "I" and "we", has the following forms:
n
g

eyw

Singular

Plural ,

d a

EI100,J.l0" epoi, uoi


E.J.lE,IJE

11 , J.lele; I1J.1WV
~J.llv ~ J.lCiC;

The forms J.l0", J.l01, and ue differ from the parallel forms in the singular in that they are less emphatic and in that they are "enclitic", i.e., tend to lose their accent to the preceding word. Enclitics will be explained below in the Rules for Accents. For the difference in meaning the following examples should be noted.

LESSON 6

41

a) 6 6eoe; AEye1 J.l01b) 6 6eoe; AEye1 EJ.loL


a)

God speaks to me. ' b) It is to me that God speaks. (Of course the same wording could be used as in translation [a], w~th the emphasis being conveyed by the tone of voice.)

Emphasis and the Explicit Use of the Personal Pronoun.

Inasmuch as the indicative, imperative, subjunctive, and optative moods have forms which by themselv.es i1?-dicate the person and number of the subject, the use of the nominative of the personal pronoun with these moods often indicates emphasis. But often no particular emphasis seems to be intended. Here, as always, the context should be the guide. . EYW XU) T~V 1i6~av. I have the glory. The Vocative Case. The vocative case is used to indicate a person (or a personified thing) who is being addressed. A~ times, the inu:rjection w (0, Oh) is used before a word in the vocative case. Occasionally the nominative case (possibly with the article) is used in place of the vocative to address a person.

KUple. WKUp1e. Lord!

6 6eoc; uou. My God! The vocative, like the nominative, is never governed by a preposition.

Vocabulary for Lesson 6.

42

LESSON 6

lita [Prep 2] Governs the genitive or the accusative case. With the genitive: through [time, space, agency]; with the accusative:

on account of.
pmrnoTlk -ou, 6 [N 4] baptizer.
Iiw:rr6TI]~, pyaTI]~,

-Oll, 6 [N 4] master.

-OtJ, 6 [N 4] workman, worker. -otJ, 6 [N 4] Jordan [River].

'Iopliavl]~,

xprrric; -ou, 6 [N 4]judge.


AlJOT~~, -06,6

[N 4] robber.

~a6I]T~~,

-06, 6 [N 4] disciple.
-OtJ, 6 [N 4] prophet -otJ, 6 [N 4] soldier.

:rrPO<t>~TI]~,

OTpanWTI]~,

U:rrOKPIT~~,

-06, 6 [N 4] hypocrite; actor.

ljIEUOT%, -r-O'u, 6 [N 4] liar; deceiver.


'AvlipEa~,

-r-o u, 6 [N 5] Andrew.
6 [N 5] Messiah.

MWOla~, -otJ, VEaVla~,

-otJ, 6 [N 5] youth, young man.

yw [pro] I.
~~El~

[Pro] we. [To be distingished from the first person singular of the subjunctive of d~1 by the context.]

JJ [Inter] 0, oh.

Kal [Conj] and; also; even.

Exercises for Lesson 6.

LESSON 6

43

I. Translate into English:

1. lila T~~ ~~Epa~ oi pyaTCu ~oav V nlJ ' IopMvlJ. (Acts 1:3) 2. lita TOUTOtJ~ TOU~ A6yotJ~ 6 KPIT~~ ~v aya66~. (Mk 7:29) 3. E'lI] ~EV aya6oi. 4. 6 pa:rrnoT~~ AEYEI roic av6pw:rr0l~ TOU~ Tij~ aA1]6Eia~ A6yotJ~. (Mk 1:38) 5. 6 Msooinc gPXETaI K Toil ispo, (In 4:25) 6. ouv T<\l KtJPl41 ~oav KptTal ~~wv. (Mk 15:27) 7. 6 xtiptoc et:rrEV roic ~a6I]Ta1~. (Mk 2:16) 8. 6 oTpanwTI]~ OTl AlJOT~~ Kal ljIEUOTI]~. (In 8:44) 9. 6 AlJOT~~ ~v ouv T<\l orpcencirn. (In 18:40) 10. 6 VEaVla~ ~v tJio~ /;KEivotJ. (In 8:44) 11. oi pyaTaI mcroi siotv. (Mt 9:37) 12. ljIEUOT% OTlv Kal 6 tJio~ KElVOtJ. (In 8:44) 13. 6 pa:rrnoT~~ gPXETaI /;K To6 iEpoil. (Mt 3:1) 14. oi av6pul:Trol ~oav V T<\l 'IopMvlJ. (Mk 1:5) 15. JJ av6pw:rrE, 1061 aya66~. (Rom 2:1) 16. yw OUK d~l aYlo~' ~~E1~ OUK O~EV aylOl. (Mk 1:7) 17. oi av6pw:rrol ~oav V T<\l 'Iopodvn. (Mk 1:29) 18. u ~ 1061 U:rrOKPIT~~. (Mk 5:34) 19. OUK gonv :rrPO<t>~T% moroc V Tfj paOlAEi~. (Mk 6:4)

II. Translate into Greek:


1. The disciples of the Lord were in the temple and the disciples of the baptizer were in the Jordan. (Mk 2:18) 2. Are you the master of the workmen? (Mt 20:2) 3. Andrew was with the Messiah. (Mk 13:3)

III. Mk 1:21-25.

44

LESSON?

The Participle. lilt, Present Participle. The Personal Pronoun au.

Lesson 7
The Participle.
A participle is a verbal adjective. Like a verb, it has voice, mood, and tense. and can take a direct object. Like an adjective, it has gender, number, and case, and agrees with the noun or pronoun it modifies. It can occasionally be found as a noun, usually in the masculine or neuter gender. The Greek language is unusually rich in participles. English is not as rich in participles, and frequently expresses in other ways (for example, a relative clause) what Greek expresses with a participle:

6 "io<;. auv Tq> 8E<{S WV ayu)c; soriv. The Son, who is with God, is holy.
1

This sentence can also be translated, of course, by a relative clause, just as in English:

The precise function of the tense of a participle in relation to the tense of the verb (usually in the indicative mood), with which it is associated in a sentence or clause is a disputed point among grammarians. The view followed in this grammar is that the participle often does not indicate any time value in itself. Of itself the present participle indicates a type of continuing or progressive action. In relation to the verb with which it is associated it describes an action which is prior, contemporary, or subsequent in time. This relative time must be inferred from the action indicated by the participle, and from the context. Normally this relative time will be that of contemporaneousness with the action of the verb.

LESSON?

45

Eij.ll, Present Participle.


The present participle of EiJ.ll is as follows (cf V 16, DV 51, VP 9, Adj 7):
Masculine
n v

g
d a

tOV " wv " OVTO~


DVTl

Singular Feminine ,

Neuter

olloa , olloa
" o~a1J

ov
OV

OV

OOOT]~

DV

OVTt

OVTU

olloav
Plural Feminine

Masculine
n

Neuter

OVT~
OVTEC; OVTWV

v g

ooaal ,

d a

OOOl(V)
OVT<X~

ouawv
" ouane;
01l0<Xl~

ouct

oVTa oVTa
OVTWV

OOOl(V) ovrcx

The dative masculine and neuter plural result from the following sound changes: 1) The original form is OVT-Ol (cf the other plural forms: OVTE~, OVT-WV, OVT-a~, ovr-). The letter Tdrops out before the letter a so that the form OVal results. 2) The form OVal becomes 01101 because the consonant cluster vo loses the v, and the preceding vowel is lengthened from 0 to the diphthong all. The movable Vat the end of the dative masculine and neuter plural functions in exactly the same way as the movable v when it is found in the third person of verbal forms. The masculine and neuter forms of tOV, oooa, QV belong to the third declension. This declension has a number of substantives and adjectives in a variety of categories. These categories will be taken up in subsequent lessons. The feminine form of tOV, oooa, QV is declined like M~a.

The Personal Pronoun

au.

The personal pronoun of the second person singular and plural has the following forms (cf Pro):

46
Singular
n

LESSON 7
PIUTal
U/ld~
001

015
0013, cou

001,

U/lWV ull1v
U/la~

af"

06

The forms oou, 001, and OE differ from the parallel forms in the singular in that they are less emphatic, and in that they are "enclitic", i.e., tend to lose their accent to the preceding word. Enclitics will be explained below in the Rules for Accents. For the difference in meaning, the following examples should be noted. 6 8EO~ MYEl 001. God speaks t!J..:tJJM. 6 8EO~ A6YEl 00l. God speaks to you. Inasmuch as the indicative, imperative, subjunctive, and optative moods have forms which of themselves indicate the person and number of the subject, use of the nominative of the personal pronoun with these moods often indicates emphasis. But often no emphasis seems intended. Context must be the guide.
U/lEl~ eXf.Tf. [nlv] Meav. You [plural] have [the] glory.

Vocabulary for Lesson 7.

KaTa [Prep 2] Governs genitive or accusative case. With the genitive: down from; against. With the accusative: towards; near; according to.
apTo~,

-ou, 6 [N 6m] bread; food. -OU, 6 [N 6m] slave; servant.

li06AO~,

8avaTo~, -ou,

6 [N 6m] death.

Aack, -06,6 [N 6m] people; nation.


VO/lO~,

-OU, 6 [N 6m] law.

LESSON 7

47

OtKO~,

-OU, 6 [N 6m] house; family; dynasty. 6 [N 6m] eye.

66aA/lO~, -06,
OXAO~,

-ou, 6 [N 6m] crowd.

rdnoc, -OU, 6 [N 6m] place.


'I11006~,

6 [N 33] Jesus. See N 33 for irregular declension.

015 [Pro] you lsg.l.


u/lf.l~

[pro] you [pl.].

yap [Conj] for, because. This word is never found as the first word of a sentence or clause. The technical term for this restriction is "postpositive".
Exercises for Lesson 7.

I. Translate into English: 1. OUK ~v 011/lf.lOV KaTa Toil Msoofou. (Mk 3:6) 2. ~oav yap lioilAol. (Mk 1:16) 3. 6 8avaTo~ son li,a Ta~ a/lapT(a~. (Mk 7:29) 4. epXf.Tm 6 Kt5plO~ '{va 6 apTo~ Q aylO~. (Lk 4:3) 5. 6 66aA/lo~ 006 OUK ~v aya8o~. (Mk 9:47) 6. OOTOl yap siorv ol VO/lOl Kat oi rrpcxjll'jrm. (Mt 7:12) 7. OUK eonv f.Uayy6AloV KaTa 'Avopeov, (Mk 1:27) 8. ePXETal 6 'Il1ooil~ d~ SKf.lVOV TOV ronov. (Mk 1:35) 9. ~Kdvo~ 6 Aao~ OUK ~v 1TlOTO~. (Mk 7:6) 10. au ~~ 6 Uto~ 6 ayarrI1TO~; (Mk 3:11) 11. 6 'II1006~ epXf.Tm d~ TOV olxov 'Avlip60u. (Mk 3:20) 12. ou yap SOTf. U/ld~ Ot OVTE~ aya801. (Mk 13:11) 13. ~Kdvo~ 6 OXAO~ ePXf.Tm d~ TOV olxov Toil 8f.oil. (Mk 7:6) 14. lioilAO~ 'Inoof son 1i06AO~ av8pwrrwv. (Mk 10:44) II. Translate into Greek: 1. This crowd is coming into the shrine. (Mk 2:13) 2. The house of God is holy and the prophets who are in this. house of God are holy. (Mk 11:17)

48

LESSON 7

3. Jesus spoke to us in those days. (Mk 2:19; Mk 1:9) III. Mk 1:26-31.

LESSON 8

49

dill, Future Indicative, Future Participle, Future Infinitive. The Future Indicative. The Future Participle. The Future Infinitive. The Accusative with the Infinitive. The Aoljective and Personal Pronoun a\h6~. The Reflexive and NonReflexive Use of a\h6~.

Lesson S
e1lll, Future Indicative, Future Participle, Future Infinitive.
In the future tense the verb dill is conjugated as follows (cf. V 16, DV 51; the future participle is declined like Adj 1; the future system of III 1 as such is not given in the paradigms of the verb at the back of Volume Two of this grammar):
Indicative

Singular
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

Plural

Eaollal

EOlJ
Earal

eaOlle6a Eaw6e
" OOVTal E

I shall be

You (sg.) will be He (She, It) will be

We shall be You (pl.) will be They will be

Masculine

Participle Singular Feminine

Neuter

n
v

g d a

socuevoc socusve scouevo o

eaOIlEvTJ eaOIlEvTJ

eaOIlEvTJ~

OOIJv<P
f.OO/lEVOV

eaOIlEvlJ eaOIlEvTJv

eaOllevov eaOllevov eaOIlEvou eaOIlEvtp eaOllevov

50

LESSON 8

Masculine

Plural Feminine
i;o61l~val i;o61l~Val
EOOJ.1EVWV

Neuter
i;o61l~va i;o61l~va

n
v
g

i;o61l~VOl i;o61l~VOl

i;oollivwv
i;oollivOl~ i;oollivou~

soousvcov
i;oollivOl~

d a

i;oollival~ i;oolliva~

SOOJ.1eva

The future infinitive of siui is gOW6al. The Future Indicative. The future tense of the indicative mood in Greek corresponds to the future tense in English. It expresses a single action or repeated or continuous action in the future in an independent or dependent clause. gOOllal 6lKalO~. I shall be just. The Future Participle. The future participle can express a single action or repeated or continuous action. Context often shows that it indicates action subsequent to the main verb of the clause in which it stands:
OUK OOVTCll EV n3 O'{KW. They will not be in'the house.

TO pyov TO aoJ.u:.vov aya60v saTat. The future work [literally, the work which will be] will be good.
The future participle of dill is rare in the New Testament. Its conjugation has an accidental importance in that it serves as a paradigm for participles, future and otherwise, of other verbs which are more common. The Future Infinitive. The future infinitive can express a single action or continuous or repeated action. Context often shows that it indicates action subsequent to the main verb of the clause in which it is found.

LESSON 8

51

The use of the future infinitive can perhaps best be seen in a construction called the "accusative with the infinitiv~", a~t~ough the accusative with the infinitive is not limited to future infinitives (see the following explanatory item). The Accusative with the Infinitive. In the construction called "the accusative with the infinitive" a noun or pronoun in the accusative case is construed as the subject of an infinitive. The accusative with the infinitive is used in a variety of ways in Greek, but one principal way is after a verb of saying:

(, 'Inocvc AiY~l TOV ~a1TTloT11v gOW6al 5lKalOv, Jesus says that the baptizer will be just.
Here the word ~a1TTlOT~V, baptizer, is placed in the accusative case because it is the subject of the infinitive gow6al. The word 6lKalOv is in the accusative case becauseit agrees with ~a1TnoT~v. (The verb ~illl "takes the same case after as before". Since the verb is usually in the indicative mood the word coming "before" it, i.e., the subject, is usually in the nominative case, and the word ':after" it, i.e., the predicate, is in the nominative case as well. Bu~ t~e word "before" it, i.e., the subject, is in the accusative case, as It IS the . mood of dill is infinitive, then the word "after", i.e., the pred!-cate, IS in the accusative case as well. [It should be noted that occasionally the subject of the infinitive is found after the infi~tive, just as the subject of a verb in the indicative mood can ?CCa~l?ml~ly be found following its verb.]) The future tense of the infinitive IS. used because the future indicative was used in the direct discourse, i.e., Jesus says, "The baptizer will be just". The same principles apply to infinitives in other tenses. Thus the direct statement Jesus says, "The baptizer is just", becomes the. indirect statement Jesus says that the baptizer is just. In Greek this would be (, 'I'1ooii~ AiY~l TOV ~a1TnoT~v ~1val 6lKalOV, i.e., the present infinitive of siu t is used because the time of ~he verb !n the subordinate clause is seen to be contemporaneous WIth the time of the verb of the main clause. dill has no aorist infinitive, but ifit had, the aorist would be used to express the indirect statement Jesus says that the baptizer was just, which in turn can be expressed as a direct ~tatement as follows: Jesus says, "The baptizer was just". There IS also another

1r

1r

52

LESSON 8

form of the infinitive which most verbs have but which dIll does not have: the perfect. The force of the aorist and perfect will be discussed when these verbs are presented in connection with the verb AUUl. The lack of an aorist and perfect infinitive in dIll means that another mood beside the infinitive, or another verb beside elui must be used for an accusative with the infinitive idea in these tense areas. With this lesson the presentation of all the forms of the verb d/l 1is concluded. There is no future optative of any verb in the New Testament. (A future optative is found in classical Greek.) The Adjective and Personal Pronoun auro.;. The adjective aura.;, which also serves as the third person of the personal pronoun, is declined as follows (cf. Adj IPro, Pro):
Masculine
n g

\ Singular !Feminine

Neuter

aUTo,;
(lUTOD

d a

~~~tv
Masculine

a u r~

a~r~.;

\a~r~

alJ Tll V
Feminine

aUTo aUT06 a~T~


(XlHO

Plural
Neuter
n g

aurwv
aurol'; aurou.;

aUTol

aural
aUTwv aural'; aUTa.;

aun
aUTwv

aUTol'; UllTa

As an adjective aUTO'; has the meaning same when it is preceded by the article, or self when there is no preceding article:
f,1m~ TOY uilTOY AOyOV. He said the same word.

,III 006.; aUTO'; /(PXEral. Jesus himself is coming. When used as a pronoun, aUTO'; indicates the third person: /(I3AElTOV aurov.

LESSON 8

53

I was seeing him. /(I3AElTOV auTOo,;. I was seeing them. The Reflexive and Non-Reflexive Use of auro.;. In classical Greek the genitive case of aUTO'; was used only in a non-reflexive sense. That is to say, it did not refer back to the subject of the sentence or clause in which it is found. /(I3AElTE TOV olxov aUT06. He was seeing his [i.e., another person's] house. But in New Testament Greek the genitive case is often found in a reflexive sense. That is to say, it refers back to the subject of the sentence or clause in which it is found: /(I3AElTE TOV olxov aUT06. He was seeing his [i.e., his own] house. Whether aUTO'; is being used in a reflexive sense or not is usually clear from the context.

Vocabulary for Lesson 8.

/lETa [prep 2] Governs genitive or accusative case. With the genitive: with, together with. With the accusative: after.. A number of nouns in the New Testament are declined exactly like Myo.; but are feminine, not masculine. The more frequently used are the following: al3vooo.;, -ou, a/llTEAO';, -ou, I3lI3Ao,;, -ou,
~

[N 6f] abyss. [N 6f] vine. 6f] book.

~ [N

/(Pll/lOC;, -ou, ~ [N 6f] desert.

54
vijao~,

LESSON 8

-ou,

~ [N ~ [N

6f] island. 6f] disease.

voooc, -ou,
6/io~,

-06,

~ [N Bf]

road; way ,journey.


6f] staff; wand, scepter.

pall/io~, -ou, ~ [N aUTO~, aUT~,

aUTO [Adj 1Pro, Pro] he, she, it; same; self

/if. [Conj] This is a frequently-used conjunction with a variety of subtle meanings. It is used either by itself or with other conjunctions or particles. By itself it can have a mildly adversative sense: but, rather, on the contrary. It can have a linking sense: and. It can be used to continue a discourse or narration: now, then, so. It is never the first word in its sentence or clause, i.e., it is postpositive.

Exercises for Lesson 8.


I. Translate into English: 1. 6 llaeTJT~~ ~v IlETlX TWV llillAWv (luT06. (Mk 1:13) 2. TO /iatIlOVlQV epXET<Xl EK Tij~ alluaaou. (Apoc 11:7) 3. 6 'ITJa06~ AEYE1' EYW dill ~ cXlllTEAO~. (In 15:1) 4. ~ aA~eEla EaT1v EV T<XUTIJ Tfj 1l[IlA4'. (Mk 12:26) 5. 6 llalTT1aT~~ ~v EV Tfj EP~Il4'. (Mk 1:4) 6. 6 aTp(lT1WTTJ~ epXET<Xl Ei~ T~V vijaov. (Acts 27:26) 7. vdcoi ~aav EV TW A(lW. (Mt 4:23) 8. 01 llaeTJT<X! TOU IITJaou ~a(lv sv Tfj 6/i~. (Mk 8:27) 9. 6 llaeTJT~~ eXEl T~V pall/)ov. (Mk 6:8) 10. (l1lTo~ yap 6 eEO~ EllTEV TOt5ToU~ TOU~ A6you~. (Mk 6:17) 11. TO /)(l1lJOVlOV epXET<Xl Ee (lUT06. (Mk 1:26) 12. 6 /if; 'ITJaou~ AEYEl (l1lToi~ lTEP! aiJT1k (Mk 1:30) 13. epXETat /)E ~ ~IlEP(l TOU xup io u. (Mk 2:20) II. Translate into Greek: 1. After this day we shall be with the Lord in his kingdom. (Mk 8:31) 2. The baptizer comes into the desert with his disciples. (Mk 1:3) 3. The disciples were with Jesus on that road. (Mk 9:33)

LESSON 8

55

III. Mk 1:32-37.

56

LESSON 9

The Inflection ofVerbs and ofNouns, Pronouns, and Adjectives. The Verbal Systems in -0) and in -In. The Active and Passive Voices. AvO), Present Active Indicative. The Noun (Jape. Rules for Accents 1.

Lesson 9
The Inflection ofVerbs and ofNouns, Pronouns, and Adjectives.

All verbs and almost all of the nouns, pronouns, and adjectives in Greek can be "inflected", i.e., modified in some way or other to indicate the function of the word in a sentence. The part of the word which remains invariable is called the "stem"; the variable part is called the "ending". The inflection of a verb is usually referred to as a "conjugation"; the inflection of a noun, pronoun, or adjective is referred to as a "declension". Terminology varies at times, and the student should be alert to note the way in which the terms are being used. See above, Lesson 4, for a preliminary discussion of the stem. The invariable part of a word called the "stem" in relation to its ending. This invariable part is often called the "root" in relation to other words. But it should be kept in mind that the root and a stem based in it do not always correspond exactly, even though a "stem" is based on the "root". For example, the noun aYYEAo<; and the verb ayyiAAw in its present system share the root aYYEA-. Their meanings---messenger and I announce----convey this sharing. But the verb has aYYEAA- as a stem only in the present system. In the future system the stem is aYYEA-, with only one A. Such variations of a root to form stems are usually not so great as to be unrecognizable.
The Verbal Systems in -xo and in -).I 1.

Greek verbs are divided into two main classes, those ending in -wand those ending in -).II. The verb slui belongs to the latter category. It was presented at the very beginning of this grammar

LESSON 9

57

because of its frequent use and because of its importance for understanding the predicative and attributive use of adjectives.. But the verbs ending in -ware far more numerous than the verbs ending in -).II, and their conjugation will be presented beginning with this lesson before the other verbs in -).II begin to be presented in Lesson 55. The technical difference between verbs in -wand verbs in -).II will be discussed in Lesson 55.
The Active and Passive Voices.

'Voice" is the grammatical term used to express the relation of.the subject of a verb to the action which the verb expresses. If the gra.mmati~al subject of a verb is identical with the real subject of the action which the verb expresses, the verb is said to be in the "active" voice. For example, I see the book is a sentence in which the grammatical subject of the verb, I, is the real subject or "doer" of the action of "seeing". The verb see is thus said to be in the "active" voice. If the grammatical subject of a verb is not identical with the real subject of the action which the verb expresses, the verb is said to be in the "passive" voice. For example, The book is seen by me is a sentence in which the grammatical subject ofthe verb, the book, is not the real subject of the action which the verb expresses. The real subject of the action, i.e., the "doer", is expressed by the phrase by me. The grammatical subject, the book, is entirely "passive" with regard to the action of seeing. In Greek there is a set of forms for the active voice, and another set of forms for the passive voice. There is also a set of forms for a third voice called the "middle voice". This voice will be explained in Lesson 26. The verb Ei).l! is unique in that it has no voice.
A15co, Present Active Indicative.

For the meaning of the present tense and of the indicative mood cf. Lesson 2. The present tense of the indicative mood of the verb AI5W I loose, I loosen, I untie, I dissolve (root AU-, present stem AU-) i~ as follows (cf V 1, VP 1):
Active Voice, Indicative Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural
1st Person

AI5-W

AU-O).lEV

58
2nd Person 3rd Person A15- et<; Av-el

LESSON 9

Av-ere AV-OU<J1(V)

I loose, am loosing You (sg.) loose, are loosing He (She, It) looses, is loosing
The Noun (Jape.

We loose, are loosing You (pl.) loose, are loosing They loose, are loosing

The importance of the stem of a noun or adjective is especially marked in the third declension. (The masculine and neuter genders ofthe present participle of the verb etl1t belong to this declension. Cf. above, Lesson 7.) Third declension nouns are divided into categories according to the final sound of the stem. Palatal stems (sometimes referred to as guttural stems) end in K, V, or X. They are declined as follows (Jape, flesh, N Bf):
n v g d a Singular oape oape
oexpK6~

Plural
OaPKe~ OaPKe~

onpxi
oapKex

OexpKWV oexpet(v)
(JaPKex~

The stem of a noun may be found by eliminating the ending of the genitive singular. In the third declension the ending for nouns is usually -o~. Thus, the stem of oexpe is ocpx-, In the dative plural the ending is -Ol(V), but the form is not written OexPKOt but oapee The letter e is called a "double consonant" because it is simply a way of writing the two consonants KO. The letter also results from the combinations vo and xo.

Rules for Accents 1.


In Greek the acute accent (cf. Lesson 1) may stand over any one of the final three syllables of a word. The circumflex may stand over either of the final two syllables of a word. The grave may stand only over the final syllable of a word:

LESSON 9
oapK6~

59

AVW , OUOl

(JexpKwv
l1exellT~~

"Rules ~or Accents" will be continued in subsequent lessons. No attempt WIll be made to give an exhaustive presentation of the rules for accents in Greek. But enough rules will be given to enable the student to explain the appearance of the accents on almost all words.

. Vocabulary for Lesson 9.


1Iept [Prep 2J Governs the genitive and the accusative case. With the

genitive: concerning; about. With the accusative: around [spatial or temporal meaning].
~A1IW [V

4, DV 25, VP 1J [The designation "VP 1" refers to the paradigm of the active voice of the verb in question. A verb will normally have a middle voice and a passive voice but for the sake of simplicity, references to these voices will be omitted until they have been presented in the grammar in Lessons 26 and 36.J I see, I am seeing. [In all subsequent vocabulary listings the progressive tense in English---I am seeing---will.be presupposed.J

ypa</Jw [V 4, DV 30, VP 1J I write.


li1wKw [V 2, DV 40, VP 1J I pursue; I persecute.

"xw [V 2 (present system only), DV 68, VP 1J I have, I possess.


KWAVW [V 1, VP 1] I forbid; I prevent; I hinder.

Cf. above, Lesson 3. This verb is irregular in the future, aorist, and perfect systems. .

AVW [V 2 (1); DV 116; VP 1, 4J I say. This verb is irregular in all

other tense systems. In Lesson 2 the third person of the singular and plural of the aorist tense was given. In Lesson 3 the third person singular of the present tense was given.
AUW [V 1, VP 1] I loose; I untie; I dissolve.

60
rri).lrrw [V 4, VP 1] I send.
aap~, aapK6~, ~ [N

LESSON 9

8f] flesh; human nature. 9f] trumpet.

aaArrty~, aaArrtyyo~, ~ [N

Two other palatal stems frequently found in the New Testament are irregular in the nominative singular:
YUVrl, yovatK6~, ~ [N 8f, N 33] woman; wife.
ep(~, rptx6~, ~

[N 8f, N 33] hair.

vo~, VUKTO~, ~ [N

8f, N 33] night. A r is present in all forms except in the nominative and vocative singulars and the dative plural, but the root is palatal.

oiiv [Adv 3] therefore. This word is postpositive. Exercises for Lesson 9. I. Translate into English:
1. T]V OXAO~ rrep\ TOY 'Inoouv. (Mk 9:14) 2. 6 OUV Kt5plO~ 'I~aoil~ exet e~oua(av err\ Tll~ yij~. (Mk 16:19; 2:10) 3. Aiyet 6 KPlT~~ aoro'i~ rrep\ aorij~. (Mk 1:30) 4. xtipts, 6 eeo~ ypciet roic aVepwrrOl~. (Mk 12:19) 5. ~ yuv~ exet rp(xa~ KaAa~. 6. pAirro).leV rou~ avepwrrou~. (Mk 8:24) 7. lilll rij~ vUKro~ T]V v TlJ eprl).l4'. (Mk 5:5) 8. 6 ayaeo~ arpanwr1]~ epxerat Ka\ Aoet aorov. (Mk 11:4) 9. rri).lrrOUOlV ro ec ayyiAou~ ).lera aaArriyywv. (Mt 25:31) 10. OOK exo).lev e~oua(av eKdv4' nil rorr4'. (Mk 1:22) 11. IitWKere rou~ rrpo<prlra~. (Mt 23:34) 12. 01 liwrrorat KWAoOUat rou~ epycha~. (Mk 9:38) 13. rri).lrret~ aorou~ d~ r~v ep~).lov; (Mk 5:12) 14. 6 OXAO~ Aiyet rrep\ roil 'I~aoil. (Mk 1:30) 15. rrep\ raor~v r~v ~).lipav epxerat 6 'I~aoil~. (Mk 6:48) 16. 6 A1Jar~~ Myet Kara r~v aapKa. (In 8:15)

ev

II. Translate into Greek:

LESSON 9 1. We are writing for our own disciples these books concerning the truth of the Lord. (Mk 4:34) 2. We therefore send the trumpets which we have.

61

3. After those days our hearts were not good. Therefore we were not holy. (Lk 1:24)

III. Mk 1:38-42.

62

LESSON 10

The Imperfect Active Indicative. A15"" 'Imperfect Active Indicative. The Augment. Compound Verbs. The Noun Apall'. Rules fur Accents 2.

Lesson 10
The ImperfectActive Indicative. The imperfect indicative expresses continued or repeated action in past time (cf. above, Lesson 3). For the meaning of the active voice cf. above, Lesson 9. A1511l, Imperfect Active Indicative. The imperfect active indicative of A15W is as follows (cf, V 1, VP
1):
Imperfect Tense, Active Voice, Indicative Mood Singular Plural
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

ii-AU-OV
ii-AU-E~

t-AU-O~EV

ii-AU-E(V)

t-A15-ETE ii-AU-OV

I was loosing You (sg.) were loosing He (She, It) was loosing

We were loosing You (pl.) were loosing They were loosing

The first person singular and the third person plural have the same form. They are distinguished by the context in which they are found. It should be noted that the imperfect is formed from the same basic element in the verb A1500 (A u- ) as was used to form the present. This basic element is called a "stem" and will be explained in greater detail in Lesson 11. The student should note this apparent anomaly: whereas all moods in the present tense are based on the present stem, and all moods in the future tense are based on the future stem, and all moods in the aorist tense are based on the aorist

LESSON 10

63

stem, and all moods in the perfect tense are based on the perfect stem, the imperfect tense exists only in the indicative mood and is based on the present stem. It is thus analogous with the pluperfect tense, which is based on the perfect tense stem. The Augment. For verbs whose root begins with a consonant, the imperfect tense is normally formed by prefixing an t to the present stem and adding the endings of the proper voice, either active or middle! passive. The prefixed t is called an "augment". It always has the smooth breathing. When the present stem of the verb begins with a vowel or a diphthong, the augment is formed not by prefixing the letter t but by lengthening the vowel or diphthong according to the following rules:
a becomes 1]: aKo15w> ifKOUOV E becomes 1]: t06lW> ifo61OV t becomes I: ioX15w > tOXuov (The macron [ - ] over the iota is not written.) o becomes 00: ovo~a~w > ulv6~a~ov Ubecomes Ii ur:lpi~w > uf:lPt~OV (The macron [-] over the upsilon is not written.) m becomes 1): atpw > ~pov (The iota in the diphthong at becomes a iota subscript in the augmented form.) au becomes 1]U: lX1l~avw > 1]o~avov EU becomesnu or remains the same: supioxco > 1]UPlOKOV or SUPlOKOV Ot becomes 4': oixripco > <;5KTlPOV (The iota in the diphthong oi becomes a iota subscript in the augmented form.)

The written forms of long t and U are not distinguished from the short t and u, In the pronunciation the distinction could be made by a slight lengthening of the sound. The breathing for the augment formed by the prefixing of an E is always smooth. But the breathing for an augment formed by the lengthening of a vowel or diphthong retains the same breathing as in the unaugmented form of the present root. Thus aKo15w becomes ifKOUOV arid au~avw becomes 1]o~avov, while uf:lpi~w becomes uf:lPt~OV and SUpiOKW becomes 1]UPtOKOV ! SUplOKOV.

Compound Verbs.

64

LESSON 10

In Greek, many verbs are called "compound" verbs because they are compounded of a prefix (usually a preposition) and a simple (i.e., non-compound) verb. Thus, the verb unoAuw, I release, is composed of the prefix uno and the simple verb AUw. In such verbs the augment is normally placed immediately before the simple verb or root. Thus, unAuov is the form for the first person singular or the third person plural, i.e., the final vowel of uno drops before the augment, and uno-Auov becomes unAuov. The final vowel of most prefixes drops before an augment. The most common exceptions to' this rule are the prepositions nEpt and npo, each of which retains its final vowel before an augment: nEpI~YoV, npol3alvov. (It should be noted that these two prefixes retain their final vowel elsewhere before the verbal form, when the latter begins with a vowel. For example, nEplayw is the present tense of the verb from which the imperfect nEpI~YoV is formed. There is also a verb npoayw, the . imperfect of which is npo~yov.) The augment of xW is irregular: e1xov. The Noun YApaljl. Labial roots of third declension nouns end in x, 13, or cp. They are declined as follows ("Apaljl, Arab) (ef N 12):
Singular
n

Plural
"ApaI3E~
"Apaf3E~

v
g d a

"Apaljl ,.Apaljl
"Apaf3o~

"Apaf31 "Apaf3a

"Apaf3wv "Apa1jll(v)
"Apaf3a~

The root of the labials may be determined by eliminating the ending -o~ from the form of the genitive singular. Thus the root of "Apaljl is "Apaf3-. In the dative plural a root ending in n is not written no but ljI. The letter tjI is called a "double consonant" because it is simply a way of writing the two consonants no. The letter ljI also results from the meeting in the dative plural of f3 with a (as in "Apatjl) and of cp with o, But the process by which this occurs is more complicated. There are few nouns in this category in the New Testament. Rules for Accents 2.

LESSON 10

65

A syllable is short if it contains a short vowel or a diphthong which, for purposes of accent, is considered short. A syllable is long if it contains a long vowel or a diphthong which is considered long. (Diphthongs are normally considered long unless explicitly noted as being otherwise.) An acute accent and a grave accent may stand over a syllable which is long or a syllable which is short. A circumflex accent may stand only over a syllable which is long. As was stated above in Lesson 1, the lettersn and co are always long. Thus, words accented in the following ways are found: f30WVTO~, T~, u/lapnwv, nil, tlV; nOTa/l<!i, tlA8Ev, TWV, oupavwv. The letters T] and w need not-always have a circumflex accent. Acute and grave accents over them are possible. Thus words accented in the following ways are found: ' ApX~, Ka8w~, npoCPrlT!J, npoownou, T~V, cpwv~, Prl/lqJ, xwpa. The letters E and 0 are always short. Thus words accented in the following ways are impossible: unooTeAAw, TOV, npo, b~, npo~, vlidiu/levo~, /leAl, Aeywv. When the letters Eor 0 have accents they are either acute or grave: yypanTaI, unooTAAw, TOV, npo, o~, aMv, yvETO, npo~. The letters a, I, and u may be long or short. Thus they may have all three types of accent: EuaYYEAtOU, KaTaoKwaoEI, KT]PUOowv, mioa, 'Isooooxunirm, Ailoal, dIll, nEpl, oocpov, EueO~, nEPIOTEpaV, /lETa. The fact that mioa, "Ispocoxuuirm, and Ailoat have circumflex accents indicates that the vowels a, I, and U are long. But the fact that an a, a 1, or an Uhas an acute accent does not necessarily mean that it is short, because other rules for accents may make the acute necessary, as will be explained in subsequent rules for accents. Diphthongs are considered long except for final -at and -01 (but even final-at and -01 are considered long in the optative mood, which will be presented in subsequent lessons). Thus the circumflex accent is often found over a diphthong: 'Inoou, XpIOTOil, nOIElrE, KaTaf3a'ivov, nVEil/la, TO'i~, KailOl~, AT]Au8u'iav. But even diphthongs which are considered long can, of course, have acute and grave accents: ilioD, Eu8da~, ueruvoicc, ~EnopEuETO, ,Iouliata, T]U~T]OEV. Final v-ot and -at never have circumflex accents: /la8T]Tal, Jla8TlTal, uio), viol. In the optative mood the fact that a final-at or -01 is long shows itself only indirectly, by influencing the accentuation of the

66

LESSON 10

previous syllables in the word. This phenomenon will be pointed out when the optative mood is presented in the paradigms.

Vocabulary for Lesson 10.


urro [prep 2] Governs genitive or accusative case. With the genitive: by [This is the normal way in which the personal agent of an action is expressed with a verb in the passive voice.l With the accusative: under.
"Apmp, "Apallo<;, 6 [N 12] Arab.

AatAaljl, AatAarro<;,

[N llf] storm.

alpw [V 6, DV 6, VP 1] I take up; I remove. eXKOU<il [V 1, DV 7, VP 1] Cf. Lesson 3, where the second person singular of the present indicative active was given. I hear; I listen (to). This verb is followed by the accusative or the genitive with no discernible difference in meaning.
au~avw [V

7, DV 20, VP 1]. When used transivitely, i.e., with a direct object: . I make to grow; intransitively: I grow (this form, of course, can be transitive as well as intransitive in English).

60Btw or EoBw [V 1, DV 64, VP 1] I eat. EUPtOKW [V 2, DV 65, VP 1] I find, I discover. 1OXV<il [V 1, VP 1] I am strong; I am able. 01KTtpW [V 6, VP 1] I have mercy on. This verb governs the accusative case and does not require a preposition as in English.
OVO/la~W [V ulIpt~w [V

5, VP 1] I call by name; I name.

5, VP 1] I insult.

~.

....
".

LESSON 10

67

eXna [Conj] but.

Exercises for Lesson 10.


I. Translate into English: 1. 01 orpuruorrn OUK tOXvov elvm eXyaBol. (Lk 16:3) 2. 6 Kiiptor; <\lKnpE TOU<; "Apalla<;. 3. eXAAa 6 KVPlO<; u\vO/la~EV TOU<; /laBIlTa<; eXrrooToAov<;. (Mk3:14) 4. 01 1i00Aol a'ipOVOl Ta 1/lana aUToov d<; 61i6v. (Mk 6:8) 5. 6 oTpanuJrIl<; J]KovoB11 [J]KovoBIl is the third person singular of the aorist indicative passive and means "(he) was heard"] urro TOO '111000. (Mk 1:5) 6. 6Kdvol 01 rrOYIlPOt [rrovnpot is an adjective used here as a noun] ()IIPl~OV TOU<; 1i00JAov<; aUToo. (Mt 22:6) 7. uvBpwrro<; d/ll urro 6~OVOtav <!lv. (Lk 7:8) 8. 6 '111000<; EPXETCXt Kat EVptOKEl aUToU<;. (Mk 14:37) 9. eXAAu ~ AatAaljl llu~avEv 6V KEivlJ Tfj VVKTl. (Lk 2:40) 10. vllEt<; OUK J]KOUETE, eXAA' 6Af.YETE. . 11. 6 '111000<; fioBlE /lETa TOOV rrovllPoov eXvBpwrrwv. (Mk 2:16) 12. Kat 6KEtVOl slorv Ot eXKOUOVOlV TOV AOyov. (Mk 4:20)

II. Translate into Greek:


1. This crowd was listening to him, but that crowd was not listening to him. (Mk 12:37) 2. Jesus names Andrew an apostle. (Lk 6:14) 3. The word of God was growing in that kingdom. (Acts 6:7)

III. Mk 1:43-45.

68

LESSON 11

The Future Active Indicative. A,sOl, Future Active Indicative. Various Types of Stems and the Formation of the Future. Verbs Having Present Stems Ending in -~. The Noun tA,"~. Rules for Accents 3.

Lesson 11
The Future Active Indicative. The future tense is used to express various kinds of action in the future, i.e., that period of time which is viewed as being subsequent to the time being viewed as contemporary. Such kinds of action are continued action and repeated action. In the New Testament the future tense is fOUI).d only in the indicative, infinitive, and participial moods. Only the indicative mood of the future tense presents an action as taking place in a future viewed independently of another verb. The infinitive and participial moods in the future, as elsewhere, are dependent on other verbs and hence can express the future only relatively. . For the meaning of the active voice cf. Lesson 9. AUOO, Future Active Indicative. The future tense of the active voice in the indicative mood of AUOO is formed by inserting a a between the present stem and the endings of the present indicative active (cf V 1, VP 1). (T~e present stem of a verb is found by dropping the ending of the present infinitive.)
Future Tense, Active Voice, Indicative Mood Singular Plural
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

Au-a-w Au-a-el~ Au-a-el

Au-a-o~ev

Au-a-ere AU-a-OU<Jl(v)

I shall loose

We shall loose

LESSON 11

69

You (sg.) will loose He (She, It) will loose

You (pl.) will loose They will loose

Various Types ofStems and the Formation of the Future. Verbs whose present stem ends in a palatal (K, y, X) form the future by having a e in place of the palatal and the a (cf. the formation of the dative masculine and neuter plural in the third declension, above, Lesson 9). Verbs whose present stem ends in a labial (n, 13, <1 form the future by having a 1jf in place of the labial and the a (cf the formation ofthe dative masculine and neuter plural in the third declension, above, Lesson 10). Verbs whose present stem ends in a dental (r, Ii, 0) form the future by having one a, i.e., the dental drops (cf. the formation of the dative masculine and neuter plural in the third declension, below, in this lesson).
. rrelOw > neioto

A number of verbs have irregular forms in the future. This phenomenon will be explained in future lessons. The future of 1:xw is irregular in that it has a rough breathing:

Verbs Having Present Stems Ending in -1;. Many verbs which have a dental root have a present tense in which a I; appears before the endings, e.g., l3uJrrll;w. In the future the underlying dental root asserts itself normally so that the form has only a a, the dental dropping, e.g., l3uJrrlaw. (The reason for the Cneed not be learned.) There are many verbs in this category. There are also a few verbs in having a present tense in which a I; appears before the endings but which have a palatal stem, e.g., Kpcil;oo. These latter verbs have a future in which the palatal stem asserts itself normally so that the form has a e, e.g., Kpciew. There is no rule for distinguishing the two categories according to the appearances of the present tense. (Only a knowledge of the etymology of each verb in question makes categorization possible.) Hence in the vocabulary entries in this grammar any verb ending in I; in the present tense will be

70

LESSON 11

accompanied by its future form so that the category in which the verb belongs, dental or palatal, will be clear. In case of doubt, the student is advised to presuppose that the category is that of a dental, inasmuch as there are many more verbs in this category.
The Noun EAltk

Dental roots of third declension nouns end in r, b, or 6. They are declined as follows (EAn:I~, hope) (cf, N. 14f):
Singular n
v
EAn:l~ EAn:l~ EAmbo~

Plural
EAn:lbe~ EAmbe~

g d a

EAmbt EAmba

EAn:lbUlv EAn:lcrt(v)
EAn:lba~

The root of the dentals may be determined by eliminating the ending -o~ from the form of the genitive singular. (The root of any third-declension noun may be learned in this way.) Thus the root of EAm~ is EAJrtb-. In the dative plural a root ending in b is not written ba but simply a, i.e., the b drops. The same is true for roots ending in r or 6. (Cf. the formation of the future tense of verbs whose root ends in a dental, as explained above in this lesson.) There are other types of nouns having dental roots, but they are not numerous. They will be presented in subsequent lessons.
Rules for Accents 3.
An acute accent may stand on the third-last syllable only if the final syllable is short. Thus yeypan:Tat and srotudccrs. If a word) has an acute accent on the third-last syllable of a word when the final syllable of the word is short, the accent recedes to the secondlast syllable when the final syllable of the word becomes long. Thus OtyyeAo~ in the nominative case, but ayyeAoo in the genitive. A circumflex accent may stand on the second-last syllable only if the last syllable is short. Thus [3owvro~, but npoouinou. If there is a circumflex accent in the nominative when the final

LESSON 11

71

syllable is short, that circumflex changes to an acute when the final syllable becomes long. Thus EKelvo~, but EKelvoo. An acute accent on the final syllable of a word should be . changed to a grave accent before a word which is not an enclitic unless a punctuation mark intervenes. The enclitics will be explained in Lesson 12. Thus far in this grammar the following enclitics have been seen: /.100, uoi, and us of the first person pronoun, and oou, coi, and os of the second person pronoun; all forms of the present indicative of the verb ei/.l I except the second person singular (d). Thus apx~ rou, Ka6w~ yeypan:Tat, and r~v aMy, but abeA<!>o1 uo o, oio~ cou, and Otv6pUln:ol slow, roo, yeypan:rat, and 6Mv are not enclitics; therefore the acute accent on apxti, Ka6w~, and rriv is changed to a grave accent. But /.100, oou, and sloiv are enclitics; therefore the acute accent on abeA<I>ol, oio~, and Otv6pUln:ol remains. Contrast the word aorov in Mk 1:10 with the word aorov in Mk 1:26. Themrrov ofMk 1:10 occurs before a punctuation mark; therefore even though the following word (Kat) is not an enclitic, the final syllable of aorov retains the acute accent. The aorov ofMk 1:26 occurs immediately before a non-enclitic (ro-v-the fact that it has a grave accent is irrelevant) with no intervening punction; hence its acute accent on the final syllable is changed to a grave accent.

Vocabulary for Lesson 11.

{mep [Prep 2] Governs the genitive and the accusative cases. With the genitive: on behalfof, in favor of, in place of. With the accusative: above; more than. OtYUl [V 2, DV 4, VP 1 and 4] [lead, t conduct.
~an:ri(Ul

[[3an:rlaUl] [V 5, DV 23, VP 1] [ baptize; t wash.


[V 5, VP 1] [glorify.

bo~a(Ul [bo~aaUl]

Kpa(Ul

[Kpa~Ul]

[V 3, DV 107, VP 1] [ shout,

t cry out.

n:d6w [V 5, DV 146, VP 1] [persuade. This irregular verb has special idiomatic meanings in the perfect active and in the passive; cf. Lesson 58.

72

LESSON 11

lletpal;w [lletPaaw] [V 5, VP 1] I test; I tempt; I attempt. eAllk, eAmlioe;, 1\ [N 14f] hope.

ACX/lllae;, Aa/lllalio.;, 1\ [N 14f] lamp. llcxie;, llatl\Oe;, 011\ [N 14m and 14f] boy;girl; child; servant.
llCXTpt.;, llaTptlio.;, 1\ [N 14f] native place.

llotS.;, llolio.;, 6 [N 14m and N 33] foot.


a<jlpay[.;, a<jlpay[lio.;, 1\ [N 14f] seal. on [Conj] This frequently-used word has three basic meanings: 1) because, as an introduction to a causal clause; 2) quotation marks (".. .J, as an introduction to a direct quotation; 3) that, as an introduction to an indirect quotation. These meanings can he distinguished only from the context.

Exercises for Lesson 11.


1. Translate into English: 1. 6 llai.; OUK eIxe lloliw;: (Mt 18:8) 2. 01 av6pwllot 6Kpatov. (Mk 3:11) 3. Atyw OTt CXUT,J<; a/lapTwAo,; eanv on

1\ KapMa aUToiJ

novnpd sonv.
4. 0'; yap OUK Eanv KaO' 1\/lwv. imEp 1\/lWV scrtv, (Mk 9:40) 5.lita TOV Iita{3oAov lletpal;ov TOV 6eov. (Acts 15:10) 6. 6 'Il1oou,; 6PXErat d.; n)v JraTptlia aUTou. (Mk 6:1) 7. aUTOe; v/lac; /ilallTtOEl. (Mt 3: 11) 8. OUK 6aTtV BOUAO'; imEp TOV KOPlOV CXUTOU. (Mt 10:24) 9. 01 alieA<jlol 61lEt60v aVTooc;. (Acts 13:43) 10. 1\ yap o<jlpaytC; /lOO V/lE1<; sore. (l Cor 9:2) 11. AtyOVOlV OTt i.BAt1l0).lev TOV KOplOV. 12. ayot)otV oily TOV 'Il1aoilv a1l0 Toil 01KOl>. (In 18:28) 13. OUK 6Pxerat 6 AlJOT~<; ).IWI Aa).l:1laOwv. (In 18:3) 14. EYW ou lio~aaw aUTov. (In 8:54) 15. eIXev EAlltoa dc; TOV 6eov. (Acts 24:15) 16. aUTO'; a/lCXpTWAO<; OTt 1\ KcxpOla aVToiJ 1l0vl1pa eo nv. 17. 6 Beoc; f;1i6~al;e TOV llaloa CXUTOU 'IT]GOVV. (Acts 3:13)

r
II. Translate into Greek: III. Mk 2:1-5.

LESSON 11

73

1. These are the ones on behalf of whom I was speaking. (Jn 1:3) 2. A disciple is not above the Lord. (Mt 10:24) 3. I was leading him to Jesus. (Lk 19:35)

74

LESSON 12

The Meaning of the Present Active Imperative. "15.., Present Active Imperative. The Nouns ][otllJiv, th:oSv, lIJiv,and aloSv. The Reflexive Pronouns &lJaUTOu, O&QUTOU, and tauTou. Rules for Accents 4.

Lesson 12
The Meaning of the Present Active Imperative.
In the indicative mood the present "tense" indicates an action as viewed from the standpoint of absolute time. This is llil1 the meaning of the present "tense" of the imperative. In the imperative mood (and in the other moods of the present tense as well), the "present" portrays an action as being continued or repeated. The force of the present tense in the participial and infinitive moods demands special treatment, for they often connotate a time of an action as being contemporary with the action of another verb in the sentence. The precise force of the "tenses" in Greek is a much-discussed point, and the student should be alert to understand possibilities in Greek which are different from those in contemporary English usage. For the meaning of the active voice cf. Lesson 9. For the meaning of the imperative mood cf. Lesson 4.

AUlIl, Present Active Imperative. The present tense of the imperative mood in the active voice of At5l1l is as follows (cf, V 1, VP 1):
Present Tense. Active Voice. Imperative Mood

Singular 2nd Person


3rd Person

Plural

A6-e Au-irw

At5-ere Au-irwaav

LESSON 12

75
[You] Loosen! Let them loosen!

[You] Loosen! Let him [her, it] loosen!

The word At5W has been translated here as loosen in order to avoid the ambiguities inherent in the use of loose. (In English the phrase Let him loose! can mean Allow him to be loose, as well as He should set loose someone else. In the present context ouly the latter meaning is appropriate.) The first person of the imperative mood does not exist. Its place is taken by the use of the subjunctive mood in the first person, usually in the plural, to express exhortation: Let us loosen [him, her, it, them, etc.]. See below, Lesson 71. In line with the interpretation given above of the present "tense" of the imperative mood, a translation of [You] keep loosening!, or [You] continue to loosen! could be defended in certain contexts. In other contexts it could perhaps be accused of overtranslation, even if the implication of such continued or repeated action is objectively present. The Nouns
1I"01~rfV, dKOOV, ~rfv,

and aloov.

Nasal roots of third declension nouns end in -v. They are divided into two categories: 1) those nouns which show a variation in the length of the vowel in the stem; 2) those nouns which show no variation in the length of the vowel in the stem. Nouns which show a variation in the length of the vowel in the stem are declined as follows (nouiriv, shepherd; eiKOOV, image) (cf N 18m and N 20f):
Singular n
ll"Ol~T]V

Plural
ll"Ol~ive~ ll"Olllive~ ll"Ol~ivwv

v
g d a n

noiuriv
ll"ol~ivo~

ll"Olllivl noiusv
Singular , , elKWV , ,

ll"Ollli01(v)
ll"Ollliva~

v
g d a

elKWV

Plural , , sucovec , , sucovsc


et.KOVOOV

sucov

' , stxovt , ,

eiKOVO~

eIKoal(v) sixovcc

76

LESSON 12

The root of xoiuriv is xoiusv-; the root of sixuiv is elKOV-. They are found by dropping the genitive singular ending. In the dative plural the v of the root is omitted before the a ofthe ending. Nouns which do not show a variation in the length of the vowel in the stem are declined as follows (/ltlV, month; aiwv, age) (cf, N 19 and N 21m):
Singular n Plural

v
g d a

/ltl V /ltlV

/lijve~
/lijve~

r unvt

/ll]v6~

/lI]VWv /ll]al(v)
/lijva~

/lijva
Singular

Plural
aiwve~ aiwve~

v
g d a

uiwv , ,
nuov

cx.1OOVl .

aiwvo~

ulwvwv aiw<Jt(v)
aiwva~

aioova

The root of'uriv is /lI]V-; the root of aiwv is cuov-. In the dative plural the v is omitted before the a of the ending. The Reflexive Pronouns E/laUTOii, aeuuToii, and EUUTOii.
A reflexive pronoun is a pronoun which refers back to the subject, expressed or implicit, of the sentence or clause in which it occurs. The nominative case does not occur. The neuter gender in the first and second person singular is not found in the New Testament (cf; Pro).
Masculine

First Person, Singular Feminine


f:/lauTij~

Neuter

g d a

f:/laUTOD f:/laUTW EJjaunSv


Masculine

f:/lauTfj f:/laUTtlv
First Person, Plural Feminine
Neuter

eauTWv
eauTol~

eaUTWv

d a

eauTOuc;

eaurdc;

eaural~

eaUTWv

sauTcX

eauT01~

LESSON 12

77

Masculine g d a

Second Person, Singular Feminine


aeauTij~

Neuter

aeauToD
oeaUT<!'

aeaUTov
Masculine

aeauTfj osuurriv
Second Person, Plural Feminine

Neuter

g d a

eauTwv
eauTol~ eaUTOtl~

eaUTWv
eaural~ eauTa~

eauTwv

eaunx
Neuter

eauTo1~

Masculine g d a

eaUTOU ~aur<i' eaUTOV

Third Person, Singular Feminine


eauTij~

eauTfj eaUTtlV
Third Person, Plural Feminine

eaUToD ~aUT<i' eaUTO


Neuter eauTwv

Masculine g d a

eaUTWv
eauTol~ eaUTOtl~

eauTWv

eaurclC;

eaural~

eavrn

eauTol~

It should be noted that the plural forms are the same for all three persons.

Aiyo/lev eauTol~ (eaural~). We speak to ourselves. AiyeTe eauTol~ (eaural~). You speak to yourselves. Aiyou<Jtv eauTol~ (eaural~). They speak to themselves. Strictly speaking, the forms eauToD, eauTij~, or eauTwv should always be used when there is question of a reflexive usage in the third person involving possession. But as was noted above in Lesson 8, the persons who composed New Testament Greek did not always write according to strict rules: the genitive case of the non-reflexive third person pronoun is often used to express a reflexive idea.

78

LESSON 12

iil3Aerre TOV olxov aUTOil.

He was seeing his (i.e., his own) house.


Strict usage would have demanded the following: iil3AerrE TOV olKov eauToil.

He was seeing his own house.


A third way of expressing the reflexive idea occurs in the New Testament: the third person non-reflexive pronoun with a rough breathing: iil3Aerre TOV olxov aUTOil.

He was seeing his own house.


In the last two examples there is no ambiguity as regards the meaning, because the forms are reflexive. In the first example the form is ambiguous, but the context normally shows that it is to be understood in a reflexive (or non-reflexive!) way. Rules for Accents 4.
In the previous lessons, in "Rules for Accents 3", a distinction was made between most words which have been seen so far in the vocabulary listings and a small selection of words called "enclitics". Enclitics are words which tend to transfer their accent to the preceding word if this word is capable of receiving it. (The word "enclitic" comes from a Greek verb meaning to lean on.) As was) indicated above in Lesson 11, the enclitics seen thus far are /-lOU, /-l01, and /-le of the first person pronoun; OOU, 001, and oe of the second person pronoun; and the forms of the present tense of the indicative mood of e1/-l1 except for the second person singular. The pronomial forms are weak counterparts to the accented forms of the same case, and normally indicate less emphasis on the person in question. Contrast arr' E/-loil (Mk 7:6) with .xyyeAov /-lOU (Mk 1:2); Ti E/-lOt Kat 001 (Mk 5:7---the interrogative pronoun ri never has a grave accent) with' AKoAooElel /-l01 (Mk 2:14); ~T]Toilaiv oe (Mk 1:37) with rrpoc; at (Mk 9:17). Cf. also iivoxoc; EOT1V (Mk 3:29) and rrOAAO! EO/-leV (Mk 5:9) for examples involving the verb siui.

Vocabulary for Lesson 12.

LESSON 12

79

Err! [Prep 3] Governs the genitive, dative, and accusative cases. With genitive: on; before [spatial]; over [either spatial or in the transferred meaning about]; at the time of. With the dative: at; on; on the basis of With the accusative: on; with regard to; against; at [temporal]. There is no sharJ? distinction among the various cases with regard to the meaning on.
Al/-l~V, Al/-ltvOC;,

6 [N 18m] harbor.

noiuriv, norusvcc, 6 [N 18m] shepherd. I3p aX!<J:lV, I3paXlovoc;, 6 [N 20m] arm; [divine] power. yelT<J:lV, vsirovoc, 61~ [N 20m and N 20f] neighbor. 1)al/-l<J:lv, 1)a!/-lOVOC;, 6 [N 20m] demon; [evil] spirit. elKWV, e1KOVOC;, ~ [N 20f] image.
~ye/-lwv, ~yeIJOVOC;, 6 [N 20m]

leader; governor.

X1Wv, X10VOC;, ~ [N 20f] snow. "EAAT]V, "EAXT]voC;, 6 [N 19] Greek.


IJ~V, IJT]VOC;,

6 [N 19] month.

aywv, aywvoC;, 6 [N 21m] struggle. aiwv, aiwvoc;, 6 [N 21m] age; epoch. U/-lrreAWV, alJrrEAWVOC;, 6 [N 21m] vineyard. XE1/-lWV, xel/-lWVOC;, 6 [N 21m] winter; [winter] storm. XlTWV, XlTWVOC;, 6 [N 21m] tunic. E/-laUTOil [Pro] of my own. eaUTWV [Pro] of our own. OWUToil [Pro] of your [sg.] own.

80

LESSON 12

hWTWV [pro] ofyour [pl.] own. eCXlJToi5 [Pro] of his [her, its] own. eCXlJTWV [pro] oftheir own. Ti [Conj] or; than. When used in comparisons Ti takes the same case after as before.

Exercises for Lesson 12.


1. Translate into English: 1. 01 ydTOV6<; A6YOV' OUTO<; scnv. (In 9:8) 2. 6 lJlo<; rof aV6pOOlfOlJ X61 EeOlJOlCXV Elf! Tii<; Yii<;. (Mk, 2:10) 3. OUK X01l6V apTOv 1166' eCXlJTWv. ,., , ".... , 4. TO 111CXnOV CXlJTOlJ nv sm rnc XlOVO<;. 5. X6T6 TOV CXUTOV aywvcx ov EpAelf6T6 EV ElIO! KCX! vi5v aKot56T6 EV EliOt. (Phil 1:30) 6. alfD 06CXlJT0i5 ou TOi5TO AeY61<;; (In 18:34) 7. Seet I;WfIV i T4i CXIWVl 0<; PX6TCX1. (Mk 10:30) 8. 01 crpcruorcn OUK eXOlJ01V X1TWVCX<;. 9. IllMoKCXA6, Elf' aAt]6dcx<; AEY61<;. (Mk 12:32) 10. EV T0 X6111WVl XIWV soriv. 11, 6 XP10TO<; Eonv 6lKWV TOi5 66013. (2 Cor 4:4) 12. 6 "Ent]v A6Y6V v eCXlJT4i. (Mk 16:3) " 13. EYW dill 6 lfOllifIV 6 KCXAO<;. (In 10:11) 14. 1I6Ta TOi5TOV TOV lIiivcx OTCXl EV T4i OtKll' CXlJTt]<;. 15. epX6TCXl 6 av6pwlfo<; h! T4i ovducen TOi5 Kupio u. (Mk 13:6) 16. XW Ulf' ElICXlJTOi5 oTpcxnwTCX<;. (Lk 7:8) 17. Em t\Y6110VWV eow66. (Mk 13:9) 18. 6 KtlPlO<; eX61 alllf6AwvCX EV EK6lVIJ Ttl yfj. 19. OUK ~V AlII fIV Elf! Tii<; V~OOlJ. 20. OUK X6T6 apTov 1166' eCXlJTwv. 21. 1I6Ta PPCXXlOVO<; ~Y6V CXUTOU<; EK Tii<; Yii<;. (Acts 13:17) 22. epX6TCX1 el<; EKKAt]OlCXV ~ 61<; oixov. 23. 01 IlCXlllOV6<; OUK TiKOlJOV (lUTOV. 24. EIllllcxOK6V TOU<; "EAAt]VCX<;. (In 7:35) 25. OUK XOlJOlV apTov 1166' eCXlJTwv.
~.,.

LESSON 12

81

. 26. PX6TCXl Elf! TOV TOlfOV. (Lk 19:5)

II. Translate into Greek:


1. Let love be upon the earth and in the hearts of humans. (Mk 10:43; Lk 2:14) 2. The Lord is the good shepherd and he will be with his people. (In 10:11) 3. I say that Jesus is the image of God and the glory of humans. (1 Cor 11:7) III. Mk 2:6-12.

82

LESSON 13

The Meaning of the Present Active Subjunctive. A15 Ol, Present Active Subjunctive. The Nouns lraTrjp,.PI1TOlP, and OOlTrj p, The Reciprocal Pronoun aAArjAOlv. Rules for Accents 5.

Lesson 13
The Meaning of the Present Active Subjunctive.

Only in the indicative mood do the Greek "tenses" express per se the notion of absolute time. Hence in the subjunctive (as in the imperative, optative, infinitive, participle) the term "present" can be misleading. It need not refer to an action taking place "now". It normally connotates that the action in question is continuous or repeated. For the meaning of the active voice cf. above, Lesson 9. For the meaning of the subjunctive mood cf. above, Lesson 5. AUOO, Present Active Subjunctive. The present subjunctive active of AVW is conjugated as follows '> (cf. V I, VP 1):
Active Voice, Subjunctive Mood, Present Tense 1st Person

2nd Person 3rd Person

Singular AU-w AU-% AU-U

Plural Au-wJJev AU-I]re AU-WOt(v)

The iota subscript in the second and third person singular should be noted. The Nouns lTarn p, Jinroop, and awnf p.

LESSON 13

83

Liquid stems of third declension nouns end in -A and -po But theA-stem occurs in the New Testament only in the rare word aA~, aAo~ 6 salt. The p-stem is divided into two categories: 1) those noun's ~hich show a variation in the length of the vowel in the stem; 2) those nouns which show no variation in the length of the vowel in the stem. Nouns which show a variation in the length of the vowel in the stem are divided into two types. One, exemplified by nanlP, father, has abbreviated forms in the genitive singular and dative singular and plural'; the other, P~TWP, orator, has no such abbreviated forms (cf. N 24m and N 33, N 26): Singular n v g d a
nar~p

Plural
narspe~ 1rCXTspe~

nurep
lraTpo~

naTp( naTspa

1rCXTSPWV lTaTpuol(v) rraTspae;

The second stem vowel of rraT~p, e, is dropped in the genitive and dative singular and in the dative plural. The -aOt of the dative plural is a result of phonological changes proper to the Greek language. Singular n
v

pnrtop

..

Plural
p~TOpe~ p~Tope~

pijTOP
P~TOPO~ p~TOPl
p~Topa

g d a n
v

PI]TOPooV

P~TOpOl(V) p~Topa~

Singular
OooT~P OooT~P

Plural OooTij pee; OooTij pee;


OooT~pooV

g d a

ooor~poe; owr~pt

oOOTijPOl(V)
OOOTijpa~

oWTijpa

The Reciprocal Pronoun aAAnAOO V The reciprocal pronoun in the New Testament is limited to the masculine gender (cf. Pro):

84

LESSON 13

Masculine
g d a
aAA~AOlv

Plural Feminine

Neuter

liAt.nAot<;
aAA~Aoo<;

s(3AE1l0V El<; aAA~Aoo<; at lIaOl1Tal.

The disciples were looking at each other. Rules for Accents 5.


The following syllable patterns are nonnative for the use of accents involving enclitics:
Preceding Word Enclitic

a.

1. 11.

.: .:

- .:

iii.

b.

1.

11.

.: - .:
-

iii.

a. If a word has an acute accent on the final syllable, the accent of a one-syllable enclitic is absorbed into the accent:
a.l.

"

aliEA<I>ot

000 000

ii.
Ill.

oMv
II~

(Mk3:32) (Mk 1:2) (Mk5:7)

b. If a word has an acute accent on the final syllable, the accent of a two-syllable enclitic is absorbed into the accent: b. i. ii.
ill.

liovarov liEIAOt 1iE

soriv sore
dalY

(Mk 14:35)

(Mk4:40) (Mk 4:15)

LESSON 13

85

Other enclitic patterns will be presented in subsequent lessons.

Vocabulary for Lesson 13.


llapa [prep 3] Governs the genitive, dative, and accusative cases. With the genitive: from the side of[ouly with persons]. With the dative: alongside of[usually with persons]; according to the judgment of; in the house of. With the accusative: at;

alongside; against; other than.


yaor~p, yaorpo<;, ~ [N 24f, N 33]

belly; womb.

Ooyarl1P, Ooyarpo<;, ~ [N 24f, N 33] daughter.

urirnp, lI11rpO<;,
llar~p, llarpo<;,

~ [N

24f, N 33] mother.

0 [N 24m, N 33] father.

aA6KTOlp, aA6Kropo<;, 0 [N 26) rooster.


i>~TOlP,

i>rlropo<;, 6 [N 26] orator.

vurrrip, vnrrfipoc, 6 [N 25) basin.


otorrip, oOlr~po<;, 6 [N 25] savior.
aAA~AOlv

[Pro] each other.

viiv [Adv 2] now [in the temporal sense]; also in a non-temporal sense: given things as they stand; since this is the situation.

Exercises for Lesson 13.


I. Translate into English: 1. 0 Vlllr~p saTen E1l1 r~<; rpa1l6~1'J<;. 2. sPXErUl 0 1l0Vl1P0<; avOpOlllo<; llapa TWV KaKOOv ~YEIiOVOlV. (Mk 14:43) 3. 6 llar~p ~lIooV 0<; EV roic oupavoi<; ayaOo<; scnv. 4. sarOl vfiv EV TOO alKOl. (Mk 5:34-35) 5. ~ OOyaTI1P 1I0U EV ~~ OlK4' Eartv. (Mk 5:34-35)

86

LESSON 13

6. E:V aAllS[~ oSroc iiv 6 aWT~p Toil KOa/lOIl. (Mt 22:16; Jn . 4:42) 7. ,;aav nap' ~/llv nal1i<; ayaSoL (Mt 22:25) 8. EPXTat 'ivo PAEnlJ TOV a1iA<j>ov wlToil. 9. oi /laSllTat EAYOV npo<; aAATiAoll<;. (Mk 4:41) 10. OUTO[ elorv a1iA<j>oi uou Kat a1iA<j>ai uou Kat urirnp IJOIl. (Mk 3:35) 11. vilv ~v EXt<; OUK EaTtV ~ YllvTi coo. (In 4:18) 12. ~ /lTiTllP ht nal1ia E:V yaaTpL (Mk 13:17) 13. OUTOt oi pTiTOP<; OUK ayaSo[ slow. 14. 6 OtKO<; ,;v napa T~V 6Mv. (Mk 4:15) 15. i;v aMKTwp napa TOV olxov.

II. Translate into Greek:


1. This is my mother and this is my father and these are my brothers and these are my sisters. (Mk 3:34-35) 2. The shepherds were speaking to each other on the road. (Lk 2:15; Mk 4:41; Mk 8:3) 3. Jesus comes alongside the house with his disciples. (Mk 2:13)

III. Mk 2:13-18.

LESSON 14

87

The Meaning of the PresentActive Optative. AU"', Present Active Optative. The Nouns ,,6At~ and \XBu~. The Possessive Pronouns
t1l6~, ~lltT'PO~, (J6~,

and ll11tT'PO~.

Rules for Accents 6.

Lesson 14
The Meaning of the Present Active Optative. The "present" optative usually carries with it the connotation of an action which is continuous or repeated. This action need not take place at a moment which is "present" in the sense of absolute time. In this regard it is like the other non-indicative moods---the imperative, the subjunctive, the participle, and the infinitive. For the meaning of the active voice cf. above, Lesson 9. For the meaning of the optative mood cf. above, Lesson 6. AOlll, Present Active Optative. The present optative active ofAt5w is conjugated as follows (cf V I, VP 1): .
Active Voice, Optative Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

AI5-Ot/lt At5-0t<; At5-0t

At5-0t/lV AU-OtT At5-0tV

The Nouns nOAt<; and txSu<;.

A large group of nouns of the third declension has a root ending in -1. This t changes to s before an ending beginning with a vowel and in the dative plural (nOAt<;, city) (cf N 28f):
Singular
n

Plural

nOAt<;

nOAt<;

88
v g

LESSON 14

nc5A1
nc5AEw~

nc5AE1~

d a

nc5AE1 nc5A1v

nc5AEwv nc5Aw1( v)
nc5AE1~

There are special endings in the genitive and accusative singular and nominative, vocative, and accusative plural. This group should be carefully distinguished from the nouns of the type EAnt~ presented in Lesson 11. A smaller group of nouns in the third declension has a root ending in -D. This D remains unchanged throughout the declension (lxBu~, fish) (cf. N 27m):
n Singular lXBu~ Plural
iXBuE~ iXBuE~

v
g d a

lXBu
iXBuo~

iX8\h

iXBuwv iXBu01(V)
ixBua~

lXBuv

The Possessive Pronouns ElJe5~, tilJiTEPO~, a6~, and UlJiTEpO~. Possessive pronouns are pronomial adjectives, agreeing with the word they modify in gender, number, and case. They are declined like aylO~, ayta, aylOv or d.yaec5~, d.yaBrj, d.yaBc5v.
1st Person
2nd Person

Singular e/.H)C:;, il-ITL E.j.10V


06<;,
T~V

Plural
tilJf,TEPO~, tiIJETf,pa, UIJf,TePO~, U/lETf,pa,
TpcinE~av.

on, (JOV

ti/lf,TEPOV U/lf,TEPOV

"

ll3AEnE ll3AEnE

n/lETf,paV

He was seeing our table.


T<l~ n/lETf,pa~ Tpanf,~a~.

He was seeing our tables.


There is no possessive pronoun for the third person in New Testament Greek. This is supplied by the use of a1hc5~ in the genitive case. To show possession, there is a tendency to use the genitive case of the personal pronoun instead of the possessive pronoun, although the latter is always legitimate. Thus, He was seeing our

LESSON 14

89
T~V TpcinE~av

n/lWv instead of ll3AEnE T~V n/lETf,paV TpcinE~av, although the latter translation is correct. Rules for Accents 6. Further syllable patterns which are normative for the use of accents involving enclitics:
Preceding Word
Enclitic

table, should probably preferably be translated ll3AEnE

c.

1.

11.
111.

---

d.

i.
11.

--

111.

--

c. If a word has a circumflex accent on the final syllable, the accent of a one-syllable enclitic is absorbed into this accent:

c. i.
11.

lie~lwv

/lOD
UE

<!>WVel
1i<ii~

iii.

/l01

(Mk 10:40) (Mk 10:49) (Mk 6:25)

d. If a word has a circumflex accent on the final syllable, the accent of a two-syllable enclitic is absorbed into this accent: d. i.
11.

iii.

novl1Pov n/lWV nov

EOT1V
EUTtV EOTlV

(Mt 5:37) (Mk 9:40) (Mk 14:14)

Vocabulary for Lesson 14.

90
1rp6~ [Prep 3] Governs the

LESSON 14

gentive, dative, and accusative cases. With the genitive: for [advantage]. With the dative: near [temporal and spatial]. With the accusative: towards; with; near; against; for [purpose]. In the New Testament the use of
1rp6~ is limited, with few exceptions,

to the accusative case.

avaoTaOl~, avaoTaoEw~, ~ [N 28f] YVWOI~, YVWOEW~, ~ [N 28f]


Ml101~, IiET]OEW~, ~

resurrection.

knowledge.

[N 28f] supplication, petition.

1it5va)lI~, IiIJVa)lEW~, ~ [N

28f]power. suffering; calamity; tribulation.

BAiljll~, BAiIjlEW~, ~ [N 28f]


Kpi01~, KpioEW~, ~ [N

28f] judgment.

1rapaKAl101~, 1rapaKAT]OEW~, ~ [N 28f]

encouragement; warning;

prayer.
1rion~, 1riOTEW~, ~ [N ~8f]
1r6AI~, 1rOAEW~, ~ [N

faith.

28f] city.

tOXU~, tOXuo~, tXBu~, tX6uo~,

6 [N 27f] strength; vigor.

6 [N 27m] fish.

OO<pu~, oo<puo~, ~ [N 27f]

loins. This word is singular in Greek,

plural in English.
OTaXIJ~, OTaXIJO~, 6 g)lO~,

[N 27m] head ofgrain.

-T], -ov [Pro] my, mine.

~)l6TEPO~, 06~,

-a, -ov [Pro] our.

-T], -ov [Pro] your, yours (sg.),

LESSON 14

91

U)l6TEPO~,

-a, -ov [pro] your, yours (pl.), 6 [N 6m] Christ.

XPIOTO~, -OIJ,

)l6V [Conj] This word indicates contrast or emphasis and is often better left untranslated. It is frequently used in combination with another conjunction, e.g., )l6V ... M, on the one hand. . . on the other hand; 1l6V , .. ana, indeed . . . but. 1l6V is postpositive.

Exercises for Lesson 14.


1. Translate into English: 1. 01 oTpanwml eAEYov 1rPO~ aAAT]AOIJ~. (Mk 8:16) 2. ijv illanov 1rEp\ T~V oo<puv aOT06. (Mk 1:6) 3. rofiro yap son 1rPO~ T~~ tillET6pa~ gA1filio~. (Acts 27:34) 4. 6 usv Kiipioc '11100U~ epXEml Ei~ TOV oupcvov, 6 lie lla611T~~ aOT06 epXEml 1rPO~ Tpv olxov aOT06. (Mk 16:19) 5. ij onv tX6UE~ gV nil vmT~ pi. 6. eoovml yap ai ~1l6pal hEtvm BAiljll~. (Mk 13:19) 7. 6 aYYEAo~ A6YEI 1rPO~ aOTa~. (Lk 1:13) 015 El 6 XpIOT6~. (Mk 8:29) 8. eAEYEv aOT<jl 9. 6 6EO~ t'fKOIJE Ta~ IiEriOEI~ aOTwv. (Lk 1:13) 10. 01 llaB11m\ T06 '111006 t'f061Ov TOU~ OTaXlJa~. (Lk 6:1) 11. ijoav lie 1rPO~ Tol~ O'{KOI~ avlipE~ Ka\ YlJvalKE~. (Mk 5:11) 12. ~ Kpiol~ eoml KaTu. TOV till6TEPOV AOyOV. (Acts 18:14) 13. avlipE~ aliEA<poi, E'i sorrv gV ulllv A6yo~ 1rapaKAT]OEW~ 1rPO~ TOV Aaov, MYETE. (Acts 13: 15) 14. 6 1ra1~ epXEml 1fPO~ aOTov. (Mk 1:40) 15. 1:XEI 6 aylO~ aya1fllV 1rPO~ TOV 6EOV ge OA% T~~ loxuo~ aOT06. (Mk 12:30) 16. OOK eon yvwol~ T06 '111006 h gKEivTJ Tfj 1fOAEI. (Lk 1:77) 17. ~ KPt01~ ti gll~ IiIKata gOTtV. (In 5:30) 18. epXETaI 6 KP1T~~ Ei~ T~V 1rOAIV. (Mk 14:16) 19. 00 lila TOV oov AOYOV rrirrriv exollEv. (In 4:42) 20. 01 eX6poi TOU '111006 A6YOIJOIV avaomolv Il~ elver. (Mk 12:18)

on

92

LESSON 14

21. epXETCtl 0 Meocicc /lETcX 5l)Va/lEW~ Kat Me'1~. (Mk 13:26) 22. 0 'I'1ooi3~ ~AiJrEl T~V rr(onv atlrwv. (Mk 2:5) 23. ~/lETipa EOTtV ~ 13aGlAE(a TOi3 8wi3. (Lk 6:20) 24. lPXETCtl 0 KUPLO~ ev ~/lipq Kp(OEW~. (Mt 10:15)
II. Translate into Greek: 1. Jesus comes with his disciples into the city to speak to the people about God. (Mt 26:36; Mk 5:14; Mk 8:30) 2. Jesus sees the faith of the crowd and says that God is good. (Mk 2:5; Mk 8:29) 3. The disciples of Christ have knowledge of the resurrection. (l Cor 8:1)
III. Mk 2:19-24.

LESSON 15

93

The Meaning of the Present Active Infinitive. Au"" Present Active Infinitive. The Nouns ~aatAtu~ and voii~. The Interrogative Pronoun n~. Rules for Accents 7.

Lesson 15
The Meaning of the Present Active Infinitive.
The "present" infinitive means that the action conveyed by the infinitive is normally conceived of as being repeated or continuous. It does not mean that the action is present in the absolute sense. In the context of the accusative with the infinitive this force of the "present" often is best interpreted as implying that the action is contemporary with the time of the verb on which it depends. For the meaning of active voice cf. above, Lesson 9. For the meaning of the infinitive mood cr. above, Lesson 4. 1.1500, Present Active Infinitive. The present active infinitive ofAuw is AU-Elv (cf. V 1, VP 1). The Nouns 13lXlrolAe15e; and voile;.

A group of nouns of the third declension has a root ending in -w. The l) of the EO drops before a vowel. In the accusative plural the ending is -El~ instead of -ea~ (13aolAEu~, king) (cf. N 29):
n Singular 13aGlAEu~ Plural
~aGlAd~ ~CLGlAd~ ~CLGlAiwv ~aGlAEi3 Ol(v) ~aGlAE1~

v
g
d

13aolAEi3
~CLGlAiw~
~aolAd

13CLGlAia

94

LESSON 15

A smaller group of nouns of the third declension has a root ending in 0 which is contracted with several of the endings (vofic, mind) (cf. N 27m and N 33): n v g
d

Singular voile; voil , vooe; .e VOl


vouv

Plural veee; veee;


vooiv

VOllOl(V)
vaal,;

The Interrogative Pronoun nc;o


The interrogative pronoun is declined as follows:
Masculine
n

d a

Tle; rivoc rivi


T1.Va
Masculine

rw

Singular Feminine , ne; TlVOe; , nV1 ,

Neuter Tl , rivoc , nV1 Tl


Neuter

Plural
Feminine
n

g d

rtvsc , riveov TlO1(V)


rivc;

Tlvee; rivov TlO1(V) ,

riva
riviov Tl01(v) , nva

nvcc

It should be noted that the accent is always acute and that it is always found over the (first) iota. The masculine and feminine forms are identical. The pronoun is used much as the interrogative pronoun in English:
Tl<; sorrv;

Who is he?
ri aUT~ Atye1;

What does she say?


Tle; may also be used as an adjective:

LESSON 15
~a01Aet5e;

95

Tle;

scnv;

Which king is he?

eK rivoc neAewe; scnv; Of what city is he?


Rules for Accents 7. Further syllable patterns which are normative for the use of accents involving enclitics:
Preceding Word

Enclitic

e.

1.

.
, , ,

ii.

.: - .: - -

f.

i.
11.

g.

1.

ii.

e. An acute accent on the next-to-last syllable of a word preceding a single-syllable enclitic suffices for the accentuation both of the word on which it stands and the enclitic. The accent of the enclitic is not placed on the final syllable of the preceding word: acute accents on successive syllables of the same word are never found: e.
1.

nATJOlOV
Il~TTJP

OOll
co o

(Mk 12:31) (Mk 3:32)

ii.

f. As was stated in rule 7.e above, an acute accent on the nextto-last syllable of a word preceding a single-syllable enclitic suffices for the accentuation both of the word on which it stands and the enclitic. But the situation changes when a word having an acute accent on the next-to-last syllable is followed by an enclitic of 1&2 syllables. In this case an accent is placed on the final syllable of the

96

LESSON 15

enclitic. This is done to avoid having three successive unaccented syllables involving an enclitic.

f.

'HAta~

ii.

soriv sortv

006:15) (Mk2:2l)

. g. The acute accent on the final syllable of an .encl~tic functions according to the rules of the acute accent, i.e., If there IS no punctuation following the enclitic and the following word is not an enclitic the acute accent is changed into a grave accent:

g.

TOlOtlTWV
Xp6vo~

11.

EOTlV earlY

00 10:14) (Mk 9:21)

Vocabulary for Lesson 15aVTt [Prep 1] Governs the genitive case: in place of; for; on behalf of.
apX1EpEU~, -ew~,

(, [N 29] high priest.

[3a<J1AEu<;,
YOVEU~,

-ew<;, (, [N 29] king. (, [N 29] scribe.

-ew<;, (, [N 29] parent. (, [N 29] priest.

ypaJlJl(XTEu<;, -ew~,
iepEU~, -ew~,

[3ou<;, [306<;, (, [N 27m, N 27f, N 33] ox; cow.


VOU~,

v06<;, (, [N 27m, N 33] mind; intelligence.


x06~,

XOU<;,

(, [N 27m, N 33] dust.

BeAw [V 6, DV 77, VP 1] I wish. This word frequently ~overns the infinitive. But it can also govern a'ivn clause WIth the subjunctive. This 'tva clause is :!!Q.t a purpose clause, but a noun clause, as will be explained in Lesson 75. The imperfect

LESSON 15

97

has an irregular augment: ~ instead of 6 (ifBEAOV). The future is not found in the New Testament. JleAAW [V 6, DV 123, VP 1] I am about to. This verb is followed by an infinitive, usually either present or future. The imperfect can have both the regular augment 6 and the irregular augment
~.

Tt<;, Ti<;, ri [Pro] who?; what? Tt also has the idiomatic meaning why? in certain contexts, as will be explained in Lesson 73. d [Conj] if. This conjunction is used to introduce a subordinate clause of a condition in the indicative mood; it is also used as one of the words introducing an indirect question.

Exercises for Lesson 15.


I. Translate into English: 1. d au i (, XP1<JTO~ AeYE rlJllV. (In 10:24) 2. n<; oJlwv ou AUEI TOV [3ouv aUTau; (Lk 13:15) 3. rlJlEl<; OUK EXOJlEV KaKov aVTI KaKOU arro TOU Beau. (Rom 12:17) 4. oi rralliE<; ifBEAOV Elval voveic ayaBoL (Mk 9:35) 5, (, orpurtcirnc ifJlEAAE Kpci~E1V. 6. rivn JlE Aeyo\J<J1V oi avBpwrrol ivm; (Mk 8:27) 7. (, XOU~ tjv 6rrt T~V TparrE~av. 8. n~ scnv [3a<J1AEU~ TaUTI]<; Tij~ rr6AEW~; 9. (, iEpEu<; EPXETal d~ TO iEpov 'tva AeYlJ T<{i BE<{i. 10. EPXETal rrpo<; TOV 'Inoouv (, apX1EpEU~, (, lie ypaJlJlaTEU~ oux EPXETal. 11. liux ri EPXETal (, 'II]aou~ d<; TOUTOV TOV olxov; (Mk 2:18) 12. UJlel~ lie voiiv XP1<JTOU EXETE. (1 Cor 2:16) 13. (, iEpEU~ t'fBEAE [3arrTt~Elv TOU~ vovsic TWV rratliwv. II. Translate into Greek: 1. The king wishes to hear the prophet, but the prophet does not wish to speak before the king. 2. If the king wishes to be first in the kingdom, let him hear the voice of God. (Mk 4:23; Mk 10:44)

98

LESSON 15

3. For the son of man was about to have mercy on the woman who has hope [use participle]. (Mk 11:13; In 11:51) III. Mk 2:25 - 3:3.

LESSON 16

99

The Meaning of the PresentActive Participle. Present Active Participle. The Noun "",lilla. The Indefinite Pronoun T1~. Rules for Accents 8.

Au""

Lesson 16
The Meaning of the Present Active Participle. Two examples of the use of participles in English are: 1) A voice crying in the wilderness . . . .; 2) Hearing the voice .... The Greek participle may be described as a verbal adjective. Like a verb, a participle in Greek has "tense" and voice and may take an object. Like an adjective, a participle agrees with a noun in gender, number, and case. In the analysis of a participle, all these aspects must be taken into account. The distinction between the present and other "tenses" ofthe participle is not altogether easy to ascertain. The "present" participle seems normally to have the connotation of continuous or repeated action. Also, it often presents an action which takes place at the same time as the action of the main verb, although this does not seem to be true in every instance. The "tense" of the present participle, then, should be the subject of continued attention. For the meaning of the active voice cf. above, Lesson 9. For the meaning of the participle cf. above, Lesson 7. AUW, Present Active Participle. The present active participle of AUW is declined as follows (cf V 1, VP 1, Adj 7).
Masculine
n Singular Feminine Neuter

v
g

AU-WY AU-WY AU-OYTOC;

Au-ouaa Au-ouaa Au-ouall<;

AU-OY AU-OY AU-OYTOC;

100

LESSON 16

AtS-ovn AtS-ovTa
Masculine

AV-otSOlJ
AtS-ovoav
Plural Feminine

AtS-ovn AU-ov
Neuter

v
g d a

AtS-ovm; AtS-ovm; Av-ovTUlv AtS-OVOl(V) AtS-ovme;

AtS-ovOal AtS-ovoal

AV-ovowv
Av-otSoale; Av-otSoae;

AtS-ovTa AtS-ovn;e; Av-ovTUlv AtS-OVOl(V)


AtS-ovTa

Neuter nouns constitute a numerous group in the third declension. A particularly large part of this group is composed of nouns with a nominative ending in -lJa and the stem ending in -aT (1lVSUlJa, spirit) (cf. N 16):
Singular n v g d a Plural

1fvsulJa

JrvstSlJaTa

1fvsulJa 1lVstSj.1aTOe; , 1lVSVlJan 1lVSUlJa

1lVStSlJ am ,

JrVSVlJaTUlV

1lVStSj.1 aOl(v) 1lVstSj.1aTa

The stem is 1fVSVj.1aT-. In the dative plural the Tis dropped before the o,
The Indefinite Pronoun rtc,

The indefinite pronoun tu; is the equivalent of a number of expressions in English: someone, somebody, anyone, anybody, some, any, a certain person, etc. The declension is exactly the same as for the interrogative pronoun nC; except that the indefinite pronoun ric is an enclitic (cf. Pro).
Masculine

Singular Feminine

Neuter

n g

ne; nvoc;

nc; nvoc;

n nvoc;

LESSON 16

101

d a

TtV!

nvi
nvci
Plural Feminine

Ttv&.

nvi n
Neuter

Masculine
n

g d a

nVEe; nvwv noi(v) rrvdc

nVEe; nvwv noHv) nvuc;

nvn nvwv no[(v)


nva

Inasmuch as ne; is an enclitic, the rules for the accents of enclitics given in Lessons 11 and following apply. Like the interrogative ric, the indefinite ru; can be used as an adjective or as a substantive: .. nvse; TWV ypaj.1j.1aTEWV . . some of the scribes ... .. l3aOlAstSc; ne; ... .. some king or other ...
Rules for Accents 8.

Further syllable patterns which are normative for the use of accents involving enclitics:
Preceding Word
Enclitic

h.

i. ii.
1.

i ,

11.

h. A circumflex accent on the next-to-last syllable of a word preceding a single-syllable enclitic does not suffice for the accentuation of the enclitic. The enclitic loses its acute accent to the word in which the circumflex accent is found, the accent being placed on the final syllable. Thus there is a sequence of circumflexacute on successive syllables of the same word:

102

LESSON 16

i. ii.

~'1Toualv

oiM

ae ae

(Mk 1:37) (Mk 1:24)

i. A circumflex accent on the next-to-Iast syllable of a word preceding a two-syllable enclitic results in the same sequence of circumflex-acute on successive syllables as in the pattern "h":
1.

n.

OUTOt

sloiv eiolv

(Mk 4:20) (Mk4:18)

Vocabulary for Lesson 16.


ava [Prep 1] Governs the accusative case. With words meaning number or measure it has a distributive sense: each, apiece. With the word /.IEaOV and the genitive it mans through in a spatial sense, the accusative neuter singular of the adjective /.IEaOe; being used as a noun. at/.la, a'I/.laTOe;, TO [N 16] blood. l3arrna/.la, l3arrTla/.laTOe;, TO [N 16] baptism. I3pwjJa, I3pw/.IaToe;, TO [N 16] food. BEA'1/.1a, BeArI/.IaTOe;, TO [N 16] will; decision. Ovo/.la, DVO/.laTOe;, TO [N 16] name. rraparrTOO/.la, rraparrTW/.IaTOe;, TO [N 16] sin; trespass. rrveU/.Ia, nveiiunroc, TO [N 16) spirit.
p~/.Ia,

Prl/.laTOe;, TO [N 16] word; event.

arrEp/.la, arrEp/.laTOe;, TO [N 16) seed; descendantis).

orou, crounroc, TO [N 16] mouth.

LESSON 16

103

ne;, ne;, rt [N 16] some; any; someone; anyone; a certain one; a certain. /.IEaOe;, -'1, -ov [Adj 1] middle. oihooe; [Adv 3] thus.

Exercises for Lesson 16.


I. Translate into English: 1. lita Tl OOTOe; oihooe; AEyet; (Mk 2:7) 2. ' AvlipEae; ~aTlv TO ovo/.la mJrou. (Lk 1:63) 3. TOUTO sorw TO BEA'1/.1a TOU rraTpOe; /.IOU. (In 6:40) 4. PXerat (, rrpo<l>'1T~C; ava /.IEaOV rof OXAOU ~v ovounn TOU Kupiou. (Mk 7:31; Mk 11:9) 5. yuvrl ne; EPxerat lita /.IEaOU aUTwv. 6. (, l3arrnaT~e; ~/.Iae; l3arrTlaet ~v rrvev/.Ian ayl\!>. (Mk 1:8) 7. (, aTpanwTTJ<; Pxerat lita /.IEaOU aUTWv. (Lk 4:30) 8. rravTec; U/.IetC; rraparrTW/.Iara xeTe. 9. elrrev (, 'l'1aoue;' roUTO soriv TO at/.la /.IOU. (Mk 14:24) 10. 01 rrpo<l>~rat elxov orou 'iva AEYUlatV T~V aAriBetav rrepl TOU BeArI/.IaTOe; TOU Beau. (Lk 21:15) 11. TOUro TO l3arrna/.la OUK ~~ oupdvoo Jiv. (Mk 11:30) 12. eltrev (, 'I'1aouc;' TOUTO ~anv TO aW/.Ia /.IOU. (Mk 14:22) 13. PXeT<Xt (, OXAoc; 'iva I3pw/.Ia XlJ. 14. Ta arrEP/.lara TWV rraTEpUlv ul01 Kal BuyaTEpee; sloiv. 15. U/.IetC; xeTe Prl/.lara ~oo~c; ~K TOU Beau. (In 6:68) II. Translate into Greek: 1. The unclean spirits saw Jesus and cried out against him.
(Mk 3:11; Mk 5:31) 2. And some of the prophets were saying that the word of the king was evil. (Mk 15:35)

3. This is the will ofthe one baptizing me but not the will of my master. (In 6:39)

III. Mk 3:4-10.

104

LESSON 17

'The Meaning of the Future Active Infinitive. AUOl, Future Active Infinitive. 'The Meaning of the Future Active Participle. AUOl, Future Active Participle. The Noun Ttpa~. The Demonstrative Pronoun 15as. Present Verbal Stems Ending in -oo, Rules for Accents 9.

Lessonl7
The Meaning of the Future Active Infinitive.

The future infinitive is used relatively rarely in the New Tesament. It is found principally as a complement to a verb, When used in the accusative with the infinitive construction it usually indicates subsequent time with respect to the time of the main verb. For the meaning of the active voice cf. above, Lesson 9. For the meaning of the infinitive mood cf. above, Lesson 4. A15 (0), Future Active Infinitive. The future active infinitive on1500 is formed by adding the present ending to the future stem (cf. Lesson 11, and V 1, VP 1). The future active infinitive ofAt5oo is thus At5oslv. Mysl TOV XPIOTOV Avoslv TOV 606Aov. He says that Christ will loose the slave. &tns TOV XPIOTOV At50slv TOV 506Aov. He said that Christ would loose the slave. The Meaning of the Future Participle. The future participle is relatively rare in the New Testament. Inasmuch as it generally connotes action subsequent to that of the

LESSON 17

105

main verb on which it depends, it is occasionally used to express purpose.

A15 (0), Future Active Participle.


The future active participle of A1500 is formed by adding the endings of the present participle to the future stem (cf V 1, VP 1, Adj 7). The rules for modification of the stem for verbs in special categories are the same as for the indicative and infinitive (cf Lesson 11): For the meaning of the participle cf. also Lessons 7 and 16. For the meaning ofthe active voice cf. Lesson 9.
Masculine
n

Singular Feminine

Neuter

v
g

d a

At5-o-oov At5-o-oov At5-o-ovToC; At5-o-ovn At5-o-ovTa


Masculine

At5-o-oooa At5-o-oooa At5-o-oooa Ao-0-ot501]C; At5-o-oooav


Plural Feminine

AiJ-o-ov A6-0-ov Au-o-oVToC; At5-0-ovTOC; AiJ-o-ov


Neuter

v g

At5-o-ovTSC; At5-o-ovTSC; AO-O-OVTOOV At5-o-o0Ol(v) At5-o-ovTUC;

At5-0-000at Au-a-ouant Ao-o-ooooov Ao-0-ot50atC; Ao-o-ot5oac;

At5-o-ovTa At5-o-ovTa Ao-o-ovToov At5-0-000l(v) At5-o-ovTU

This concludes the presentation of the present and future tenses of the active voice of the verb 1.1500. The Noun rtpa<;. A small group of third-declension neuter nouns ends in - ac; with the stem in -aT- (TEpaC;, marvel, wonder) (cf N. 17):
Singular n
v

Plural

g d

TEpac; TEpac; TEpaToc; TEpan

TEpara rspuru repdrtov TEpaOl(v)

106
Tepa~

LESSON 17

TepaTa

In some texts the nominative, vocative, and accusative singulars are found as Tepa instead of Tepa~.

The Demonstrative Pronoun /$/i&.

A demonstration pronoun meaning this in addition to OiiTO~ is I5Be. Its meaning is the same as that of OiiTO~, but it is not used nearly as frequently.
Masculine
n

aBE
TouBe T<ilBe TovBe
Masculine

Singular Feminine

Neuter

ijBe
TijoBe

g d a

ToBe

TfjBe n]vBe
Plural Feminine

TouBe T<ilBe
ToBe
Neuter

o'fBe niivBe rotoos rouooe

alBe TliivBe TaloBe TaoBe

TaBe

TliivBe rotobs
TaBe

There is a tendency to use the neuter plural of I5Be as a substantive (TaBe, these things).

Present Verbal Stem Endings in -00.


A sizeable category of verbs in the New Testament has roots ending with a double sigma (-00-) in the present indicative active (e.g., rapaoow). These verbs have a palatal root and the double sigma is merely the end result of a sound change which takes place only in the present system; in the other tenses the palatal is ' normally clearly visible. Thus, the future of ropdooto is rapa~w (cf. V 3).
Rules for Accents 9.

LESSON 17

107

Further syllable patterns which are normative for the use of accents involving enclitics:
Preceding Word Enclitic

j.

i. ii. i.
11.

.: -

k.

- -

- -
-

.:

j. and k. An acute accent on the third-last syllable of a word preceding a single-syllable or a double-syllable enclitic results in the placing of the accent ofthe enclitic on the last syllable of this word.
J.

i. ii. i.
11.

OUVeAt~OVTa

(Mk 5:31) (Mk 1:40)


fOTE

BUvaoat
ccuveror

k.

(Mk 7:18 (Mk6:49)

<j>avraolla

Eonv

Vocabulary for Lesson 17. Jrpo [Prep 1] Governs the genitive case: before, in a temporal or, less frequently, spatial, sense.
aAa~, aAaTO~,

TO [N 17] salt.

Kepa~, KepaTo~,

TO [N 17] horn; might (the latter is a transferred sense from the basic meaning of the word, horn).

Jrepa~, JrepaTo~, TO [N 17] end; boundary; conclusion.

rspoc,

TepaTo~, TO

[N 17] wonder; marvel.

l5&e, ijBe, TOBe [Pro] this.

108

LESSON 17

5llXTaoow [V 3, DV 183] I command [governs the dative case]; I

arrange.
K'lPUOOW [V 3] I proclaim; I preach. mpaoow [V 3] I trouble; I frighten. inroTaoow [V 3, DV 183] I subject. <pllAaOOW [V 3] I protect; I guard; I keep; I observe (a law, etc.),
W~

[Conj] This conjunction has many meanings. The most important are: 1) when, to introduce a temporal clause. 2) as, to establish a comparison between nouns and adjectives, taking "the same case after as before". 3) about, with numbers, to indicate approximation.

Exercises for Lesson 17.

I. Translate into English:


(, velXv(lX~ gAeyev' TOV VOllOV &f>UACWOOV, Ta5e Myel TO nveulllX TO aYlov. (Acts 21:11) (, 56 lepeiJ~ npo Tfj~ nOAew~ scnv. (Acts 14:13) (, Mwo1lX~ EOTl KeplX~ EV T4' 01K4' TOU I3lX01Mw~. 5. W~ 56 ehe TOUTOll~ TOiJ~ AOYOll~ (, 'IrJooil~ I3Aenel T~V YllVlXlKlX. 6. E5(WKOV TOO~ npo<prim~ npo ~IlWV. 7. (, Beo~ unoTa~el TOV BavlXTov uno TOiJ~ no5lX~ Toil Xptorofi. (Eph 1:22) 8. gOOVT(l1 rspuru EV TOt~ OUPlXVOt~. 9. ~ AlXtAlXljf haplXooe T~V BaAlXoolXv. 10. 01 avBpwnol 01 aYlXBol gOOVml w~ ayyeAol EV TOt~ OUPlXvOt~, (Mk 12:25) 11. (, 'I'looil~ 5lemooev TOt<; lllXB'lmt~ aUToil. (Mt 11:1) 12. ullet~ EOTe TO aAlX~ Tfj~ yfj~. (Mt 5:13) 13. usrd milm ,) 'I1]ooil~ gpxeml K1]pUOOWV TO eUlXyyeAlov. (Mk 1:14) 14. gPXOVT(l1 h TWV nepaTwv Tfj~ yfj~ aKouooVTe~ TO eUlXyyeAlOv Toil 'I1]ooil<;. (Mt 13:42) 1. 2. 3. 4.

LESSON 17

109

n. Translate into

Greek: 1. Some of the prophets were frightening the people. (Acts 15:24) 2. Jesus goes into this city in order to preach. (Mk 1:38) 3. They hear the word of God and guard it. (Lk 11:28)

III. Mk 3:11-17.

110

LESSON 18

The Meaning of the Aorist Tense. AU"" Aorist Active Indicative. The Noun lavo~. The Relative Pronoun lSaTL~. The Unreal or Contrary-to-Fact Condition. Rules for Accents 10.

Lesson 18
The Meaning of the Aorist Tense.

. . The ~,:eek imperfect, as has been seen, refers to past time and, I~ addition, represents an action as continued or repeated. There IS another tense in Greek which, when used in the indicative ~, ~so refers ~ past time. Some grammarians take the aorist mdi~atIve as referring to a past action which is "punctual", i.e., not contmu;ed ~r ~ep~ate? :r'he view followed in this grammar is that the aorist indicativa mdicates a past action without further preci~ion as to whether it is continued, repeated, or "punctual". That IS to say, the aorist indicative, as the word "aorist" indicates in ~reek (~-6PlOTO~,.undefined) simply indicates the action of the verb III l).ues.tion as taking place in past time, without qualifying the action m any further way.
AIS"" Aorist Active Indicative.

There are two principal forms of the aorist tense with no diyrerenc~ in meaning. The more common type is found in the verb Auco and IS called a "weak" or "first" aorist. The other by contrast is called a "strong" or "second" aorist. (It will be explained in ' Lesson 43.) Both principal for~s o~ th~ aorist tense, like the imperfect, hav~ the augment m the mdi~atlve ~ood. It is formed exactly as for the 'n:perfec~. The augment IS the SIgn (morphene) which indicates past ti~e..Sm 7e the Greek "tenses" indicate absolute time only in ~he.md!-cative, It follows that the augment will be found only in the indicativa. The aorist "tense" is found in the other moods, but

LESSON 18

111

without the augment. As will be explained when the aorist "tense" of these moods is presented, "aorist tense" in that context indicates only that the action of the verb in question takes place, with no further qualification. (In contrast to the "present tenses" of the other moods, where there seems to be the connotation of continued or repeated action.) For the meaning ofthe active voice cf. above, Lesson 9. For the meaning of the indicative mood cf. above, Lesson 2. The "weak" or "first" aorist stem is formed by the addition of a a to the root (AO-) plus the use of special endings. Thus the aorist stem ofADw is Aoa-. In the indicative mood, as was stated above, the augment is formed as for the imperfect. The first aorist indicative active of ADW is as follows (cf V 1,
VP 1):
Active Voice, Indicative Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Plural 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

l-Ao-a-a
e-Au-a-u

e-AD-a-a~ev

;-Xu-a-are

f:-Ao-a-e(v)

f:-Ao-a-av

I loosed You (sg.) loosed He (She, It) loosed

We loosed You (pl.) loosed They loosed

For those verbs which end in a consonant, the niles for the addition of the a to form the aorist are exactly the same as the rules for the addition of the a to form the future. Thus the following forms: ypa<j>w, ypaljlw, lpaljla; aYla~w, aYlaaw, ~viaaa; KTlPDaaW,
K1']PD~W, eK1']po~a.

It should be noted at once, however, that not all verbs with a regularly-formed future indicative have a regularly-formed aorist indicative, and vice versa. Thus, for example, ayw, a~w, ifyayov (irregular aorist), and eA1Ti~w, eA1T1w, ifA1T1aa (irregular future). Not all the verbs seen thus far in this grammar have aorists which are regularly fonned according to the paradigm of ADW. For example, CJ.yw has a first aorist which is regularly formed, if~a, but this form is not nearly as common as another, !iyayov, which will be explained in Lesson 43. The aorist of the verbs already seen will be introduced in the exercises, provided that the verbs are not irregular.

112

LESSON 18

The Noun lOvoe;. A large group of neuter nouns of the third declension end in -oe:; in the nominative and have a stem ending in -eo (~Ovoe;, nation):
Singular n Plural

v
g

EOvoe; BOVOe:;
~OVOtle:; ~OVEI ~Ovoe:;

1:0vl'J 1:0Vl'J i:Ovwv


~OVWI(V)

d
a

EOvl'J

Because of the relative importance of this paradigm it is advisable to explain in some detail the reason behind the various forms. Three recurring phenomena of Greek phonology are in evidence in this paradigm: 1) the alternation of the stem Eevoa- in the nominative, vocative, and accusative singulars with the stem Eevw- used everywhere else; 2) the dropping of a between two vowels (found in all the forms with the stem i:Ovw- except the dative plural, and this is not really an exception, for the earlier form here was i:Ovw-m); 3) the contraction of two juxtaposed vowels (i:Ovwe:; > i:Ovoue:;; i:Ovw > Eevl'J; i:OvEwv > i:Ovwv). The Relative Pronoun Ilane;.
An alternative form of the relative pronoun is found composed of the relative pronoun ae:; joined to the indefinite pronoun Tie:;. At times this longer form seems to preserve something of the connotation of its meaning in classical Greek of a generalizing nature, whoever. But usually there seems to be no difference in meaning between the form ae:; (which is much more frequent in the New Testament) and aane:;. Only a few of the possible forms of aane:; are found in the New Testament.
Masculine
n g

Singular Feminine

Neuter

aone:;
(lrOU

Tint;

OTt

LESSON 18

113

n
g

Masculine otTtvec;

Plural Feminine

cifTtvec;

Neuter aLtVa

d a

The Unreal or Contrary-to-Fact Condition. The following type of sentence is called an unreal or contraryto-fact conditional sentence: If you had been here, my brother would not have died. Both clauses are "contrary to the facts": Jesus was not present and Martha's brother Lazaraus died. Thus in relation to what actually happened the clauses are "unreal". In Greek this type of sentence has sl with a past tense of the indicative in the subordinate clause (protasis), and a past tense of the indicative (usually with <Xv) in the main clause (apodosis).

d ~Kpa~Ev. i:<l>uAa~a av aOTov. . If he had cried out, I would have protected him.

Ei EKpa~v. bpuX(Xooov av <l1.>T6v. If he were crying out, I would be protecting him.


The aorist indicative often seems to be used if the unreality is presented as being in the past, while the imperfect.in~cativeotten seems to he used if the unreality is presented as bemg m the present. This practical rule of thumb explains the temporal aspects of the . translations given above: the first example uses aonst tenses and IS translated as a contrary-to-fact condition in the past time, while the second example uses imperfect tenses and is translated as a contrary-to-fact condition in the present !ime. But the stud.ent should be alert to the various factors which can call for a different interpretation of the uses of tenses in regard to the temporal value. Here, as elsewhere, the context is important. , , ,. The negatives used, when necessary, are ou or u n, /ll'J IS usually employed in the subordinate clause introduced by d. If the main clause is also negative, it uses 00. Rules for Accents 10.

114

LESSON 18

Further syllable patterns which are normative for the use of accents involving enclitics:
Preceding Word Enclitic
-

Enclitic

I.

i. ii. iii.

.:
-

.:

- .:
.:

.:

I. When more than one enclitic follows a word, the combination of preceding word and enclitics is called an "enclitic chain". In an enclitic chain the intermediate enclitic or enclitics always have an acute accent on the unique syllable of a monosyllabic enclitic (example iii) or the final syllable of a two-syllable enclitic (examples i and ii). The enclitic in the final position has no accent. I.

i.
n.

on
KaAOv
KUAOV

sioiv , , soriv

iii.

oi

rtvsc (Mk 9:1) as (Mk 9:45) gonv (Mk 9:47)

The word oi in example iii is the enclitic form of the second person personal pronoun and not the strong form as can be seen from the fact that the accent on the final syllable of KaAov is acute and not grave. There are exceptions to all the above rules concerning enclitics given above and in the previous lessons. An enclitic may receive an accent when it immediately follows a punctuation mark (e.g., Eonv lif; [In 5:2]; nVf;~ lif; [In 7:44]). Further, after some words the enclitic forms of dill retain their accent (e.g., OUK dllt [In 3:28]). But after aUK the third peson singular is accented Eonv (e.g., OUK Eonv [In 1:47]; <lAA' Eonv [In 7:28]). The concludes the presentation of the rules for accents involving enclitics.

Vocabulary for Lesson 18. EIlnpoo6sv [Prep 1] Governs the genitive case: in front of. This word is also an adverb with the meaning in front [Adv 1].

LESSON 18
yivo~, yivolJ~,

115

TO [N 31] race; sort; offspring. TO [N 31] nation; [in plural] Gentiles.

E6vo~, E6volJ~, E80~, E60lJ~, ETO~, ErOlJ~,

TO [N 31] custom . TO [N 31] year. TO [N 311part; [in plural] parts, region.

Ilipo~, llipolJ~,

opo~, OPOlJ~,

TO [N 31] mountain. In the genitive plural the forms opwv and opiwv are found. TO [N 31] multitude; abundance. TO [N31] vessel; [in plural] goods. TO [N 31] darkness. TO [N 311 lie.

nAfj60~, nAtl80lJ~,

OKSVO~, OKEUOlJ~,
OKOTO~, OKOTOlJ~, 1jfsvlio~, 1jfsu1iOlJ~,

oon~, iin~,

on [Pro] who; whoever.

av [Part] av is usually not translated by a particular word. It indicates contingency and its translation depends on the general sense of contingency conveyed by the passage as a whole in which it is found. Exercises for Lesson 18.
I. Translate into English: 1. OKOTO~ nv 64>' OATJV T~V vriv. (Mk 15:33) 2. TOVTO 0 tlKOlJOaV gKrjplJ~aV gnt TOV O'IKOlJ. 3. EPXSTaL <I 'Inoouc EIlnpoo8sv TQV nAri8olJ~. (Mk 2:12) 4. nspt yap gllOV f:Kslvo~ Eypa1jfs. (In 5:46) 5. gV TOO 8sw gOIlEV' aUTov yap Kat yivo~ gOlliv. (Acts 17:28) 6. sl To' oniplla TOV 8sov nv, iiytO~ av n v. 7. <I <'iv8pwno~ i role OPWlV nv. (Mk 5:5) 8. TO 1jfsv1io~ gK Tfj~ <lATJ8da~ OUK Eonv. (1 In 2:21) 9. d gli6~aos TOV 6sov, gl3annoa av aUTov. 10. nAfj8o~ EPXETaL npo~ aUTov. (Mk 3:8)

116

LESSON 18
11. ou KWAOW aUToue;; o'{nve;; eXOIJ01V TO 1rvilJ.la TO aytov We;; Kat ftJ.l1e;;. (Acts 10:47) 12. 6 'I'1ooile;; ePXTal KaTa TO eeoe;; 1e;; TO opoe;;. (Lk 22:39) 13. TO yap tpov Toil ewo aYl0v soriv, o'{ nVEe;; EOT ulJ1e;;. (1 Cor 3:17) . 14. AEYl 6 'I'1oooe;;' oux iele;; J.lEpOe;; J.lT' EJ.loil. (In 13:8) 15. Ta OKO'1 roOTOIJ TOO d:vBPul1rOIJ ~v EV T<[i 01Klll. (Lk 17:31) 16. PXTal J.l1rpooBv aywv TOue;; orpcenoircc, (Lk 19:28) 17. OUK PXTal 1e;; aMv EeVWV. (Mt 10:5) 18. oi YOVle;; PXOVTal KaT' eTOe;; sic T~V tpOv. (Lk 2:41) 19. a eoe;; ftytao TOoe;; J.lae'1Tae;; EV Tfj aA'1Bt<;t.

II. Translate into Greek: 1. The prophet baptized in the desert in order that his disciples might be holy. (Mk 1:4.8) 2. There were signs among the nations as the prophet had written [use aorist]. (Acts 15:12; Jn 5:46) 3. Now there was a certain good man before Jesus. (Lk 14:2) III. Mk 3:18-24.

LESSON 19

117

The Meaning of the Aorist Active Imperative. A15"" Aorist Active Imperative. The Adjective "a~. The Numeral .t~. Rules forAccents 11.

Lesson 19
The Meaning of the Aorist Active Imperative. The aorist tense of the imperative normally does not specify the kind of action of the verb, in contrast to the present imperative, which tends to imply repeated or continuous action. For the meaning ofthe active voice cf. above, Lesson 9. For the meaning of the imperative mood cf. above, Lesson 4. ypet<Ps 1rOAAetKle;;.

Write often.
ypetWOV rrapaXP~J.la.

Write immediately.

It would be possible to have a sentence ypetwov 1rOAAetKle;;,

Write often, but the choice of the aorist instead of the present would
indicate that the author is not concemed to stress the repeated nature of the action. AOW, Aorist Active Imperative. The aorist active imperative ofAuw is conjugated as follows (cf V 1, VP 1):
Aorist Tense, Active Voice, Imperative Mood Singular Plural

2nd Person 3rd Person

Ail-o-ov AIJ-O-etTW

Au-a-aTE AIJ-O-etTWOav

The i\(ljective 1Hie;;.

118

LESSON 19

A common adjective of the third and first decensions is 1f(i~, all, every. The masculine and neuter are declined according to the third declension, and the feminine according to the first (cf. Adj 12).
Masculine
n v

Singular Feminine

Neuter

rra~

g d a

rra<,; rravTO<,; rravTI


1l'aVTCX

rracra rracra rra<lTI<,; rracrIJ rracrav


Plural Feminine

rrav rrav rravTO<,; novri rrav


Neuter rravTcx

Masculine
n
v g

rravT<'; rravT<';
rravTWv

d a

rram( v)
rravTa~

rracrQl rracrQ! rracrwv , rracral<';


rracra~

rravTu

1favnvv

rram( v} rravTa

The Numeral Et<,;.


The numeral 1<';, one, is declined as follows:
Masculine
n

; 1<'

Feminine

Neuter
~v

g d

evt .. tva

svoc;

Ilia I.1Ia<,; Illq. uiuv

SVOc;

SVl

EV

Rules for Accents 11. In contrast to enclitics, which get their full meaning from what precedes, there is a category of words called proclitics,which get their full meaning from what follows. The most important proclitics are these four forms of the article: 6, ii, 01, and al; the prepositions d~, EK (E~), and sv; the conjunctions 1 and u\~; and the negative cu. Under certain conditions these words can receive an acute accent (e.g., Mk 4:23: 1 ric, where 1 receives the accent of the indefinite pronoun rtc; and in Mt 5:37 ou is found twice accented, ou 015, because of the peculiar emphasis it needs in the context. with the acute accent over the first ou becoming a grave, according to the

LESSON 19

119

normal rules for accents). But these exceptions are rare and are not really parallel to the frequency with which enclitics receive accents; they should cause no difficulty to the student who is aware that proclitics normally do not have accents and only on rare occasions do in fact have them, and then for reasons which are evident.

Vocabulary for Lesson 19. EvwrrlOV [Prep 1] Governs the genitive case: in front of; in the presence of. arra<,;, arracra, array [Adj 12] This is a strengthened form of rra<,;; it can be an indication of elevated style: every [last one]; each [and every]. rra<,;, rracra, rrav [Adj 12] The precise translation of this word often poses a challenge. The following norms should provide general guidelines. I. rru<,; as an adjective. A. Without the article. 1. In the singular: each, every. 2. In the plural: all. B. With the article. 1. In the singular: the whole, the entire. 2. In the plural: all the. II. rru<,; as a noun: everyone, everything, all. When used as adjectives, arra<,; and rra<,; do not follow the normal usage of adjectives with regard to attributive and predicative meanings. 1<';, Ilia, EV [Adj 19] one.

Il ~I)d~, Il ~1)llia, Il TjMv [Adj 19, Neg] As an adjective: no. As noun: no one; nothing. IlTjI)i<,;, in contrast to oul)i~, is used where the negative Il~ would be used.
oul)i<,;, oul)llia, ouMv [Adj 19, Neg] As an adjective: no. As noun: no one; nothing. ou6d<,;, in contrast to Il Tj6i~, is used where the negative ou would be used. arrOAtlW [V 1, VP 1] I release; I send away. EyyiCw (EYYlcrW) [V 5, 18; DV 45; VP 1] I draw near. Governs either the simple dative or a preposition with its case. The perfect has present meaning.

120
Ka8i~w

LESSON 19

(Ka8iow) [V 5, DV 90, VP 1] I sit. This is normally an intransitive verb, i.e., it does not govern an object.

OllVcXYW [V 2, DV 4, VP 1 and 4] I call together; I collect. U1rcXYw [V 2, DV 4, VP 1 and 4] I depart; I go.


mxpaXP~JJa

[Adv 2] immediately.

1rOAAcXKle; [Adv 2] often; frequently.

Exercises for Lesson 19.


I. Translate into English: 1. 0 QXAOe; f.KcX81OEV t1rt T~V ytjy. (cf. Mk 11:7) 2. eOTCtl 001 M~a tvwrrlOV 1rcXVTUlV. (Lk 14:10) 3. 0 ' Inoofic 1rOAAaKle; OllV~YE. TOVe; J.la8TjTae; aUToii de; EKtlVOV TOV rrirrov. 4. ouMe; aya8oe; Et J.l~ de; 0 8EOe;. (Mk 10:18) 5. OllVcX~W 1rcXVTae; TOVe; Kap1rOUe; uou. (Lk 12: 17) 6. 1r<ie; 0 QXAOe; epXETal 1rpOe; aUTov. (Mk 2:13) 7. ,; YllV~ MYEl T<;i 'Inoou mioav T~V aAtj8ElCtV. (Mk 5:33) 8. ,; YllV~ AEYEl TW 'ITjooi) 1ravTa. (cf Mk 4:34) 9. 1rcXVTEe; yap alh'ov ej3AEljfav. (Mk 6:50) 10. 1rcXVTEe; 0\ J.la8TjTat ~oav ovv T<;i 'ITjooii. (cf Mt 11:13) 12. mioa oapi; j3AEIjfEl TOV oWT~pa. (Lk 3:6) 13. 0\ J.la8TjTat tlYYlOav dc; T~V 1rOA1V. (Mt 21:1) 14. a1raVTEe; yap Elxov TOV 'Inoo ev on 1rpO<ptjTTje; eonv. (Mk 11:32) 15. a1raVTEe; yap UJ.lElC; de; tOTE tv XPloT<;i 'Inoou. (Gal 3:28) 16. 0 J.la8TjT~e; tj3cX1rnOEV aUTOV Kat TOVe; aUToii a1ravTae; 1rapaXP~J.la. (cf. Acts 16:33) 17. UAAOl 5f; eAEYov on 1rPO<ptjTTjc; we; Ete; TWV 1rPO<pTjTWV tonv. (Mk 6:15) 18. 151raYE de; TOV OiKOV oou rrpoe; TOVe; ooiic. (Mk 5:19) 19. de; TOV atwva f.K ooii J.lTj5EtC; Kap1rOV t08io1. (Mk 11:14) 20. a1rOAllOOV aUTOUe;. (Mk 6:36) 21. 0 J.la8TjT~C; a1rEAllOEV aUTOUe;. II. Translate into Greek:

LESSON 19

121

1. Send her away, for she is crying out in our presence. (cf Mt 15:23) 2. You (pl.) say to them: "The kingdom of God is approaching you". (cf. Lk 10:9) 3. The disciples stayed (literally, "sat") in the city according to the word of the Lord. (cf. Lk 24:49) III. Mk 3:25-31.

122

LESSON 20

'The Meaning of Aorist Active Subjunctive. A,s"" Aorist Active Subjunctive. The Adjective t".sv. The Numerals Mo, fpei" and Teooap",. Rules for Accents 12.

Lesson 20
The Meaning of the Aorist Active Subjunctive. The aorist active subjunctive normally indicates the nature of the action signified by the verb, with no other connotation such as is true of the present, where the connotation normally is of continued or repeated action, For the meaning of the active voice cf. above, Lesson 9. For the meaning of the subjunctive mood cf. above, Lesson 5.

AUlll, Aorist Active Subjunctive.


The aorist subjunctive active of A15W is conjugated as follows (cf V 1, VP 1):
Aorist Tense, Active Voice, Subjunctive Mood

1st Person 2nd Person


3rd Peson

Au-a-D~ ,

Singular , ' r.u-a-w

r.u-a-D

Au-a-w~Ev

Plural ,

AU-a-nTE , Au-a-wOl(v)

EPXETat 6 ~aalAEuc; 'iva ~At"'1IC; athov, The king comes in order that you may See him. EPXETUl 6 'Inaoiic; 'iva ~Airrl]C; TOV 8EOV. Jesus comes in order that you may See God.

The first example uses the aorist and simply indicates the acting of "seeing". If the author is thinking of a continuing act he does not choose to imply it by using the present tense of the subjunctive. Hence, by implication, one can probably assume he is

LESSON 20

123

thinking of only one act of "seeing", although the context would have to be determinative for this interpretation. The second example uses the present to connote a continued act of seeing God,
The Adjective hWv.

Another type of adjective having endings from the third and first declensions has a stem ending in OVT- (EKWV, willing) (cf Adj 7):
Masculine
n

Singular Feminine

Neuter

v
g

f.KWV E.KWV
E.KOVTO<;

hoiiaa
f.Koiiaa

EKOV

b::6v

d a

EKOVTl

houanc; EKouaD
EKoiiaav Plural Feminine

E.KQVTOt;

E.KOVn

sKovru
Masculine

E.KOV
Neuter

v
g

hovTEc; EKOVTEC;
E.KOVTWV

hoiiam
gKOUOat

bcovru
E:;KOVT<X E.KOVT(.l.)V

d a

hoiial(v) E.KQVrcx.c;

EKouawv EKouamc;
EKouaa~

EKOiiOl(V)
f,KOVTX

This is the same paradigm as that of the present participle of dlli and the present and future active participles of A15lll. The Numerals liuo, TPCtC;, and TEaaap&<;. The numeral bee, two, is declined as follows (cf Adj 22):
Masculine
n g

Feminine

Neuter

btl0 btl0 boai(v) btlo

btl0 Mo liuai(v)

Mo
Tp&1~, three,

buo Mo buai(v) bUo

The numeral

is declined as follows (cf Adj 22):

LESSON 20
Neuter

Masculine
TpE;l~

Feminine
TpE;l~

rpi
TptWV TPlOl(V) Tpla

TplWV rpioifv)
TpE;l~

TplWV TpL01(v)
TpE;l~

The numeral

TeooapE;~, four,

is declined as follows (cf, Adj


Neuter

Masculine
TeooapE;~

Feminine

rsccdpcov TEooapOl(v)
Teooapa~

rsoonpsc rsocdpev TeooapOl(v)


Teooapa~

Teooapa recodocov TEooapol(v) TEooapa

.Rules for Accents 12. The accentuation of nouns and adjectives differs from the accentuation of verbs in that the latter is more regular. There is no rule which enables one to predict the accentuation of the nominative singular of nouns and adjectives. The placing of the accent with these words must be memorized. In case~ ot~er than the nominative singular, the accent of nouns and adjectives tends to remain on the same syllable as in the (masculine) nominative insofar as this is possible according to the lengths of the syllables involved. Thus ayLO~ becomes ayla in the feminine nominative singular because the final -a is long. For the same reasOl:, the genitive masculine and neuter singular is aylou, and the dative masculine and neuter singular is aylw. But the neuter nominative/accusative singular is ayLOv because the final syllable is short. Final-ot and -al are considered short for purposes of accentuation, even though they are diphthongs. Thus aYLOt and aYlat are the forms of ayLO~ in the masculine and feminine nominative plural, and ayta is the form in the neuter nominative plural.(the final -a of the neuter nominative/accusative plural is short, In contrast to the final- a of the feminine nominative singular). In the first and second declensions, accents which remain on the s~e syllable as in the nominative tend to change from the acute to the CIrcumflex on the final syllable when this becomes long. Thus aliE;Ao~ becomes aliE;Aoii, alipEAq;, aIiEAwv, and aIiEAol~ (but the

LESSON 20

125

accusative masculine plural ending -OU~ never takes the circumflex even though it contains a long diphthong).

Vocabulary for Lesson 20. orrlow [Prep 1] Governs the genitive case: after [in both a spatial and a temporal sense]. This word is also an adverb with the meaning behind (cf. Adv 1). (XKWV, aKouoa, aKov [Adj 7] unwilling. hwv, EKoiioa, EKOV [Adj 7] willing. NB: English idiom often demands that aKwv and EKWV be translated adverbially, that is willingly and unwillingly. Mo, Mo, Mo [Adj 22] two.
TEooapE;~,

rscoopsc, TEooapa [Adj 22] four.

Tpd~,

tpsic, rpic [N 22] three.


-'1~, ~

slprivn,

[N 1] peace.

oixiu,

-a~, ~ [N 2]

house.

TEKVOV, -ou, TO [N 7] child; son, daughter.


l/lUXtl, -fi~, ~ [N 1] soul; self; life.

wpa, -a~,

[N 2] hour.

IilliaoKW [V 2, 21; DV 38; VP 1] I teach. This verb takes a double accusative, i.e., the accusaive for the person taught and the accusative for the thing taught, often both at the same time.
E;uaYYE;Al~w (dayyE;Alow)

[V 5, VP 1] I preach the good news. This verb takes the accusative for the person being evangelized, and is usually found as a middle deponent. Cf. Lesson 45.

126

LESSON 20

mOTet5w. [V 1, VP 1~ I believe (in). This verb is used absolutely, or WIth a noun In the dative or the accusative case, or with a preposition and its object.
o4i~w

(ooioco) [V 5, DV 182, VP 1] I save. The iota subscript is found in the present system only. '

oTe [Conj] when. This conjunction is used with the indicative mood.

Exercises for Lesson 20.

r.

Translate into English. 1. mcrsiisrs tv T<iJ euayyeAi4l. (Mk 1:15) 2. oTe Eyyi~ouatv ete; T~V XOAIV, Myel 6 'Il]oooe; TOte; IJcx6rlTul<; aUTou. 'YrraYETE d<; TOV olxov eKglVov. (Mk 11:2) 3. EI3Aewa Teooapae; ayyeAoue;. (Apoc 7:1) 4. EPxe:ral ,6, 'II]~oo~ de; TOV olxov TOO lJa61]TOO 'iva OWOlJ TOV UlDV aUTOU. 5. Kat 01 Tpe1e; de; TO 6V [de; TO 6v, at one: de; has the meaning of purpose, literally, for the one] sloiv. (1 In 5:8) 6. 6 6eoe; euayyeAwev TOUe; EauToo 50t5Aoue; TOUe; xpo4>tlTa<;. (Apoc 10:7) 7. xept 5e Ttle; ~lJepae; EKelVI]e; ii T~e; .;spae; ou5ete; Aeyet. (Mk 13:32) 8. EaO~Tal 01 5150 de; aapKa uirrv [eie; aapKa utov, literally, for one flesh; in the context, one flesh]. (Mk 10:8) 9. vfiv axoAt5ele; TOV 500Aov coo EV dptlvlJ. (Lk 2:29) 10. 6~ele; ayaxl]v TOO 6eoo oo o E~ oAI]e; T~e; Kap5tae; aou Kat E~ OAI]e; T~e; ljIux~e; cou. (Mk 12:30) 11. EPxeTal 6 lJa6l]Ttle; aKwv. 12. EPxeTal 6 lJa6I]T~e; hwv. 13. E5t5aoKev yap aUTOUe; 6 'Il]aooe; we; E~ouaiav Exwv. (Mk 1:22) 14. aAAOUe; Eawoev. (Mk 15:31) 15. rrae; 6 Aaoe; EAeyev, To ailJa i;4J' ~lJae; Kat bit Ta TeKva ~lJwv. (Mt 27:25) 16. av6pwrroe; dxev rsxv 5150. (Mt 21:28) 17. EPxeTal 6 lJa6I]T~e; orriow Toil '11]000. (cf. Mk 8:34)

LESSON 20
II. Translate into Greek: 1. He believed in the gospel in order to save his soul. (Mk 1:15; cf. Mk 8:35) 2. The three women are coming in order to teach in the house. 3. And if there should be a son of peace in that house, your peace will be upon him. (cf Lk 10:6)

127

III. Mk 3:32 - 4:4.

128

LESSON 21

The Meaning of the Aorist Active Optative. A,s""Aorist Active Optative. TheA<ljective t~B.s~. The Conjunction Mv and Its Use in Conditional Clauses. Rules for Accents 13.

Lesson 21
The Meaning of the AoristActive Optative. The connotation of the aorist tense is of an undefined action, in contrast to the continuous or repeated action which is the normal connotation of the present optative. In practice this can result in the aorist tense implying a single action, but this has to be inferred from the context as well as from the use of the aorist.. This is true of all three voices. For the meaning of the active voice cf. above, Lesson 9. For the meaning of the optative mood cf. above, Lesson 6. AUOO, Aorist Active Optative. The aorist active optative of AUW is conjugated as follows (cf V 1, VP 1):
Active Voice, Optative Mood, Aorist Tense 1st Person

Singular Au-a-atlll
Au-a-al~

2nd Person 3rd Peson

Au-a-al
rrpo~

Plural Au-a-atllev Au-a-ane Au-a-atev

ypal/lat rrapaxpfjlla ypa<j>ol

Elli,

May he write me at once!


rroAAaKl~ rrpo~

Elli,

May he write me often!


The first example uses the aorist tense of the optative mood in order to express a wish with regard to a single action. The aorist tense of itself does not convey the unicity of this action-s-of itself the

LESSON 21

129

aorist tense here conveys simply the action of "writing". But this, together with the implications conveyed by the adverb rrapaxpfjlla, suggest that the author is thinking of a unique action. The second example uses the present tense of the optative mood in order to express repeated action. The Adjective &ti6u~. A sizeable group of adjectives of the first and third declensions has a stem ending in -u (eveu~, straight [cf. Adj 14]): Singular
Masculine
a
V

Feminine

Neuter

eveu~ eveu~ eveiw~

evee'ia evee'ia
eveeia~ eueEi~

eveu eveu
eveiw~

d a

evee'i
Eu8uv
Masculine

evee'iav Plural
Feminine

evee'i gUetS
Neuter

a
v g

d a

Eu8iwv eVeiOl(V)
evee'i~

evee'i~ evee'i~

evee'iat evee'iat evee'ioov


eveeial~ eueeia~

eveia eveia eveiwv eVeiOl(V) eveia

For phonological reasons the u is replaced by s before a vowel and in the dative plural. The Coqjunction Mv and Its Use in Conditional Clauses. The conjunction EaV is formed-from ei and It is used to introduce the "if clause" (protasis) of some conditional sentences. The mood in the protasis is the subjunctive. The main clause of a such a conditional sentence (the "apodosis") may contain a present indicative, a future indicative, an imperative, etc. Eav is also found in some indefinite relative clauses, although is more often found in such a construction:

a.v.

a.v

EaV Il ~ lio~aa1J eeov, ullapTlav g~el. If he does not glorify God, he will have sin.

130

LESSON 21 BaV /l tl lioeaalJ 6EOV, u/lapTlav ~XE1. If he does not glorify God, he has sin.
o~ /;fxv /ltl lioeaalJ 6EOV, u/lapnav ~XE1. Whoever does not glorify God, has sin.
o~ Elv /l tl lioeaalJ 6EOV,u/lapnav i(XE1. Whoever does not glorify God, has sin.

The difference in tense in the main verbs of the first two examples---future and present---does not reflect any significant difference in meaning. Similarly, the difference between o~ sav and o~ Elv in the last two examples does not reflect any significant difference in meaning.

Rules for Accents 13.


In the genitive plural, nouns of the first declension have a circumflex accent over the final syllable regardless of the position of the accent in the nominative singular: ayarrwv fromdvcorn; orpcruorcov from aTpaTlWT'1~.

Vocabulary for Lesson 21.


eVEKa [also eVEKEV and itVEKEV] [Prep 1] Governs the genitive case:

for the sake of.


(3ap15~,

-da, -15 [Adj 14] heavy; serious.

(3paX15~, Eu615~,
6fiAU~,

-da, -15 [Adj 14] short; brief.

-Ela, -15 [Adj 14] straight; upright. -Eta, -u [Adj 14] female.

oeu~,

-da, -15 [Adj 14] sharp; swift.


-Ela, -15 [Adj14] meek;gentle. -Ela, -15 [Adj 14] swift; fast.

rrpaiJ~, raxu~,

LESSON 21
arroaToAo~,

131

-ou, (, [N 6m] apostle.

IitKaLOa15V'1, -'1~, tl [N 1] justice; uprightness.


6aAaaaa, -'1~, tl [N 3]
KatpO~,

sea.

-013, (, [N 6m]proper time; present time. tl [N 1] head.

Kf4laA~, -fi~,

rrAolov, -ou, TO [N 7] boat. rrpoawrrov, -ou, TO [N 7] face. Mv [Conj] if. This conjunction is used with the subjunctive mood, in contrast to the conjunction d, which is used with the indicative mood.

Exercises for Lesson 21.


I. Translate into English: 1. SV SKelVlll nil Katplji t'iKouaEv (, OXAO~ TOV rrpo<ll~T'1V. (cf, Mt 14:1) 2. Kal O~ Elv 6SAlJ SV U/llV Elvat rrpwTo~ ~aTw u/lWV 1i0iiAO~. (cf. Mt 20:27) 3. (, lie 'I'1aoii~ rrpaiJ~ scrtv. 4. srrl tlYE/lOVWV Kal (3aOtAEWV ~aE06E eVEKEV s/loii. (cf Mk 13:9) 5. ou yap (3AsrrEt~ El~ TO rrpoawrrov av6pwrrwv. (Mk 12:14) 6. 0\ yap VO/101 TOU Kupiou (3apEl~ OUK sioiv. 7. tl/laXatpa oeEla ~v. [/laXatpa, -%, tl, sword, knife. Cf. Lesson 31, Vocabulary.] 8. TWV lie arroaToAwv Ta OVO/laTa sonv raiira. (Mt 10:2) 9. Kai sav usv tl oixiu aya6~, ~PXETat tl dp~v'1 U/lWV srr' aUT~v. (cf, Mt 10:13) 10. rrci~ (, OXAO~ rrpo~ TtlV 6dAaaaav srrl Tfi~ yfi~ ~aav. (Mk4:1) 11. (3AErrEt eva aYYEAov rrpo~ T~ Kf4laA~. (cf In 20:12) 12. tl yap KapMa oou OUK i(anv Eu6da ~/lrrpOa6Ev rof 6eoii. (cf Acts 8:21) 13. ~PXErat <I rrpo<ll~T'1~ rrpo~ u/lci~ SV (,lilji 1itKaLOa15v'1~. (Mt21:32)

132

LESSON 21

14. eav 5e: 6 o6aAJ.lo~ 000 lfOVTJPO~ U' OAOV TO OWJ.la 000 i TW OKOTEt EOTat. (cf. Mt 6:23) 15. eKElVTJ' ~ lfat~ {3paXEta eonv. 16. tjv TO lfAOtOV i J.lBOOl Tij~ eaAaooTJ~ (Mk 6:47) 17. EOTOl 5e: lfa.~ aVepOllf~~ TaXU~ d~ TO aKOVEtV. (cf. Jas 1:19) 18. ai 5e: e~AEtm TaUTTJ~ Tij~ lfOAEOl~ {3paxdat sioiv.

II. Translate into Greek: 1. No one is a good prophet unless God be with him. (cf. Jn 3:2) 2. Jesus goes in the boat to a deserted place in order not to be with the crowd. (Mk 6:32) . . 3. And the rest of the women were saying these things to the apostles on the same day. (Lk 24:10 III. Mk 4:5-12.

LESSON 22

133

The Meaning of the Aorist Active Infinitive and Participle. A 15"" Aorist Active Infinitive and Participle. The Adjective ~tya~. Rules for Accents 14.

Lesson 22
The Meaning of tile Aorist Active Infinitive and Participle.
The meaning of the aorist "tense" in the infinitive and participial moods is the same as that of the aorist in the imperative, subjunctive, and optative: indefinite action, not necessarily in the past. There is no connotation of repeated or continued action, as in the present tense. This is true of all three voices. For the meaning of the active voice cf. above, Lesson 9. For the meaning of the infinitive and participial moods cf. above, Lessons 4 and 7.
AUlll, Aorist Active Infinitive and Participle.

The aorist infinitive active of AVOl is Aooat (cf V 1, VP 1). The aorist participle active of AUOl is declined as follows (cf V 1, VP 1, Adj 12):
Masculine Avoa~ Auoa~

Singular Feminine

Neuter

v g

Auoaoa Avoaoa
AooaoTJ~

Aooav Aooav
AvoavTo~

AvoavTo~

d a

Auoavn AuoavTa
Masculine

AuoaolJ Auoaoav
Plural Feminine

Avoavn Aooav
Neuter

AvoavTE~

Auoaoat

AvoavTa

134
v
g

LESSON 22
Al5aavTE~

d
a

AUaaVT(J)V Al5aaat(v)
Al5aavra~

Al5aaaat AUOaOWV
AUaaaat~ AUOaaU~

Al5aavTa AUaaVT(J)V Al5aaat(v) Al5aavTa

The aorist tense in the infinitive mood may be used to describe even continued or repeated action:
~8eAT]OE

ypatVUt

rrOnaKt~.

He wished to write often.


But the fact that the aorist tense is used and not the present tense indicates that the writer or speaker is thinking of the many acts of writing as constituting one indistinguishable reality. If the writer or speaker had wished to emphasize the repeated or continuous nature of the action he would have used the present infinitive:
~8eAT]aE

ypa<!>EtV

rroAAaKt~.

He wished to write often.


When used in the context of the accusative with the infinitive the aorist tense tends to connote prior time, in contrast with the present infinitive, which tends to connote contemporaneous time: Aey(J) TOV av8p(J)rrov ypa<j>Etv.

I say that the man is writing.


Aey(J) TOV av8p(J)rrov ypatVut.

I say that the man had written.


The precise force of the aorist tense in the participle is not easy to ascertain (cf. above, Lesson 16). The present participle frequently seems to present an action which takes place at the same time as the action of the main verb, but this does not seem to be true in every instance. The aorist participle frequently presents an action which takes place prior to the action of the main verb, but, again, this does not seem to be true in every instance. The student should be aware from the very beginning of the subtle nature of the relationship and should avoid a rigid application of the above distinction.

W il
LESSON 22

135

The Adjective /I&YUc;.

large (cf Adj 22):

An adjective of the first and third declensions is /Ieyu~ great ' ,


Masculine Singular Feminine Neuter

v g d a

/Ieyu~ )leya~

)lEyaAou

uevnv

ll~yaA41

)lEyaA'l~

w;yaAT] /IEYM'l

IlEyaAT) IlEyaA'lV
Plural Feminine

)leyu )leyu )lEyaAou )lEya A41 Ileyu


Neuter

Masculine
n

v
g

IlEyaAOt IlEyaAol IlsyaA(J)v


IlsyaAOt~ IlEyaAou~

)lSYMUt )lEyaAUt )lsyaAwv


IlsyaAUt~ IlEyaAU~

)lEyaAu IlEyaAu )lsyaAWv


)lsyaAOt~

d a

IlEyaAu

There are thus two stems for this important word: IlEYU- and )lEYUA-. Rules for Accents 14. Feminine adjectives of the first declension have a circumflex accent on the ending of the genitive plural, even when the accent in the nominative singular is not on the final syllable provided the stem used in the feminine is different from the stem used in the masculine and neuter. If the stem used in the feminine is not different, the accent on the feminine genitive plural is on the same syllable as in the masculine and neuter. Thus rra.aa > JIMwv (compare masculine and neuter Kill!.I.(J)v), EKoiJaa > EKOUQWV (compare masculine and neuter hOVTWV), Eo8Eia > ~wv (compare masculine and neuter ~(J)v). But illia > illiwv (compare masculine and neuter illi(J)v).

Vocabulary for Lesson 22.

136
xwp(~

LESSON 22

[Prep 1] Governs the genitive case: without; besides. This word also occurs as an adverb meaning separately [Adv 3]. IIEya.AT\, lIiya [Adj 22] great; large.

lIiya~,

apxt), -ii~, ~ [N 1] beginning; ruling power.


Iillia.OKaAo~, -00,

6 [N 6m] teacher.

eVToAt), -ii~, ~ [N 1] commandment.


Bpovo~, -00,
Kaprro~,

6 [N 6m] throne.

-00, 6 [N 6m] fruit.

oa.l3l3aTov, -Oll, TO [N 7] Sabbath. oovaywyt), -ii~, xapa.,


-a~, ~ ~ [N

1] synagogue; assembly.

[N 2] joy; happiness.

IiwliEKU [Adj 21] twelve.


Aomo~,

-t), -ov [Adj 1] I. As adjective: rematrung, II. As adverb: (TO) Aomov or Toil Aomoil [Adv 3]: henceforth. III. As noun: Aomov, -oil, TO [N 7] the rest. -ov [Adj 2] elder. This word is usually used as a substantive.

rrpwl3uTEPo~, -o~,

iliou [Inter] look!


KaBw~

[Conj] as; inasmuch as. This conjunction is used when comparing verbs, i.e., clauses, in contrast to W~, which is used in comparisons between nouns and adjectives. Cf. above, Lesson 17, for the presentation of W~ in the vocabulary.

Exereises for Lesson 22.


I. Translate into English: 1. milm Aiyw Ulliv Iv ~ xapa ~ elln ev ulliv 15:11)

Jj. (cf In

LESSON 22

137

2. !fyytaEV 6 Kalpo~ TWV Kaprrwv. (Mt 21:34) 3. ~Pxovml rrpo~ TOV 'IT\oOUV 01. apXlEpEl~ Ka't 01. YPullllaTd~ Ka't 01. rrpEol3uTEPOl. (Mk 11:27) 4. ~TE ev Tl\i KUlpl\i eKElv41 xwp't~ Xptcrofi. (cf; Eph 2:12) 5. 01. liE AiyooOtv aliTol~ KaBw~ AiYEl 6 'IT\ooil~. (cf, Mk 11:6) 6. 'Apxn Toil EuaYYEA(oo 'Inoof XPlOTOil otoil Bwil. (Mk 1:1) 7. AiYEl rrpo~ TOD~ AomoD~ arrooT6AotJ~. (cf Acts 2:37) 8. Ka't aUTo~ e51liaoKEv ev ml~ oovaywyal~ aUTwv. (Lk 4:15) 9. tlV yap ~ rral~ eTwv IiwIiEKa. (Mk 5:42) 10. Ka't ilioD <j>wvn eK TWV oupavwv Aiyoooa, OOTO~ scrw 6 tJio~ 1100. (Mt 3:17) 11. TO oa.l3l3aTov lila TOV avBpwrrov sonv Ka't oux 6 avBpwrro~ lila TO oa.l3l3apov. (Mk 2:27) 12. Ka't Kpa.~a~ <j>wv~ IIEYcXAlJ [This is a "dative of manner", indicating the manner in which something took place; translation: with a great (i.e., loud) voice] AiYEl, T( ello't Ka't 00(, 'Inoof OtE Toil Bwu; (Mk 5:7) 13. ro Aomov, aIiEA<j>o(, ayaBo't ~OTE. 14. OUK Etll't W~ 01. Aomo't TWV avBpwrrwv. (cf. Lk 18:11) 15. ai5TT\ eonv ~ IIEya.AT\ Ka't rrpWTT\ f,vTOAt). (Mt 22:38) 16. OUK ~onv lIaBT\Tn~ urrEp TOV IilMoKaAov. (Mt 10:24) 17. 6 oupa"o~ Bpovo~ eor'tv Toil Bwil. (cf. Mt 5:34) II. Translate into Greek: 1. The child will be great in the presence of the Lord. (cf Lk 1:15) 2. In the beginning was the Word that we all saw. (cf. In 1:1) 3. I am an apostle and a teacher of the Gentiles in faith and truth. (cf. I Tim 2:7)

III. Mk 4:13-20.

138

LESSON 23

The Meaning of the Perfect Active Indicative. A110>, Perfect Active Indicative. The Formation of the Reduplication. The Adjective "OA u~. Rules for Accents 15.

Lesson 23
The Meaning ofthe Perfect Active Indicative. The perfect tense forms a whole system distinct from that of the present and aorist tense systems. The perfect system has the connotation of action completed in some way. In the indicative mood the perfect tense indicates the continuing, present result of a past action. This is true of all three voices. For the meaning of the active voice cf. above, Lesson 9. For the meaning of the indicative mood cf. above, Lesson 2.

hUOO, Perfect Active Indicative.


There are two ways in which the perfect system is formed: 1) the "weak" (the more frequently found), which has a -K as a distinguishing element immediately before the endings; 2) the "strong", which does not have a -K before the same endings. The meaning is the same for both weak and strong perfect forms. Also common to both weak and strong perfect forms is the "reduplication", a doubling of initial elements in the verbal root. There is a variety of ways in which reduplication is formed, as will be explained below. The most common way, for verbs beginning with a single consonant, is to repeat the single consonant with the vowel fO and prefix these two letters to the verbal root (not to the prefix, if the verb is compound). For A15W the perfect active indicative is as follows (cf, V 1, VP 1).
Active Voice, Indicative Mood, Perfect Tense Singular Plural

1st Person 2nd Person

At-Au-K-a At-Au-K-a<;

AfO-A15-K-a}JfOv AfO-A15-K-arfO

LESSON 23

139 AfO-A15-K-aat(V)

3rd Person

At-AU-K-fO(V)

I have loosed You (sg.) have loosed He (She, It) has loosed

We have loosed You (pl.) have loosed They have loosed

The strong perfect has no K, as was stated above. The precise letter which appears before the ending to form the strong perfect varies with the verb and is ordinarily related to the final consonant of the verbal root. The following example is of the strong perfect of the verb ypa<jlw, which has a <jl (cf. V 4, DV 30, VP 1). There is no rule which enables one to state in advance which verbs have weak perfects and which strong.
Active Voice, Indicative Mood, Perfect Tense Singular Plural
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

yt-ypa<!>-a yt-ypa<!>-a<; yt-ypa<!>-fOv

YfO-ypa<!>-a}JfOv YfO-ypa<!>-arfO YfO-ypa<!>-aat(v)

I have written You (sg.) have written He (She, It) has written

We have written You (pl.) have written They have written

As was stated above, the Greek perfect indicative indicates the continuing result of a past action: (broAtA UKa rou<; 6015AOU<;. I have freed the slaves [and they are now free as a result of my past action].

o ytypa<jla, ytypa<jla. What I have written, I have written [and it now stands as I wanted it to stand when I wrote it in the past].
The Fonnation of the Reduplication.

The formation of the reduplication is independent of the categories of weak or strong perfect. The formation of the reduplication depends on how the verbal root begins, not how it ends. Each verb usually has only one type of reduplication.

140

LESSON 23

Reduplication normally takes place at the beginning of the root, not, if the verb is compound, at the beginning of the prefix. 1) Most verbs beginning with a single consonant form the reduplication by repeating the single consonant with the vowel e and prefix these two letters to the root: AUW > AAuKa; mcrscco >
'Rc1Z'LOTEuKa.

2) If the root begins with a X, <jJ, or 6, the consonant in the reduplicating syllable is K, n, or T respectively (that is, the basic sound without the aspiration): xpaollat> KXPTJllat [the endings are of the middle voice]; <jJeuyw > -rrq,euya; 6uw > T6uKa. 3) Roots beginning with n, ~, K, y, Tor Ii followed by A, 11, v or P form the reduplication by prefixing the first consonant followed by an s: ypa<jJw > yypa<jJa. 4) In roots beginning with two consonants other than those indicated in Rule 3, or with a "double consonant" (~, ~, qr), the reduplication is formed by prefixing an s with a smooth breathing: ~evi~w > i#vIKa. 5) Roots beginning with p form the reduplication by prefixing sp- (more usual) or ps- (less usual): pi~ollat > /;ppl~WllVOI [the endings are of the middle or passive participle]; pavTl~w > pspavnollf.VOI [the endings are of the middle or passive participle]. 6) Roots beginning with a vowel form the reduplication by lengthening the vowel, as is done for the formation of the augment in the imperfect and aorist indicative. Thus hOtllci~w > ~ToillaKa. Note that with these verbs the augument and the reduplication look alike. They are not to be confused. The reduplication is found in all moods of the perfect system, whereas the augment is found only in the indicative (in the pluperfect). 7) A number of verbs have an irregular reduplication. These verbs will be studied in future lessons. There are not many. At this stage the student is advised to learn actively only rules 1, 2, and 6. Passive knowledge of the other rules is sufficient for the present. The Alljective 1l"oA15~.
rroAu~,

An irregular adjective of the first and second declension is much, many (cf, Adj 22).
Masculine

Singular Feminine

Neuter

LESSON 23
n

141 rroAu rroAu rroAAoii


rroAA~

v
g

1l"OAU~ rroAu~

rroAAoii
-rrOAA~

rroAA~ rroAA~ rroAA~~

rroAAU
rroAA~v

rroAuv
Masculine

rroAu
Neuter

Plural Feminine

n v g

rroAAoi rroAAoi rroAAWv


rroAAo'i~

rroAAai rroAAai rroAAWv


rroAAa'i~ rroAAci~

rroAAoi rroAAoi rroAAWv


rroAAo'i~

rroAAou~

rroAAa

There are two roots, rroA u- and rroAAo-. Use of the article with this adjective is relatively rare, but it does occur. Rules for Accents 15.
In the first declension the a in the ending -a~ (i.e., in the genitive singular and accusative plural) is always long. Thus T(X~ Ku5lla~ in Mk6:6 (the co does not have a circumflex, showing that the a in the accusative plural ending is long) and arr' ayopii~ in Mk 7:4 (the circumflex accent over the a of the genitive singular ending shows that it is long). But when an accent occurs over the a of these endings it is circumflex only in the genitive; in the accusative plural it is acute or grave. Thus arr' ayopii~ in Mk 7:4 but T(X~ <jJwvo.~ in Acts 13:27. (el. the acute accent over a in the article.) Contrast the circumflex accent over the a in ~llii~ and ullii~.

Vocabulary for Lesson 23.


rrA~V

[Prep 1] Governs the the genitive case: except. This word is also used as a conjunction, meaning however [Conj). rroAu [Adj 22] much; many. 1] writing; Scripture.

rroAu~, rroAA~,

ypa<jJ~, -~~, ~ [N

/;rrayysAia, -a~, ~ [N 2] promise.

142

LESSON 23

Aleo<;, -00, a [N 6m] stone. 1rlXlliiov, -00, TO [N 7] infant; child. ao<l>la, -a<;, tl [N 2] wisdom. Xpovo<;, -00, a [N 6m] time. Be,O';, -eX, -0-.1 [Adj 2] right [as opposed to left]. iioxaTo<;, -1'), -ov [Adj 1] last. llaKeXP10';, -a, -ov [Adj 2] blessed; happy.
uovoc, -1'), -ov [Adj 1] only; alone.
hOllleX~oo

(sroiudoto) [V 5, VP HI prepare.

euoo [V 1, VP 1] I sacrifice.
eVl~oo

(eVlooo) [V 5, VP 1] I receive as a guest; I surprise.


[V 5, DV 168, VP 1] I sprinkle.

pavri~oo (pavTlooo)

T [Conj] This is a weak form of Kal and is an enclitic: and. TOT [Adv 2] then; at that time.

Exercises for Lesson 23.


I. Translate into English: 1. tllliV YeXp sorw tl braYYAla Kat TOI<; TKV01'; tlW.3v. (cf, Acts 2:39) 2. <ivepoo1l0l TlV'; eevlOav ayyAoo,;. (cf. Heb 13:2) 3. TOT AYl mhol'; a 'Inoouc, Y1leXYT. (cf, Mt 4:10) 4. OUK "oav <iAAOl 1lAtlV aunDv. (ef Mk 12:32) 5. g{ ru; eAl 1lPWTO<; dVCXl, !tOToo 1leXvTUlv iioxaTo<;. (cf. Mk 9:35) 6. 1lalliia, eOXeXT1') wpa sortv. (1 In 2:18) 7. 1lAtlV OUX 00<; tlllI'; eAOIlV aAA' 00'; UIll,;. (Mt 26:39) 8. sroiuncov TtlV aMv Kupiou. (cf, Mk 1:3) 9. TtlV (3l(3Aov Kat 1leXVTCX TOV Aaov epeXVTlOV. (cf. Heb 9:19)

LESSON 23

143

10. Kat eliiBaOKOV aUTOV ev 1lapa(3oAal'; 1l0AAeX. (cf; Mk 4:2) 11. tl 660.; TOU Koploo sroiun eaTlv. 12. tl 1l10Tl'; UIlWV OUK iioTlv ev oo<l>lq; aVepuS1looV ciAA' ev BuveXlll eOu. (cf. 1 Cor 2:5) 13. Kat iipXTCXl 6 'l1')oou<; 1lpo<; TOU'; llae1')T<X<; aUTOU<; Kat (3Ai1ll OXAOV 1l0AUV 1lpt aUTOU<;. (cf, Mk 9:14) 14. Ta iiev1') ou eUOUOlV e~. (cf. 1 Cor 10:20) 15. IlTlX BE; 1l0AUV Xpovov iipXTCXl 6 KUP10<; TWV BOUAooV 6Klvoov. (Mt 25:19) 16. a ,/l~e1')TJ\<; e1l10TOO Tfj ypa<l>fj Kat nii AOY4l OV hv o 11')00u,;. (cf, In 2:22) 17. srotudcoociv TOO'; A{eOO<; ol epydTCXl. 18. ll a KeXPlOl 01 O<jl6aAIlOt oi (3A1rOVT<; (3A1lT. (Lk 10:23) 19. a 'Inoobc eonv ev Be,~ TOU eOu. (Rom 8:34) 20. tl V TO: 1lAOIa ev 1l04l Ttl'; eaAeXoOl')<; Kat 6 ' 11')aou<; ucvoc e1l! Ttl<; yl'j<;. (cf. Mk 6:47) 21. 01 BOUAOl oovijyov 1leXvTCX';, 1l0V!lpou,; T Kat ayaeOU<;. (cf. Mt 22:10)

II. Translate into Greek: 1. He said that the law was not against the promise of God. (cf. Gal 3:21) 2. The father of the children, crying out, says "I believe", and they are all happy. (cf Mk 9:24) 3. The Scripture does not say that the Christ is from that city. (cf In 7:42)

m. Mk 4:21-28.

144

LESSON 24

'lbe Meaning of the Pluperfect Active Indicative. AIS",_ Pluperfect Active Indicative. The Adjective aioSv\o<;. The Alpha Privative. Rules for Accents 16.

Lesson 24
The Meaning of the Pluperfect Active Indicative. The pluperfect indicative expresses an action which is complete at some time in the past and emphasizes the result of that action. This is true of all three voices. The pluperfect tense exists only in the indicative mood. For the meaning of the active voice cf. above, Lesson 9. For the meaning of the indicative mood cf. above, Lesson 2. AUlll, Pluperfect Active Indicative. The pluperfect indicative active ofAuw is formed from the perfect stem with special endings and an augment which may be omitted (cf. V 1, VP 1):
Active Voice, Indicative Mood, Pluperfect Tense Singular Plural

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

CH-Ae-AU-K-etv (1;)-Ae-Au-K-W; (1;)-Ae-Au-K-et

(1;)-Ae-AU-K-el/.leV (1;)-Ae-A U-K-etre (1;)-AE-A15- K-eiocv

I had loosed You (sg.) had loosed He (She, It) had loosed

We had loosed You (pl.) had loosed They had loosed

The augment is formed according to the rules for the augment for the imperfect and the aorist. It is found only in the pluperfect indicative. 8 1;yeypaet 1;YEVpaet.

7',"

LESSON 24

145

He had wri!teTl; what he had written [and at the time in the


past mdicated by the main verb it stayed written]. The Adjective aiuSv1oc;. One category of second declension adjectives has the same form for the masculine and feminine (cioivtoc, eternal) (cf Adj 5):
Masculine
n v

g d a

crcovro o

aiuSVlOt;; atwvte , ,

Singular Feminine atWvIO<;

Neuter

atWVIE
atWvl0U

aiwvlw
atoSvtov
Masculine

atWvlW

aioSvI0v alwvlov aiwvlou , ,


(l~~Vt<p

aLwvIOv
Plural Feminine

atWVIOV

Neuter

CXlttSVlOl

atOOV10l
CXtWVIOl

exiuSvHX
<XtWVtWV
aiwv(Ot~

v
g

extOOVIOl , , <XtWVtWV
aiwv(ol~

aiwviwv
aiwv(ot~ aiwviou~

atwvta ,

d
a

aiwviouC;

atwvtOUC;

c~mposed of,eK and 6[30~.[a substantive], or diKatpO~, composed 'of eu.and xmpoc [a substantive], The most common type of adjective in this category 1S .the one composed of an adjective with the prefix of an alpha privative, (See following section.)
The Alpha Privative. A common way to form a compound adjective is to prefix an a (called an "alpha privative") to negate the force of the adjective's meamng: 1iu.vaT?~, powerful > aMvaTo~, impossible. (In English the prefixes m-, un-, and un- perform the same function) The Gre~k adjective 1iuvaT6~, powerful, can have the three ~ormal ~ndings for an ~djective in the first and second declensions, -6~, -~, ov: B';'t vo:hen It becomes negated through the prefixing of an alpha privative It has the same ending for the masculine and feminine:

. i.e.,

~~y adjectives in this category are compound adjectives, adJective~ formed from two elements. For example: ~K0[30~

146

LESSON 24

-0<;, -0<;, -OV. The alpha privative ususally makes the accent . recessive, i.e., the accent will be on the third-last syllable when this is possible. Thus the accent for JrlOTO<;, faithful, moves to the thirdlast syllable in the word amoTo<;, faithless.

Rules for Accents 16.


In the first declension, if the final a of the nominative singular is short, the a of the accusative singular ending is ~hort; if the a of the nominative singular is long, the a of the accusative singular ending is long. Thus the final a of aArl6ela is short, and the accusative singular is accordingly aArl6ewv. But the final a of flaGlAda is long, and the accusative singular is accordingly flaGlAeiav. Cf. Mk 5:33 and Mk 4:30. As was noted above, the accent in words formed with an alpha privative tends to be recessive. Thus 5IJVaTO<;, 51JVaTrI, 5IJVaTOV becomes a50vaTo<;, a50vaTo<;, a5UvaTov.

Vocabulary for Lesson 24.


~gXP1(<;)

[Prep 1] Governs the genitive case: until; as far as. This word is also used to form a conjunction with 00, with the meaning until.

a51Ko<;, a51Ko<;, a51Kov [Adj 5] unjust; evil. aiwvlO<;, aiwvlO<;, aiwvlOv [Adj 5] eternal. aKa6apTo<;, aKa6apTo<;, aKa6apTov [Adj 5] unclean. aKapJro<;, aKapJro<;, aKapJrov [Adj 5] fruitless.
a~apT<JlAo<;, a~apTwA6<;, a~apTwAov [Adj 5]

sinful. [This is not an adjective formed with an alpha privative.] This word is often used as a noun, sinner [N 6m].
5] lawless; not under the law.

avo~o<;, avo~o<;, avo~ov [Adj

aJrlOTo<;, amoTo<;, amoTov [Adj 5] unfaithful; unbelieving.

LESSON 24

147

evoxo<;, evoxo<;, evoxov [Adj 5] subject to;guilty of; liable to; liable to the penalty of[dative of person, genitive of thing]
epJl~o<;, epJl~o<;, epJl~ov [Adj 5]

deserted. This word is also used as a ready; prepared. The feminine in

noun, desert [N 6t]; cf. Lesson 8. -Jl is also found.

Sr01~O<;, Sr01~O<;, SrOl~OV [Adj 5]

oupdvroc, oopavlO<;, oupdviov [Adj 5] heavenly.


a~rlv [Part]

amen; truly [Hebrew word].

JraAlv [Adv 2] again; furthermore. JrW<; [Adv 3] how?

Exercises for Lesson 24.


I. Translate into English: 1. ~v f.V Tfj olJvaywyfj aOTwv av6pwJro<; f.v Jrveo~aTl aKa6apTW. .... , , , (Mk 1:23) 2. uus; OIJX srouroi eors, 3. 6 5E 6eo<; Tii<; elPrlvJl<; ~eTa JravTwv o~oov. a~rlv. (Rom 15:33) 4. ~v mOTo<; ~gXPl 6avaTolJ. (cf Phil 2:8) 5. 6 6eo<;, OOK el~l OJ<; 01 AOmOt TooV av6pwJrwv, Ot ali,Kol Kat a~apTWAoi slotv. (cf Lk 18:11) 6. TO flaJrno~a f.e ouprrvcf ~v ij f.e av6pwJrwv; (cf Mk 11:30) 7. 01 liE JraAlv eKpaeav. (Mk 15:13) 8. if~e6a f.V T3 olKl1J aJro Tii<; JrPWTJl<; ~~gpa<; ~iXPl raoTJl<; Tii<; wpa<;. 9. eOTe JriOTOl T3 XPlOT3 'iva ~~ ~Te aKapJrOl. (cf. Tit 3:14) 10. 5,a T06ro OOK f.JrioTelJoav, OTl JraAlv elJrev 6 Jrpo<l>rlTJl<;... (cf, In 12:39) 11. KJlPUOOeTe TO eoayygAlOV ~gXP1<; 00 6 KOPlO<; JraAlV ~

~,

12. ~~ 1061 avo~o<; 6e06. (cf 1 Cor 9:21) 13. Jroo<; eOTat T06To; (cf, Lk 1:34) 14. aOTo<; evoxo<; scnv aiwviolJ a~apTia<;. (cf, Mk 3:29)

~eTa ~~oov.

148

LESSON 24

15. YDVal, ~~ 'foel amoToe:;. 16. 6 npo<j>r1TIle:; ~v En' i:Prl~Ole:; ronoic. (Mk 1:45) 17. EVOXOe:; eaVC:XTOIl i:oTlv. (Mt 26:66) II. Translate into Greek: 1. There was a man by the road who had a spirit of an unclean demon. (cf Lk 4:33) 2. The just are going into etemallilfe. (Mt 25:46) 3. How do the women not under the law believe my words? (In 5:47) III. Mk 4:29-36.

LESSON 25

149

The Meaning of the Perfect Active Infinitive, Participle, and Subjunctive. A.s"" Perfect Active Infinitive, Participle, and Subjunctive. The Adjective <i).1l91i~. Rules for Accents 17.

Lesson 25.
The Meaning of the PerlectActive Infinitive, Participle, and Subjunctive. The meaning of the perfect infinitive, participle, and subjunctive is of an action originating in the past of which the effect abides. The time is always relative, for these moods depend on a main verb for their full meaning. This is true of all three voices. For the meaning of the active voice cr. above, Lesson 9. For the meaning of the infinitive, participial, and subjunctive moods cf above, Lessons 4, 5, and 7. X1500, Perlect Active Infinitive, Participle, and Subjunctive. The perfect infinitive active OnDOO is Xe-XIl-K-eVal (cf VI, VP
1).

"eyollOlV athov yeypa<j>ival i:Kelvo 8 yeypa<j>ev. They say that he has written what he has written.
atiT~ ehev atiTov yeypa<j>ival i:Kelvo 0 yeypa<j>ev. She said that he had written what he had written.

The perfect active participle of XDOO is declined as follows (cf V 1, VP I, Adj 17):
Masculine
n

Singular Feminine

Neuter

XeXIlKwe:;

XeXIlKllla

XeXIlKoe:;

150
v g

LESSON 25

AEAllKWC; AEAllKOTOC; AEAllKon AEAllKora


Masculine

AEAllKlltu AEAllKll(UC;
AEAllKU(~

AEA II xuirrv Plural


Feminine

AEA llKOC; AEAllKoroc; AEAllKon AEAuKora


Neuter

v
g

d a

AEAllKorEC; AEAllKorEC; AEAllKorwv AEAllKOOl(V) AEAllKoruc;

AEAllKlltUl AEA II Klltat AEAllKlllWV AEAllKlllUlC; AEAllKlllUC;

AEAllKoru AEAllKOTU AEA II KOTWV AEAllKOOl(V) AEAllKOTu

It should be noted that the nominative and accusative neuter singular are easily confused with the nominative masculine singular of the second declension.

TO rratlilOv rEOVIlKOC; soriv. The child is dead [literally, the one having died]. The perfect subjunctive active ofADw is formed by the use of the perfect participle active with the subjunctive of dill (cf. V 1, VP 1,VPI7): Active Voice, Subjunctive Mood, Perfect Tense Singular Plural AEAllKwc;(-llta, -OC;) W AEAllKorEC; (-lltal, -ora) WllEV AEAUKwc;(-llta, -OC;) ~C; AEAllKorEC; (-lltal, -ora) ~rE AEAllKWC;(-lltU, -OC;) 1J AEAllKOTEC; (-Utal, -ora) WOl(V)

1st Person 2nd Person

3rd Person

The perfect active subjunctive is rarely used in the New Testament. There is no example of a perfect active imperative or optative in the New Testament. This lesson terminates the presentation of the active voice of ADW. The Adjective dAIlOt!C;.

LESSON 25

151

One category of third declension adjectives has a root ending in -EO and has the same form in the masculine and feminine (dAIlOriC;, true) (cf Ad] 15): Singular
n

Masculine dAIlOJi~

Feminine

v
g

d
a

dAIlOec; aA1lO06C; aAllOEt dAIlOti


Masculine

aAIlOJiC; QA fJOec; dAIlO06C; aAllOEt aAIlOti Plural


Feminine

Neuter dAIlOec; aAfJOec; aAfJ006c; aAllOCt aAIlGec;


Neuter

v
g

d a

dAfJOCtc; dAfJOCtc; aAIlOwv aAIlOeOl(v) dAfJOEtC;

aAIlGEtC; aA11 OEtC; aAllGwv aA11 OeOl(v) aA11 OEtC;

dAIlOti dAfJOfj aAfJOwv dAIlOeol(v) dAIlOfj

The form aAIlOti is from aAllOeoa > dAIlOea (tendency of a between vowels to disappear) > dAIlOfj (the latter being a contraction of e to 11). The genitive singular is from dAIlOeooc; > .. ' aAIlOeoc; (disappearance of a) > QAt]G06C; (contraction of ED into o u). The dative singular is from dAfJOeOl (disappearance of a between vowels). The form aAIlGCtC; is from aAfJGeoEC; > dAfJOeEC;, with the contraction of EE into EL.

Rules for Accents 17.


The a of the nominative and accusative neuter plural endings of the second declension is always short. Thus ollllCtu is the nominative and accusative plural form for 0IlIlEtOV. Cf. Mk 16:17.

Vocabulary for Lesson 25.


ewc; [Prep 1] Governs the genitive case: until. This word is also used as a conjunction meaning while or until, often with crOll, 00, or av [Conj], aAIl0ric;, aAIlOJic;, dAIlOec; [Adj 15] true [sincere]; true [authentic].

152
aOEl3ri~, aOEl3ri~, aOEl3e~

LESSON 25

[Adj 15] impious.


15] weak; ill.

a06Evri~, a06Evri~, a06Eve~ [Adj

ao<l>aAri~, ao<jlaAri~, ao<jlaAe~

[Adj 15] safe. [Adj 15] only [child]

!lOVOYEvri~, !lOVOYEvri~, !lOvoYEve~ JrAriPT]~, JrAriPT]~, JrAfjPE~

[Adj 15] full; complete. [Adj 15] related. As a noun, relative [N

OUYYEvri~, OUYYEvri~, oUYYEve~

30].
UYtri~, UYlri~, uYte~

[Adj 15] whole; healthy.


15] false. As a noun, liar [N 30].

ljJEuBri~, ljJwBri~, ljJwM~ [Adj

ouM ... ouM and !IT]M ... !IT]M [Conj, Neg]. Used in pairs, as here, these words mean neither . . . nor. The ouM pair is used where ou would be used, and the uT]M pair is used where !lri would be used. The words are also used individually, with ouM meaning and not and used where ou would be used, and !lT]M meaning and not and used where !lri would be used.
Exercises for Lesson 25

I. Translate into English: 1. l06t uYt~~ aJro Tfj~ vooou oou, (cf, Mk 5:34) 2. BtBaOKlXAE, AeYO!lEV on aAT]6~~ d. (cf. Mk 12:14) 3. AiYE !IT]B~ role <l>iAot~ oou !IT]B~ rotc aBEA<l>ol~. 4. /) Jral~ EAEYEV ouB~ roic <l>iAOt~ lXUTOil ouB~ roic
5. 6eA<Jl XWPl~ Toil XPLOToil gl vat UJr~P TWV aBEA<jlwv !lOU KlXt OUYYEVWV !lOU KlXTeX oapKlX. (cf, Rom 9:3) 6. <jlUAlXOOE TOU~ rrlXIBa~ 6<Jl~ arroAUEt TOV QXAOV. (cf, Mk 7. <jluAaooE TOU~ Jra1BlX~ 6W~ 0,', arroAuOlJ TOV QXAOV. (cf. Mk 14:32) 8. <l>UAlXOOE TOU~ Jra1Ba~ 6<Jl~ iiv aJroAUOlJ TOV OXAOV. (cf Mk9:1) 9. ~OlXV Jrpo<jlfjTat ljIEuBE1~ tv nJ JrOAEt. 10. /) 'Inoouc rrAripT]~ ~v JrVEU!llXTO~ ayiou. (cf Lk 4:1)
6:45)
aBEA<jlol~.

LESSON 25

153

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16: 17.

EOO!lat !lE6' U!lWV 6<Jl~ Tfj~ tl!leplX~ KEiv%. (Mk 14:25) dXEV 6uYlXTepa !lOVOYEvij ui~ hwv BwBEKa. (cf Lk 8:42) AeYEt~ aUTOv tlTOt!llXKeVlXL T~V TpaJrE~av; EAEYEV /) JrPO<l>riT% Jrepi TWV aOEl3wv av6pwJr<Jlv. tl!lT]V roic a06evemv a06evri~. (cf 1 Cor 9:22) AeY<Jl T<Jj lepd T<Jj Te6uKon. ouB~ I3AeJr<Jl TO ao<jllXAk (cf, Acts 21:34)

II. Translate into Greek: 1. I say that the true prophets have not cried out. (cf In 1:15) 2. The ones sending me are true, the ones not hearing me are false. (cf In 8:26) 3. There was darkness over the whole world until the first hour. (cf Mk 15:33)
III. Mk 4:37 - 5:3.

154

LESSON 26

The Meaning of the Middle Voice. AU"', Present Middle Indicative. The Noun udpruc, Rules for Accents 18.

Lesson 26
The Meaning of the Middle Voice. Greek grammar has three voices: active, middle, passive. The active voice indicates that the grammatical subject of the sentence is the real agent of the action. The passive voice indicates that the grammatical subject of the sentence is in some way or other the recipient of the agent. In Greek there are separate sets offorms to express the active voice. (Cf. above, Lessons 9-25, for the active voice of AUW.) The passive voice will be presented in future lessons. (Cf. below, Lessons 36-42, for the passive voice ofAuw.) There is a separate set of forms to express the middle voice as well, although some of these forms are identical with some of the forms of the passive voice. The middle voice indicates that the verb has some special relation to its subject beyond the relation of an active verb to its subject. This relation can be of various kinds and will become clearer through the examples of the middle voice given below and in subsequent lessons. In the New Testament the number of instances of the middle voice is greatly reduced in comparison with the middle voice in previous periods of the Greek language. But examples of the middle voice do occur. Further, the forms of the middle voice serve as the forms for many "deponent" verbs, i.e., verbs with active meanings but middle forms (cf below, Lesson 45). For the meaning of the indicative mood cf. above, Lesson 2. AUW, Present Middle Indicative. The present middle indicative of AUW is conjugated as follows (cf. V 1, VP 2):

LESSON 26

155

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

Middle Voice, Indicative Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural AU-O~UI Av-6~Eea

AU-lJ AU-ETat

AU-WeE AO-OVTU1

We loose [with relation to myself] ourselves] You (sg.) loose [with relation You (pl.) loose [with relato yourself] tion to yourselves] He (She, It) looses [with They loose [with relation relation to himself, to themselves] herself, itself]
The form AU1] is a contraction ofAuwat (AUWUl > AUWI > AUl]l > AU1]). ' There are no examples in the New Testament of the use ofAuw in the middle voice. But the verb virrrto, I wash, has a number of examples of a clear use of the middle voice. Contrast the following examples:

I loose [with relation to

6 XPlGTO~ vinrsi TOV~ rr65u~ TWV arrooToAwV. Christ washes the feet of the apostles.
6 av~p VtrrTETUl. The man washes [himselfJ. [This Greek sentence can also be translated: The man has himself washed, i.e., causes himself to be washed.]
In the second example the verb vinrsrm is in the middle voice. It has no expressed object, the object being implied from the middle voice itself. But there are examples in the New Testament of a verb in the middle voice having a direct object in the accusative case:

6 av~p vinrsrnt TO rrp6owrrov aUTo6. The man washes his face.


The Noun llapTv,;.
The noun udpruc, witness, is declined as follows (cf N 33):
n

Singular ~ci.PTV~

156
v g

LESSON 26
/lapTlJpE~

udpruc
/lapTlJpO~

/lapTlJpt /lapTlJpa

/lapTUpWV /lapTlJOt(V)
/lapTlJpa~

The root of udpruc is uoprup-. There are no other words in this category in the New Testament.

Rules for Accents 18.


The a of the neuter nominative and accusative plural ending of adjectives of the second declension is always short, just as is the corresponding a of the noun (cf above, Rules for Accents 17). Thus ayta in 1 Cor 7:14. Contrast this with ayta (feminine nominative singular) in Rom 11:16 (twice). Cf. above, Rules for Accents 12 and

15.

Vocabulary for Lesson 26.


E~W

[Prep 1] Governs the genitive case: out of; outside of. This word is also used as an adverb: outside [Adv 1]. 6 [N 33] witness; martyr.

/lapTU~, /lapTUpO~,

napal3oAtl, -fi~, ~ [N 1] parable; symbol. OWTI] pia, -a~, ~ [N 2] salvation; liberation. <jJol3o<;, -OU, 6 [N 6m] fear. <jJuAaKri, -fi<;, ~ [N 1] guard; prison. KaKo<;, -ri, -ov [Adj 1] evil; bad. As a neuter noun: injury [N 7].
/ltKPO~,

-a, -ov [Adj 2] small. As an adverb (/ltKPOV): a little while [Adv 2].

1500<;, -I], -ov [Adj 1]

as much as; as many as.

TU<jJAO<;, -ri, -ov [Adj 1] blind.

LESSON 26
amixw [V 2, DV 68, VP 1-2,4] active transitive: I receive; active intransitive: I am distant; middle: I abstain from; I avoid [with genitive]. apxw [V 2, DV 19, VP 1-2] active: I rule [with genitive]; middle: I

157

begin.
l3anri~w [V

5, DV 23, VP 1-2] active: cf. Lesson 11; middle: I get [myself] baptized; I wash [myself].

VtnTW [V 5, 4), VP 1-2] active: I wash [something else or someone else]; middle: I wash [myself]. napxw [V 2, DV 68, VP 1-2,4] active: I cause; I bring about; middle: I offer [from my own means].
pavri~w [V 5, DV 168, VP 1-2] active: cf. Lesson 23; middle: I

[myself].

wash

<jJUAaoow [V 3, VP 1-2] active: cf. Lesson 17; middle: I avoid; I observe [a law, a rule, etc.]. eKE! [Adv 1] there. WilE [Adv 1] here.

Exercises for Lesson 26.


1. Translate into English: 1. oullE:v KaKov EVptOKO/lEV i Ttll av6pwmfl TOUTqJ. (Acts

23:9) 2. El TU<jJAO't ~TE, OUK av E'iXETE a/lCtpTiav. (In 9:41) 3. KaAOv sorrv ~/ld<; WilE elvm, (Mk 9:5) 4. El ou l3anTi~ovTat OUK e06iouOtv. (cf Mk 7:4) 5. Ka't OUK Eonv i aAAqJ OUIlEV't ~ otcrnpi. (Acts 4:12) 6. 'i06t EKEt w<; av Aiyw 00t. (cf Mt 2:13)
7. apXETat 6 '11]0013<; IltllaOKEtV aUTou<; nona. (cf. Mk 6:34) 8. aUTO TO l3il3AlOV Ka't naVTa TOV Aaov epavnoEv. (Heb

9:19) 9. <jJuAaOOO/lat ano naoll<; alltKia<;. (cf, Lk 12:15) 10. anXETE T~V napaKAI]Otv V/lwv. (cf. Lk 6:24)

158

LESSON 26

11. d ou paVn~OVTat OUK e06iollow. (cf, Mk 7:4, critical apparatus) 12. Mv n~ J.I01l aKOuOIJ nilv pTJJ.I(lTWV Kat J.I~ 4)\)Aa~TJ, alilKO~ sorw. (cf. In 12:47) 13. ~ lie Kapliia aunilv a:rrixel a:rr' eJ.loii. (cf. Mt 15:8) 14. a:rrexoJ.le6a a'iJ.laTO~. (ef Acts 15:29) 15. (, 'ITJooii~ EallTov :rrapixeTal ~yeJ.lova. (cf, Tit 2:7) 16. (, 6eo~ :rrapixel ~J.Iiv :rravTa. (cf.} Tim 6:17) 17. 01 orpuruorm oux eupioKollOlV aUTOIJ~ i Tfj <j>IlAaKfj. (cf. Acts 5:22) 18. uJ.lei~ J.IapTllpe~ TOUTWV. (Lk 24:48) 19. Kat eliiliaoKev aUTOIJ~ ev :rrapa~oAai~ :rrona. (Mk 4:2) 20. (, lie 'Inoouc ~~w e:rr' epriJ.lOl~ TO:rrOl~ ~v. (Mk 1:45) 21. iX:rravTe~ 0001 etxov a06evei~ i]yayov aUTOIJ~ :rrpo~ aUTov. (cf Lk 4:40) 22. (, lie 'Inoo ec ~PxeTal ~~w T~~ :rroAew~. 23. Kiipts, au J.I01l vi:rrTel~ TOIJ~ :rrolia~; (In 13:6) 24. ou yap vixrovrm Ta~ xeipa~ aUTWv oTe apTov e06iollOlV. (Mt 15:2) 25. ~n Xpovov J.I1KPOV J.Ie6' uJ.lWV sun. (In 7:33)

II. Translate into Greek: 1. You will be my witnesses in this city if you will be faithful. (Lk 24:48) 2. The children begin to cry out if their parents are distant. 3. God causes faith for all through the resurrection of Jesus. (cf. Acts 17:31) III. Mk 5:4-12.

LESSON 27

159

AV Col, Imperfect Middle Indicative and Present Middle Imperative. The Comparative Adjective "dtColV. The Two Ways ofExpressing Adjectival Comparison. Other Uses of the Comparative Adjective. Rules for Accents 19.

Lesson 27
A151ol, Imperfect Middle Indicative and Present Middle Imperative.
The imperfect middle indicative of AUW is conjugated as follows (cf V 1, VP 2):
Indicative Mood, Middle Voice, Imperfect Tense Singular Plural
1st Person

2nd Person 3rd Person

e-AIl-O/1TJV e-Au-oll e-Au-eTo

e-Au-oJ.le6a e-Au-e06e e-Au-ovTO

I was loosing [with relation


to myself]

You

(sg.)

were loosing [with relation to yourself]

He (She, It) was loosing


[with relation to himself, herself, itself]

We were loosing [with relation to ourselves] You (pl.) were loosing [with relation to yourself] They were loosing [with relation to themselves]

The form eAuoll is a contraction oHAueao (f.Aueao > eAueo > eA UOIl). The augment (found only in the indicative mood) is formed in the same way as is the augment of the imperfect indicative active (cf, above, Lesson 10). The augment is found only in the past tenses of the indicative mood, i.e., imperfect, aorist, pluperfect. For the meaning of the middle voice cf. above, Lesson 26. For the meaning of the indicative mood cf. above, Lesson 2. For the meaning of the imperfect tense cf. above, Lesson 10.

160

LESSON 27

The present middle imperative ofAuOl is conjugated as follows


(cf, V 1, VP 2):
Imperative Mood", Middle Voice, Present Tense

Singular 2nd Person 3rd Person

Plural

AU-ou Au-eoBOl

Au-oB Au-eoBOloav

You (sg.) loosen! [with relation to yourself]

You (pl.) loosen! [with relation to yourselves] Let them loosen! [with Let him [her, it] loosen [with relation to-themrelation to himself, selves] herself, itself]

The form AU-ou is a contraction from AUwo (Auwo > AUO > AUou). . The word loosen is used here in the Imperative instead of loose to avoid the ambiguity in the English expression Let him. loose! The latter can mean Let him loosenl, as abo~e, or Let him. go loosel, which is a passive use of the imperative and IS to be distinguished from the middle used here. For the meaning of the middle voice cf. above, Lesson 26. For the meaning of the present tense in the imperative mood cf. above, Lesson 12. The Comparative Adjective ,,&{~wv. The adjective /Ji~OlV, greater, is declined as follows (cf, Adj
11):
Masculine
n
V

Singular Feminine
IJd~OlV lJi~OlV IJdl;ovo~

Neuter
lJl~ov

IJd~OlV lJi~wv IJd~ovo~

lJiil;ov
IJd~ovo~
IJd~ovt

IJdl;ovt

lJi~ova/lJd~Ol

lJll;ovt IJdl;ova/lJil;Ol

lJiil;ov

Masculine
n
V

Plural Neuter Feminine lJ&il;ovc;!lJd~ou~ IJd~ovc;!lJd~ou~ lJi~ova/lJdl;w lJil;ovc;!lJdl;a u~ lJl~ovc;!lJd~ooc IJd~ova/lJd~w

LESSON 27
lJt~6VOlV
).ld~ovwv ).ll~OOt(v) ).l&i~ova/).ldl;w

161

lJtl;6vwv
lJi~oot(v)

).ld~oOt(v)

a
).lt~ov-.

IJd~ova<;;IlJd~ou~

IJd~ovac;!).l&l~oU~

There are two roots involved. The one common to all forms is The alternative forms come from the stem ).lt~oo-. In the masculine and feminine accusative singular the form ).ld~w is from ).ld~ooa > IJd~oa > ).ld~w, with oa contracting to co. This is also the explanation for the neuter nominative and accusative plural forms. The masculine and feminine nominative and accusative plural form ).ld~ou~ is from lJl~OO~ > ).ldl;o&~ > ).li~ou~, with the O contracting to 0 u. This is an "irregular" way of forming a comparative adjective in Greek, being used for a relatively small number of words. But the words in question are frequently used; the most important of them are given in the vocabulary for this lesson. The "regular" way of forming a comparative adjective will be given in Lesson 29.
The Two Ways of Expressing Adjectival Comparison.

There are two ways of expressing comparison involving adjectives in Greek: 1) with the simple genitive; 2) with the comparative particle ". 1) with the genitive: OUK E,OTlV 1iooAo~ ).li~wv TOO KUPlOU aUToo. A slave is not greater than his lord. 2) with the comparative particle ". OUK E,OTlV 1ioilAo~ ).l&l~WV ij (, KUPW~ aUToo. A slave is not greater than his lord. Other Uses of the Comparative Adjective. The comparative form of the adjective is also used for a statement of the positive degree in a reinforced form:
lJl~WV soriv. He is somewhat large.

162

LESSON 27

The comparative form can also be used for the superlative degree:
/-1d~wv

EOnV.

He is quite large.
The context is determinative for the precise force of the comparative.

Rules for Accents 19.


In the nouns of the third declension the a of the masculine and feminine accusative singular and plural is always short. Thus: oapKa, oapKa~; Apa(3a, Apa(3a~; /-1ijva, /-1ijva~; alwva, alwva~; rlllTOpa, pT]TOpa~. Similarly, the a of the neuter nominative and accusative singular and plural is always short. Thus: (3aJrno/-1a, (3aJrnO/-1aW; 1TVSUJ,1Ct, 1TVeOJ.1CtTa; OOOJ,1CX, aooJ,lCtra; Tepara; cxAcxTa; KEPCXTCt.

Vocabulary for Lesson 27.


aXP1(~)

[Prep 1] Governs the genitive case: until; as far as. This word is also used as a conjunction, sometimes with 0,), meaning until [Conj]. .

(3eA riov, (3eAT[WV, (3EAnov [Adj 11] better [comparative form of ayaBo~; cf. also KpElOOWV). EAaoowv, EAaoowv, sAaooov I EAaTTwv, EAaTTwv, sAaTTov [Adj 11] smaller [comparative form of /-11KpO~]. fjoowv, fjoowv, ~ooov [Adj 11] worse [comparative form of KaKo~]. xpeiootcv, xpeiooxov, Kpe1000V I KPElTTWV, KpdTTWV, xpeirrov [Adj 11] greater; larger [comparative form of ayaBo~; cf. also (3eATtWV].
/-1et~wv, /-1d~wv, /-1e1~bv /-1Eya~).

[Adj 11] greater; larger [comparative form of

JrAdwv, JrAdwv, JrAe10V [Adj 11] more [comparative form of JroAvd

LESSON 27

163

XElPWV, xetpwv, xeipov [Adj 11) worse [comparative form of KaKo~]. yevea, -a~, ~ [N 2) generation; age. BIlPtOV, -OIJ, T<) [N 7] wild beast.
vao~,

-oil, 6 [N 6m] temple; shrine.


-ij~, ~

n/-1T],

[N 1] honor; price.

xpda, -a~, ~ [N 2) need; necessity.


lievTepo~,
0/-1010~,

-a, -ov [Adj 2) second.

-a, -ov [Adj 2) like, equal to [with dative].


[Adj 1] third.

TplTO~, -11, -ov

olSTe ... olSTe and /-1T]Te ... /-1T]T.e [Conj, Neg) neither ... nor. When used separately and not in pairs oUTe and /-1T]Te each means and not; nor; not. These words are distinguished according to the criteria for using ou and /-1T].

Exeroises for Lesson 27.


1. Translate into English: 1. /-1" 'iOBI a/-1apTWAO~ 'tva /-1" xeipov OOt n ~. (ef. In 5:14) 2. VtJrTOIJ. 3. sonv yap wpa rpirr; Tij~ ~/-1Epa~. (Acts 2:15) 4. OUK doh ~/-1iv JrAeiov Ii ,xBve~ Mo. (ef. Lk 9:13) 5. JrPOcl>T]T% EV Tfj lliiq JraTptli1 n/-1"v OUK Exel. (In 4:44) 6. EV[JrTeTo TOU~ Jr61\a~. 7. aUTol EPXOVWl OUK d~ TO Kpe1000v aAAa d~ TO ~ooov. (cf 1 Cor 11:17) 8. TtVI dOlv 0/-10101 oi avBpwJrol Tij~ yevea~ mVTIl~; (cf, Lk 7:31) 9. spxeml 6 JrPOcl>T]T% /-1" EoBtwv apTov /-1T]Te EXWV olvov. (Lk 7:31) 10. O,)TO~ 6 Jrai~ EAaoowv EOTlv Ii EKeivo~. 11. 6 1\e 'Illooil~ EAeyev Jrepl Toil vnof Toil OW/-1aTO~ aUToil. (In 2:21)

164

LESSON 27

12. X'YOIJ<JlV Il~ dvClI avaOraOtV urirs ayyeXov urire nveiilla. (Acts 23:8) 13. auro~ ~eXr,oov sorlv Slloii. rfj spJiIlll' Ilera rwv 611P'OOV, (cf. Mk 1:13) 14. Kal ';V 6v y v 15. xuprs, ours OtKOV exet~. 16. Ile{~oov rotittov aXXI1 EVTOX~ OUK e:onv. (Mk 12:31) 17. I1u~avev 0 Xao~ axpt 00 ~ ~aotXeu~ Erepo~. (cf. Acts 7:18) 18. ~ Be: BelJr'pa 6vroM ouoiu rfj npwT1J soriv. (cf; Mt 22:39) 19. oiirs ooro~ <XllapT())XO~ sonv oure oi voveic auro13. (cf In 9:3) 20. axpt yap VOIlOIJ <Xllapna ';V EV KOOIlll' (Rom 5:13) 21. 'R yevea a15rl1 yevea xovnpd soriv. (Lk 1:29) 22. . 0 KUPtO~ auro13 xpetav e:xet. (Mk 11:3)
I
~

II. Translate into Greek: 1. He begins to eat better bread ifhe has need of it. 2. Honor and glory to God alone, the king of the ages. (cf 1 Tim 1:7) 3. Sheis smalier than that woman but larger than this one.
III. Mk 5:13-21.

LESSON 28

165

AU"', Present Middle Subjunctive and Optative. The Superlative Adjective. The Conjunction liTav and Its Use. Rules for Accents :MI.

Lesson 28
X1500, Present Middle Subjunctive and Optative. The present middle subjunctive of Xuco is conjugated as follows (cf. V 1, VP 2):
Middle Voice, Subjunctive Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

XO-wllat
Xu-~

XU-I1rat

Xo-wlle6a XO-I106e Xu-wvrCll

The form Xu~ is a contraction from XU'1(1Cl1: XUl10at > XUl1Cl1 > XOl1t > Xo~. For the meaning of the subjunctive mood in the present tense cf. above, Lesson 13, as well as Lesson 5. For the meaning of the middle voice cf. above, Lesson 26. The present middle optative of Xuw is conjugated as follows (cf. VI, VP 2):
Middle Voice, Optative Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

XU-Otll'1V Xu-OtO Xu-otro

XIJ-ollle6a Xu-mo6e Xu-otvro

The form Xuow comes from Xuowo. For the meaning of the optative mood in the present tense cf. . above, Lesson 14, as well as Lesson 6. For the meaning of the middle voice cf. above, Lesson 26

166
The Superlative Adjective.

LESSON 28

The forms for the comparative degree of several adjectives were given in Lesson 27 in connection with the paradigm of the third declension adjecive /ld(wv. The superlative degree of /lEt(wv is /lEY10TO<;. It is declined exactly like aya8o<; (cf above, Lesson 4). Other superlatives are given in the vocabulary section of this lesson. The use of the superlative degree of an adjective is not frequent in the New Testament. As was noted above in Lesson 27, the comparative degree occasionally is used for the superlative. The superlative degree can be used to indicate explicit supremacy in some area (rofiro TO /lEY10TOV f;onv --- This is the greatest) or simply to indicate a heightened degree ofthe positive (TODTO /lEY10TOV sonv --- This is very great).

The Conjunction ISTav and Its Use.


The word (hav comes from a combination of oTe, when, and
(iv, the particle indicating contingency. This conjunction is

frequently used with the subjunctive when there is question of a repeated action in the present or future:

When I am in the world, I am the light of the world.


[For the meaning of <1>00<; cf. below, Lesson 37, Vocabulary.] But it is also (rarely) used with the indicative when there is question of a repeated action in the past: (hav
g~AerrOV

omv f;v nii KOO/l41 ~, <1>00<; sun TOD KOO/lOU.

Cllhov,

gKpa~ov.

Whenever they saw him, they cried out.


Rules for Accents 20.
Nouns declined like rroAl<; (cf. Lesson 14) have an acute accent on the third-last syllable in the genitive singular and plural despite the fact that the last syllable is long. They thus are exceptions to the rule enunciated in Rules for Accents 3 in Lesson 11.

LESSON 28

167

Vocabulary for Lesson 28.


f;rravw [Prep 1] Governs the genitive case: upon; over. This word is also used as an adverb: upon [Adv 1]. f;AaXWTo<;, -T], -ov [Adj 1] least; very small [superlative of /llKPO<; and f;Aaoowv I f;AaTTwv]. KpanOTo<;, -T], -ov [Adj 1) best; very good [superlative of aya8o<; and xpeiootov I KpdTTWV I ~eATtWv]. This word is also used in formal address: most excellent. /lEYWTO<;, - T], -ov [Adj 1] greatest; very large [superlative of /lEya<; and /ld1;wv]. rrAelOTo<;, -T], -ov [Adj 1] most; large [superlative ofrroAu<; and rrAEtWV I rrAwv). f;m8u/lla, -a<;, 8upa, -a<;,
~

[N 2] desire.

~ [N 2]

door.

uvnueiov, -OU, TO [N 7] tomb; monument.


rrpo~aTov, -OU,

TO [N 7] sheep.

TEAO<;, -OU<;, TO [N 31] end; goal. (i1;1O<;, -a, -ov[Adj 2] worthy of [with genitive]. lKavo<;, -I], -ov [Adj 1] fit; sufficient; large; considerable; able. KCllVO<;, -I], -xiv [Adj 1] new. oAlYO<;, -I], -ov [Adj 1] small; few [in plural). The neuter accusative singular of this word, OAtyov, is used as an adverb in all three adverbial categories, with the meanings a little [space], a little [time], a little [quality, e.g., he loves little] [Adv 1,2, 3]. omv [Conj] when; whenever. gn [Adv 2] still; further.

168

LESSON 28

Exereises for Lesson 28.


1. Translate into English: 1. n lin xpe1av lixo/lev ucpriiptov; (Mk 14:63) [Tl means
why?]

2. u/lcl<; EK TOU 1faTpo<; TOU Bt(X~OAOU EaT; Kal Ta<; E1fl6u/lia<; TOU 1faTpo<; U/lWV 6AeTe. (cf. In 8:44) 3. aya6; BouAe, on mcroc ~<;, t061 E~ouoiav liXOlV E1faVOl 1fOAeOlv. (cf, Lk 19:17) 4. orav EV T4l KOO/l<jl W, $<ii<; slut TOU KOO/lOU. (In 9:5) [For the meaning of $<ii<; see below, Lesson 37, Vocabulary.] 5. KCXl eav d ti oltda a~ia. epxeTat ti elprlvT( UJ.Hi)v be cuhrjv. (cf Mt 10:13) 6. 01 aV6pOl1fOl liPXOVTiXl E1favOl. (cf Lk 11:44) 7. Kal Tij<; ~a01Aela<; aUTou OUK liOTCU TAO<;. (Lk 1:33) 8. etrrev ovv 1faAlV a '11100U<;, 'A/l~v a/l~v AYOl u/l1v on EYuJ sun ~ 6upa TWV 1fpol3aTOlv. (In 10:7) 9. EKe1vo<; a ~Y/lOlV /lYIOTO<; 1faVTOlV Eonv. 10. oAlyol doh 01 eupioKovTe<; T~V aMv. (cf Mt 7:14) 11. Kal OXAO<; Tij<; 1fOAl;Ol<; 1Kavo<; ~v oev aUTfj. (Lk 7:12) 12. oon<; ovv Auel uinv nov EVTOAWV rocrov TWV EAaxioTOlv Kal BlBaoKel OUTOl<; TOO<; av6puJ1fou<;, EAeXXIOTO<; liOTCU EV Tfj ~aolAe1a TWV oupavwv. (Mt 5:19) 13. EKe1 ~v /lV11/le10v xmvdv. (In 19:41) 14. xpdriore 'AvBpa, ypaljlOl T~V aArj6elav. 15. lipxeral 1fpo<; aUTov OXAO<; 1fAcloTo<;. (cf. Mk 4:1)
I

II. Translate into Greek: 1. And the men of the crowd were as sheep not having a shepherd. (cl. Mk 6:34) 2. For the worker is worthy of his bread. (cf, Mt 10:10) 3. Good and faithful servant, you were faithful over a few things, now you will be over many things. (cf, Mt 25:23)
III. Mk 5:22-30.

LESSON 29

169

A.s"" Present Middle Participle and . Infinitive. Regular Forms of the Comparative Adjective. Rules for Accents
21.

Lesson 29
AVOl, Present Middle Participle and Infinitive.

The present middle participle of AUOl is declined as follows (cf V 1, VP 2, and Adj 1):
Masculine
n v

Singular Feminine

g d a

AU-O/levo<; AU-O/leve AU-O/lVOU AU-O/lVOl AU-O/leVov


Masculine

Neuter

AU-O/lV11 AU-O/lV11 AU-O/lV11<; AU-O/lVlJ AU-O/lV11V


Plural Feminine

AU-O/leVOv AU-O/levov AU-O/lVOU AU-O/lVOl AU-O/levov


Neuter

n v g

d a

AU-O/leVOl AU-O/levOl AU-O/lVOlV AU-O/lVOl<;


Au-ousvouc

AU-O/leViXl AU-O/leViXl AU-O/lVOlV AU-O/leviXl<; AU-O/leva<;

AU-O/leVa AU-O/leva AU-/leVOlV AU-O/lev01<; AU-O/leVa

For the meaning of the present tense of the participle cf. above, Lesson 16, as well as Lesson 7. For the meaning of the middle voice cf above, Lesson 26. The present middle infinitive of AUW is Au-w6al (cf V 1, VP 2). For the meaning of the present tense of the infinitive cf above, Lesson 15, as well as Lesson 4. For the meaning of the middle voice cf. above, Lesson 26.

170

LESSON 29

Regular Forms of the Comparative Afljective.

The comparison of the adjectives liva6o~, KaKo~, Iliva~, and JrOAU~ given in Lessons 27 and 28 is irregular. The regular forms of the comparison of adjectives is as follows: 1) For the comparative degree the endings -rrspoc, -Tipa, -vrspov are added to the stem of the adjective in the positive degree. Thus: KatVO~, new: KC(tVOTEPO~, KatvoTipa, xmvorspov, newer; liKpt~tl~, strict: liKpt~iaTEpo~, liKpt~WTipa, liKpt~iTEPOV, stricter. 2) For the superlative degree the endings -TaTO~, -TaTTJ, -TaTOV are added to the stem of the adjective in the positive degree. Thus: KatVO~, new: KCttVOTc(TO~, KatVOTaTTJ, KCttVOTaTov, newest; liKPI~rl~, liKpl~iaTCtTO~, liKpt~WTaTTJ, liKpt~iaTCtTOV, strictest. If the final syllable of the stem is constituted by an 0 and this 0 is in turn preceded by a short syllable (i.e., a syllable with a short vowel), the final 0 of the root is lengthened to co, Thus: ao<j>o~, wise; ao<j>05TEpo~, wiser; oo<l>o5TaTo~, wisest. As a practical rule for forming the comparative and superlative, adjectives of the second declension add the comparative and superlative endings to the neuter nominative singular less the final v (contracted adjectives are an exception); adjectives of the third declension add the comparative and superlative endings to the neuter nominative singular. Thus: KCttVOV > KatVO > KalVO + TEPO~ > KatVOTEpO~; liKPt~i~ > liKPt~W + TEPO~ > liKpt~iaTEpo~. It should be noted that IltKPO~ also has regular forms for the comparative and superlative in addition to the irregular forms given in Lessons 27 and 28.
IltKPO~,

Rules for Accents 21.


In one-syllable words of the third declension the accent is placed on the last syllable in the genitive and dative singular and plural. Otherwise it remains on the same syllable as in the nominative:
Nominative, Vocative, Accusative ns IlrlV vs II rlV as Il~va Genitive and Dative

np Il~VE~ vp Il~VE~ ap Il~va~

gs II TJVO~ ds II TJV[ gp IlTJVWv dp IlTJO[(v)

LESSON 29

171

The accent on the genitive plural is circumflex, whereas elsewhere on the final syllable it is acute. There are some exceptions to this general rule: ou~, ear, has WTWV in the genitive plural; Jrai~, child, has Jra[bwv in the genitive plural; <l>W~, light, has <j>05Twv in the genitive plural. Jr(x~ has JravTWv and Jr(Xat(v) in the genitive and dative plural of the masculine' and neuter. The feminine, not being monosyllabic in the nominative singular, does not come under the rule.

Vocabulary for Lesson 29.


g~W6EV

[prep 1] Governs the genitive case: from outside; outside. This word is also used as an adverb with the meaning from outside, outside [Adv 1]. -oil, 6 [N 6m] field; country [i.e., rural area].
-OVTO~,

livpo~,

apxwv,

6 [N 22] ruler; leader.

~t~AtOV, -Oil,

TO [N 7] book.

bta.6tlKTJ, -TJ~, ~ [N 1] covenant; testament. unprupin, -a~, OPVrl, -~~,


~

[N 2]

testimony.

tl

[N 1] anger.

JrEPITOlltl, -~~, JrpoaEllXtl,


-~~,

tl [N 1] circumcision; those who are circumcised. tl [N 1] prayer; entreaty.


[Adj 15] strict.

liKPI~rl~, -rl~, -i~

bta~OAo~, -o~, -ov

[Adj 5] slanderous. This word is also used as a noun: devil; slanderer [N 6m].

JriVTE [Adj 21] five.


rriwxo~, -ri,
ao<j>o~,

-OV [Adj l]poor.

-I], -ov[Adj 1] wise.

172
rllil1 [Adv 2] now; already.

LESSON 29

01rOU [Adv 1 and 2] where; while. This word is also a conjunction, at times used with or seXv: wherever; whenever [Conj].

av

Exereises for Lesson 29.

I. Translate into English:

1. OUTO~ EPx~ml d~ unpropinv 'tva 1reXvT~~ morsiiocootv lil' aOToil. (cf In 1:7) 2. eiAW lif; U/la~ ao<f:>ou~ elVal d~ TO ayaeov. (cf. Rom 16:19) 3. n~ sortv apxwv TOUTWV TWV aTpanwTwv; 4. El;we~v Toil vao13 ~v 6 i~p~u~. 5. Kat EPx~ml d~ TOV T01rOV 01rOU ~v 6 1rpo<f:>~ Tl1~ ~a1rn,wv. (cf. In 10:40) 6. ~ 'W~ Toil 1rPO<f:>~TOIl aKpl~EOTeXTl1 ~V. (cf. Acts 26:5) 7. ~ 1r~PlTO/l~ Tfi~ KapMa~ sv 1rV~U/laTt scnv. (cf Rom 2:29) 8. 6 1ral~ ~v El;we~v. 9. /laKeXplOl oi 1rTWXOt T~ 1l"V~u/lan, on aUTwv sortv ~ ~aOlAeta TWV oopavwv. (Mt 5:3) 10. Kat faml 6 OtKO~ /lOU OtKO~ rrpoa~uxfi~. (Lk 19:46) 11. sK~lvOl fPXOVTal ~1~ TOV tlilOv aypov. (cf. Mt 22:5) 12. oi /lUel1mt aOToil EA~YOV on "Epl1/lo~ sortv 6 T01rO~, KUt rlliT] wpa 1rOAA~. (cf Mk 6:35) 13. EXW yap 1riVT~ ali~A<f:>ou~. (Lk 16:28) 14. 6 e~o~ EYPal"~V TO Ovo/la aOToil SV T~ ~l~Ail\l Tfi~ 'wfi~. (cf Apoc 13:8) . 15. T013TO sctw ~ KalV~ IilUe~KT] i T~ a't/lun uou, (cf. Lk22:20) 16. IillX milm EPX~Tal ~ opy~ Toil e~oil. (cf Col 3:6) 17. Kat sl; U/lWV ~'i~ lheX~oAO~ tanv. (In 6:70)

II. Translate into Greek:


1. My testimony about those things which I heard is true. (cf Jn5:31) 2. These are the prayers of the holy ones who are before the shrine. (cf, Apoc 5:8) 3. Jesus comes into the house of the ruler and sees the crowd and anger comes into his heart.

~
LESSON 29

173

III. Mk 5:31-39.

174

LESSON 30

A.s"" Future Middle Indicative, Infinitive, and Participle. The Use of llaAAOV to Form
the Comparative Degree of Adjectives. The Use of the Conjunction ,;sOft. The Result Clause. Rules for Accents 22.

Lesson 30
A15\ll, Future Middle Indicative, Infinitive, and Participle. The future tense of the middle voice in all three of the moods which are found in the New Tesament---indicative, infinitive, and participle---is formed by adding the endings of the present tense of the middle voice onto the future stem. For the meaning of the future indicative cf. above, Lesson 11 as well as Lesson 8. For the meaning of the future infinitive cf. Lessons 17 and 8. For the meaning of the future participle cf. Lessons 17 and 8. For the meaning of the middle voice cf. Lesson 16. The future middle indicative of ADw is conjugated as follows

(cf V 1, VP 2):
Middle Voice, Indicative Mood, Future Tense Singular Plural
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

AD-o-ollal A15-0-1) AD-O-Tat

AU-0-o~8a

AD-0-w8 AU-O-OVTat

I shall loose [with relation


to myself]

We shall loose [with relation to


ourselves]

You (sg.) will loose [with


relation to yourself]

You (pl.) will loose [with


relation to yourselves] They will loose [with relation to themselves]

He (She, It) will loose [with


relation to himself, herself, itself]

~
LESSON 30

175

The form AUO!) is a contraction from ADOWat (AUOWat > ADOat > AD0l11 > AD!)).
(jlUAcX~O~at Ta<; i;vToAa<; TOU 8Ou.

I shall observe the commandments of God.


The future middle infinitive orADw is Au-o-w8al (cf. V 1, VP Myw aUTov lUAcX~w8at Ta<; i;VToAa<; TOO 8600.

2):

I say that he will observe the commandments of God.


The fut~e middle participle orA uw is declined as follows (cf., V 1, VP 2, AdJ 1):
Middle Voice, Participial Mood, Future Tense Masculine Feminine Neuter

v
g

d a

AUOO~VOV
Masculine

AUO~~EV4'

AUaO~Vo<; AUOO~V AUOO~EVOU

AUOO~EVI1V
Plural Feminine
AUOO~Vat AUaO~Vat AUOO~EVWV

AUOO~EVI1 AuaO~EVI1 AUOO~EVI1<; AUOO~EV!)

AUOO~VOV
Neuter

AUOO~VOV AUOO~VOV AUOO~EVOU Auao~Ev4'

v
g

d a

AUOO).lVOI AUOO).lVOl Xuoouevcov AUOO).lEVOI<; AUOO).lEVOU<;

AUaO).lVa AUOO).lVa
AUOO~EVWV

AUOO).lEVat<; AUaO).lEva<;

AUOO).lEVOI<; AUOO).lVa

The future participle is occasionally used to express purpose (cf. above, Lesson 17): iipXTat 6 ~a8I1T~<; (jlUAa~O).lVo<; Ta<; i;VTOAcX<;. The disciple is coming to observe the commandments. The Use of j!cXAAov to Form the Comparative Degree ofAdjectives.

It is possible to form the comparative degree of adjectives through the use of the adverb ~dAAOV, more, in addition to the ways

176

LESSON 30

of forming the comparative degree of the adjective given above in Lessons 27, 28, and 29: KaAov eOTl /lUAAOV ciyalfT)V lxetv It is better to have love than anger.

il oPyT]v.

The Use of the Conjunction wore. The Result Clause. The word wore is often used to introduce a main clause in . which the verb is usually in the indicative mood: wore 6 UtO~ rof civ8poorrou KUptO~ eon Kal ToB oa~~aTou. An.dso the son of man is lord also of the Sabbath. This use of wOTe to introduce a principal clause must be carefully distinguished from its use ~o introduc~ a subor?ffiate . . clause indicating the result of an action, That IS, an action which IS caused but not foreseen by the agent. ellfev AOYOU~ oo<l>ou~ wOTe TOV OXAOV Kpu~at litO. xapav. He spoke wise words with the result that the crowd cried out because ofjoy. He didn't speak in order to have the crowd cry out with joy: such a sentence would use a purpose clause (for example, 'iva with the subjunctive) to express the idea that the agent had this in mind when he spoke. He spoke, and as a matter of fact his words resulted in the crowd's crying out, although this was not his intention. In rare instances the indicative is used instead of the irrlinitive, perhaps to emphasize the reality of the result. Rules for Accents 22. The word YUVT], woman, follows the rules for monosyllables of the third declension. Thus YUVT], yuvat (irregular), vuvmxcc, vuvmxi, vuvnixc, yuvalKe~, yuvdiKe~, yuVatKWv, yuv<Xt~i(v),
yuvalKa~.

Vocabulary for Lesson 30.

LESSON 30

177

lfipav [Prep 1] Governs the genitive case: beyond; on the other side This word also occurs as an adverb, across, in the phrase T~ lfipav, literally, the across, i.e., the other side. This preposition concludes the presentation of the principal prepositions used in the Greek New Testament. Otherprepositions will be presented as the need arises.
ave/lO~, -io u,

6 [N 6m] wind.

cipviov, -io u, TO [N 7] lamb; sheep. lilliaXT], -il~, ~ [N 1] teaching; instruction.


IiAto~,
-r

ou, 6 [N 6m] [the] sun.

/liAO~, -ou~, TO [N 31] member [of the body]. 01v0~, -ou, 6 [N Bm] wine.

lfapPT)oia, -a~, ~ [N 2] boldness; frankness; freedom in speaking. xorripiov, -ou, TO [N 7] cup; chalice. VlfO/lOVT], -il~, ~ [N 1] perseverance; patience.
liuvaTO~, -T], -ov

[Adj l]possible;power{ul.

ex8po~, -a, -ov [Adj 2] hating. As a noun this word means enemy [N

6m].

lf010~, -a,

-ov [Adj 2] what?, which?, what sort of?

wOTe [Conj] Introducing a principal clause: and so; introducing a subordinate clause: so that; with the result that. At times this conjunction seems to have a purpose function: in order that. yi [Part] An enclitic which adds emphasis to the word with which it is associated. OUXl [Neg] Emphatic form of OU, not. This word is usually used to introduce questions for which an affirmative answer is expected.

178

LESSON 30

~aAAov

[Adv 3] more.

Exercises for Lesson 30.


I. Translate into English: 1. PAenW oe hEPOV vouov SV roic ~eAEaiv uou. (Rom 7:23) 2. 0 VEKPO~ av6pwno~ apXEmt AeYEtV WOTE navTa~ <jlopov
3. OUXt au d 0 XPWTO~; (Lk 23:39) 4. OlKatOV soriv holmov TOU Bscf ti~wv aKOtlEtV ~aAAov ij TOU 6wu; (cf Acts 4:19) 5. OtOaOKaAs, noia SVTOA~ ~syaAI] i nii vouco; (Mt 22:36) 6. 01 ~a6'1mt epXOvTat d~ TO nepav XWpt~ apTwv. (cf, Mt 16:5) 7. 0 oe 'Il]ooo~ stnEv aunii, Ildvrn 5t5vam nii morscovn. (Mk 9:23) 8. aAAa ve Kat ouv naow TOUTOt~ rpirnv rmirnv ti~epav ayst a<jl' oli mum ~oav. (cf. Lk 24:21) 9. ~v AalAaljl ~syaAI] ave~oll. (cf. Mk 4:37) 10. Kat aAAO~ ayysAO~ epxnat SK TOU oupavou, Kat TO npoownov aUTOO W~ 0 ijAlO~. (Apoc 10:1) 11. 01 ~a6l]mt SvptaKOV TOV 'Il]oOUV nEpaV Tij~ 6aAaOO%. (cf In 6:25) 12. 1 au d 0 Xptcroc, AeyS ti~lv 1Tappl]oi<;x. (In 10:24) [The dative is a dative of manner.] 13. Kat 01 aYlOt av6pwnOt ~oav sVolmov ayyeAWv ayiwv Kat eVolmov TOO apvioll. (Apoc 14:10) 14. AeYSt ti ~tlTI]P TOO '1I]oOU npo~ aUTOv, Olvov OUK exollOtv. (In 2:3) 15. TOUTO TO nOTtlPtOV ti KatV~ ota6tlKI] i nii a'i~an uou. (Lk 22:20) 16. WOTS KtlptO~ sonv 0 IlIO~ TOU av6pol1T01l Kat TOU oappaTOIl. (Mk 2:28) 17. 0 XPWTO~ epxsmt 'iva Ota Tij~ ti1TO~ovij~ Kat Ota Tij~ 1TapaKAtlOSWV TWV ypa<jlwv T~V SAmOa exwllEv. (Rom 15:4) 18. Ilie OlaPOAOIl, sx6pe naol]~ OtKalOOtlVI]~. (cf, Acts 13:10) 19. ri scnv TOUTO; otoax~ Katvti KaT' eeolloiav. (Mk 1:27) II. Translate into Greek: 1. They will begin to speak if they have the boldness.
~XE1V.

LESSON 30

179

2. You, 0 man of God, pursue justice, faith, love, endurance.


(cf. 1 Tim 6:11) 3. The body is not one member, but many. (cf. 1 Cor 12:14)

III. Mk 5:40 - 6:6.

180

LESSON 31

AU"" Aorist Middle Indicative and Imperative. The Adjectives r.t"AOD~ and XPUOOD~. Rules for Accents 23. .

Lesson3!
AOlll, Aorist Middle Indicative and Imperative. For the meaning of the aorist indicative cr. above, Lesson 18 and Lesson 2. For the meaning of the middle voice cf. Lesson 26. The aorist middle indicative of AVW is conjugated as follows (cf. V 1, VP 2):
Middle Voice, Indicative Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Plural
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

i:-Au-a-UJ.11'\v i:-Av-a-w i:-Av-a-aTo

i:-Au-a-UJ.1E6a i:-Av-a-aa6E i:-Av-a-avTo

I loosed [with relation to myself1 You (sg.) loosed [with relation to yourself] He (She, It) loosed [with relation to himself, herself, itself]

We loosed [with relation to ourselves] You (pl.) loosed [with relation to yourselves] They loosed [with relation to themselves]

The form i:Avaw is the result of a contraction: i:Avaaao > EA15aao > eAuo<.O, The stem used is that of the aorist active, the formation of the augment is the same as that for the aorist active (cf. above, Lesson 18).

He began to cry out.

iip~aTo

KpU~EtV.

LESSON 31

181

For the meaning of the aorist imperative cf. above, Lesson 19 and also Lesson 4. For the meaning of the middle voice cf. above, Lesson 26. The aorist middle imperative of AVW is conjugated as follows (cf V 1, VP 2):
Middle Voice, Imperative Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Plural

2nd Person 3rd Person

Au-a-al Au-a-ua6w

Av-a-aa6E Au-a-ua6waav You (pl.) loosen! [with relation to yourselves] Let them loosen! [with relation to themselves]

You (sg.) loosen! [with relation to yourself Let him (her, it) loosen! [with relation to himself, herself itself

The word loosen is used here in the imperative instead of loose to avoid the ambiguity in the English expression Let him loose! Cf. above, Lesson 27.
<l>tlAa~ua6w aUT~ T~V i:vTOA~V.

Let her observe the command!


The Adjectives
lillIA013~ and xpuao13~.

A limited number of adjectives of the first and second declensions show contracted forms (e.g., limAou~, limAij, limAouv), double, from the root 5mAO- [cf. Adj 3], and XPtlaoo~, xpuaij, XPtlaouv, golden, from the root xptlaE- [Adj 3]. The results of the contraction are the same.
Masculine
n Singular Feminine
Neuter

v
g d a

5mAou~ limAou~

5mAij
5mAij~ 5mAij~

limAou
5mA~

limAouv limAouv limAoo


limA~

5mAouv

5mAlJ 5mAijv

5l1rAOUV

182

LESSON 31
Plural
Masculine Feminine

Neuter

d a

611fAOt 611fAOl 611fAWV 611fAOle;; 611fA 0ile;;

611fAat 611fAat 611fAWV 611fAate;; 611fAde;;

611fAd 611fAWV 611fAWV 611fAOte;; 611fAd

Explantion of the contractions: 0 + 0> oo (611fAOUe;;, 611fAOUV, 611fAO u) 0 + 00 > 00 (611fAW, 611fAWV); 0 + oi > oi (611fAOt, 611fAOte;;). 0 + a usually results in 00; but here, in the nominative, vocative, and accusative neuter plural, the result is a because of the influence from the ending a in these forms elsewhere. The feminine is explained by the fact that 0 plus a long vowel or a diphthong is normally absorbed. As was stated above, the contractions between a root vowel e and the above endings yields the same results. Rules for Accents 23. Contracted adjectives of the first and second declensions have a circumflex accent on the last syllable of every form. Cf. the declension of 611fAOUe;; above, in this lesson.

Vocabulary for Lesson 31.


(bTAOUe;;, alTAfj, alTAOUV [Adj 3] single; healthy. 611fAOUe;;, 611fAfj, 611fAOUV [Adj 3] double. TeTpalTAOUe;;, TeTpalTAfj, TerpalTAOilv [Adj 3] fourfold. xaAKOUe;;, xaAKfj, XCtAKOUV [Adj 3] bronze. xpuooue;;, xpoofj, xpooouv [Adj 3] golden. 6WKovia, -ae;;, 1\ [N 2] service; help. 6taKOVOe;;, -ou, 6/1\ [N 6m and N 6f] servant; minister. 60oia, -ae;;, 1\ [N 2] sacrifice; act ofoffering.

",.,"

LESSON 31
Kpilla, -aroe;;, TO [N 16] judgment; verdict; condemnation. Ilaxmpa, -TIe;;, 1\ [N 3, N 33] sword; knife. The genitive singular is irregular. So is the dative singular (-IJ instead of -q:). 1l1060e;;, -oil, 6 [N 6m] wages; reward. ouvei6T1ote;;, -ewe;;, 1\ [N 28f] conscience; awareness. <jlUArj, -fje;;, 1\ [N 1] tribe; nation. aATl6tvoe;;, -rj, -ov [Adj 1] true; real; dependable. ioxupoe;;, -a, -ov [Adj 2] strong. 6to [Conj] therefore.

183

apa [Part] consequently, then, therefore. This word is to be distingnished carefully from <ipa [Part, Neg], an interrogative particle expecting a negative answer, and dpd, -de;;, 1\ [N 2],

curse.
Exercises for Lesson 31.
1. Translate into English:
1. 6to 6 dypoe;; 6KetVOe;; aypoe;; dillaroe;; sonv. (cf, Mt 27:8) 2. 1\ 6taKovia 1\IlWV 6wKovia lTpOe;; rov Ktipidv sortv. 3. apea06woav <jluAaoow6m rue;; 6vroAae;;. 4. Ktipi s, i60D Ilaxapat w6e Mo. (Lk 22:38) 5. Ullete;; sore aeWt 611fAfje;; nil fje;;. (cf 1 Tim 5:17) 6. <ipa E:Orett 1\ lTione;; 6lTl rfje;;YTle;;; (cf Lk 18:8) 7. 1\ xaAKfj Ilaxmpa ~v. 6lTl rfje;; rpalTt~~e;;. 8. 1\ ollvd6T1ote;; aorwv ao6evrje;; scrw. (cf 1 Cor 8:7) 9. AtyW 6KCtVOV rov 6PyarTlV ~V f;VW1TtOV TOO 66Ou. 10. 1\ 6uoia rof ieptwc;; OOK aeia ~v f;VWlTtOV TOO 6eou. 11. 6K TOO orouuroc aoroiJ E:Pxerat dpu 6lTl rov 6eov. 12. ~v TO <jlwe;; ro aATl6tvov. (In 1:9) 13. ric;; apa Ild~wv sortv 6V rij f3aotAd~ rwv oopavwv; (Mt 18:1) 14. E:Pxerett 6E; 6 ioxoporepoc;; 1100. (Lk 3:16) 15. 6UV oov Jj 6 o<jl6aAlloc;; OOll alTAOiJC;;. (lAOV TO oWlla oof 6V nil <jlwrl E:oral. (cf. Mt 6:22)

aeWV

184

LESSON 31

16. /) /iE; lJE(~UlV OlJWV EOTeU OlJWV ,fl1~~ovo<;. (M~ ~3:11) 17. J1v EKe! OXAO<; nOAo<; EK nuvTO<; eBvou<; KUl EK nUVTUlV cj)IJAWV KCtL AUWV KUL yAUlO?,wV., (cf. ..Ap~c 9) t , 18. oo/iE; EXE1<; cjlo~ov TOU BEau, on sv T'l1 UUT'l1 xpiucen si; (cf Lk 23:40)

7:

II. Translate into Greek: 1. Jesus says that his judgment is true. (cf. Jn 8: 161 2. If he were a minister of God, he would not be saymg these things. 3. One of the twelve comes and with him a crowd from the elders with swords. (cf Mk 14:43) III. Mk 6:7-16.

LESSON 32

185

).11"" Aorist Middle Subjunctive and Optative. The Adjective apyo po6~. Rules for Accents 24.

Lesson 32
AUIIl, Aorist Middle Subjunctive and Optative. For the meaning of the aorist subjunctive cf. above, Lesson 20, and also Lesson 5. For the meaning of the middle voice cf. Lesson 26. The aorist middle subjunctive of A15W is conjugated as follows (cf. V 1, VP 2):
Middle Voice. Subjunctive Mood, Aorist Voice Singular Plural 1st Person 2nd Person Srd Person

A15-O-WlJal A15-O-'l ).15-O-TjTUl

AU-O-WlJEBu A15-o-l1oBe A15-O-WVTal

The form AUO'l is a contraction oO.15aTjOUl (AUOTjOal > A15aTjUl > A150Tjl > A15a'l). It should be noted that this form is the same as the aorist active subjunctive third person singular. Hence the form must be analyzed according to the context. EPxeTCtl 'iv
ap~l1TCtl

hiyelv.

He is coming in order that he may begin to speak.


For the meaning of the aorist optative cf. above, Lesson 21, and also Lesson 6. For the meaning of the middle voice cf. Lesson 26. The aorist middle optative ofA15w is conjugated as follows (cf V 1, VP 2):
Middle Voice, Optative Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Plural
1st Person

Au-o- u(lJTjV

Au-o-u(lJeBu

186
2nd Person 3rd Person

LESSON 32

Au-a-cno Au-a-atTO

Au-a-cua6E Au-a-atVTO

The form AuaatO comes from Auaatcro. The Adjective cipyupoue;. Another category of contracted adjectives of the first and second declensions has a root ending in Epreceded by a p. The feminine of this type contracts to a instead of 1] (e.g., apyupoi)<;, apyupd, apyUPouv, silver [Adj 4]). For an explanation of the contractions cf. Lesson 31.
Masculine
n
V

Singular Feminine

Neuter

apyupoii<; tXpyupoii<; apyupoii


apyup~

apyupd apyupd apyupde;


apyUP~

tXpyupoiiv apyupoiiv apyupoii


apyup~

d a

apyupoiiv
Masculine

apyupdv
Plural Feminine

apyupoiiv
Neuter

v
g

tXpyupo'i apyupol apyup<3 v apyupole; apyupoiie;

apyupa'i apyupal apyup<3 v apyupa'i<; apyupd<;

apyup6. apyupd apyup<3v apyupol<; apyupii

This concludes the presentation of the various categories of nouns and adjectives. All nouns and adjectives in the New Testament either can be subsumed under one of the various categories presented in this and the previous lessons, or else need special attention by reason of unusual forms. Such words needmg special attention by reason of unusual forms will be presented in future lessons.

Rules for Accents 24. In verbs, the accentuation is more regular than in nouns and adjectives (cf. above, Rules for Accents 12, Lesson 20). In verbs, the accent tends to go as far from the last syllable as possible, to the

LESSON 32

187

third-last syllable or if that i t . syllable, according t~ the e IS ral possible, to the second-last syllables (cf. above, Rules 10~~cc nte~ for the accentuation of these yeypWrTCXt in Mk 1:2 is accented o~nts ,~esson 11). Thus the word last syllable is short (final a . h~1hird-last syllable because the arroaTeAAw and KaTaaKEuaa~tI~nn~rm y considered short). But elv erse .are accented on the second-last syllable because thhel sam B t th e as t sy l able IS long ere are are exceptions to thi . u ti s ~ene,:~ rule.. One such exception involves the accent on th accent remains on the s d e ac ve infinitive aorist: the syllable is considered s~~~~fo;ast syllablefeven though the last in Mk 10:2 has the accent on thPurposes 0 accent. Thus arroAiiam there is a third-last syllable e s~~ond-last syllable, even though d not o~y that the syllable -A u~~ longe b~~~~\I;hcIrcumflll ex, inicating considered short. , a e sy able -aat IS

Vocabulary for Lesson 32. apyupoiie;, -d, -oiiv [Adj 4] silver [i.e., made ofsilver]. rrop<Ptlpoii<;, -6., -oiiv [Adj 4] purple.
~!~poii<;,

-d, -oiiv [Adj 4] iron [i.e., made of iron].


~ [N 1] ~

aliEA<I>rl, -J1<;, alitKla, -ae;,

sister.

[N 2] wrong-doing; injustice.

EAEO<;, -oue;, TO [N 31] mercy; compassion. EOPTrl, -fj<;,


~ [N 1]

feast.

KW/l1], -T]<;, ~ [N 1] village.

uucrripiov, -ou,
~~~xa,

To [N 7] secret; mystery.

TO [N 32] Passover; Passover lamb.

rrAOVatOe;, -a, -ov [Adj 2] rich. <plAoe;, friend. -1], -ov [Adjl] I ovm. . g Thi s word IS . also a noun [N Gm]:

188

LESSON 32

OUKeTl [Adv 2, Neg] no longer. noil [Adv 1] where?; to what place?; whither?

Exercises for Lesson 32.


1. Translate into English: 1. gPXTQ.l 'lva apX'1Tal Aeylv. 2. 6 nOl/l~V gXl peXll1iov Ol1i'1pdv. 3. av8pwrro~ Tl~ tlV nAoolO~ a~ 1XV 1iOilAOV. (cf, Lk 16:1) 4. gAO~ 8eAW Kat OU 8lJa1av. (Mt 9:13) 5. EV /lYeXAlJ 1i~ oiKiGt OUK gaTlV /lOVOV aKO'1 XPlJad Kat apYlJpd. (2 Tim 2:20) 6. 6 'I'1ao(j~ ifyylav d~ T~V KuJ/l'1V. 7. waT OUKeTl sloiv Mo aAACt aeXp~ ui. (Mt 19:6) 8. OOTO~ aA'18tl~ EaTlV Kal a1ilK1a EV aUT'ii OUK gaTlv. (In 7:18) 9. 6 'I'1aoil~ lxv iudnov nop<j>lJpoilv. 10. Kal at a1iA<j>al aUToil OUXt ndaw rrpo~ D/ld~ sloiv; (Mt 13:56) 11. i]v 1i~ EYYO~ TO rreXoxa, Ti /lYeXA'1 OPTtl. (cf. In 6:4) 12. t1ioo uuorripiov D/llV Aeyw. (1 Cor 15:51) 13. T1~ E~ U/lWV 15~l <j>lAov... (Lk 11:5) 14. nof Ti n1an~ u/lWV; (Lk 8:25) II. Translate into Greek: 1. The prophet says that there is no injustice with God. (cf, Rom 9:14) 2. God is rich in mercy because of his great love. (cf, Eph 2:4) 3. Where are the wise of this world?

III. Mk 6:17-26.

LESSON 33

189

Aorist Middle Participle and Infinitive. The Noun Xcipt~. Rules for Accents 25.

Au""

Lesson 33
AOW, Aorist Middle Participle and Infinitive. For the meaning of the aorist participle and infinitive cf. above, Lesson 22, as well as Lessons 4 and 7 For the meaning of the middle voice cf. Lesson 26. The aorist middle participle of AOW is declined as follows (cf. V 1, VP 2, Adj 1):
Middle Voice, Participle Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Masculine Neuter Feminine n
v
g

AlJ-a-eX/lvo~

d a

Ao-a-eX/lv AO-a-a/levoo AO-a-a/levqJ Ao-a-eX/lvoV


Masculine

AlJ-a-a/lev'1 AO-a-a/lev'1 AO-a-a/lev% AO-a-a/levlJ AO-a-a/lev'1 v


Plural Feminine

AlJ-a- eX/lVOV Ao-a-eX/lvoV AlJ-a-a/levoo Ao-a-a/levqJ Ao-a-eX/lvoV


Neuter

n
v
g

AlJ-a-eX/lVOl AlJ-a-eX/lVOl AO-a-a/l6VWV


AO-a-a/l6VOl~ AO-a-a/l6VOO~

Ao-a-eX/lVal Ao-a-eX/lVal AO-a-a/levwv


Ao-a-a/lev<Xl~ AO-a-a/leva~

d a

Ao-a-eX/lva Ao-a-eX/lva AO-a-a/l6VWV Ao-a- a/l6VOl~ Ao-a- eX/lva

Ti yov~ llanTlaa/l6V'1 ifp~aTO 1iO~eX~l v TOV 8ov. Having had herself baptized, the woman began to glorify God.
The aorist middle infinitive ofAow is Ao-a-aa8al (cf. V 1, VP 2, Adj 1).

190

LESSON 33

BiAoo vi1jlaoBat viiv ~v ~KElVqJ nil Vt1TTijpl.

I wish to wash

TWW

in that basin.

The Noun XdptC;.


The important noun xaptC;, grace, is declined like ~Amc;, but with some exceptions (cf. N 13f and N 33):
Singular n Plural

v
g

d
a

xaptC; xaptC; xaptTOC; , xaptTl xaptv I xapmx

xaptTEC; xaptTEC; , xaptToov xaptot(v) xaptTaC;

Rules for Accents 25.


The diphthongs -Ot and -at, when final, are regarded as short for purposes of accent, except in the optative (cf. above, Rules for Accents 2, Lesson 10). Thus in the optative aorist active third person singular the form is AUOat, whereas in the infini~ve.aorist activ~ the form is A13oat. (In both these forms the U ofAuoo IS long. But III some forms of its conjugation it is short.)

Vocabulary for Lesson 33.


XeXptC;, xaptTOC;, ~ [N 33] grace; kindness.
aKo~, -ijc;, ~

[N 1] report; hearing.

aoBivEta, -ac;, ~ [N 2] weakness; illness. Mvlipov, -OU, TO [N 7] tree. VE<jliAI] , -I]C;, ~ [N 1] cloud. nopveiu, -ac;, ~ [N 2] sexual immorality. OTaUPOC;, 013, 0 [N 6m] cross.

LESSON 33
x~pa, -ac;, ~ [N2]

191

widow.

Xwpa, -ac;, ~ [N 2] region; neighborhood. /i.Ka [Adj 21] ten.


~KAEKTOC;, -~, -ov [Adj 1] chosen.

KaBapoc;, -a, -ov [Adj 2] clean; innocent. JrvEUllaTlKOC;, -~, -ov [Adj 1] spiritual; pertaining to spirit;

pertaining to the Spirit.

JrOOOC;, -I], -ov [Adj 1] how much?; how many? ouai [Inter] alas! This world is also found as an indeclinable feminine noun [N 32]: disaster.
O~llEPOV [Adv 2]

today.

Exercises for Lesson 33.


I. Translate into English: 1. Kat JrotllivEC; ~oav ~v Tfj xwpq: Tfj aUTfj. (Lk 2:8) 2. Kat ilioo <l>oov~ ~K Tfjc; VE<jliAI]C; Aiyouoa, OOTOC; ~OTlV 0 uioc; 1l0U 0 ayaJr'1TOC;. (Mt 17:5) 3. KUptE, Tic; ~JriOTEUOEV Tfj aKofj ~llOOV; (Rom 10:16) 4. oriuspov oOOTl]pia nil olKqJ TOtJrqJ ~oriv. (cf. Lk 19:9) 5. ~oav MKa Mvlipa Jrpo TijC; oiKiac;. 6. d OOV TO <l><3c; TO ~V OOt OKOTOC; soriv, TO OKOTOC; JrOOOV. (Mt 6:23) 7. Xaptc;ulllV Kat dp~VI] aJro Bw13 JraTpoc; ~llOOV Kat Kupiou '11]0013 XPtOT013. (Rom 1:7) 8. lita Ii~ TaC; JropvElac; eKaoToc; T~V 6auTo13 yuvalKa ~XiTOO, Kat 6KaOTI] TOV 'ilitOV eXvlipa ~XiTW. (1 Cor 7:2) 9. aUTI] ~ aoBivEta OUK lOTlv JrpoC; BavaTov an' uJr~P Tijc; Mel]c; T013 Bw13. (cf. In 11:4) 10. ~KE1VOt ~oBiouotv TaC; oiKiac; TOOV Xl]poov. (cf. Lk 20:47) 11. 'foBI ~eouo(av lxoov ~Jravoo MKa JrOAEooV. (Lk 19:17) 12. Kat JreXVTEC; TO aUTO nvsoudnxov (3poolla i)oBtOv. (cf 1 Cor 10:3)

192

LESSON 33

13. oual Be Tdie;; f,y yaoTpl exoUO<XIe;; BV BKelVale;; Tate;; ~J.I6pale;;. (Mt 24:19) 14. J.IaKaplOl oi KaBapol Tfj KapM~ on aUTol TOV Bf'oV I3A61j101J01V. (cf. Mt 5:8) 15. 0 oTalJpOe;; Toil 'Inoof BUvaJ.lie;; soriv. 16. UAAOIJe;; eowof'v, owoarw i;aIJTOV, d oOTOe;; sorw 0 Xpl0TOe;; Toil Bf'oil 0 EKAf'KTOe;;. (Lk 23:35)

II. Translate into Greek: 1. And behold all things will be clean for us. (cf. Lk 11:41) 2. Faith is from hearing, and hearing is through the words of Christ. (Rom 10:17) 3. Today if you hear his voice you will have salvation. (Reb 3:7) III. Mk 6:27-36.

,' .c
LESSON 34

193

A,sOl, perfect Middle Indicative, Pluperfect Middle Indicative, and Perfect Middle Participle. The Perfect Middle of Stems Ending in Palatals, Labials, Dentals, Liquids, and Nasals. Rules for Accents 26.

Lesson 34
A"Ill, Perfect Middle Indicative, Pluperfect Middle Indicative, and Perfect Middle Participle.
For the meaning of the perfect indicative cf. above, Lesson 23, and also Lesson 2. For the meaning of the middle voice cf. Lesson 26. The perfect middle indicative of AUW is conjugated as follows (cf, V 1, VP 2):
Middle Voice, Indicative Mood, Perfect Tense Singular Plural A6AIJ-J.Ial Af'AU-OJ.lf'Ba MAIJ-Oal Af'AU-oBf' MAIJ-Tal Af'AU-VTal

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

I have loosed [with relation to myself] You (sg.) have loosed [with relation to yourself] He (She,It) has loosed [with relation to himself, herself, itself]

We have loosed [with relation to ourselves] You (pl.) have loosed [with relation to yourselves] They have loosed [with relation to themselves]

The formation of the reduplication is the same as that for the active voice (cf. above, Lesson 23).
<XnoA6AIJJ.I<XI TOUe;; BouAolJe;;.

I have freed the slaves for mvself [and they remain freed].

194

LESSON 34

For the meaning ofthe pluperfect cf. above, Lesson 24, and also Lesson 2. For the meaning of the middle voice cf. Lesson 26. The pluperfect middle indicative of AUUl is conjugated as follows (cf, V 1, VP 2):
Middle Voice, Indicative Mood, Pluperfect Tense Singular Plural
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

(e)AEAu-lJl1V (.)A6AIJ-OO (.)A6AIJ-TO

(e)AEAU-IJEOa (e)A6AIJ-OOE (/;)1.61. IJ-VTO

I had loosed [with relation


to myself]

We had loosed [with relation to


ourselves]

You (sg.) had loosed [with


relation to yourself]

You (pl.) had loosed


[with relation to yourselves] They had loosed [with relation to themselves]

He (She, It) had loosed [with relation to himself, herself, itself] a1rEAEAUlJl1V TOUe:; 50uAolJe:;.

I had freed the slaves for myself [and they remained free].
The augment can be treated the same way as in the pluperfect active, that is, it can be used or omitted with no difference in meaning (cf. above, Lesson 24). For the meaning of the perfect participle cf. above, Lesson 25, and also Lesson 7. The perfect middle participle of AUUl is formed as follows (cf.V 1, VP 2, Adj 1):
Middle Voice, Perfect Tense, Participial Mood Singular Neuter Feminine Masculine
n v g

d a

AE-A1J-1J6VOe:; AE-A1J-1J6VE AE-AIJ-1J6VOIJ AE-A1J-1J6V4l I.E-A1J-1J6VOV

I.E-A1J-1J6Vl1 I.E-A1J-1J6Vl1 AE-AIJ-1J6Vl1e:; AE-AIJ-1J6VlJ AE-AIJ-1J6Vl1 V

AE-AIJ-1J6VOV AE-A1J-1J6VOV AE-A1J-1J6VOIJ AE-A1J-1J6V4l AE-A1J-1J6VOV

LESSON 34

195 .

Masculine
n

Plural Feminine

Neuter

v
g

d
a

AE-A1J-1J6VOt I.E-A1J-1J6VOt I.E-A1J-1J6VUlV I.E-A1J-1J6VOte:; AE-AIJ-1J6VOIJe:;

I.E-A1J-1J6Vat I.E-A1J-1J6Vat AE-AIJ-1J6VWV AE-AIJ-1J6Vate:; AE-AIJ-1J6vae:;

AE-AIJ-1J6Va AE-A1J-1J6Va I.E-A1J-lJeVUlV AE-AIJ-lJevote:; . AE-AIJ-lJeva

The reduplication is the same as in the perfect active participle. The endings are the normal endings for the first and second declension adjectives. But the accent does not recede as the accent on verb forms normally does: it is on the second-last syllable even when the last syllable is short, instead of on the third-last. The meaning ofthe perfect tense of the participial mood is the same as elsewhere (cf. Lesson 25). The middle voice has the meaning indicated above in Lesson 26. a1rOAEAIJ1J6VOe:; TOV 50DAov, 6 5W1rOTl1e:; lJaKaptoe:; ~v.

Having freed the slave for himself, the master was happy. The Perfect Middle ofStems Ending in Palatals, Labials, Dentals, Liquids, and Nasals.
The fact that the endings of forms in the perfect middle system begin with a consonant causes no problem when the stem to which they are added ends with a vowel, as is true for AUUl. But when the stem ends with a consonant, certain sound changes occur. They are illustrated in the following sets of forms. For stems ending in a palatal (K, Y, X), form changes are as follows (the paradigm is from the verb <!>oAaaaUl, perfect stem 1rE<!>IJAaK-):
Middle Voice, Indicative Mood, Perfect Tense Singular Plural

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

1rE<!>uAaY-lJCtl
1rE<!>uAa~at

1rE<!>uAaK-mt

1rE<!>oAaY-IJEOa 1rE<!>uAax-OE 1rE<!>IJAaY-1J6Vot (-at, -a) dai(v)

Middle Voice, Indicative Mood, Pluperfect Tense Singular Plural


1st Person

(.)1rE<!>IJAUY-1J nv

(.)1rE<!>IJAUY-IJEOa

196
2nd Person 3rd Person
(e)rr&j>OAa~o

LESSON 34

(e)rr&j>OAaK-To

(E)rr&j>oAax-6e rr&j>uAaY-J.1eVOt (-at, a) Tioav

The combination of a palatal (in this case, -K) with the endings of the perfect middle system results in the following changes in sound in the resulting form: K + J.1 > YJ.1; K+ a > ~; K+ T> KT. In the second person plural the a disappears and the Kbecomes assimilated to the 6 with the result X6. In the third person plural the use of the participle is required by the fact that the combination of consonant plus -VT- was not part of the sound system of the language. For stems ending in a labial (rr, P, <1, form changes are as follows (the paradigm is from the verb ypa<l>w, perfect stem yeypa<!>-): Middle Voice, Indicative Mood, Perfect Tense Singular Plural yeypaJ.1-J.1at yeypaJ.1-J.1e6a yeypall'at yeypa<!>-6e yeyparr-Tat yeypaJ.1-J.1evot (-at, -a) eia((v) Middle Voice, Indicative Mood, Pluperfect Tense Singular Plural (e)YEYPaJ.1-J.1llv (e)yEypaJ.1-J.1e6a (E)iypall'o (e)yeypa<!>-6E (e)yeyparr-To YEypaJ.1-J.1evot (-at, -a) Tiaav

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

1st Person

2nd Person 3rd Person

The combination of a labial (in this case, -<1 with the endings of.the perfect middle system results in the following changes in sound in the resulting form: <I> + J.1 > J.1J.1; <I> + a > 11'; <I> + T> nr. In the second person plural the a disappears and the <I> becomes assimilated to the 6 with the result <1>6. In the third person plural the use of the participle is required by the fact that the combination of consonant plus -VT- was not part of the sound system of the language. For stems ending in a dental (T, Ii, 6), form changes are as follows (the paradigm is from the verb paJrTl~w, perfect stem pEpaJrn1i---):

LESSON 34

197

1st Person
2nd Person

3rd Peson

Middle Voice, Indicative Mood, Perfect Tense Singular Plural pEpaJrna-J.1at pEpaJrTla-J.1E6a pEpaJrTlaat peparrTla-6E pEpaJrTla-rat PEpaJrTlO-J.1evot (-at, -a) daley) Middle Voice, Indicative Mood, Perfect Tense Singular Plural V mpEPaJrna-J.1e6a (E)pEpaJrTla-J.1ll (e)pEpaJrnao (e)pEpaJrTla-6e (e)pEpaJrTla-TO pEpaJrnO-J.1evot (-at, -a) Tiaav

1st Person

2nd Person 3rd Person

The combination of a labial (in this case, -Ii) with the endings of the perfect middle system results in the following changes in sound in the resulting form: Ii + J.1 > aJ.1; Ii + a> a; Ii + T> or. In the second person plural the Ii changes to a to avoid the occurrence of two B's in succession. In the third person plural the use of the participle is required by the fact that the combination of consonant plus -VT- was not part of the sound system of the language. For words whose perfect stems ends in a liquid (A, p) or a nasal (J.1, v) the following rules obtain: The liquids have no a before 6 in the second person pl ural (for example, eOTaA-, the perfect stem of aTeAAw, I send, has e:aTaA6E in the second person plural, both in the perfect and pluperfect endings). Otherwise the liquids have no changes in the final consonant of the stem except for the use of the participle in the third person plural required by the fact that the combination of consonant plus -VT- was not part of the sound system of the language. The nasals change v to J.1 before J.1 in the first person singular and plural and in the participle (e.g., for the nasal stem f;~llpav-, from the verb ~llpalvw, I dry up, the first person singular and plural are f;~rjpaJ.1J.1at and e~llpaJ.1J.1E6a, e~llpaJ.1J.1llv and e~llpaJ.1J.1e6a, with the participal being e~llpaJ.1J.1evOt). The a drops in the second person plural (f;~rjpav6E). The participle is used in the third person plural as for the other consonant stems listed above, and for the same reason.

Rules for Accents 26.


In verb forms having the augment, the accent does not move beyond the augment. (This rule is relevant only for compound

198

LESSON 34

verbs.) Thus, the form <xrre1xev (Mt 14:24) from the compound verb <xrrexw, the form Eve1xev (Mk 6:19) from the compound verb hexw, and the form KaTelxeV (Lk 4:42) from the verb KaTexw.

Vocabulary for Lesson 34. <xonlP,


-epo~,

6 [N 24m] star. The dative plural is


[N 2] coming; presence.

aOTpOt~.

rrapouo(a,
EAe06epo~,

-a~, ~

-a, -ov [Adj 2] free.

apn [Adv 2] now,just now; at once.


eu6ew~

[Adv 2] immediately.

Exereises for Lesson 34.


1. Translate into English: 1. Kat rrept T11V KeaA~v Tij~ yuvalKo~ ~oav I5wl5eKa

aOTepe~. (cf. Apoc 12:1) 2. aAA' OUK OT<lt eti6ew~ TO TeAo~. (cf. Lk 21:9) 3. rrw~ oily I3Aerret apn; (In 9:19) 4. Oi5TW~ OT<lt ~ rrapouo(a TOU UtOU TOU av6pwrrou. (Mt 24:27) 5. apa ye EAeu6epo( slotv Ot oiot. (Mt 17:26)

II. Translate into Greek: 1. Lord, what will be the signs of your coming? (cf. Mt 24:3) 2. Ifwe have the truth we are free. 3. How many stars are there in the heavens? III. Mk 6:37-40.

LESSON 35

199

A,sCll, perfect Middle Imperative, Infinitive, Subjunctive, and Optative. The Noun Xdp. Rules for Accents 27.

Lesson 35
Auw, Perfect Middle Impemtive, Infinitive, Subjunctive, and Optative. There are no perfect middle imperatives, infinitives, subjunctives, or optatives in the New Testament. The forms given in this lesson are to help the student fill out the other forms of the middle which are used and to prepare for the presentation of the perfect passive. Cf. below, Lesson 42. The perfect middle imperative ofAow is conjugated as follows (cf V 1, VP 2): Middle Voice, Imperative Mood, Perfect Tense Singular Plural AeAu-oo AeAu-06e AeA0-06w AeA0-06WOllV

2nd Person 3rd Person

The perfect middle infinitive ofAow is AeAo-06at (cf V 1, VP 2). The perfect middle infinitive of <!>vAaoow is rre<j>vAax-6<lt; of ypa<!>w, yeypa<l>-6<lt; of l3arrTI~w, l3el3arrno-6at; of oTeAAw, EOTaA-6<lt. The perfect middle subjunctive and optative are formed by placing the perfect middle participle with the present subjunctive and optative respectively of slui (cf V 1, VP 2, Adj 1):

200

LESSON 35
Middle Voice, Subjunctive Mood, Perfect Tense Singular Plural , ., '\ '\ '
AEAIlIlEVO~,

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

AEAIl1l6VO~,-T], -ov tj~


AEAIlIlEVO~, -T], -ov

-T], -ov 00 .,. 1J

"E"IlIlEvOI, -al,-a AEAIl1l6VOI, -al,-a ,\...' "E"IlIlEVOI, -al,-a

Middle Voice, Optative Mood, Perfect Tense Singular Plural


1st Person

2nd Person 3rd Person

AEAIl1l6VO~, -T], -ov ElT]V AEAIl1l6VO~, -T], -ov E'iT]~ AEAIlIlEVO~, -T], -ov E'iT]

AEAIl1l6V01, -ai, -a E'iTJIlEV AEAIl1l6V01, -ai, -a EYTJTE AEAIlJ,J6VOI, -ai, -a ElT]oav

The meaning of these moods in the perfect tense of the middle voice can be inferred from the meaning of the perfect active tense of these moods (cf, Lesson 25 and, for the optative, Lesson 14 for the present tense) together with the meaning of the middle voice (cf Lesson 26). This concludes the presentation of the middle voice of A1500 (Lessons 26-35). The fact that the middle voice has been given attention quantitatively comparable to that given to the active voice (Lesson 9-24), and to the passive voice (below, Lessons 36-42), should not be taken as an indication that the middle voice is equal in importance to the other two voices. It is not. But the middle voice does have its role in the New Testament both in its own right and as a means of formulation for certain deponent verbs (as will be explained in Lesson 45). These facts, plus the need to present the middle voice clearly so as to distinguish it from the active and passive voice and enable these two vastly more important voices to be understood better, have been the reasons for presenting the middle voice as extensively as has been done here.

The Noun X&1P.


The noun XEip, hand, is declined as follows (cf. N 24f, N 33):
Singular
n

Plural
XEipE~

v
g

XE1P XEip
XEIPO~

XiiPE~

xElpi

XElpWV XEpoi(v)

'.

LESSON 35
a

201

XiipCt

XiipCt

The dative plural has a shortened syllable in the root, XEpinstead of xeio-.

Rules for Accents 27.


In the perfect active participle the accent is on the last syllable in the nominative masculine and neuter and remains on this same syllable (i.e., on the last syllable of the root) throughout the declension of the masculine and neuter. Cf. the paradigms given in Lesson 25 and Adj 17.

Vocabulary for Lesson 35


xdp, XEIPO~, 1\ [N 33] hand. apyuplOv, -Oil, TO [N 7] silver; money.
~<iiOV, -r-O'u ,

TO [N 7] animal.

Bucinorripiov, -Oil, TO [N 7] altar.


KOIA1Ct,
-a~,

1\ [N 2] stomach; womb. 1\ [N 2] repentance; change of heart. 1\

IlETaV01Ct, -Ct~, 11AT]Yri, -ij~,


11A06TO~,

[N 1] plague; blow; calamity.

-Oil, 6 [N 6m] wealth. This word is also found as a neuter in the nominative and accusative [N 31].

ouvsoptov, -Oil, TO [N 7] Sanhedrin; council.


XIA1CtPXO~, -r-O'u, AEIlKO~, V60~,

6 [N 6m] (military) officer, i.e., tribune.

-ri, -ov [Adj 1] white.

-Ct, -ov [Adj 2] new;young. The vowel in the root of this word is never contracted.

202

LESSON 35

lTPtcrOO<;;, -rj, -OV [Adj 1] more. This word is also found as an adverb: nspiocdv [Adv 3]: to the full. WOlTP [Conj] as;just as; like. KaAOO<;; [Adv 3] well.

Exereises for Lesson 35

I. Translate into English: 1. EYW EPXOfJ<Xt 'tva

~(J)~v EXU)OlV Ka\ nsptocov EXU)OlV. (In 10:10) 2. EXOfJV 8IJOlaoTrjptOV Ee ou E08tIV OOK ExOIJOIV EeOIJOtav. (Reb 13:10) 3. 00 yap VtlTTOVml Ta<;; Xlpa<;; aOTwv amv apTOV Ea81(J)Olv. (Mt 15:2) 4. Ka\ KaAW<;; AEYT, 1fJ\ yap. (In 13:13) 5. 6 80<;; aOToov ~ KOIAta. (cf. Phil 3:19) 6. 6 XPIOTO<;; EV OfJ1V scnv TO lTAOUTO<;; T~<;; Mel]<;; TOIJ fJt)OTrIP10IJ EV TOl<; E8vWIV. (Col 1:27) 7. 6 80<;, OOK dfJ\ WOlTP oi AOllT01 T(;;V av8pwlT(J)v. (Lk 18:11) 8. TO apyupIOV aOIJ oov 00\ itl1 1<; 8avaTov. (cf, Acts 8:20) 9. TOV vecvtov TouTOV ay lTpo<; TOV XIAtapxov. (cf Acts 23:17) 10. Ka\ etlTV 6 VWTPO<;; aOToov T~ lTaTpt. .. (Lk 15:12) 11. Ka\ nyov TOV "Inoofiv 1<; TO OIJVEBpIOV aOTWV. (Lk

22:66) 12. Ta BE tfJana aOTou nv AIJKa. (cf Mt 17:2) 13. Ka\ EI3Al/Ia MAO OT]fJlOV EV T~ oopav~ fJEya, aYYEAoIJ<; Exovm<; Ta<; Eoxam<; lTAT]ya<;. (cf Apoc 15:1) 14. EYW fJEV UfJ<l<;; l3alTTt~(J) d<; usrdvotcv, (cf Mt 3:11) 15. TO rpirov ~~OV etX TO lTpoa(J)lTOV W<;; av8pwlTot). (cf. Apoc 4:7) 16. TO BE nepiooov TOUT(J)V EK TOU novnpof scnv. (Mt 5:37)

II. Translate into Greek: 1. Now Jesus was speaking the truth before the Senhedrin.
2. The just man does not have need of repentance. (cf Lk 15:7) 3. What then will that child be? For even the hand of the Lord is with him. (cf. Lk 1:66)

f.h"
LESSON 35

203

III. Mk 6:41-47.

204

LESSON 36

The Meaning of the Passive Voice. XU"" Present Passive Indicative, Imperfect Passive Indicative, Present Passive Imperative, Subjunctive, Optative, Infinitive, and Participle. Rules for Accents 28.

Lesson 36
The Meaning of the Passive Voice.
The passive voice indicates that the grammatical subject of a sentence is in some way or other the recipient of an action. (cf above, Lesson 26.) The personal agent of the action is usually expressed, if he or she or they are expressed at all, by the use of the preposition unO" with the genitive case. (Cf. above, Lesson 10.) uno with the genitive is usually used to express the agent of an action, if that agent is a person. If the agent is impersonal, the simple dative without a preposition is usually used. This simple dative (the dative of means) is also used with non-passive verbs to express impersonal agency. In Greek the forms of the passive voice are the same as the forms of the middle voice of all the moods of the present and perfect systems. Hence the precise force of these verbal forms can be determined only from the context. In the future and aorist tenses, on the other hand. the forms of the passive voice are clearly distinct from the forms of the middle voice. Thus, their precise force can be determined not only from the context but from the form itself. Even though the passive forms of the present and perfect systems have already been given implicitly above in the presentation of the middle forms of the present and perfect tenses, inasmuch as the passive forms are the same as the middle forms in these tense, these forms will be repeated in this and the following lessons. This repetition will help the student realize that even though the forms of these two voices are the same in these two systems, the meaning is different. (Cf Lessons 26-29 above, for the present systems of the middle voice, and Lessons 34-35 for the perfect systems.)

LESSON 36

205

A1500, Present Passive Indicative, Imperfect Passive Indicative, Present Passive Imperative, Subjunctive, Optative, Infinitive, and Participle.
The present passive indicative oh.uw is conjugated as follows (cf. V 1, VP 3):
Passive Voice, Indicative Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

AU-Ollat
AU-~

AU-ETat

Au-ollEea AU-EOeE AU-OVTat

I am loosed You (sg.) are loosed He (She, It) is loosed

We are loosed You (pl.) are loosed They are loosed

The form AU~ is a contraction from AUWat (X iisom > AUEat > AUl]t > AU~). For the meaning of the indicative mood cf. above, Lesson 2. For the meaning of the present tense in the indicative mood cf. Lesson 9. 6 IiODAO~ AUETat uno TOD IiwnoTou aUToD. The slave is being let go by his master. The imperfect passive indicative of AUW is conjugated as follows (cf. V 1, VP 3):
Passive Voice, Indicative Mood, Imperfect Tense Singular Plural
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

e-Au-OIlIlV E-AU-OU
E~AU-ETO

E~Au-oIlEea

e-AU-EOeE
E~AU-OVTO

I was being loosed You (sg.) were being loosed He (She, It) was being loosed

We were being loosed You (pl.) were being loosed They were being loosed

The form EAUOU is a contraction OHAUWO.

206

LESSON 36

For the meaning of the imperfect tense of the indicative mood cf. above, Lesson 10.

6 IiOilAOC;; SAUETO uno Toil IiW1rlSTou aUToil. The slave was being let go by his master.
The present passive imperative of AUW is conjugated as follows (cf. V 1, VP 3):
Passive Voice, Imperative Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural

2nd Person 3rd Person

AU-aU AU-EaSw

AU-EaSE AU-EaSwaav

You (sg.) be loosened! You (pl.) be loosened! Let him (her, it) be loosened! Let them be loosened!
The form AUOU is a contraction of AUWO. The translation loosen is used for AUW in line with the same translation used for the active voice of the imperative (cf. above, Lessons 12 and 19). For the meaning of the present tense of the imperative mood cf. above, Lesson 12, and Lesson 4. AUWSW 6 IiOilAOC;; uno TaU IiwnoTou aUToil.

Let the slave be let go by his master.


The present passive subjunctive of AUW is conjugated as follows (cf. V 1, VP 3):
Passive Voice, Subjunctive Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural
1st Person

2nd Person 3rd Person


AU~l

AU-W/lal AU-Q
AU-~Tat

AU-W/lESa
Au-~aSE

AU-WVTat
ofAu~aat (Au~aat > Au~al

The form AUQ is a contraction

>

> AUQ).

For the meaning of the present tense of the subjunctive mood cf. above, Lesson 13, and Lesson 5.

6 IiOilAOC;; ePXETat 'iva

AU~Tal uno Toil IiwnoTou aUToil.

LESSON 36 The slave is coming so that he may be let go by his master.

207

The present passive optative of AUW is conjugated as follows (cf. V 1, VP 3):


Passive Voice, Optative Mood, Present Tense

Singular
1st Person 2nd Person
Au-oi/l~v

Plural

A15-010
A~OITO

Au-oi/lESa Au-OlaSE
A~OWro

3rd Person

The form AU010 comes from AU0100. For the meaning of the present tense of the optative mood cf. above, Lesson 14, and Lesson 6. AU01TO 6 IiOilAOC;; urro TaU IiwnoTou aUTou. May the slave be let go by his master. The present passive infinitive ofAuw is AUWSat (cf V 1, VP 3). For the meaning of the present tense of the infinitive mood cf. above, Lesson 15, and Lesson 4. AEYW.TOV IiOilAOV AUWSat uno TOU IiwrroTou aUToil.

I say that the slave is being let go by his master.


The present passive participle of AUW is declined as follows (cf. V 1, VP 3, Adj 1):
Passive Voice, Participial Mood, Present Tense Singular Feminine Neuter Masculine AU-O/lEVOV AU-O/lEVOC;; AU-O/lEV~ AU-O/lEV~ AU-O/leVov AU-O/leVe

n v g

d a

AU-O/lEVOU AU-O/lEVCP AU-O/leVov


Masculine

AU-O/lEV~C;;

AU-O/lEVQ
AU-O/lEV~V

AU-O/lEVOU AU-O/lEVCP AU-O/levov


Neuter

Plural Feminine

n v

AU-O/leVOl AU-O/leVOl

AU-O/leVal AU-O/leVal

AU-O/leva Au-riusvu

208
g d

LESSON 36

AIl-O/lEVWV
All-O/lEVOl~ All-O/lEVOll~

All-O/lEVWV AIl-O/lEVal~
All-O/lEVa~

All-O/lEVWV
All-0/lEV01~

All-O/l6Va

For the meaning of the present tense in the participial mood cf. above, Lesson 16, and Lesson 7. The use of the present tense in the imperative, subjunctive, optative, infinitive, and participial moods often implies that the action of being loosed is viewed as continuous or repeated. In the accusative with the infinitive construction, the present infinitive usually has the implication of being contemporary in time with the action of the main verb. In the participle, the present tense usually has the implication of being contemporary with the action of the main verb. This completes the presentation of the moods of the present passive system of AVOl.

Rules for Accents 28.


In the perfect active infinitive the accent is on the second-last syllable even though the final syllable is short: A6A II KEV<X1.

Vocabulary for Lesson 36.


aKPOJ}IlOTla, -a~, rl [N 2] uncircumcision [often used as a collective noun referring to those who are not Jews]. IhllaoKaAla, -a~, rl [N 2] teaching. This word means both the act of teaching and the content of what is taught, as in English. EKaTOVTapx%, -Oil, 6 [N 4] centurion (Roman military officer). This meaning is also expressed by the word EKaTovro:PXO~, ou, 6 [N 6m].
-r

EnlOToA~, -T]~, n61paO/lO~,

rl [N 1] letter (in the sense of epistle).

-00, 6 [N 6m] test; temptation.

T6A<J5V'1~, -Oil,

6 [N 4] tax-gatherer.

LESSON 36
X1Ala~, -allo~,

209

rl [N 14f] thousand.

rsoocpdxovr [Adj 21] forty.


aYla~w

(aYlaow) [V 5, VP 1-3] I consecrate (to God); I purify; I make 5, VP 1-3] I carry; I tolerate. 5, DV 88, VP 1-3) Icleanse; I purify

holy.
J}aoTa~w (J}aoTaow) [V

Ka6apl~w (Ka6aplow) [V

(ritually).
aKavllaAl~W (oKavllaAlow) [V

5, VP 1-3] I cause to stumble; I scandalize (i.e., I lead into sin, the more common New

Testament meaning, or I shock,the more common meaning today; or both together). ounw, /l ~nw [Adv 2, Neg] not yet. These words are distinguished according to the principles for distinguishing 00 and /l ~. navToT6 [Adv 2] always.

Exereises for Lesson 36.


1. Translate into English: 1. Kal ~v EV Tfj EP~/l~ rsccepdxovro rl/lEpa~ n61pa~O/l6VO~ uno TOO ll,aJ}OAoll. (cf Mk 1:13) [The word rl/lEpa~ is in the accusative case to express temporal duration.] 2. 6 660~ Ka6apl~61 Tfj mOT6l Ta~ Kap/)(a~ aOTliiv. (cf Acts 15:9) 3. 15 T6 yap aYla~wv Kal oi aY1U~O/l6VOl E~ EVO~ navT6~. (Heb2:11) 4. rl 1l11laoKaAla TOO Kupiec 00 /lOVOV Ilux p'1/larwv ~v. 5. aAA' ounw EOTlV TO TEAO~. (Mt 24:6) 6. AEYW /l~nw dvUt TO TEAO~. 8. Kal EOKavllaAl~ovTo EV aonji. (Mt 13:57) 9. rl EmaToA~ rl/lWV u/ld~ Eon. (2 Cor 3:2) 10. navToT6 yap TOO~ nTwxoo~ EXST6 /l66' U/lWv. E/le Ile 00 naVToT6 EX6T6. (Mt 26:11) 11. EaTW 001 wan6p 6 T6A<J5V'1~. (cf Mt 18:17)
7. n61paO/lO~ soriv haaT~ av6p<J5n~.

210

LESSON 36
12. tv yap XplOrw '['10013 ourg 1TgplrO~~ n iOxUgl ourg UKpo(luona. (cf Gal 5:6) 13. ~aKapia ~ KOIAia ~ (laoraoaoa OL (cf. Lk 11:27) 14. X1Ala5g.; aYYEAlilv qoav E~1TPOo6gv rof 6w13. 15. f.KarOVrapxou M nvoc 5013Ao<; uo6gv~<; qv. (cf. Lk 7:2)

II. Translate into Greek: 1. The disciples of Christ are sanctified by the Spirit oftruth. 2. The cross is carried by the disciples of Christ. 3. The apostles wish to be cleansed from their sins. III. Mk 6:48-49.

LESSON 37

211

The Weak Aorist Passive and the Strong Aorist Passive. AU"', Aorist Passive Indicative and Imperative. The Noun

(ivJip.

Lesson 37
The Weak Aorist passive and the Strong Aorist Passive. The aorist forms of the passive voice are different from the aorist forms of the middle voice (cf. above, Lesson 36). The aorist passive forms are divided into two categories, with no difference of meaning: 1) "weak" aorist passive (by far the more numerous), and 2) "strong" aorist passive. Weak aorist passive forms are characterized by a 6 between the verbal root and the distinctive aorist endings. Strong aorist passive forms do not have this distinctive 6. Both categories are otherwise indistinguishable, sharing the same endings in all moods. (The strong aorist passive will be presented below, in Lesson 41.) Because the weak aorist passive characteristic indicator, 6, comes immediately after the root of the verb, consonantal changes are frequently necessary. The following rules should be noted: Roots ending in a palatal (K, y, X) have the palatal x. Thus ayw becomes ifX61lv in the aorist indicative passive. Roots ending in a labial (1T, (l, <p) have the labial <p. Thus 1TElJrrW becomes f.1TE~1T4>6'1V in the aorist indicative passive. Roots ending in a dental (r, 5, 6) have a o, Thus llarrri~w becomes e(la1Tria61lv in the aorist indicative passive. Nasal and liquid roots will be treated one by one as they occur, for they are often irregular. e'1paivw (cf above, Lesson 34) becomes tellpav61lv; orEnW (cf, above, Lesson 34) has a strong aorist passive which will be presented in a future lesson. It should be noted that verbs whose present stem ends in 00 have X before the 6 when they are weak aorist passives: <puAaoow becomes E<j>uAax61lv.

212

LESSON 37

AViol, Aorist Passive Indicative and Imperative.


AUW is has a weak aorist passive. In the indicative mood it has an augment, which is formed according to the same principles as elsewhere for a past tense of the indicative (cf. above, Lessons 10, 18,31). The aorist passive indicative ofAuw is formed as follows (cf. V 1, VP 3):
Passive Voice, Indicative Mood, Aorist Tense

Singular
1st Person

Plural
E-AU-e-~~ev E-AU-e-~Te E-AU-e-~oav

2nd Person 3rd Person

E-AU-e-~V E-AU-e-~~ E-AU-e-~

I was loosed You (sg.) were loosed He (She, It) was loosed

We were loosed You (pl.) were loosed They were loosed

For the meaning of the aorist tense in the indicative mood cf. above, Lesson 18. For the meaning of the passive voice cf. Lessons 26 and 36.

6 1iOilAO~ EAU6~ uno roil 1ieonorou auroil. The slave was let go by his master.
The aorist imperative passive of AUW is conjugated as follows (cf. V 1, VP 3):
Passsive Voice, Imperative Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Plural

2nd Person 3rd Person

AU-e-~rt

Au-6-~rt

Au-e-Tjrw

Au-e-Tjrwoav

You (sg.) be loosened Let him (her, it) be loosened

You (pl.) be loosened Let them be loosened

AUW is translated loosen here in keeping with the translation adopted for its use in the imperative mood previously. For the meaning of the aorist tense in the imperative mood cf. above, Lesson 19, and Lesson 4. For the meaning of the passive voice cf. Lessons 26 and 36.

LESSON 37

213

Au6Tjrw 6 1iOilAO~ napaxpfi~a uno roil 1iwnorou aurou. Let the slave be let go by his master at once.

The Noun dvt{p.


The noun civTjp, man or husband, is declined as follows (cf.N 24m, N 33);
n Singular , ,
av~p

Plural
av1ipe~ av1ipe~

v
g

" avep
civ1ipo~

d a

civ1ipi av1ipa

civ1ipwv civ1ipaot(v)
av1ipa~

Vocabulary for Lesson 37.


civTjp, civ1ipo~, 6 [N 33] man; husband.
unprupiov, -ou, ro [N 7] testimony; evidence.
~UAOV,

-ou, ro IN 7] wood; tree.

oo~, uho~, ro [N 33]

ear.

nilp,

nupo~,

ro IN 33] fire.

oKllvTj,

-fi~,

r\ [N 1] tent.

i51iwp, i51iaro~, ro [N 33] water.


tin~pir~~, -ou,
w~, wro~,

6 IN 4] attendant; servant.

ro [N 17] light.

Enra [Adj 21] seven.


ciyopa~w

(dvopdoco) [V 5, VP 1-3] I purchase; I ransom.

cinoKaAunTw [V 4 andY 5; VP 1-3] I reveal; I disclose.

214

LESSON 37

150IlA6UOO [V 1, VP le3] I serve; I serve as a slave. This word governs the dative case. 66pa11"6UOO [V 1, VP 1-3] I heal; I serve; I take care of.
66pi~oo

(Bspioco) [V 5, VP 1-3] I reap.

KM6UOO [V 1, VP 1-3] I order; I command. vai [Part] yes; surely.


6~oiooe;;

[Adv 3] likewise.

Exercises for Lesson 37.


1. Translate into English: 1. " OKrlVTl TOU uopruoio c ~v TOle;; 11"aTpaOlv 'l~OOV feV Tfj feprl~4'. (cf, Acts 7:44) 2. apa oov aUTOe;; feYw T<\1 ~"V VOt 1501lA6uoo Vo~oo Bwu. Tfj 15" oapKl vo~4' a~apT(ae;;. (Rom 7:25) . 3. 6~0(ooe;; Kal 6 156uT6poe;; Kal 6 rpiroc gooe;; nov f;11"Ta. (Mt 22:26) 4. "yopaOB'lT6 yap n~ik 1510 15oeaoaT6 TOV B60V sv n{i o<JS~an u~oov. (cf 1 Cor 6:20) [n~ije;; is a "genitive of price": of a price. Here, idiomatically, for a price.] 5. Kal t150u 6te;; TooV 15<JS156Ka EPX6Tal Kal ~6't aUTou OXAOe;;11"OAUe;; ~6Ta. ~axalpoov Kal eUAOOV cho TWV apXl6pEOooV. (cf Mt 26:47) 6. 016 oov E~A61j1aV aUTov o'i apX16pde;; Kal oi U11"'lPEOTat EKpaeav. (cf In 19:6) 7. 11"OAAOI av5p6e;; ~oav feoBioVT6e;; xoople;; YIlValKooV Kal 11"al15ioov. (cf Mt 15:38) 8. Kal fe66pio6'l " yij. (cf Apoc 14:16) 9. EOTOO 5f; 6 Aoyoe;; u~wv val vui, oil oU. (Mt 5:37) 10. Ta. 5f; i~ana aUToii ~v A61lKa we;; TO <pwe;;. (cf, Mt 17:2) 11. ~aKapIOe;; d. on oape Kal at~a OUK a11"6KaA1l1jlEOv 001 a",,' 6 11"aTrlp uou 6 feV roic oupcvoic, (cf. Mt 16:17) 12. feYw usv Dilde;; ~a11"T(~OO i i515an de;; usrdvotrrv. (cf, Mt 3:11) 13. feV yap Tfj avaoTao61 oov rivoc TooV 611"Ta EOTal vuvri; (Mt 22:28)

LESSON 37

215

14. aUTOe;; u~de;; ~a11"T(061 6V 1l"V6U~an ayi4' Kal 11"IlPi. (cf, Mt3:11) 15. 6V 6KdvTJ Tfj WP<;l 666pa11"61l06V 11"o""OUe;; a11"o VOOooV Kal 11"VW~aTOOV 11"OV'lPoov. (cf. Lk 7:21) 16. d rtc EX61 WTa aKou61v aKOIlEOTOO. (Mk 4:23) 17. ~AE01jIae;; 15f; 6 'ITlooue;; OXAOV 11"6Pl aUTov feKEOA61l06V e;PX606at de;; TO 11"EOpav. (cf, Mt 8:18) [EPxwBal is the present infinitive of EPX6Ta1.]

II. Translate into Greek: 1. Be healed by my word. 2. The word was heard by the apostles. 3. God wished to reveal his son to me. (cf. Gal 1:16) III. Mk 6:50-56.

216

LESSON 38

A!SOl, Aorist Passive Subjunctive and Optative. Rules fur Accents 29.

Lesson 38
A1500, Aorist Passive Subjunctive and Optative. The aorist passive subjunctive of AU Wis conjugated as follows (cf. V 1, VP 3):
Passive Voice. Subjunctive Mood, Aorist Tense

Singular
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

Plural
Au-6-w~Ev Au-6-~TE

1.15-6-00
A15-6-fj~

A15-6-fj

Au-6-wat(v)

For the meaning of the aorist tense in the subjunctive mood cf. above, Lesson 20, and Lesson 5. For the meaning of the passive voice cf. above, Lessons 26 and 36. 6 1iooAo~ EPXETal '{va Au6fj urro TOO osonoroo aUToo. The slave is coming in order to be let loose by his master. The aorist optative passive ofA15w is conjugated as follows (cf V 1, VP 3):
Passive Voice, Optative Mood. Aorist Tense

Singular
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

Plural
Au-6-E('1~Ev

Au-6-df]v
, Au-6-Elf]
Au-6-df]~

Au-6-d'1TE ' AU- 6-Elf]Oav

For the meaning of the aorist tense in the optative mood cf. above, Lesson 21, and Lesson 6. For the meaning of the passive voice cf. above, Lessons 26 and 36. Au6d'1 6
1iooAo~

urro TOO 1iwrroTou aUToO.

LESSON 38

217

May the slave be let go by his master.


Rules for Accents 29.

The aorist passive subjunctive has a circumflex accent on every ending. Cf. the paradigm above of the aorist passive subjunctive ofA15w.

Vocabulary for Lesson 38.

<xVciYKf], -%, ~ [N 1] distress; necessity; need.


arroKciAU1VI~, -EW~, ~ [N 28fJ revelation; unveiling.

arrWAEta, -a~, ~ [N 2] destruction; waste.


YEWPYO~,

-06, 6 [N 6m] farmer; peasant.

1iwpov, -OU, TO [N 7] gift; offering.


/;rr(yvwat~, -EW~, ~

[N 28fJ knowledge.

xorvovl, -a~, ~ [N 2] fellowship; participation.


KTfat~, -EW~, ~ [N 28fJ creation. This word can signify both the act of

creation and that which has been created.


a~, ~ [N

rrp0<pf] rei, -

2] prophecy.

/;rroupcivtO~, -o~, -ov [Adj 5] heavenly.

oioc, -a, -ov [Adj 2] such as.


rraAalO~,

-ci, -ov [Adj 2] old;former.

TlAEtO~, -a, -ov [Adj 2] complete; perfect.

rocouroc, -a15Tf], -06Tov [Adj 1 and Adj 1Pro] such, so great; so many (pl.). The form Toa06To is also found in the neuter singular [Adj 1Pro].

218
brei [Conj] because; when.

LESSON 38

'(Bs [Inter] look! [There is no difference in meaning between this word and ;1\Otl.]

Exercises for Lesson 38.

I. Translate into English: 1. ana mum ri soriv

S;~ TOaOtlTOU~; (In 6:9) 2. uymrl1Toi, OUK f.VTOA~V KalV~V ypo.<pw ti~1v, un' 6VTOA~V rraAaHXV ~V slXSTS urr' upxfi~. ~ 6VTOAtl ~ rraAalo. scnv 6 A6yo~ OV tlKOoaars. (1 Jn 2:7) 3. d~ ri ~ urrulAsla aUTl1; (Mt 26:8) 4. oioc 6 6rrOUpo.V10~, TOlOUTOl Ka1 01 6rrOllPo.VlOr. (cf. 1 Cor 15:48) 5. eaTal yap uvo.YKl1 ~Syo.A Tl 6rr1 Tfi~ yfi~ Ka1 6py~ T0 Aa0 TOOT'!'. (Lk 21:23) 6. "IBs ~ ~r1Tl1P uo Ka1 01 a1\sA<po( ~OU. (cf Mk 3:34) 7. waTs ai yAwaaar si~ onueiov siotv ou T01~ mrrrstiouotv aAAa T01~ urr(aTol~, ~ Be npodmreiu ou T01~ UrrtaT01~ aAAa T01~ morstiouotv. (1 Cor 14:22) 8. 6 mxrrip uoo 6 yswpy6~ 6anv. (In 15:1) 9. eaw8s oiiv ti~s1~ TEAS10I w~ 6 rraT~p ti~wv 6 OUpo.V10~ TSAS16~ eorrv. (Mt 5:48) 10. 1\la vouou 6rriyvwar~ a~apTta~. (cf. Rom 3:20) 11. oi 6<1>6aA~oi uoi e~AStVaV TO <pw~ d~ UrrOKo.AUtV1V f.8vwv Ka1 Meav AaoG oou. (cf Lk 2:30-32) 12. Tll<pAOi, Ti yap ~s1~ov, TO Bwpov fj TO Buoiuorrictov TO aYlo.~OV TO Bwpov; (Mt 23:19) . 13. f;Ks1va Ta apyopra n~~ cit~aT6~ eoriv. (cf. Mt 27:6) 14. Kl1POeaTS TOV suaYYEAloV rro.a1] T~ xrioei. (cf, Mk 16:15) 15. oUX1 6 apTo~ xoivcovin TOG aul~aTO~ TOU XplOToG f.anv; (cf 1 Cor 10:16)

II. Translate into Greek:


1. The witness of Jesus Christ was the spirit of prophecy. (cf, Apoc 19:10) 2. Jesus comes so that each person who wishes may be baptized. 3. The old gifts of God were not just as good as the new.

LESSON 38

219

III. The student has now had the opportunity of carefully working through the first six chapters of Mark's Gospel. It is time to return to the beginning of that Gospel and review the material seen, but now with the advantage of a considerably increased ability to understand the text. The text should now begin to become intelligible to the student in a significant way. Read Mk 1:1-8, at first without consulting any aids, relying entirely on memory. Then re-read the text, checking any doubtful points against the material already seen in the previous lessions. Finally, read the verses aloud at least three times. The reading aloud should be unhurried, with precision being valued much more than speed.

220

LESSON 39

AUOl, Aorist Passive Participle and Infinitive. Rilles for Accents 30.

Lesson 39
AOlll, Aorist Passive Participle and Infinitive.
The aorist passive participle ofAuw is declined as follows (ef V 1, VP 3, Adj 18):
Passive Voice, Participial Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Neuter Masculine Feminine

n
v

g d a

Au-6-g(~ Au-6-g(~ AtJ-6-evTo~

Au-6-gloa Au-6-doa
AtJ-6-do'1~

Au-6-ev Au-6-ev
Au-6-evTo~

AtJ-6-evn Au-6-eVTa
Masculine

AtJ-6-dolJ AtJ-6-doav
Plural Feminine

Au-6-evn Au-6-ev
Neuter

n
v

AtJ-6-eVTg~
AtJ-e-gVTg~

g d a

AtJ-6-evTwv AtJ-6-glat(v)
AtJ-6-evTa~

AtJ-6-gloat Au-6-gloat AtJ-6-gwwv


AtJ-6-g(oat~ AtJ-6-g(oa~

AtJ-6-evTa AtJ-6-evTa AtJ-6-evTwv AtJ-6-dat( v) AtJ-6-evTa

For the meaning of the aorist tense in the participial mood cf. above, Lesson 22, and Lesson 7. For the meaning of the passive voice cf. Lessons 26 and 36. 6 506AO~ AtJ6g1~ VlfO T06 5wmlTotJ cuh06 eKpa~gV 5ta T~V xapav aVT06.

The slave, having been let go by his master, shouted because of his joy.
The aorist passive infinitive ofAuw is AtJ-6-fjvat (cf V 1, VP 3):

LESSON 39

221

For the meaning of the aorist tense in the infinitive mood cf. above, Lesson 22, and Lesson 4. For the meaning ofthe passive voice cf. Lessons 26 and 36. 6
506AO~ ~6gA'10g

AtJ6fjvat VlfO T06 5g0lfOTOtJ aVT06.

The slave wished to be let go by his master.


Rules for Accents 30
Aorist passive participles have an acute accent on the final syllable of the masculine nominative singular. The accent accordingly tends to remain on this syllable throughout the paradigm. Cf. Rules for Accents 12, Lesson 20. The accent of the aorist passive infinitive is on the second-last syllable even though the last syllable is short.

Vocabulary for Lesson 39.


d.pt61l0~,

-06, 6 [N 6m] number.

a<!JWt~, -gW~,

1\

[N 28(1 forgiveness (of sins); freeing (of captives).

(:\Aao<!J'1llta,
yallo~,

-a~,

1\ [N 2] blasphemy.

-otJ, 6 [N 6m] wedding. -013,6 [N 6m] bond; chain; prison.

5g01l0~, 6UIlO~, KOlfO~,

-013,6 [N 6m] rage; fit of anger. -ou, 6 [N 6m] hard work; trouble.

oixobouri, -fj~, 1\ [N 2] building; encouragement.


lfOAgIlO~,

-otJ, 6 [N 6m] war; conflict.

lftJAWV, -wvo~, 6 [N 21m] gate; entrance.


oTi<jlavo~,
KgVO~,

-ou, 6 [N 6m] crown; prize.

-ri, -ov [Adj 1] empty; purposeless; senseless.

222

LESSON 39

KpUJrTOe;, -~, -OV [Adj 1] hidden. norcoroc, -ri. -ov [Adj 1] what sort of, what kind of. <j>avspoe;,

-a, -ov [Adj 2] manifest.

JroSsv [Adv 1] from where? JroTe [Adv 2] [enclitic] once; ever.


Exercises for Lesson 39.
1.Translate into English: 1. (3ASlI'a T~V JrOAlV T~V ayiav xouoav JruAtiivae; 6w6sKa. (cf. Apoc 21:10.12) 2. 6 J.I.v yaJ.lOe; hOlJ.lOe; soriv ... (cf. Mt 22:8) 3. ayouolv aUTov Jrpoe; TOUe; ~ysJ.lovae; TOV JrOTe TU<j>AOV. (cf In 9:13) 4. ~v eK Toil aplSJ.loil Ttiiv 6w6sKa. (cf. Lk 22:3) 5. ri KOJrOUe; JrapexsTs nj vuvmxi; (cf Mt 26:10) [ri here as the idiomatic meaning why!? Cf. Lesson 73.] 6. omv 66 aKOVOl]TS JrOASJ.lOUe; Ka\ aKOae; JrOASJ.I<JlV, OUJr<Jl TO TeAOe;. (cf Mk 13:7) 7. 6 JrpO<j>~TI]e; ~v KI]PVOO<JlV (3aJrTtoJ.la uernvoim; de; . a<j>eotv aJ.lapntiiv. (cf Mk 1:4) 8. st OUK SOTtV nvnorno; SK T<JlV VSKp<JlV, KSVOV Kal TO K~pUYJ.la~J.Itiiv, KSV~ Ka\ ~ mOTte; UJ.ltiiv. (cf. 1 Cor 15:14) 9. Jroesv TOVT41 ~ oo<j>ia aUTI] Ka\ ai 6UVcXJ.lSle;; (cf. Mt
I . " " ,
~ ~

" .

10. '(6svilv tlKOVOaTs T~V (3A ao<j>I] uiev. (cf, Mt 26:65) 11. (3ASlI'a TOUe; Jrpso(3uTepoue; Ka\ err\ Tae; Ke<j>aAae; aUTtiiv oTe<j>avOUe; xpuooile;. (cf. Apoc 4:4) 12. Ka\ eAVSI] 6 6wJ.loe; Tfje; YAWOOl]e; aUToil. (cf Mk 7:35) 13. 6l6aOKaAS, '(6E norcoroi AiSOl Ka\ JromJra\ OiK060J.lai. (cf. Mk 13:1) 14. Ka\ JrAI]psle; ~oav JravTEe; Buuof ev T~ ouvaY<JlY~ aKovOVTEe; milm ... (cf Lk 4:28) 15. ouMv soriv KPUJrTOV 0 ou <j>avspov OTat. (cf Mt 10:26) II. Translate into Greek: 1. I say that the bond of his tongue was loosed.

13:54)

LESSON 39

223

2. The slaves, having been freed by the crowd, were full of joy. 3. You are about to hear of wars and rumors of wars. III. Read ~ 1:9-20, at first without consulting any aids, relying entirely on ~emory: Then re-rea~ the text, checking any doubtful p~mts against the matenal seen in the previous lessons. Finally, read the verses aloud at least three times. The reading aloud should be unhurried, with precision being valued much more than speed.

224

LESSON 40

AU." Future Passive Indicative, Participle, and Infinitive.

Lesson 40
AUW, Future Passive Indicative, Participle, and Infinitive. The future passive stem of AOW is based on the aorist passive. The future indicative passive is conjugated as follows (cf. V 1, VP 3):
Passive Voice, Indicative Mood, Future Tense Singular Plural AU-e~-O-o~al AU-e~-O-o~eea AU-e~-O-Q AU-e~-o-eoee AU-e~-O-eTal AU-e~-O-OVTal

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

The form AUe~01J comes from AUe~oeaat (AUe~oeaat > AUe~oeat > AUe~O~l > AUe~01J). For the meaning of the future tense in the indicative mood cf. above, Lesson 11, and Lesson 8, For the meaning of the passive voice cf. Lessons 26 and 36.

6 ~OUAO<; AUe~oeTal orro TOU ~earroTou aliTou. The slave will be let go by his master.
The future participle passive of AOW is declined as follows (cf. V 1, VP 3, Adj 1):
Passive Voice, Participial Mood, Future Tense Singular Neuter Feminine Masculine
n
v

g d a

All-e~-a-o~evov AU-el\-O-o~evo<; xo-an-o-ousvn All-e~-O-o~evov xu-Bn-o-ousvn AU-e~-O-o~eve All-e~-a-o~evoll AU-e~-O-o~ev~<; AU-e~-O-o~evoll Au-e~-a-o~ev41 AU-e~-O-o~ev1:l All-e~-O-o~ev41 xo-an-c-cuevcv All-e~-O-o~ev~v AU-el\-a-o~evov

LESSON 40

225

Masculine
n

Plural Feminine
All-e~-a-o~evat All-e~-O-o~eval All-e~-a-o~evwv All-e~-O-o~eval<; All-e~-o-o~iva<;

Neuter
Au-e~-a-o~eva AU-e~-O-o~eva AU-e~-O-o~evwv AU-e~-O-o~evOl<; All-e~-O-o~~va

v
g

d a

All-e~-a-o~evol AU-e~-O-o~evol All-el\-O-o~evwv All-e~-a-o~evol<; All-e~-O-O~EVOl

For the meaning of the future tense in the participial mood cf. above, Lesson 17, and Lesson 8. For the meaning of the passive voice cf. Lessons 26 and 36. orro TOU ~earroToll mJTou ayaeo<; sony. The slave who is about to be let go by his master is good. The future passive infinitive ofAow is AU-en-o-eaeat (cf V 1 ' , . , For the meaning of the future tense in the infinitive mood cf. above, Lesson 17, and Lesson 8. For the meaning of the passive voice cf. Lessons 26 and 36. Aeyw TOV 1iOUAOV Aue~aeaeal urro TOU 1ieorroTou mhou. I say that the slave will be let go by his master.

~OUAO<; Aue~ao~evo<;

VP 3).

Vocabulary for Lesson 40.

1ie1rrvov, -ou, TO [N 7] banquet; principal meal.


Ma~lo<;,

-ou, 6 [N 6m] prisoner. -OU, TO [N 7] denarius [Roman coin].

~~VciPlOV,

eVAoyta, -a<;,,, [N 2] blessing;praise.


~iiAO<;,

31],

-au, 6 [N 6m] zeal;jealousy. Also found as -013, 6 [N 6m] treasure; storeroom.

~iiAor

"~,

-our ro [N
"

e~aaupo<;,

'1rrrro<;, -o u, 6 [N 6m] horse.

226

LESSON 40

VOIl<\>tO<;, -00, 6 [N 6m] bridegroom. JrAtlpUllla, -aTO<;, TO [N 161 fullness; fulfilment. JrArlotov,6 [N 321 neighbor. This word is also found as a prepostion governing the genitive case [prep 1]: near.

norouoc, -06, 6 [N 6m] river.


OKona, -0.<;, ,; [N 21 darkness. xap1Olla, -aTo<;, TO [N 16] gift. EKaTOV [Adj 21] hundred. f.KE16EV [Adv 1] from there. ou [Adv 1] where. Note that this word is not used as an interrogative in a direct question. . .,

Exercises for Lesson 40.


I. Translate into English:
1. JrAtlPUllla oov VOIlOIl ,; ayam] , (Rom 13:10) 2. KaTa Be EOPT11V aJr~AIlEV mlro1<; eva MOlllOV. (cf, Mk 15:6) 3. oi Be lla61]Tat PXOVWl Ei<; TO opo<; OU E1nEV aUTol<; 6 '11]006<;. (cf. Mt 28:16) 4. Kai JrElllllEV Civ6pUlJrO<; n<; TOV Bo13Aov auro13 Tfj wpq: T013 BEtJrVOIl. (cf. Lk 14:16-17) 5. DJrOIl yap soriv 6 61]oallpo<; 001l, f.KEl E:OWl Kat ,; KapMa 001l. (Mt 6:21) 6. aAA' OUXW<; TO JrapaJrTUllla, oiSTUl<; Kat TO xap1Olla. (cf. Rom 5:15) 7. Kat Tt<; f.OTtv IlOIl JrA1]OtOV; (Lk 10:29) 8. Kat E:I3AEllIa, Kat iBOD 'imroc AEIlKO<;, (Apoc 6:2) 9. f.K T013 aUTo13 orcucroc E:PXEWl EUAoyta, (cf, Jas 3:10) 10. Kat f.l3aJrTt~oVTO sv T<\J 'IopBav((lJrowll<\J UJr' aUTo13. (cf. Mt 3:6) 11. AeyUl ulllV i Tfj OKOTtq:, AeYETE f.V T<\J <\>UlTt. (cf Mt 10:27) 12. ev B1]VaplOV ~v 1l1060<; Ill<X<; ';Il~pa<;.

LESSON 40

227

13. 6 Be <\>~AO<; T06 VOIl<\>tOIl xapav E:XEl Bla Tf)V <!>UlVf)V T013 VOIl<!>lOll. (cf, In 3:29) 14. 6 ~ijAO<; T013 XP1OT013 Ileya<; ~v. 15. 1l~~3~e Btlo nllepa<; E:pxEwd,Kd6EV 6 '11]0013<;. (cf. In 16. Tt<; av6pUlJro<; 15:4)

te

UIlOOV E:XEl haTov Jrpol3aw' (cf.Lk ,

II. Translate into Greek:


1. The gospel will be preached to every creature before the end of the world. 2. I say that the gospel will be preached to every creature before the end of the world. 3. To the slaves who were about to be loosed the soldier spoke words of encouragement. III. Read ,Mk 1:21-34, at first without consulting any aids, relying entirely on memory, Then re-read the text, checking any dou~tful points agm.nst the material already seen in the ~reV1ous lessons.. Finally, readthe verses aloud at least three tIme.s,. The :eading aloud ,shoUld not be hurried, with precision being valued-much more than speed.

228

LESSON 41

yp<i$o, Aorist Passive Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive, Optative, Participle, and Infinitive. ypa<l>w, Future Passive Indicative, Participle, and Infinitive.

Lesson 41
yp cieJ>oo, Aorist Passive Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive,

Optative, Participle, and Infinitive.


The aorist passive is divided into two categories, as was stated above in Lesson 37: the "weak" aorist passive, in which 8 is part of the stem, and the "strong" aorist passive, in which there is no 8. Most verbs having an aorist passive have the weak aorist, like A u<JJ, whose aorist passive forms have been given above, in Lessons 37-39. Most verbs having an aorist passive have the weak aorist, but the strong aorist is of frequent enough occurrence to make it important. Its endings are the same as those of the weak aorist, but it seems useful to present the strong aorist forms in one place. The meaning of the strong aorist is the same as that of the weak; only the forms are different. The stem used to form the strong aorist of various verbs must be learned by memory. The word ypa<!><JJ, I write (Lesson 9), has a strong aorist passive (cf. V 4, DV 30, VP 4; in addition, for the participle cf. Adj
18):
Passive Voice, Indicative Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Plural

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

E-ypa<j>---TJ v E-ypa<j>---% E-ypa<j>---TJ

E-ypa<j>---TJJ.lf;V E-ypa<j>---TJTf; E-ypa<j>---TJoav

The augment is formed exactly as for the other past tenses of the indicative mood.

LESSON 41
P~ssive Voice, Imperative Mood, Aorist Tense Smgular Plural

229.

2nd Person 3rd Person

ypa<j>---TJ 8,
ypa-~T<JJ

ypa<j>--- TJTf;
ypa-~T<JJoav

The second person singular ending is -TJ81. In the weak aorist the presence ofthe 8 causes the 8 of the normal ending to be dissimilated into T.
. Passive Voice, Subjunctive Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Plural 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

ypa-w
ypa-~~ ypa<j>---~

vpa<j>---wJ.lgv
ypa<j>---~rg

ypa<j>---w01(v]

Passive Voice, Optative Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Plural 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

ypa<j>---dTJV vpa<j>---d% ypa<j>---dTJ

ypa<j>---giTJJ.lgv ypa-gJTJrg ypa0iTJoav

v
g

ypa<j>---d~ ypa<j>---d~ ypa<j>---EvTo~

Passive Voice, Participial Mood. Aorist Tense Singular Masculine Feminine Neuter

d a

vpa<j>---EVTl ypa<j>---EVTa
Masculine vpa<j>---EvTf;~

ypa<j>---doa ypa<j>---gloa vpa<j>---do% vpa-dolJ ypa<j>---f;loav


Plural Feminine yp a<j>--- do at

vpa<j>---Ev ypa<j>---Ev
vpa<j>---EvTo~

vpa<j>---EVTl ypa<j>---Ev
Neuter

v
g

vpa<j>---evrg~

d a

ypa<j>---evT(J)v ypa<j>---glO1(v)
vpa<j>---EVTa~

ypa<j>---gloat ypa<j>---g,OWV
ypa<j>---doa~

vpa<j>---doat~

ypa<j>---evTa ypa<j>---evTa vpa<j>---evT(J)v ypa<j>---d01(v) vpa<j>---EVTa

The aorist passive infinitive is vpa<j>---~val.

230

LESSON 41

ypd<\llll, Future Passive Indicative, Participle, and Infinitive. The strong future passive forms are based on the stem of the strong aorist passive, just as the weak future passive are based on the stem of the weak aorist passive (cf, V 4, DV 30, VP 4; in addition, for participle cf. Adj 1). There is no difference in meaning between the futures based on the respective stems. .
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person
Passive Voice, Indicative Mood, Future Tense ypa<\l~-cr-o~al ypa<\l~-cr-o~e8a ypa<\l~-cr-\I ypa<\lTj-cr-ecr8e

ypa<\lTj-cr-erat

ypa<\lTj-cr-OVTaI
(ypa<\l~crecrat

The form ypa<\l~crlJ comes from ypa<\lTjcrecrat ypa<\lTjcrwl > ypa<\lTjcr~l > ypa<\l~crlJ)

>

Passive Voice, Participial Mood, Future Tense Singular Feminine Masculine Neuter
n v g

d
a

ypa<\l~-cr-o~evo~ ypa<\l~-cr-o~iv~ ypa<\l~-cr-o~eve ypa<\l~-cr-o~ev~ ypa<\l~-cr-o~ivoo ypa<\l~-cr-o~iv% ypa<\l~-cr-o~ivl ypa<\l~-cr-o~ivlJ ypa<\l~-cr-o~evov ypa<\l~-cr-o~iv~v

ypa<\l~-cr-o~evov ypa<\l~-cr-o~evov

ypa<\l~-cr-o~ivoo ypa<\l~-cr-o~ivl
ypa<\l~-cr-o~evov

Masculine
n

Singular Feminine

Neuter

v
g

d a

ypa<\l~-cr-o~evol ypa<\l~-cr-o~eval ypa<\l~-cr-o~eva ypa<\l~-cr-o~evol ypa<\l~-cr-o~eval ypa<\l~-cr-o~eva ypa<\l~-cr-o~ivlllV ypa<\l~-cr-o~ivwv ypa<\l~-cr-o~ivwv ypa<\l~-cr-o~ivol~ ypa<\l~-cr-o~ivat~ ypa<\l~-cr-O~iV01~ ypa<\l~-cr-o~evol ypa<\l~-cr-o~iva~ ypa<\l~-cr-o~eva

The future passive infinitive is ypa<\l~-cr-ea8at.

Vocabulary for Lesson 41.

All the verbs given in this lesson's vocabulary have strong aorist passives. The form of the aorist passive is given here by way of exception. Normally it is to be found only in the list of Difficult Verbs, indicated with each verb.

LESSON 41

231
~AAay~v] I

anacrcrw [V 3, DV 8, VP 1-4] [strong aorist passive: change: I transform.

arraAAacrcrw [V 3, DV 8, VP 1-4] [strong aorist passive: I set free.

arr~nay~v]

arrOKaTanacrcrw [V 3, DV 8, VP 1-4] [strong aorist passive: arroKaT~AAay~v] I reconcile. EKKOrrTW [V 4 and V 5; DV 105, VP 1-4] [strong aorist passive: e~eKorr~v] I cut off; I remove. 8Al13w [V 4, DV 79, VP 1-4] [strong aorist passive:
e8All3~v] I

press.

KaTaAAacrcrw [V 3, DV 8, VP 1-4] [strong aorist passive: KaT~AAay~v] I reconcile. KorrTw [V 4 and V 5; DV 105; VP 1-4] [strong aorist passive: I cut; in middle voice: I lament. KpurrTW [V 4 and V 5; DV 110; VP 1-4] [stro~gaorist passive: EKpul3~v] I hide.
KAirrT~~, -00, (, [N rra8~~a,

eKorr~v]

4] thief.

rroc, TO [N 16] suffering; passion.


~

rriTpa, -a~,

[N 2] rock.

pa13131, (, [N 32] master [Hebrew word).

MCa, -%,
crOKfj, -fj~,

~ [N

3] root.

~ [N

1 and N 33] fig tree.

Blon [Conj] because; therefore.


eyyu~

[Adv 1 and Adv 2] near [in both local and temporal senses). This word is also a preposition which governs the genitive case [Prep 1]: near.

Exercises for Lesson 41.

232

LESSON 41

I. Translate into English: 1. ~ niTpcx liE ~v 6 XpllJT(5~. (cf. 1 Cor 10:4) 2. 6 Xpioroc gPX6TCXt 'ivcx ancxAAa~1J TOUTOU<; T06 <jlo(3ou T06 6cxvaTou. (cf. Heb 2:14-15) 3. gyyu<; ~v 6 Tono<; T~<; nOAOl<;. (cf. In 19:20) 4. gKKOtjfOV TllV OUKijV TCXUTfjV. 5. d yap gx6pOt iiVT6<; KcxTfjAAayfj1l6v T<;; 66<;; lita r06 6cxvaTou r06 ul06 cxur06, nOAAql lIClAAOV KcxTCXAAcxyivr6<; oOl6fjoOll6a i rfj l;Olfj aur06. (Rom 5:10) 6. KatrOr6 KOtjfOVTCXt nClOCXt cxl <jluAat rij<; y~<;. (cf. Mt 24:30) 7. iiVTCX uno r~v OUKijV g(3A1jIa 06. (cf In 1:48) 8. 'Ifjo06<; liE eKpu(3fj. (cf; In 8:59) 9. liton eyc1J sun 1I6ra 006. (cf. Acts 18:10) 10. pa(3(3i, KaAOv sorw ~lICl~ ooli6 elvci. (Mk 9:5) 11. OUK a~ta sioiv Ta na6J1l1aTCX r06 viiv Kmp06 npo<; r~v lIeAAOUOav 56~cxv anoKaAu<jl6ijvCXt d~ ~lICl<;. (cf, Rom 8:18) 12. eyyu<; soriv ~ (3amA6ia r06 6606. (cf. Lk 21:31) 13. ev rotc oupavOt~ KA6nrfJ<; OUK eyyil;6t. (cf, Lk 12:35) '" 14. KCXt. OUK gxoumv Pil;av ev scurclc. (cf, Mk 4:17) 15. KCXt dn6v 6 'Ifjo06<; rotc lIa6fjTCX'i<; cxuroii n6pt nxoio o 'iva 6 iiXAO<; 1I~ 6Ai(31) aurov. (cf. Mk 3:9) 16. ~1I6'i<; navT6<; aAAayfjOO1l66cx. (cf. 1 Cor 15:32). 17. Kat UlICl<; nors iivra<; ex6pou<;, viiv lie anoKar"AAa~6v gV r<;; coiucen r~<; acxpKo<; cxur06 lita r06 6avarou. (Col 1:21-22)

ana

II. Translate into Greek: 1. The book was written by the prophet. 2. The book will be written by the prophet. 3. I say that the book was written by the prophet.

III. Mk 1:35 - 2:12.

LESSON 42

233

AU"', perfect Passive Indicative, Pluperfect Passive Indicative, Perfect Passive Imperative, Infinitive, Subjunctive, Optative, and Participle. The Key Forms of AU"'. The Principal Parts of AU"'. Rules for Accents 31.

Lesson 42
AViol, Perfect Passive Indicative, Pluperfect Passive Indicative, Perfect Passive Imperative, Infinitive, Subjunctive, Optative, and Participle.
The perfect middle forms and the perfect passive forms OfAUOl are the same, as was stated above (cf. Lesson 36). Hence the student has already seen all the forms needed for the expression of the passive voice in the perfect tense. But the forms will be repeated here in their entirety with their passive meanings (as was done with the present passive tense in Lesson 36) so that the distinction between the middle and passive voices as regards meaning may be drawn more sharply. The perfect system is much more important in the passive voice than in the middle. (For AUOl cf. V 1, VP 3; in addition, for participle, cf. Adj 1).
Passive Voice, Indicative Mood, Perfect Tense Singular Plural
1st Person

2nd Person 3rd Person

Ai-Au-lIm Ai-Au-acxt Ai-Au-rcxt

A6-AU-1I66cx Ai-Au-a66 Ai-Au-VTCXt

I have been loosed You (sg.) have been loosed He (She, It) has been loosed

We have been loosed You (pl.) have been loosed They have been loosed

For the meaning of the perfect tense in the indicative mood cf. above, Lesson 23. For the meaning of the passive voice cf. Lessons 26 and 36.

234

LESSON 42

6 1i06Ao~ ASAIJTaI U1fO T06 1iW1fOTOIJ aOTo6. The slave has been let go by his master.
Passive Voice, Indicative Mood, Pluperfect Tense

Singular 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

Plural

(e)AS-Atl-J.l I] V mAi-AIJ-aO (i;)Ai-AIJ-TO

mAg-AU-J.lgea (e)Ai-AIJ-aeg (e)AS-AIJ-VTO

I had been loosed You (sg.) had been loosed He (She, It) had been loosed

We had been loosed You (pl.) had been loosed They had been loosed

For the meaning of the pluperfect tense cf. above, Lesson 24. For the meaning of the passive voice cf. Lessons 26 and 36. 6 1i06Ao~ eAiAIJTO U1fO T06 1iW1fOTOIJ aOT06. The slave had been let go by his master.
Passive Voice, Imperative Mood, Perfect Tense

Singular 2nd Person 3rd Person

Plural

Ai-AIJ-aO Ag-Au-a!lw

AU-AIJ-aeS Ae-Au-aewaav

The use of the perfect imperative passive is understandably rare, and examples depend much on the context for their precise force. Hence it seems advisable not to give an example using the verb AUW, no example of which in the perfect passive imperative is found in the New Testament. But at Mk 4:39 the verb <p1J.lOW, I muzzle (an 0 contract verb, a category to be explained in Lesson 51) is used in the perfect passive imperative to give a strong command of silence to the wind and sea: 1f&!>IJ.lWaO, Be still!, i.e., be in a state where you have already been muzzled. The perfect passive infinitive of'),uw is Ae-Au-aeal. For the meaning of the perfect in the infinitive mood cf. above, Lesson 25. For the meaning of the passive voice cf. Lessons 26 and 36.

LESSON 42

235

Passive Voice, Subjunctive Mood, Perfect Tense 1st Person

2nd Person 3rd Person

AeAIJJ.livo~,-I], -ov

Singular ABAUJ,leVOC;, -11, -ov W AeAIJJ.livo~,-I], -ov V~

Plural

AeAUJ.1.vol, -al,-a

lJ

AeAIJJ.livOI, -at, -a AeAIJJ.livOI, -at,-a

For the meaning of the perfect tense in the subjunctive mood cf. above, Lesson 25. For the meaning of the passive voice cf. Lessons 26 arid 36.

6 li06Ao~ EPxeTaI 'Iva AeAIJJ.livo~ Jj U1fO T06 liwm:lroIJ. The slave comes so that he may be (in a state of having been) l let go by his master.
Passive Voice, Optative Mood, Perfect Tense

Singular
1st Person' 2nd Person 3rd Person
AeAIJJ.livo~,-11,-ov etl]v AeAIJJ.livo~, -I], -ov eil]~ AeAIJJ.livo~,-11, -OV elll

Plural

AeAIJJ.livOI, -at, -a ell]J.lev AgAIJJ.liVOI, -al,-a e1JlTe AgA IJlliVOI, -al,-a elll0av

For the meaning of the perfect tense in the optative mood cf. above, Lessons 6 and 14; for the meaning of the perfect tense in the non-indicative moods, Lesson 25; for the meaning of the passive voice cf. Lessons 26 and 36.
AeAIJllivo~ &11 U1fO T06 liea1fOTOIJ aOTOIJ. May the slave be [in a state of having been] let go by his master.

By their very nature the subjunctive and optative moods are rarely used in the perfect passive.
Passive Voice, Participial Mood, Perfect Tense Singular Neuter Masculine Feminine Ae-AIJ-J.livll Ae-AIJ-Ilivov xs-AIJ- J.livo~

v
g

d a

Ae-AIJ-usve Ae-Ao-usvoo Ae-AIJ- J.livlp Ae-AIJ-J.livov


Masculine

Ae-AIJ-Ilivll
Ae-AIJ-Iltvll~

Ae-AIJ-lli vlJ Ae-AIJ-J.livl]v


Plural
Feminine

Ae-AIJ-J.livov Ae-AIJ-lli volJ Ae-AIJ-J.livlp Ae-AIJ-J.livov


Neuter

236
n

LESSON 42

v
g

AE-AU-Jl&VOl AE-AU-Jl&VOt AE-AU-Jl&VlllV


AE-AU-IJ&VOt~ AE-AO-Jl&VOO~

AE-A U-Jl&vat AE-AO-Jl&Vat AE-AU-Jl&VooV


AE-AU-Jl&Vat~ AE-AU-Jliva~

d a

AE-AU-Jl&Va AE-AU-IJ&Va AE-AU-IJf.Voov AE-A U-IJ&VOt~ AE-AU-Jl&Va

For the meaning of the perfect tense in the participial mood cf. above, Lesson 25. For the meaning of the passive voice cf. Lessons 26 and 36.
AEAOJlivo~ iJ1TO TaU IiwrrOTou <X1JTOU 6 IiOUAO~ JlaKapto~ Having been let go by his master, the slave was happy. ~v.

The sound changes which result from the juxtaposition of verb stems ending in a consonant and the perfect endings (which begin with a consonant) are the same in the perfect passive tenses as in the perfect middle. Cf. above, Lessons 34 and 35.
The Key Forms orA15oo. The Principal Parts orAulll.

This lesson brings to a close the presentation of the forms of the verb AUoo and related thematic verbs. A schematic presentation of the key forms of A1500 will now be given. These forms are all in the first person singular of the indicative mood. Inasmuch as these forms contain the stems of the four different tense systems in all three voices, knowledge of these key forms makes possible the formation of all possible forms of the verb A1500. This schematic presentation shows how the middle and passive voices have common forms in the present and perfect, but different forms in the future and aorist.
Active Voice Present Tense Future Tense Aorist Tense Perfect Tense Middle Voice Passive Voice

A15-oo

A15-0Jlat A15-a-OJl<Xt e-AU-a-aJlllv Ai-AU-Jlat

A15-0Jlat Au-e~-a-oJlat e-A15-e-Il V A&-AU-Jlat

A15-a-oo
l-Au-a-a A&-AU-Ka

LESSON 42

237

This presentation is useful but ungainly and repetitious. For example, if one knows the form A1500 one does not need to have a schematic presentation in which the present middle and present passive are given in order to know how to form them. For this reason a more succinct presentation of the useful forms of a verb is .desirable. This presentation is called the "principal parts" of a verb. Six forms are necessary. For A15111 they are:
1. AU-OJ
2. AU-Q-OJ 3. E-AO-Q-<X 4. M-AO-K<X 5. Ai-AO-~<Xl 6. '-AV-~nV

From these six principal forms or principal "parts" all possible voices, moods, and tenses can be formed, whether of A1500 or of any other verb: 1. present indicative active; 2. future indicative active; 3. aorist indicative active; 4. perfect indicative active; 5. perfect indicative middle/passive; 6. aorist indicative passive. The first person singular of each tense has been arbitrarily chosen to represent the tense in question. Note that principal part 5 is labeled "middle/passive" because. out of context. the form can be either middle or passive. But in a given context it is either one or the other. For the verb A1500, of course, and for any other regular verb, the strategem of devising a list of "principal. parts" is not really necesary for anyone knowledgeable about the rules of the formation of the various forms: the root ofA15oo is, for all practical purposes, regular. (The length of the lJ varies, but this does not affect the orthography of the various forms). This is true for all other verbs whose roots remain invariable throughout the entire system. But there are a number of verbs which are "irregular", and the scheme of the six principal parts is a useful memory device for learning to construct and/or recognize their forms. Beginning with Lesson 43 the principal parts will be used to present such irregular, difficult verbs. Rules for Accents 31.
In the perfect middle and passive participle all cases have an acute accent on the second-to-last syllable.

Vocabulary for Lesson 42. eAala,


-a~, ~

[N 2] olive tree; olive.

238

LESSON 42

euoE(3ela, -a~, ~ [N 2] piety; religion. euxapwTia, -a~, ~ [N 2] thanksgiving; gratitude.


flelJEAlO~, -ou,

6 [N.6m] foundation. This word is also found as flelJEAlOV, -ou, Ttl [N 7].
-ou, 6 [N 6m] heir.

KAl1POVOlJO~,

Aurrl1, -%, ~ [N 1] grief, sorrow; affliction,


vrimoc, -ou, 6 [N 6m] infant.

OIKOUlJEVT], -11~, n [N 1] inhabited world.


rrapflEVo~, -o o,

n [N 6f] virgin. Also: rrapflEvo~, -Oll, 6 [N 6m] chaste

man.
oKeXv6aAov, -r-O'u, TO [N 7] occasion for sin or moral shock. TPO<j>Tj,
Turro~,
-ij~,

n [N1]food, nourishment; living.

-Oll, 6 [N 6m] pattern;figure; mark. -Tj, -ov [Adj 1] known. This word is found as a noun: -OV [Adj 1] naked; lightly clad; poorly dressed.

YVlllOTO~,

friend [N 7m].
YlllJVO~, -T],

urinors [Conj, Neg] lest perhaps. Also interrogative: whether

perhaps.
lJT]KEn [Adv 2, Neg] no longer. This word is used normally with verbs which are not in the indicative mood.

Exereises for Lesson 42.


I. Translate into English: 1. Kal KI]pllxflT]Oewl TOUTO TO euaYYEALOV T11~ (3aOlAda~ f,v OAIJ nl OiKOlllJEVU d~ lJaPTUPlOV rriiOlV roic Eflvwlv. (cf. Mt 24:14)

LESSON 42

239

2. ou M, JJ avflplllrre fleoil, 61lllKe 6e 6lKalOODVI]V, euoE(3elav, rrionv, ciycirrl]v, violJovI]v. (cf. 1 Tim 6:11) 3. (3AErreTe, ci6eA<j>ol, lJT]rrOTe EOTal ev rivi VlJWV Kap6ia rrovT]pa. cimona~. (cf. Reb 3:12) 4. yuval, cirrOAEAUOaL Tij~ ciofleveia~ OOU. (Lk 13:12) 5. e\ ya.p oi eK VOlJOll KAI]POVOlJOl, Kevii n rrion~ nlJWv. (cf, Rom 4:14) 6. 6 6e lJaflT]Tii~ eKCtvo~ ~v YVlllOTO~ T<il ciPXlepei. (cf. In 18:15). 7. ouXl n ljIllxii rrAei6v sonv Tij~ TPO<j>ij~; (cf Mt 6:25) 8. 6 flelJEAlO~ Toil ofxo o iaxllPO~ ~v. 9. \60u n rrapflEvo~ ev voorot E~el. (cf. Mt 1:23) 10. AEyel~ on nAODOlO~ sun Kat ou xpeiav EXlll, Kat ou el rrTlllXo~ Kat Tll<j>AO~ Kat YlllJv6~. (cf. Apoc 3:17) 11. lJ I] KEn d~ TOV aiwva eK ooil lJI]liet~ Kaprrov eofliol. (cf, Mk 11:14) [Note that in Greek a double negative does not result in a positive, as in English. In Greek a double negative emphasizes the negative and does not remove it. In the English translation, therefore, some other way of emphasizing the negation must be found other than a repetition of the negative.] 12. aUTai slorv at Mo EAaial at evw1flov Toil xopiou Tij~ yij~ slow. 13. Kat 6 eciv AUO% errt Tij~ yij~ EOTal AeAlllJEVOV ev Toi~ oiipnvoic. (cf. Mt 16:19) 14. 6 KAI]pov6lJo~ nors vrimoc ~V. (cf, Gal 4:1) 15. cilJllv- n eUAoyia Kat n M~a Kat n oo<j>ia Kat 11 etlxapwTia Kat n nlJii Kat n liUValJl~' T<il fle<il ~lJWV et~ TOU~ atwva~ TWV atWVlllv' cilJTjv. (ef. Apoc 7:12) 16. 6 66 'IT]ooil~ elrrev, "Yrraye orriolll uou: oKeXvliaAov e1 elJoil. (cf. Mt 16:23) 17. Kat vlJei~ ouv vilv ADlIT]V ExeTe. (cf In 16:22) 18. Eypaljla emoToAiiv Exouoav TOV riixov TOtlTOV. (Acts 23:25) II. Translate into Greek: 1. We have prophets who have been tested according to all things. (cf. Reb 4:15) 2. You (pl.) have been glorified in all these things. 3. Now our souls have been disturbed. (cf In 12:27) III. Mk 2:13 - 3:6.

240

LESSON 43

StrongAorist Formsin the Active and Middle Voices. fldAA"', Aorist Active Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive, Optative, Participle, and Infinitive. Difficult Verbs: flci}.}.",. Rules for Accents 32.

Lesson 43
strong Aorist Forms in the Active and Middle Voices.

As was explained in Lesson 37, in the aorist passive there are two types of forms, "weak" and "strong". This same distinction obtains in the aorist active and in the aorist middle. In both voices there are two sets of forms, one called "weak aorist" or "first aorist", and another called "strong aorist" or "second aorist". The weak or first aorist has already been seen, with A1500 as the paradigm. In this and the following lesson, the active and middle forms of the strong or second aorist will be presented.. The paradigm used will be ~ciAAoo. As for the aorist passive, there is no difference in meaning between the two types of aorist in the active and middle voices. A few verbs have both first and second aorist forms, but most verbs have one or the other. First or weak aorist forms are by far the more numerous, but second or strong aorist forms have considerable importance. There is no relation between the strong aorist forms in the active and middle voices and the strong aorist forms in the passive voice. A verb can have strong aorist forms in the active and middle voices without having strong aorist forms in the aorist passive, and vice versa. But a verb which has a strong aorist active has a strong aorist middle: the root is the same for both voices. In this grammar the strong aorist forms of the active and middle voices will be called "second aorists" to help distinguish them from the "strong aorists'' of the passive. The latter are seldom called "second aorists".

LESSON 43

241

~ clAAOO, Aorist Active Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive, Optative,

Participle, and Infinitive.

~ciAAOO, I throw, has the following forms in the second (strong) aorist active (cf. V 6, DV 22, VP 4):

Active Voice, Indicative Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Plural


1st Person

2nd Person Srd Person

f:-~CXA-OY f:-~CXA-~ f:-~CXA-(Y)

i-/3ciA-ollY
i-~ciA-T f:-~CXA-OY

I threw You (sg.) threw He (She, It) threw

We threw You (pl.) threw They threw

The aorist stem iS~cxA-. There is only one A, in contrast to the present stem, which is ~CXAA-. Hence ~ciAAOO qualifies as a "difficult" verb. Its principal parts will accordingly be given in this lesson, the first in a series. These parts are best learned by memory. The is the augment. The rules for its formation are the same as for the imperfect. The endings are the same as those of the imperfect active indicative. The fact that e~CXAOY is the strong aorist and not the imperfect depends on recognition of the stem, as stated above. The meaning of the strong aorist indicative active is the same as for the weak aorist active. (Cf. above, Lesson 18, and Lesson 9 for the meaning of the active voice.)
f:~CXAOY TOY aYlipcx i~ <l>VACXK~Y. They threw the man into prison.

At times the endings of the first aorist are used with a second aorist stem with no difference in meaning. Thus the sentence given above, They threw the man into prison, can also be translated: f:~aAJ!Y TOV avlipa i~ <l>vAaK~Y. This use of first aorist endings with second aorist stems is most common in the indicative mood, but it is occasionally found in other moods. The endings of the second aorist are not found with the first aorist.

242

LESSON 43

In the other moods of the second aorist the present endings are used. Thus the aorist imperative active of ~ciAAUl is conjugated as follows (cf V 6, DV 22, VP 4):
Active Voice. Imperative Mood, Aorist Tense

Singular
2nd Person
~ciA-g

Plural
~ciA-gn:;

3rd Person

~<XA-~TUl

~<XA-~TUla<xv

The meaning of the aorist tense in the imperative mood has been presented in Lesson 19. For the meaning of the active voice cf. Lesson 9.
~<xMTUla<xv

rev dvlip<X d<; qmA<XKJ]v.

Let them throw the man into prison.


The aorist subjunctive active of ~ ciAAW is conjugated as follows (cf, V 6, DV 22, VP 4):
Active Voice, Subjunctive Mood, Aorist Tense

Singular 1st Person


2nd Person

Plural
~ciA-UlllgV ~ciA-~Tg ~ciA-UlOl(V)

MA-Ul
~ciA-D<; ~ciA-D

3rd Person

The meaning of the aorist tense in the subjunctive mood has been presented above, in Lesson 20. For the meaning of the active voice cf. Lesson 9. epxgTat Ill) ~ciAUlatV clthav d<; qmA<XKJ]v.

He comes so that they may not throw him into prison.


The aorist optative active of ~ciAAUl is conjugated as follows (cf. V 6, DV 22, VP 4):
Active Voice, Optative Mood, Aorist Tense

Singular
1st Person

Plural
~ciA-OtllgV ~ciA-OtTg ~ciA-OtgV

2nd Person 3rd Person

~ciA-Otllt ~ciA-Ot<; ~ciA-Ot

LESSON 43

243

The meaning of the aorist tense in the optative mood has been presented above, in Lesson 21. For the meaning of the active voice Lesson 9.

cr.

Ill)

~ciAOtV

<Xurav gt<; qmA<XKJ]v.

May they not throw him in prison.


The aorist participle active of V 6, DV 22, VP 4, and Adj 7):
~ciAAUl

is declined as follows (cf

Active Voice, Participial Mood, Aorist Tense

Masculine
n

SIngular Feminine
~<XA-oila<x ~<XA-oila<x

Neuter
~ClA-6v ~<XA-6v ~ClA-6vTO<; ~<XA-6vn ~ClA-6v

v
g

d a

~<XA-05v ~<XA-05v ~aA-6VTO<; ~<XA-6vn ~ClA-6vTa

~<XA-ot5a~<; ~ClA-ot5aD ~<XA-ot5a<xv

Masculine

Plural Feminine
~<XA-oila<Xt ~ClA-oila<Xt ~<XA-otJa<ilv

Neuter
~aA-6vTa ~<XA-6vTa ~<XA-6vTUlV ~aA-OilOl(V) ~<XA-6vTa

n
v

~<XA-6vrg<; ~<XA-6vrg<;

g d a

~ClA-6vTUlV ~ClA-6vTa<;

~<XA-oilOl(V)

~ClA-ot5aClt<; ~<XA-ot5aCl<;

The meaning of the aorist tense in the participial mood has been presented above, in Lesson 22. For the meaning of the active voice cf. Lesson 9.
~ClA6vrg<;

CluTav etc qmAClKJ]v, epxovTat d<; TOU<; O'iKOtJ<;

exunov. Having thrown him in prison, they go into their houses.


The aorist infinitive active of ~ciAAUl is ~aA-glv. Cf. V 6, DV 22, VP 4). The meaning of the aorist tense in the infinitive mood has been presented above, in Lesson 22. For the meaning of the active voice cf. Lesson 22.

244

LESSON 43

I say that he threw them into prison.


The middle forms of the second aorist will be given in Lesson 44.

Difficult Verbs: f\llAAlll.


l3aAAoo, I throw, I hurl [V 6, DV 22, VP 1-4] AOOO l3aAAoo
Mt3:10

AOOOO l3aAw
Mt 13:50

gAVOa gl3aAo\l
Mt4:6

AiAvKa l3il3A 11 Ka
In 13:2

AiAVilaI 13 il3A'HWI
Mt8:6

SA0611\1 s13Ati611 \I
Mt5:13

In this introductory treatment of the "difficult verbs" the principal parts of AOOO are given go help make the transition from the regular to the irregular verbs. They will be given in the next two lessons as well. The references to New Testament texts are to occurrences of some fo~ of the "part" of the verb in question, either of the simple verb as grven here or of a compound verb based on the simple verb. The reference can be to any mood. . . T~e future o~ l3aA~oo follows the regular rules for liquids, which WIll be explamed m Lesson 48. The double A is proper to the present system; the strong aorist active and middle stems have only one A, as do the other stems. The a of the root is changed to 11 and inverted with the Ain the final three stems. The selection of "difficult verbs" in this grammar will be to some extent arbitrary. By intention more verbs are included than in most lists of "irregular verbs". The norm for selection will be facility for learning on the part of the student.

Rules for Accents 32.


The accent of the strong aorist active participle is on the last syllable of the masculine singular. The accent remains on this syllable throughout the declension of the masculine and neuter, and on 0~ second-last syllable in the feminine as well (except for the gemtive plural), even when the last syllable is short. Cf. above, Rules for Accent 12, Lesson 20. The strong aorist active infinitive has a circumflex on the final syllable.

LESSON 43

245

Vocabulary for Lesson 43. f\aA AOO [V 6, DV 22, VP 1-4] I throw, I hurl; I place. 6K13aA AOO [V 6, DV 22, VP 1-4] I drive out; I send away. 61I113aAAoo [V 6,DV 22, VP 1-4] I lay (hands on). lISPll3 a A Aoo [V 6, DV 22, VP 1-4] I put on; I clothe. aKa\l6a, -11~, ~ [N 3] thorn plant; in plural: thorns. eXvoil la, -cc, ~ EN 2] lawlessness; sin.
ypail~a, -aTO~, TO [N 16] letter [of the alphabet]; letter [epistle--normally in the plural].
litaAOYIO~O~, -06, 6

EN 6m] thought; dispute.

DlIaKo~, -ij~, ~
XOPTO~, -OV, 6

EN 1] obedience; submission. EN 6m]grass, hay.

eXAAOTPIO~, -a, -ov [Adj 2] belonging to another; another; strange.

wool [Conj] like, as [used in comparisons]. This word is also found as an adverb [Adv 3: approximately]. vuvi [Adv 2] now. This is an emphatic form of vfiv. Exercises for Lesson 43.
1. Translate into English: 1. oi liE 61Ii13aAov Ta~ xs1pa~ aUTcii (cf. Mk 14:46) 2. ~v lie XOPTO~ 1TOAiJ~ 6V Tcii Tom\,- (cf, In 6:10) 3. Kal ~v Tflill wosl wpa ~Krll - (cf. Lk 23:44) 4. a', aKa\l6al 6~slal eloiv. 5. d liE To1<; E1ColVOV ypa~~aOlv ou 1TIOTSOSTS, lIW<; roic 6il01<; p~ilaOl\l mOT6lJ6TS; (In 5:47) 6. yv~vo~ Tfilllv Kal1Tsplsl3aAsTi ~S_ (cf. Mt 25:36)

246

LESSON 43

7. 6 apXlepE;\J~ epxereXl el~ rex ayta f;V dtllan aAAOTpt<p. (cf. Heb 9:25) 8. f;K yap Tfj~ Kapliia~ epxovTat liLaAoYlOllol novnpoi. (cf. Mt 15:19) 9. VDvllif: 116Vet n(on~, f;Ant~. aycin'1, Ta Tpta TatlTa' lIet'wv lif: TOtlTWV ~ aycin'1. (1 Cor 13:13) 10. Kal ~ allapTta f;oTlv ~ aVOllta. (cf 1 In 3:4) 11. KalnOAAciKt~ Kat e1~ ntlp aUTOV e~aAev. (cf. Mk 9:22) 12. Kat li<Xtllovla nona f;~6~aAev. (cf Mk 1:34) 13. Kat lialllovla nona f;~6~aAAov. (cf Mk 6:13) 14. lit' ou exollev XciPlV e1~ unaKo~v ntOTew~ f;V 11IXOlV Tol~ lieveolv unf:p rof 6vollaTo~ aUTOtl. (cf. Rom 1:5) II. Translate into Greek: 1. And many times he threw them into fire and into water. (cf Mk 9:22) 2. For they have not yet been thrown into prison. (cf In 3:24) 3. Keep saying to the mountains: "Be thrown into the sea". . (cf. Mt 21:21) III. Mk 3:7-30.

LESSON 44

247

~&AA", Aorist Middle Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive, Optative, Participle, and Infinitive. Difficult Verbs:

cfy.,. Rules for Accents 33.

Lesson 44
~dAAW, Aorist Middle Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive,

Optative, Participle, and Infinitive. The aorist middle indicative of ~ciAAW is conjugated as follows (cf V 6, DV 22, VP 4):
Middle Voice, Indicative Mood, Aorist Tense

Singular
1st Person 2nd Person
f;-~aA-OII'1v f;-~ciA-OD

Plural
f;-~aA-Olleea f;-~ciA-eOee f;-~ciA-OVTO

3rd Person

i:-PciA-eTo

I threw [with relation to myself] You (sg.) threw [with relation to yourself] He (She, It) threw [with relation to himself, herself, itself]

We threw [with relation to ourselves] You (pl.) threw [with relation to yourselves] They threw [with relation to themselves]

The form f;~ciAOD is a contraction from f;~ciAeoO. For the meaning of the aorist middle indicative cf. Lesson 31. T( 1fepte~ciAeTo; What did he/ she put on? The aorist middle imperative of ~cinw is conjugated as follows (cf V 6, DV 22, VP 4):

248

LESSON 44 Middle Voice, Indicative Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Plural paA-oo pciA-ea6e paA-ea6w paA-ea6waav

2nd Person 3rd Person

Throw! [with relation to


yourself]

Let him [her, it] throw!


[with relation to himself, herself, itself]

Throw! [with relation to yourselves] Let them throw! [with


relation to themselves]

The form PaAOO is a contraction from paMao. For the meaning of the aorist middle imperative cf, above, Lesson 31. rreptpaAoo TO i/lanov EKelvo.

Put on that garment.


The aorist middle subjunctive of panw is conjugated as follows (cf. V 6, DV 22, VP 4): Middle Voice, Subjunctive Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Plural paA-W/lat paA-w/le6a paA-~ paA-Do6e paA-DTat paA-WVTat

1st Person

2nd Person 3rd Person

The form PciAu is a contraction from paADOat (paADOat > paADat> paADt > paA~). For the meaning of the aorist middle subjunctive cf. above, Lesson 32. epxeTat 'tva rreptPaADTat EKelvo i/lanov.

He comes in order to put on that garment.


The middle optative of paAAw is conjugated as follows (cf V 6, DV 22, VP4): Middle Voice, Optative Mood, Aorist Tense Plural Singular paA-Ot/lDV j3aA-ot/le6a

1st Person

LESSON 44 j3aA-OtO paA-OtTO paA-oL06e paA-OtVTO

249

2nd Person 3rd Person

The form j3aAOtO comes from paAOtao. For the meaning of the aorist middle optative cf. above, Lesson

32.
rreptpaAOtTO EKelvo TO i/lanov.

May he put on that garment.


The aorist middle participle of paAAw is declined as follows (cf. V 6, DV 22, VP 4, Adj 1): Middle Voice, Participial Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Neuter Masculine Feminine j3aA-O/lE;VOV paA-O/leVO~ paA-O/leVD PaA-O/lE;VOV paA-o/leve paA-O/leVD paA-O/leVOu j3aA-O/leVOu j3aA-O/leVD~ j3aA-O/levl(l j3aA-O/leVW j3aA-O/leV~ j3aA-o/lE;VOV j3aA-o/leVOv paA-O/leVDV Plural
Masculine
Feminine

n v g d a

Neuter

n v g d
a

j3aA-O/lE;VOt j3aA-O/leVOt j3aA-O/leVWv


j3aA-O/leVOt~ j3aA-o/levoo~

paA-O/lE;Vat j3aA-o/lE;Vat paA-O/leVWv


j3aA-O/leVat~ paA-O/leVa~

j3aA-O/lE;Va paA-O/lE;Va paA-O/leVWv


paA-O/leVOt~

paA-O/lE;Va

For the meaning of the aorist middle participle cf. above, Lesson 33. rrE;ptj3aAo/leVD EKdvo TO i/lanov, f:pxeTat el~ TOV OtKOV.

Having put on that garment, she comes into the house.


The aorist middle infinitive of j3aAAw is paA-eo6al (cf. V 6, DV 22, VP 4). For the meaning of the aorist middle infinitive cf. above, Lesson 33. Aeyw alir~v rreplpaAea6at hdvo TO i/lano v.

250

LESSON 44

I say that she has put on that garment.


Difficult Verbs: ayCll.
ayw, I lead [V 2, DV 4, VP 1-4] AUW

ayw
Mt26:46

AUOW aew
Acts 22:5

eAIJOa ifyayov
Mt21:7

AeAlJlllXl
Mt18:20

~Yllat

eAuBTjv ifXBTjv
Lk 18:40

Once again the principal parts AUW are presented to help in orientation. The perfect active is not found in the New Testament; hence the slot where this ordinarily is found (cf AeAIJKa) is indicated by a dash. The weak aorist ~ea is not found in the New Testament,

Rules for Accents 33.


The accent on the second person singular of the aorist middle imperative is irregular: ~aAoo. The accent on the aorist middle infinitive is also irregular:
~aAeoBat.

Vocabulary for Lesson 44. ayw [V 2, DV 4, VP 1-4] I lead. avayw [V 2, DV 4, VP 1-4] I lead up; passive: I am led up; I set sail. anayw [V 2, DV 4, VP 1-4] I lead; I lead away by force. daayw [V 2, DV 4, VP 1-4] I lead in. eeayw [V 2, DV 4, VP 1-4] I lead out. rrapayw [V 2, DV 4, VP 1-4] active: I pass by; I disappear; passive: I

disappear.
rrpoayw [V 2, DV 4, VP 1-4] transitive: I precede; intransitive: I

precede.

LESSON 44

251

atJvayw [V 2, DV 4, VP 1-4] I gather, with transitive sense; passive often means I gather in the intransitive sense (e.g., a crowd

gathers).
evtaIJTO<;, -00, 6 [N 6m] year. KATjpOVOllla, -a<;, ~ [N 2] inheritance. AUXVO<;, -OIJ, 6 [N 6m] lamp. llaKpoBlJllta, -a<;,
~ [N 2]

patience; perseverance.

lleTpov, -OIJ, TO [N 7] measure. SKTo<;, -Tj, -ov [Adj 1] sixth. KOtVO<;, -,1, -ov [Adj 1] common; unclean. KWO<;, -I], -ov [Adj 1] mute; deaf. aATjBw<; [Adv 3] truly. rroT6 [Adv 2] when?

Exercises for Lesson 44.


I. Translate into English: 1. 01 5e OXAOl 01 rrpoayovT6<; aUTOV eKpa~ov. (cf. Mt 21:9) 2. Ka1 ~v if5Tj 00061 wpa SKTlx. (cf. Lk 23:44) 3. TOT6 6 "Inoof; aVl]xBTj d<; T11v epTjllOV Dna TOO rrV6UllaTo<;, rr61paoBijvat Drro TOO 5ta~OAolJ. (Mt 4:1) [rr6tpaoBijval is an infinitive expressing purpose.] 4. Ka1 ~v eK~aAAwv 5al/lovlOv, Ka1 aUTo ~V KWOV. (cf Lk 11:14) 5. sw<; rroT6 /l6B' D/lWV eoollal; (cf, Mt 17:17) 6. 6 5e Kapno<; TOO rrV6UllaTO<; sonv ayarrTj, xapa, dpl]VTj, llaKpoBlJllla. . . . (Gal 5:22) 7. 01 yovii<; TOV 'ITjoOOV d<; T~V aytav rrOAIV avl]yayov. (cf Lk 2:22) 8. 61 yap eK vOllOIJ ~ KATjpovo/lla, oUKen ee erraYY6Ala<;. (cf Gal 3:18) 9. aATjBw<; B600 1J10<; ~v OtlTO<;. (cf, Mt 27:54)

252

LESSON 44

10. Kat <X1rrlyayov TOV 'I'lOOOV rrpo~ TOV apXlepea. (cf, Mk 14:53) 11. haoTo~ lixel !1eTpOV rrloTew~ arro TOO 6eoil. 12. lilU ri 0; !1a6'lTUI OOU Eo610uOlv TOV apTov KOlvai~ xepolv; (cf. Mk 7:5) [The dative is a dative of means or manner.] 13. O,)TO~ ~v 'cipXlepeu~ TOO EVlaUToo EKElVOU. (cf. Jn 18:13) 14. Kat ol Urr'lpeTUl dOrlyayov TOV 'Inooov d~ T~V oixicv TOO ciPXlEpew~. (cf. Lk 22:54) 15. Kat tlioii 6150 Tucj>Aol, ciKouoavTe~ OTt 'I"ooo~ rrapaYEl, liKpa~av. (cf.Mt 20:30) 16. 6 KUPLO~ E~rlyaYEv aUTOV EK T~~ cj>uAaK~~. (cf Acts 12:17) 17. 6 AUXVO~ Toil oW!1aT6~ EOTtV 6 O6aA!16~. (cf. Mt 6:22) 18. Kat ouvrlx6'loav rrpo~ aUTov OXAOl rrOAAOl. (cf, Mt '13:2). II. Translate into Greek: 1. I shall pr~cedeyou [sg.] into this city. . 2. We have been led by the Spirit, 3. I say that Jesus was led out of the house by evil men. III. Mk 3:31 - 4:20.

LESSON 45

253

Deponent Verbs. Middle Deponents. Passive Deponents. Usages among Compound Verbs. Difficult Verbs: lpXOlllXl. Rules for Accents 33.

Lesson 45
Deponent Verbs. Middle Deponents. Passive Deponents.
In Greek there is a large body of verbs called "deponents". They are verbs which "set aside" (deponere in Latin) their active forms, but keep the active meaning for their remaining middle or passive forms. The middle deponents have no active forms but use middle forms to express active meanings. The passive deponents have no active or middle forms, but use passive forms to express active meanings. For example, the word Epya~O!1al is a middle deponent, i.e., it is middle in form; but has an active meaning, I work. There is no form Epya~w in the New Testament. This form is "set aside" so that the middle form takes over its meaning. This is true for all persons and numbers and all moods and tenses of the middle forms of
Epya~O!1al.

The word /;cj>0I3ri6'loav is an aorist passive indicative in form, butit has an active meaning, I feared. In the New Testament there is no form /;cj>613'loa. It is "set aside" so that the passive form has its meaning. This is true for all persons and numbers and all moods and tenses of the passive forms of cj>ol3eo!1CXl. There is no form /;cj>ol3'loa!1'lv either. <!Jol3eO!1al simply has no middle forms or meaning. It has only passive forms with active meaning. There is no rule for knowing when a verb is deponent or, if so, whether it is a middle deponent or a passive deponent. The only way these distinctions can be learned is by memory. The forms of middle and passive deponents are exactly the same as the forms of normal verbs in the middle or passive voices. Hence there is no need here to give the forms of deponent verbs. Middle deponents set aside their active forms, and use their middle forms to express active meanings. They have no middle

254

LESSON 45

meanings. But their passive forms can have truly passive meanings. Thus, the word e8woa!1TJv is a middle deponent meaning [looked at. But the word e8ea8TJv means [was looked at. Because the middle and passive forms are the same in the present and perfect systems of the normal Gre~k verb, it is . impossible to tell if a verb is a middle or a passrve deponent from these systems alone, if one is judging by forms outside of context. Only in the future or aorist systems is such a distinction outside of context possible. In the vocabulary listings in this and subsequent lessons the first person singular of the present indicative will be given as usual, but inasmuch as this abstract listing is ambiguous . as regards whether a verb is middle or passive. deponent, t~e category to which a deponent verb belongs-v-middle or passive-v-will be indicated. If the vocabulary listing of a verb does not give an active form for the first person singular of the present indicative, the verb is deponent, The category, middle or passive deponent. will then be given by the indication 'Y 22" (middle deponent) or 'V 23" . . . ., (passive deponent). A schematic arrangement featunng a companson With AIJW may help illustrate the differences between the "normal" verb . (exemplified by A15w) and middle and passive deponents (exemplified by 8eao!1at and <l>o~60!1at res:pectively). (The .fu~ure .will be t;sed . because the middle and passive forms are distinguishable m this tense' system.)
Normal Verb
active form

Middle Deponent

Passive Deponent

Xuow
active meaning

middle form
X15ooJ,1at

middle form
6.aDOlla,

middle meaning

active meaning

passive form
Au6tjDolla, passive meaning

passive form
6w6tjDolla, passive meaning

passive form <j>of}n6tj DOli Ul active mean-

ing

LESSON 45

255

Not all middle deponents have passive voices as does 8eao!1CXt. But at least the passive forms are theoretically "available". For a passive deponent such as <j>o~60!1at the passive forms are not even theoretically "available". It is important to note that the word "deponent" is used with different meanings and can vary from author to author. Hence it is advisable to ascertain just what an author means by the word "deponent" before drawing any conclusions in relation to what an author says and to what is said in this grammar.
usages among Compound Verbs.

A compound verb, as has already been mentioned when the formation of the augment was explained, is one in which a prefix, usually a preposition, is combined with a verb stem to form a verb with a special meaning involving both parts (e.g., docivw). There is no standard usage regarding the way a compound verb is related to other words in the sentence. Some compound verbs are transitive (e.g., 6 'ITJooil<;; npofivev mJTo15<;;, Jesus was preceding them); others, even the same verb in a different context, are intransitive (e.g., 6 'ITJooil<;; rrpoi;vev, Jesus was preceding). Some repeat the prefix as a preposition with a specific case (e.g., 6 'ITJooilC;; eioi;A8ev etc;; T~V mlAlv, Jesus entered into the city). Others have a case other than the accusative but without a preposition (e.g., 6 'Inoouc rrpooi;A8ev atholC;;, Jesus approached them). These varying usages must be learned from the way each verb is treated in the New Testament. But the beginning student is advised not to make too much of the differences as regards ordinary use ofthe text lest the memory be unduly burdened.
Difficult Verbs: &PxoJ,lat. e;Pxo!1CXt, t come; t go [V 2, V 22, DV 63, VP 1-2 and 4] A15w e;Pxo!1CXt
Mt13:19

A150w e;AIJOa EAe15oo!1CXt ~A8ov


Mt24:5 Mt2:2

A6AIJKa eArlAIJ8a
Lk 5:32

This verb is a middle deponent in the present and future systems (note the form ofthe future). In the aorist it is strong but not deponent. The root of the aorist is E}"8-. It is important to note

256

LESSON 45

that the e in the roQt here has nQthing to dQ with the e Qfthe weak aQrist passive fQrms Qfthe regular verb. The perfect active is strong. There are no passive forms. The verb is intransitive, i.e., does not take an object. The accent on the aorist imperative is irregular: eASe. The forms EPXf.TeXl and EPXQVTeXl given in Lesson 2 and used until nQW without explanation are the third person present indicative singular and plural of EPXQ~at. Rules for Accents 34. The accent on the aorist imperative active second person singular of EPXQ~at is irregular: eASe. Three other common aorist imperative active second person singular forms are similarly irregular: f.upe (from f.UpiaKW, I find); f.llre (from Aeyw, I say); Aal3e (from Aa~l3avw, I take). The irregularity disappears when the verbs are used with a prefix, i.e., in a compound verb. Thus: E~f.ASf..

Vocabulary for Lesson 45.


a1repXQ~at /itepXQ~at

[V 2, V 22, DV 63, VP 1-2 and 4] I go away.

[V 2, V 22, DV 63, VP 1-2 and 4] I pass through,

daipXQ~al [V e~ipXQ~at [V
EPXQ~at

2, V 22, DV 63, VP 1-2 and 4] I enter; I share in.

2, V 22, DV 63, VP 1-2 and 4] I go out.

[V 2, V 22, DV 63, VP 1-2 and 4] I come; I go.

KaripXQ~at [V
1rapipXQ~at [V 1rp6f.Pxo~at [V

2, V 22, DV 63, VP 1-2 and 4] I come down; I land. 2, V 22, DV 63, VP 1-2 and 4] I pass (by). 2, V 22, DV 63, VP 1-2 and 4] I go before.

1rpoaipXQ~at [V

2, V 22, DV 63, VP 1-2 and 4] I go in; I approach [with simple dative]. .

LESSON 45
allvipXQ~at

257

[V 2, V 22, DV 63, VP 1-2 and 4] to come together; to gather together [intransitive]. Can be used with dative with meaning to come with, to accompany.

f.uaYYf.Ai~Q~al (f.uaYYf.Aiao~at) [V

5, V 22;.VP 2-3] I preach the good news. This verb governs the dative or accusative of persons being evangelized, and the accusative of content of the good news. Cf. Lesson 20 for the use of the active voice. Hence it is something Qfan anomaly, being treated as a regular verb and as a middle deponent in the New Testament. The deponent usage predominates.

04>l~, -f.W~,

6 [N 28m] serpent, snake.

oljlia,

-a~, ~ [N 2]

evening.

~iVQ~,

-1'), -.QV [Adj 1] strange, foreign. This word is found as a noun


[N 6m]: stranger, foreigner.

e1ratSPlOV [Adv 2] on the next day.


~rln

[Adv 2, Neg] This word is used as an interrogative to expect a negative answer, or to express strong emotion, The simple form ~rl is also used with these meanings. The negative QU, when introducing a question, expects an affirmative answer. QtixL the strengthened form of QU, is also used in this way.

Exercises for Lesson 45.


1. Translate into English: 1. urjn Qur6~ sorrv 6 Xpioroc; (cf In 4:29) 2. Kat a1rrlyaYQv roy 'Incobv 1rPO~ roy apXtf.pea, Kat aovipXQvrat 1ravrf.~ Q1 apXlf.pf.l~ Kat Q1 1rpwl3urf.PQl Kat 01 ypa~~arf.l~. (Mk 14:53) 3. Kat aoo /if; atirfi~ r~v 1jI0X~V /ilf.Af.Uaf.TeXl ~aXatpa. (cf, Lk2:35) 4. ouv oljli<;x EPXf.TeXl ro aK6rQ~. 5. Kat yap eyw avepw1r6~ sun U1rO e~Qoaiav, EXWV U1r' e~allrov orpunoirec, Kat Aiyw rourll' , "EpXQO, Kat EPXf.TeXL (cf Mt 8:9) 6. ~ivQ~ ~~1')V Kat uov1')yaYf.ri us, yo~vo~ Kat 1rf.ptf.I3UAf.ri us. (cf, Mt 25:35-36)

258

LESSON 45

7. 6 oopavo<; Kat ~ vi] 11apEAEUOETal, 01 156 AOVOI uo o 00 11apEAEUOOVTal. (cf. Mt 24:35) 8. Try ~11aUPtOv BAi11El TOV 'Inoocv ~PXO/lEVOV 11PO<; aOTOV. (cf In 1:29) 9. Kat a11EA60iioa 61<; TOV OIKOV aOTi]<; EUp(OKEl TO 11atl)(OV f3Ef3AI1/livov ~11t T11V V~V Kat TO 15at/lovtOV ~~eAI1AIl6o<;. (cf Mk 7:30) [EUp(OKW, I findJ 10. l~EA6E ~~ aOToii Kat /lI1Kin 61oiA61J<; 61<; aOTOv. (cf Mk 9:25) [Aorist subjunctive used to convey a negative command. Cf. Lesson 72.] 11. Kat ~f3Al]a11 6 Oq,l<; 6 /liva<;. (cf. Apoc 12:9) 12. Kat 11pOOijA60v aonii OXAOl 110AAOt lXOVTE<; /lE6' Ealln3v TIlq,AOU<;, Kw>OU<;, Kat hipOIl<; 110AA015<;. (cf, Mt 15:30) 13. Kat aOTO<; 11POEAE150ETal ~VW11l0V aOToii ~v 11vE15/laTI. (cf. Lk 1:17) 14. Kat K(UijA60v 61<; T~V 110AIV ~ 11apa T~V 6cXAaooav I1 v.
T

II. Translate into Greek: 1. I see women coming to us. 2. You (sg.) have come in spirit and in truth. 3. They were coming out of the house.

III. Mk 4:21-41.

LESSON 46

259

Contract Verbs. Rules of Contraction for-& Contracts. Principal Parts of -& Contracts. <l>tAtOl, Present Active Indicative, Imperfect Active Indicative, Present Active Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. Difficult Verbs: y(vollal. Rules for Accents 35.

Lesson 46
Contract Verbs. Many Greek verbal roots end in the vowels -e, -a, or -0. This vowel reacts differently in the various tense systems. In the present system it always contracts with the initial vowel of the endings. (Hence the denomination, "contract verbs".) In the other tense systems this vowel is usually (not always) lengthened in some way or another. Contract verbs are divided into three categories, according to the vowel with which the verbal root ends: 1) -E contracts (e.g., q,lAi-w, I love); 2) -a contracts (e.g., ava11cX-w, I love); 3) -0 contracts (e.g., q,avEpo-w, I manifest). I like; I kiss. These peculiarities of orthography do not affect the meaning in any way. The meanings of the tenses and moods and voices are the same as for AUW.

Rules of Contraction for& Contracts.


The rules of contraction for roots ending in E are as follows: E + E> et (e.g., q"Ai-eTE > q,IAElTE) e + 0 > Oil (e.g., q,lAi-o/lEV > q,lAOii/lEV) E before a long vowel or a diphthong is absorbed (e.g., q,lAi-W > q,lAW; q,IAi-Ollat[v] > q,lAOiiol[V D. In modem vocabulary listings contract verbs are usually given- in their uncontracted form of the first person singular of the present indicative active (or middle or passive, if the verb is deponent) in order to facilitate the identification of the category of

260

LESSON 46

contract verb in which the verb falls. Thus the word <l>IAew is found in a vocabulary or dictionary listing, although this form is never found in the New Testament text. There it is always <l>IAW.
PrincipalParlsof-r; Contracts.

The contracted forms are f~und only in the present system (all moods, all voices), as was noted above. In the other tense systems the vowel e which ends the root is usually lengthened to 11 (exceptions to this rule will be given in Lesson 47). Thus the principal parts of <l>IAew are as follows: <l>1Ae-w
<l>IA~-OW

E<!>tA1]-O<X

:rre<!>tA1]-K<X

:rre<!>tA1]-I.l<Xl

E<!>IM-61]v

All the forms outside the present system are conjugated exactly like A15W. Some contract verbs are irregular, so that their principal parts must be learned by memory. But unless noted, e contracts follow the pattern of <I>,Aew. <l>IAew, Present Active Indicative, Imperfect Active Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, Infinitive. The present active tenses of <I>'Aew follow (cf. V 8, VP 1-3 and 56; for the participle cf. also Adj 9). The present middle/passive tenses will be given in Lesson 47.
Active Voice, Indicative Mood, Present Tense

Singular 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

Plural

<I>'AW
<l>IA&~

<l>IA&

<l>IAOfil.lev <l>IAe1rs <l>IAOfi01(V)

Active Voice, Indicative Mood, Imperfect Tense

Singular
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

Plural

E<!>tAOllV
E<!>tAel~

E<!>tAe1

E<!>IAOiil.lev E<!>lA&rs E<!>tAOllV

Active Voice, Imperative Mood, Present Tense

Singular

Plural

LESSON 46

261

2nd Person 3rd Person

<l>lAe1re <l>IAetrtoouv
Active Voice, Subjunctive Mood, Present Tense

Singular 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

Plural

<l>lAW
<l>lAij~

<l>lA ij

<l>IAWI.lEV <l>lAijre <l>lAW01(v)

The present optative of contract verbs is not found in the New Testament.
Active Voice, Participial Mood, Present Tense

Masculine
n v g

Singular Feminine

Neuter

<l>lAWV <l>lAWV
<l>lAoiivro~

d
a

<l>lAoiivn <l>lAoiivra

<l>lAOfio<X <l>lAOfio<X <l>IA0150% <l>IA01501) <l>lAOiio<Xv


Plural Feminine

<l>lAOiiv <l>lAOiiv
<l>lAoiivro~

<l>lAoiivn <l>lAOfiv

Masculine
n

Neuter

v g

<l>lAoiivre~ <l>lAoiivre~

d
a

<l>lAoiivrwv <l>lAOii01(V)
<l>lAofivra~

<l>lAOiio<X1 <l>lAOiio<X1 <l>lAOllOWV


<l>lA0150<X1~ <l>lA0150<X~

<l>lAoiivr<X <l>lA0 iivr<X <l>lAo15vrwv <l>IAOfi01(V) <l>IAoiivra

The present active infinitive is <l>lAe1v. The rules for accentuation of contracted forms will be given in Rules for Accents 35 below. Difficult Verbs: ytVOI.l<Xl. ytVOI.l<X1, I become [V 7, 21, 22, 23; DV 28; VP 2-4, 5]

262
ytVO/lal
Mt 27:24

LESSON 46
i;YEV~6T]V

vevrioouoa
Mt 18:19

i;YEVO/lJlV yf,yova
Mt 7:28 Mt 1:2

YEYf,VT]/lal
Jn2:9

Mt6:10

This important and complicated verb defies categorization. The basic meanings in both the middle and passive forms are synonymous (I become, I come to be, etc.). This seems to be the meaning of the perfect active as well. In the aorist middle the verb is strong, in the aorist passive it is weak. In the perfect active it is strong. The future is a middle form.

Rules for Accents 35.


The basic rules for contract verbs are the same as those for verbs in general. The proper accent for the contracted forms may be determined according to the following principles: 1) If there is no accent on either of the two elements forming the contraction, the accent remains where it was on the uncontracted form (e.g., &!>tAE-OV remains &!>tAOOV). 2) If there is an accent on the first of the two elements forming the contraction the accent falls on the contracted syllable and is circumflex (e.g., <!>lAf,-O/lEV becomes <!>lAOU/lEV). . 3) If there is an accent on the second of the two elements forming the contraction, the accent falls on the contracted syllable and is acute (e.g., <!>lAE-f,TW becomes <!>lAE1TW). It should be noted that the present indicative third person singular active is thus <!>lAf,-El > <!>lAEl, while the present imperative second person singular active is <!>lAE-E > <!>lAEI.

Vocabulary for Lesson 46.


cXKOA006f,w [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I follow. Governs the dative case. liEl [V 8, 20, DV 31; VP 4] it is necessary; it is proper. The imperfect is E:liEl, it was necessary; it was proper. liOKf,W [V 8; DV 41; VP 1-3, 5-6] I think; I seem.
~JlTf,W [V

8; VP 1-3,5-6] I seek.

AaAf,W [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I speak; I proclaim.

LESSON 46
unprupsco [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I

263

bear witness; I approve.

rrEpmaTf,W [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I walk; I conduct myself. rrOlf,W [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I make; I do. TT]Pf,W [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I keep; I keep in custody; I keep back. <!>lAf,W [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] Iloue; I like; I kiss. <!>of3f,O/lal [V 8, 23; DV 202; VP 2-3, 5] I fear. YlVO/lal [V 7, 21, 22, 23; DV 28; VP 2-4] I become; I appear. rrapaYlVO/lal [V 7, 21, 22,23; DV 28; VP 2-4] I arrive; I appear. Ka6arrEp [Conj] as;just as. This conjunction is used to make comparisons between clauses, i.e., segments of sentences involving verbs. This word is also found as an adverb [Adv

3]: thus.
waaOTUle; [Adv 3] likewise.

Exercises for Lesson 46.

1. Translate into English:


1. Kat rraVTEe; i;/lapTOpOov aun~ Kat i;AaA01JV rrEpt ni3v Aciywv TIle; xapLTOe; ni3v i;KrrOpEOO/lf,VWV i;K TOU aTo/laTOe; aUTOU. (cf. Lk 4:22) 2. ~v lif; 6 rrpo<!>~TT]c; f3aJrTl~WV i n~ 'Iop6UvlJ rroTa/l<jl, MaTa rrOAAa ~v i;KEl, Kat rrapEYlVOVTO Kat i;f3arrTl~ovTO. (cf. In 3:23) 3. Kat i;AaAEl aUTOle; TOV AOyOV. (cf Mk 2:2) 4. E:liEl liE TOV 'Inoouv lilf,PXw6al lila T~e; xwpae;. (cf, In 4:4) 5. d 010e; d TOU awu, MYE 'iva 01 AteOl oiSTOl apTol yf,VWVTaI. (cf. Mt 4:3) 6. rraAlv liE i;~EAaWV rrEpt KTJlV wpav i;rrOtT]aEV waaoTWe;. (cf. Mt 20:5) 7. ou yap U/lEle; sors 01 AaAouVTEe; cXna TO rrVEU/la TOU rraTpOe; U/lWV TO AaAOUV i;v U/llV. (cf. Mt 10:20).

on

264

LESSON 46

8. <'miaw _j.l?U lipXe!Ul (iv~p o~ lij.l1fpoallEv j.lOU YEyovev, on 1fPWTO~ uou nv. (cf In 1:30) 9. si ~e llEA~I~ El~ T~V ~w~v ElaeAllElv, rrip noov TlX~ EVToAa~. (cf. Mt 19:17) 10. TavilTa mlVTa EAaA'laEv 6 'I'laoil~ EV 1fapalloAal~ TOI~ OXAOI~, Kat XWPt~ 1fapalloAfj~ oul5ev EAaAEl aUTol~. (Mt 13:34) 11. EYEVETO 6 1fpo<l>~T'l~ lla1fri~wv EV T~ Ep~j.lW Kat K'lPoaawv lla1fnaj.la j.lETavoia~ El~ ae~V aj.lapnWv. (cf. Mk 1:4) 12. KaAw~ 1faVTa 1fE1foi'lKEV' TOU~ KW<j>OU~ 1fOIEI aKooElv. (cf Mk 7:37) 13. ri Dj.llv l50KEI 1fEPt Toil Xpiorou; rivoc ui6~ Eanv' (cf. Mt22:42) , 14. K~t ~ETa TailTa 1fEpIE1faTEI 6 'I'laoil~ EV T~ XWPQ: EKElV~. (cf. In 7:1) 15. Kalla1fEp yap TO aWj.la ev Eanv Kat j.lEA'l 1fOAACt liXEI, 1faVTa l5e Ta j.lEAl] Toil auSj.laTO~ 1fOAACt OVTa sonv aWj.la, Oi5TW~ Kat 6 XplOT6~. (l Cor 12:12) 16. K~t 6 '~aoil~ AEY~l aUTl!" 'AKOAollEI uor, Kat 'lKoAoulll]aEv aUTW. (cf Mt 6:33) 17. EYuS Elj.ll j.l~ <!>oIlElall~. (Mk 6:50) 18. 1fOl~aaTE oov Kap1fOU~ deiou~ Tfj~ uerovoicc. (cf, Lk 3:8) 19. ~'lTEiTE l5e 1fPWTOV T~V llaOlAEiav Toil llEoil Kat T~V I5IKalOaOV'lV aUToil. (cf. Mt 6:33) 20. Kat Ei~ 1favTa Ta lillv'l 1fPWTOV I5EI K'lpuxllfjvUl TO EUayyEAlOV. (Mk 13:10) 21. 6 <!>IAWV 1faTEpa ij j.ll]TEpa D1fep Ej.le OUK lianv uou aelO~' Kat 6 <!>IAWV uiov ij lluyaTEpa D1fep Ej.le OUK lianv uou aelO~. (Mt 10:37)

ev

II. Translate into Greek: 1. If you will become faithful, you will be happy. [Use plural forms for subjects.] 2. May they not become unfaithful. 3. I have become wise through the wisdom of Christ.

III. Mk 5:1-20.

LESSON 47

265

<!>,At"" Present Middle and Passive


Indicative, Imperfect Middle and Passive Indicative, Present Middle and Passive Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. Contraction in -g", Roots of One Syllable. The Non-Lengthening of s in tbe Non-Contracted Forms of Some -g Contracts. Difficult Verbs: "aAt"" M",.

Lesson 47
cjlIAW, Present Middle and Passive Indicative, Imperfect Middle and Passive Indicative, Present Middle and Passive Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. The moods of the present middle and passive of <!>IAEW are as follows (cf V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6; for the participle cf. also Adj 1):
Middle and Passive Voices, Indicative Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

<!>lAOilj.lUl <!>IA ~ <!>IACtTat


<!>IA~

<!>IAOOj.lEll a <!>IAElalle <!>IAOilvTat

The form <jllAfjl


><!>lA~).

comes from <jllAE-Eaal (<!>IAE-Eaal > <!>IAE-Eat >

Middle and Passive Voices, Indicative Mood, Imperfect Tense Singular Plural
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

f.<!>IAO OJ.l nv f.<!>IAOil f.<!>IACtTO

f.<!>IAO 0 j.lEll a f.<!>IACtallE f.<!>IAouvTO

The form f.<!>IAOil comes from f.<!>IAE-eao (f.<!>tAE-eao > f.<!>,AE-w > f.<!>IAE-ou > f.<!>,Aoil).

266

LESSON 47

Middle and Passive Voices, Imperative Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural

2nd Person 3rd Person

<j>IA06 <j>IAEta8w

<j>IAEia8E <j>IAda8wauv

The form <j>IA06 comes from <j>IAe-iao (<j>IAt-eao > <j>IAe-eo > <j>IAe00 > <j>IA06).
Middle and Passive Voices, Subjunctive Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural <j>IAW~JaI <j>IAW/lE8u

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

<j>IA ~ <j>IA ijTat

<j>IAija8E <j>IAWVTaI

The form <j>IA~ comes from <j>lAE-riaat (<j>IAE-riaat > <j>IAE-riat > <j>IAe-1]1 > <j>IAtit > <j>IA~).
Middle and Passive Voices, Participial Mood, Present Tense Singular Neuter Feminine Masculine

n
v

<j>IAOU/lEVO~

g d a

<j>lAOU/lEVE <j>lAOO/leVo.o <j>lAOO/l ev41 <j>lAOU/lEVOV


Masculine

<j>IAOO/leV1] <j>IAOO/leV1]
<j>IAOO/lev1]~

<j>IAOO/l eVlJ <j>IAOO/leV1]v


Plural Feminine

<j>IAOU/lEVOV <j>IAOU/lEVOV <j>IAOO/leVOo <j>IAOO/l EV41 <j>IAOU/lEVOV


Neuter

n
v

g d a

<j>IAOU/lEVOI <j>IAOU/lEVOI <j>IAOO/leVWv


<j>IAOO/leV01~ <j>IAOU/leVOo~

<j>IAOU/lEVUl <j>IAOU/lEVUl <j>IAOO/leVWv


<j>IAOU/leVat~ <j>IAOU/leVU~

<j>lAOU/lEVU <j>lAOU/lEVU <j>lAou/leVWv


<j>lAoU/leV01~

<j>lAOU/lEVU

The present middle/passive infinitive is <j>IAela8u1.


It is important to bear in mind that the listing offorms under the rubrics "middle/passive" or "middle and passive" does not mean that the occurrence of one of these forms in a text can be both middle and passive at one and the same time. It must be one or the other. Even if the text is ambiguous and either alternative is possible, they

LESSON 47

267

ot both be possible at one and the same time in one and the e way.

. nlractionin-elll Roots of One Syllable;


ii.,.
In verbs with roots of one syllable in the category of E

:"'contractions which do !lJli< take place are E + 0, E + W, and E + 1]. i'Thus, for the verb nvb, I blow, one finds 7rVeOVTU instead of . 1lVOuvra, and 1IVeTJ instead of1l'vfj~

fi1!Co~tracts, there are exceptions to the rules of contraction given in Xtesson 46: not all of the normal contractions take place. The

The Non-Lengthening of e in the Non-Contracted Forms of-Some

-e Contracts.
A few contract verbs in -EW do not lengthen the Ein the forms which are not contracted. Memory is the only way of learning these verbs. They are not many, and those which do exist will be noted in the vocabulary. The most important verb in the category is KUAtW, I call, which, because of other changes in the principal parts, is best considered "difficult".

Difficult Verbs: KaA&W,5&w.

KUAEW, I call; I invite; I name [V 8; DV 92; VP 1-3, 5-6] KUAew


Mt22:43

KuAtaw
Mt1:21

~KciAeau

K&KA1]KU
Lk 14:12

K&KA1]/lUI
Mt22:3

~KAri81]V

Mt 1:25

Mt23:8

Mw, I bind [V 8; DV 36; VP 1-3, 5-6]


5riaw
Acts 21:11

l51]au
Mt14:3

M5EKU
Acts 22:29

M1iE/lat
Mt16:19

~M81]v

Acts 21:13

Vocabulary for Lesson 47. bnKaAEW [V 8; DV 92; VP 1-3, 5-6] active: I call; middle: I call upon,

268
I appeal to.

LESSON 47

KaASlJl [V 8; DV 92; VP 1-3, 5-6] I call; I invite; I name. :n:apaKaAElJl [V 8; DV 92; VP 1-3, 5-6] I beg; I encourage; I console. :n:poOKaASOllat [V 8, 22; DV 92; VP 1-3,5-6] I call to myself; I invite.
MOllat [V 8, 23; DV 33; VP 3, 6] I ask; I implore. This verb governs

the genitive for the person as object of asking. MlJl [V 8, DV 36, VP 1-3, 5-6] I bind. These two verbs should be carefully distinguished. :n:AElJl [V 8; DV 157; VP 1, 5] I sail. :n:VElJl [V 8; DV 160; VP 1, 5] I blow. aiVElJl [future: alvEolJl] [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I praise; I approve. airElJl [V 8; VP 1-3,5-6] I request; I demand.
B~lJlPElJl

[V 8; VP 1-3, 56] I watch; I observe.

KpaTElJl [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I take hold of; I hold fast. Governs the accusative or the genitive. The genitive is explained by the usage, much more commonin classical Greek, of considering verbs of touching or holding as concerning only a "part" of the object touched or held. Thus, the "partitive genitive", is used to express the idea that only a "part" ofthe object touched or held is really touched or held. :n:apatTEOllat [V 8, 22; VP 2-3, 6] I ask for; I keep away from; I ask to be excused. rrpOOKUVElJl [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] transitive: I worship [with accusative or dative for the object of worship}; intransitive: I bow low.
i!.:n:~tTa
KaK<ii~

[Adv 2] then, next. [Adv 3] badly; wrongly.

LESSON 47

269

":J!:xercises for Lesson 47.


Translate into English: 1. i!.x~ us rrapUT1]llivov. (cf, Lk 14:18) _ 2. 0 Eav liriou~ E:n:L Tfi~, yfi~ E5lTa! ~~AIl~EVO':: E':- TOt~ oupnvoic, KaL 0 scv AU01J~ sm T% V1]~ EOTat A~AUIlEVOV EV roic o~pa~ot~., (cf, Mt 16;19) _ _ 3. O{jTO~ :n:poo~ABwv T<~ 1]V~1l0Vt UT1]OaTo TO OlJllla TOU '11]0013. (cf. Mt 27:58) 4. Kat haAEO~v TO ovolla aOTo13 'I1]oo~v. (cf, Mt ~:25()f J 5. d KaKw~ EAaA1]oa, llapT15p1]oOV :n:~pt To13 xcocou. c. n 18:23) Ii6. IlEAAOIl~V rrA~lv d~ dAAOU~ T6:n:Oll~., 7. Ka\ Oili~ Ex~t E~OllOtaV :n:apa TWV .app~p~.lJlV 1]o(a t :n:avTa~ TOU~ i;mKaAollIlEVOll~ TO OVO~Ja ooo. At C s 9:14) ." ( r Mt 8. Kat ~ABov 01 ncrcuot Ka\ Errv~lloav oi uveuoi. c. 7:25) , . (cf Lk 9. 6 liE rraT11P aOTo13 i;~~ABwv :n:apeKaA~t aurov. c. 15:28) , 13' 10. Kat E~riTOllV aOTOV KpaTfioat. Kat t4>0 1]B1]oav TOV OXAov. (cf. Mk 12:~2), _ ,., 11. Err~tTa Il~Ta ET1] rpm aV1]ABov ~t~ T1]V aywv :n:oAtv. (cf. Gal 1:18) "", _ 12. Kat :n:pooKaAEOall~vo~ :n:aAtv TOV OXA)ov ~A~V~V oroic, .AKo15oaTE uou :n:avT~~. (cf. Mk 7:14 13. ~ liE EABouoa :n:pooeK15v~t aOT<9-. (~f. Mt ~~:25). Ii 14. E()~lTO liE aOTo13 6 av~p a<!>' ou ~~~A1]AU si TO atllo vta dvat ouv aOT<9. (cf, Mt 15:2~) ., _ 15. Kat a:n:fiABov 01 :n:OtIlEV~~ ()0~a~OVLT~k~2K2aOt)atVOUVT~~ TOV B~6v E:n:\ mxOlV a tlKOlloav. (cf. : _ 16. :n:oAAO\ E:n:(oT~uoav d~ TO ovolla JaoT20132'3)e~lJlPoUVT~~ r n : aOTou Ta O1]).leta a E:n:Ot~t. (c. II. Translate into Greek: 1. They will be called sons of God. . ' 2. The soldiers sailed on the third day. [Use the simple dative without preposition to express the time.] 3. They came in order to worship him. III. Mk 5:21-43.

,:.

FI

270

LESSON 48

Future Active and Middle Systems ofLiquid and NasalVerbs. GTEAAOl, Future Active Indicativeand Future Middle Indicative: Aorist Active and Middle Indicativeof Liquid and Nasal Verbs. GTEAAOl, Aorist Active Indicativeand AoristMiddle Indicative. Difficult Verbs: orEAAOl, Xp{VOl, ayyEAAOl.

Lesson 48
Future Active and Middle Systems ofLiquid and NasalVerbS. Contract verbs in have special contracted forms only in the present system, as was explained above, in Lesson 46. There are two other c~tegor;ies of verbs, liquid (i.e., with a root ending in Aor p) an.d nasal (i.e., WIth a root ending in J.l or v), which in a sense can be SaI~ to make. use of 0e paradigm of -W contracts to form the future active an~ nnddle VOIces. This phenomenon results from phonological chan~es peculiar to these roots. For example, in the ~se of the verb OrAACiJ, I send, the verbal root is OrA-. (For reasons Irrelevant to the present discussion the present stem is OrAA- with two Iambdas.) T~e future is not formed by adding 0 directly to the stem, ~ut by adding plus the regular endings, which then contract according to th~ rules already given for the present system of ~ontract verbs In s, so that the future, first person singular is OrAW, Just as t~e present, first person singular of <jllAf,CiJ is <jllAW. This same type of reasoning applies to the future of nasal verbs such as J.lf,VCiJ (J.lVf,CiJ > J.lvw). The s~e phenomena, of course, obtain for all the moods of the future active and of the future middle of these two categories of verbs. OT&AACiJ, Future Active Indicative and Future Middle Indicative.

-w

LESSON 48

271

The future indicative active and future indicative middle of orf,AACiJ are conjugated as follows [cf. V 6 and DV 177; orf,nCiJ is found in the New Testament only as part of a compound verb]:
Active Voice, Indicative Mood, Future Tense Singular Plural
Ist Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

OTCAW OrAel
OrAel~

OrAOOJ.lV orA1T OrAOOat(V)

Middle Voice, Indicative Mood, Future Tense Singular Plural 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

OrA00J.lal crsxfj orAelral

OreA01JJ.le6a orAelo6 OrAOOVral

The form OTCAfj comes from OrAf,-eaal (orAf,-eaal > OTCAf,-a1 > OrAf,-Tll > OrAijl > OrAfj). The future infinitive and future participle active and middle are formed on the analogy of the indicative from the present forms of <jllAf,W. Aorist Active and Middle Indicative ofLiquid and Nasal Verbs. Liquid and nasal verbs also have special rules for the formation of the aorist active and middle. But the resulting forms have no resemblance to contract verbs in -W as do the forms of the future active and middle. The aorist active and middle voices of liquid and nasal verbs are treated here for convenience, inasmuch as they are formed according to special rules, just as their future is formed according to special rules, and it seems appropriate to treat the two phenomena together. Most verbs have weak aorist active and middle forms, as was explained in Lesson 18. This means that the aorist stem is formed by the addition of a 0 to the root. When this a of the aorist stem is added to the root of liquid and nasal verbs special changes take place: the a is dropped and the syllable previous to the liquid (or nasal) is lengthened, usually by the formation of a diphthong involving 1. Thus the aorist active indicative of orf,nCiJ is 60rElAa; the aorist active indicative of J.lf,VCiJ is 6~JlVa.

272

LESSON 48

OrtAAllJ, Aorist Active Indicative and Aorist Middle Indicative. The aorist indicative active and middle of OTeAAllJ are conjugated as follows (cf, V 6 and DV 177):
Active Voice. Indicative Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Plural 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

e-oTEtA-a
e-oTEIA-a~

e-OTEtA-E(V)

e-OTEtA-a/.lEV e-oTEtA-aTE e-OTEtA-av E-OTEtA-a/.lEea /;- aTE1A- aOeE /;-oTdA-avTO

Middle Voice, Indicative Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Plural 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person
"I.' E-OTEt/\-a/.lT]v /;- aTdA-llJ /;-aTE1A-aTo . ,

The form /;oTE1Aw comes from /;aTE1Aaao (/;aTdAaoo > /;aTE1Aao > /;oTdAW). The endings are the normal endings for the aorist active and middle indicative. The same endings are used for the aorist active and middle indicative of /.levw, based on the stem /.lEtv-. The stems aTEtA- and /.lEtv- are used to form all other moods of the aorist active and middle. The future and aorist are the only two tense systems in which the liquid and nasal verbs have special forms. In other aspects, of course, liquid and nasal verbs can be irregular. Difficult Verbs: OTEAAW, KptVW, dyyEAAllJ. OTeAAW, I send [V 6; DV 177; VP 1-3, 5-6] OTeAAW
Mt 10:16

aTEAW
Mt24:31

eaTEtAa
Mt2:16

eOTaAKa
Lk4:18

eOTaA/.lCXt
Lk 13:34

/;OTaAT]v
Mt15:24

The verb oTeAAw exists in the New Testament only as part of compound verbs, although these are numerous. The examples of the principle parts given above are of the verb (brooTeAAw. The future and aorist have been discussed in this lesson. The aorist passive is strong.

LESSON 48

273

KP1VW, I judge, I discern, I decide [V 7; DV 109; VP 1-3, 5-6] KplVW


Mt7:1

KPtvW
Heb 10:30

6KptVa Lk 7:43

KeKptKa
Acts 16:15

KeKpl/.lCXl
Jn3:18

/;Kp16T]v
Mt5:40

The principles for forming the future and aorist active and middle have been discussed in this lesson. The aorist active has a long I to compensate for the dropping of a, but the lengthened quality of the I does not appear in the orthography.

ayyeAAw, I tell [V 6; DV 2; VP 1-3, 5-6]


ayyeAAw
In 20:18

aYYEAW
Jn4:2

ifYYEIAa
Mt2:8

ifYYEA/.lCXl
Gal 3:19

~yyeAT]V

Lk 8:20

The simple verb ayyeAAw is rare in the New Testament, but compounds based on it are frequent. The principles for forming the future and aorist active and middle have been discussed in this lesson. The aorist passive is strong.

Vocabulary for Lesson 48. alroaTeAAw [V 6; DV 177; VP 1-3, 5-6] I send; I send with a mission. /;ea:n:ooTeAAw [V 6; DV 177; VP 1-3,5-6] I send off; I send forth. avaKplvw [V 7; DV 109; VP 1-3, 5-6] I examine; I judge. a:n:oKpivo/.lat [V 7, 22, 23; DV 109; VP 2-3,6]. This verb is primarily a passive deponent, but middle forms are also found with the same active meaning as the passive: I answer; I declare. Iha1<pivw [V 7; DV 109; VP 1-3, 5-6] active: I evaluate; I distinguish; middle: I hesitate; I doubt. The aorist passive also means I hesitate, I doubt.

xurcocpivco [V 7; DV 109; VP 2-3, 5-6] I condemn. xpivco [V 7; DV 109; VP 13, 5-6] I judge; I discern; I decide. ayyeAAw [V 6; DV 2; VP 1-3, 5-6] I tell.

274

LESSON 48

avaYYEAAW [V 6; DV 2; VP 1-3, 5-6] I tell; I report; I preach. aJraYYEAAw [V 6; DV 2; VP 1-3, 5-6] I inform; I proclaim; I command [with dative of the person commanded].
oJraYYEAAo~al [V

6, 22; DV 2; VP 2-3, 6] I promise; I profess.

KamYYEAAw [V 6; DV 2; VP 1-3, 5-6] I proclaim; I preach. JrapaYYEAAw [V 6; DV 2; VP 1-3, 5-6] I order [dative of person ordered].
oJrI~EVW [V ~EVW [V

7; DV 125; VP 1-3, 5-6] intransitive: I remain; I continue.

7; DV 125; VP 1-3, 5-6] transitive: I await; intransitive: I remain: 7; DV 125; VP 1-3, 5-6] I endure; I undergo.

UJrO~EVW [V

Exercises for Lesson 48.

1. Translate into English: 1. xnrcxprvouotv rov olav rof civSpwrroo Savanp. (cf Mk 10:33) 2. KaK6I ueivnre EW~ iiv o~EASJlTe oK T~~ JrOAew<;;. (cf Mt 10:11) 3. TOllrOO<;; TOU~ liu5lieKa ciJrEoTelAev 6 '11'\0013<;; JrapayyelAa~ aUTol<;; AEYWV, 'ArrayydAaTe ooa 6 KOPIO<;; JreJrolJlKev. (cf. Mt 10:5; Mk 5:19) 4. omv eASl) 6 Meooiuc, avayyeA6I ~/lIV aJravm. (cf In 4:25) 5. 6 lie avaKplvwv us KOPIO<;; oOTlv. (cf. 1 Cor 4:4) 6. aJroKplSet<;; lie 6 'lJlooii<;; ehev aUTol<;;, 'A/l~v AEYW u/lIV, eerv eXJlTE nionv Kat ~~ lilaKplS~Te, Kiiv n(i opel Toonp MYJlTe, BA rl6Jln el<;; T~V 6aAaooav, vevriosrci. (cf. Mt 21:21) 7. 6 lie uJro~elva<;; d<;; TEAO<;; OtlTO<;; ow6rloeral. (cf. Mt 10:22) 8. avlipe<;; cilieAol, ~/lIV 6 AOYO<;; T~<;; OWTJl pla<;; mOTJl<;; aJre<JTaA n. (cf. Acts 13:26) 9. mOTa<;; yap 6 oJrayyeIAa/levo<;;. (cf. Reb 10:23) 10. 6 lie aJroKpl6et<;; aUTol<;; AEyel, '0 yevea amoTO~, EW<;; JrOTE rrpa<;; u~a<;; eoo~al; (cf. Mk 9:19)

LESSON 48

275

11. Kat JravTE~ lie oi rrpo~ral KaTrlyyelAav Ta<;; ~/lEpa<;; rmiroc. (cf Acts 3:24) 12. /l~ KPIVETE, 'Iva ~~ KPI6~TE' i ~ yap xpiurrn xpivsrs Kpl6rlow6E. (cf. Mt 7:1-2) 13. f.Am~W yap om~dval Jrpa<;; U/la<;;. (cf 1 Cor 16:7) 14. epXeTal ~ YllV~ aYYEAolloa TOt<;; /la61'\TaI<;; on vEI3Aeqra rov KOpI0V. (cf In 20:18)
II. Translate into Greek: . 1. 1 have sent you so that you may preach the good news. 2. I shall judge those who condemn you. 3. What God promised he is also capable of doing. (cf Rom 4:12) III. Mk 6:1-13.

276

LESSON 49

Rules of Contraction for-a Contracts. Principal Parts of-a Contracts. aya1[&Ol

PresentActiveIndicative,lmperfectActiv~

Indicative, Present Active Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive.

DifficultVerbs: Op&Ol, lXOl. Rules for


Accents 36.

Lesson 49
Rules ofContraction for -ex Contracts. For an introduction to contract verbs cf. above, Lesson 46. The rules of contraction for roots ending in ex are as follows: ex + Eor T] > ex (e.g., TlIIU-ETE > ruidrs; TlIIU-T]TE > rtudrs); ex + 0, co, 0: 00 >,W (e.g., TlIIU-OIIEV > TtIlWIIEV; HIIU-W > ' TtIlW; nud-ouoilvl > Tlllwm[v])' ex + a diphthong containing t results in a long vowel WIth the t written as an iota subscript. A simplified version of the above rules is as follows' a + any "0" sound (0, 00, e) results in W; . ex + any other sound (E, 11) results in a' if an iota is involved, it becomes subscript. Principal Parts of-ex Contracts.
In the other principal parts of aymruw the root is lengthened

to T]:
ayanu-w ayexm]-ow ~YU1lIl-oa ~yunll-Ka ~YU1lT]-lIat ~yam]-6T]v

. But ift~e a of the stem ending is preceded by an E, i, or p the a remams ~nd.ls !engthened, although the lengthening is not customanly indicated. Thus the principal parts of xoniuoi 1 work hard, llabor are as follows: '

LESSON 49

277

Komu-w

K01Tta-OW

KEKonia-Ka

EKOrrta.-aa

xoxonio--urn

eKontu-6T]v

dyex1t'aoo, Present Active Indicative, Imperfect Active Indicative, Present Active Impemtive, Subjunctive, participle, and Infinitive. The present active of ayanuw, llove, is conjugated as follows (cf. V 9; VP 1-3, 5-6; for the participle, cf. Part 8):
Active Voice, Indicative Mood, Present Tense Plural Singular aya1lWIIEV aya1lW

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

ayarrq<; aya1lq

6.yandTE ayarrwm( v)

Active Voice, Indicative Mood, Imperfect Tense Plural Singular 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person
~yunwv ~yurra<; ~yurra
~yanwlIEv ~YC(1l"dTE ~YU1lWV

Note the following: nvcorcov: imperfect indicative active first person singular and third person plural; ayanwv: present participle active masculine and neuter singular.These two forms should be carefully distinguished by augment and by accent.
Active Voice, Imperative Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural 2nd Person 3rd Person

6.yuna ayarruTw

6.yandTE ayarruTwoav

Active Voice, Subjunctive Mood, Present Tense Plural Singular 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

ayarrw
ayanq<;
ayarr~

ayarrwlIEv 6.yandTE ayarrwm(v)

278

LESSON 49

The forms of the present subjunctive are the same as the forms of the present indicative. They can be distinguished only from the context. The present optative active of contract verbs in -aw is not found in the New Testament.
Active Voice, Participial Mood, Present Tense Singular Masculine Feminine Neuter
n v

ayarrwv ayarrwv
ayarrwvTo~

ayurroovTt ayarrwvra
Masculine

ciyarrwaa ayarrwaa ayarrwall<; ayarrwaIJ ayarrwaav


Plural Feminine

ayarrwv ayarrwv
ayarrwvTo~

aY<X1foov

ayarrwv
Neuter

v
g d

ayarrwvTE~ ayarrwvTE~

aycurwvT<.Ov

ayarrwaat ciyarrwaat ayarrwawv


ayarrwaat~

ayarrwat(v)
ayarrwvra~

ayarrwaac;

ayarrwvra ayarrwvTa ayanoovTtuv ayarrwat(v) ayarrwvTa

On the possibility of confusing certain forms of the participle with certain forms of the imperfect indicative see the observations above, following the paradigm of the imperfect indicative active. The present active infinitive is ayarrdv. There is no iota subscript in the present active infinitive of contract verbs in -aw because the present infinitive ending itself is a contraction of the original vowels E-EV. Hence ayarra-E-ev > aya1f(i-ev > ayarrdv. The rules for accentuation of contract verbs have been given above, in Lesson 46. But special note should be taken of the accent of the neuter participle as explained below in Rules for Accents 36. The middle/passive forms of the present tense of ayarraw will be given in Lesson 50.

LESSON 49
Difficult Verbs: opaw, lxoo.

279

opaw, transitive: opaw


Mt8:4

I see; intransitive: I take care [V 9, DV 139, VP 1-6]

Otpollat
Mt5:8

d1iov
Mt2:2

EwpaKa
Lk 1:22

w<!>8TlV
Mt17:3

E.OpaKCX
Col 2:1

The future is a middle deponent. The aorist active is strong, with an irregular augment (the aorist root is to--). There are two forms of the perfect active, EWP aKa being the more common. There is no perfect middle/passive in the New Testament.
~Xw, I have [cf. Lesson 91 [V 2, DV 68, VP 1-4]

ex oo

Mt8:9

e~w Mt12:11

taxav
Mt 19:16

~aXTlKa

Mk 5:15

It will be recalled that the augment of the imperfect of ~xw is irregular, elxov (cf. above, Lesson 10). The augment of the aorist is regular.

Rules for Accents 36.


The accent of the neuter nominative, vocative, and accusative singular of the present active participl.e of ayarraw is pr?bably caused by analogy with the accentuation of t~e masculine nominative and vocative singular. The same 1S true of the corresponding forms of <!JtAEW (cf, above, Lesson 46) and of <!>avepow (cf. below, Lesson 51).

Vocabulary for Lesson 49. ayarraw [V 9; VP 1-3, 5-61 1 love.

opaw [V 9, DV 139, VP 1-6] transitive: 1 see; intransitive: I take care.

280

LESSON 49

evixUJ [V 2, DV 68, VP 1-4} I am hostile to [with dative]; passive: I am

subject to.
brixUJ [V 2, DV 68, VP 1-4] transitive: I hold firmly; intransitive: I pay attention to [with dative}; I stay. exUJ [V 2, DV 68, VP 1-4} I have. Cf. Lesson 9. KarixUJ [V 2, DV 68, VP 1-4} transitive: I hold fast; I possess; I prevent; intransitive: I head toward. /l6rixUJ [V 2, DV 68, VP 1-4} I have a share in [with genitive or a preposition governing genitive]. :rrpoaixw [V 2, DV 68, VP 1-4J I pay attention to, I give myselfto [with accusative or dative}; I watch out for [with a:rro plus genitive}. auvixw [V 2, DV 68, VP 1-4} I surround. v:rr6pixUJ [DV 2, DV 68, VP 1-4J I surpass. Y6vvaUJ [V 9; VP 1-3, 5-6} I am father to; I give birth to. e:rr6pUJraw [V 9; VP 1-3, 5-6] I ask; I ask for. e:rrlTL/laUJ [V 9, VP 1-3, 5-6} I order not to; I rebuke [with dative of person}. epUJraUJ [V 9, VP 1-3,5-6] I ask; I beg. 06aO/lUl [V 9, 22; VP 2-3, 6] I see; I notice. KaUxaO/lat [V 9, 22; DV 94; VP 2-3, 6} I boast; I boast about.
xomdco [V 9, VP 1-3, 5-6} I work hard; I become weary.

n/laUJ [V 9; VP 1-3, 5-6J I honor. auplOv [Adv 2} tomorrow. oul)i:rror6 [Adv 2] never.

Exercises for Lesson 49.

LESSON 49

281

1. Translate into ,EngJish:" ,_,,, 1. :rrin6 yap av/)pa~ WX6~, xrn vuv ov 6X61~ OUK eanv aou aVTlP. (cf. In 4:18) 2. Kat e:rrTlP05ra aurov, rt ovo/la cot; (cf. Mk 5.:9) [~he dative is a "dative of possession" and functions hke a genitive of possession.l . , 3. /)6uripa aur!] , 'Aya:rrTla6t~ TOY :rrA!]alOV oou UJ~ a6a /lcil;UJv rotircov CiAA I) svrox ~ OUK eanv. (Mk 12:3 1u)rov. 4. d~ room yap Komoo/l6V, on rjA:rrtKa/l6V e:rrt 06<\1 l;oov)n, o~ soriv aUJr~p :rravrwv av6p05:rrUJv. (cf. 1 Tim 4:10 5. t1 /)f; yuv~ eVclX6v r<\1 :rrpo<l>TlrlJ (cf Mk 6:19) 6. :rrpoaiX6r6 1\ r~v /)lKalOauv'1V V/looV /l~ noieiv e/l:rrpoa06v roov avOp05:rrUJv :rrpo~ ro OW6ijvCll auro~~' 6\ 1\ /lTl ve; /llOOOV OUK eX6r6 :rrapa r<\1 :rrarpt V/lUJV roo ev rotc ouonvoic. (Mt 6:1) 7. AiY6; aun;; 6 'I'1aoo~, "On e05paKa~ ue :rr6:rr[ar6uKa~; ) /laKaplOl 0\ /l~ \56vr6~ Kat mar6uaavr6~. (In 20:29 8. Kat ep05rl)o6v aurov a:rrav ro :rrAijOO~ a:rr6AOclV a:rr ') auroov, OTt <I>6~4l /l6yaA4l auv6lxovro. (cf. Lk 8:37 9. ourUJ~ ou5i:rror6 61/)o/l6v. (cf Mk 2:12) 10. (, 1\f; av~p e:rr61X6v rotc dnooroxoic. (cf. ~cts 3:~) , 11. Kat e:rr6n/ll)a6V aur<\1 (, 'I'1aoii~ AiyUJv, ~6A06 ox auroo. (cf. Lk 4:35) 12. rl/la rov :rrarEpa aou Kat r~v /ll)rEpa oo o . (cf, Mk
13. Kat rore OI/lOVTClI TOY u\ov roo avOpu$:rrou e pXO/l6VOV 6V) Vc<l>iAUl~ /l6ra /)uVa/l6UJ~ :rrOAAii~ Kat 56~'1~. (Mk 13: 26 14. eyiv6ro /)f; brt r~v aoplOv [adverb as object of a , preposition) a,uvaxOiiv,Ul a,uroov roue ~PX?VTCl~ ~a,' rou~ :rrpw~ur6pou~ KUl roue ypa/l/lar61~ 6V rlJ aytq. :rrOA61. (cf. Acts 4:5) 15. <.0<1>61) /)f; aur<ji UYY6AO~ a:rr' oupavoii. (cf. Lk 22:43) 16. (, /)f; KaUXu$/l6VO~ ev KUpt4l KaUxaaOUJ. (2 C~r 1?:17) 17. d UAAot rii~ V/loov e~ouata~ /lETiXOuGtv, ou /laAAov t1/lcl~; (1 Cor 9:12) , , 18. Kal 01 oXAot KarclXov TOY "Inoofiv 'tva /l'1 a:rr6A6lJ a:rr' auroov. (cf. Lk 4:42) 19. KaAQV aurw d OUK eY6VVTl0l) (, uv6pUJ:rr0~ eKclvo~.
(Mk 14:21) 20. :rriXaa I/IUX~ e~oualUl~ U:rr6p6Xouoat~ v:rroraaaiaOUJ. (cf. Rom 13:1)

7:10)

II. Translate into Greek:

282

LESSON 49

1. Christ will be seen by those honoring him. . 2. Seeing the unfaithful men Jesus rebuked them. 3. They have had five houses in this city. III. Mk 6:14-29.

LESSON 50

283

aya"""" Present Middle and Passive Indicative, Imperfect Middle and Passive Indicative, Present Middle and Passive Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. Difficult Verbs: Aly"" alp",.
Lesson 50
dya1falll, Present Middle and Passive Indicative, Imperfect Middle and Passive Indicative, Present Middle and Passive Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. For an explanation of contract verbs cf. Lesson 46. The moods of the present middle/passive of ayarraw are conjugated as follows (cf V 9; VP 1-3, 5-6; for the participle cf. also Adj 1):
Middle and Passive Voices, Indicative Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

ayarrWlJ a t
ayarrdo<Xt/ayarr~

ayarrdnn

6a ayarrWlJE ayarrdo6E ayarrWVTat

The form ayarrdoat comes from the form ayarra-w<Xt through the omission of the 0 between two vowels and then through contraction of the a and the Einto d. The form ayarr~ comes from the same form ayarra-w<Xt and through the same omission of 0 but through a different set of contractions: ayarra-w<Xt > ayarra-Eat > ayarra-at > ayarrdt > ayarr~.
Middle and Passive Voices, Indicative Mood, Imperfect Tense Singular Plural 1st Person 2nd Person 3Td Person

DyarrWlJDv Dyarrw DyarrdTo

DyarrwlJE6a Dyarrdo6E DyarrwvTo

284

LESSON 50

The form Dyarrw comes from Dyarra-eao through the omission of a 0 between two vowels and through contraction: Dyarra-eao > Dyarra-EO > Dyarra-w > Dyarrw.
Middle and Passive Voices, Imperative Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural

2nd Person 3rd Person

ayarrw ayarrao8w

ayarrc'io8E ayarrao8woav

Middle and Passive Voices, Subjunctive Mood, Present Tense 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

ayarrWMat ayarrc'i ayarrchat

ayarrWME8a ayarru08E ayarrWVTat

The form ayarr~ comes from the form ayarra-l]oat through the omission of 0 and through contraction: ayarra-l] Oat > ayarral]at> ayarra-at > ayarrat > ayarr~. As was noted in Lesson 49, the present indicative and the present subjunctive are distinguishable only by the context. But it should also be noted that in the middle/passive the forms of the second person singular are different. The second person middle/passive singular can be confused with the third person singular of the active.

In the New Testament there is no middle/passive present optative of contract verbs in -aw.
Middle and Passive Voices, Participial Mood, Present Tense Singular Masculine Feminine Neuter ayarrWMEvo~ ayarrWMEVl] ayarrwMEvov

n v

g
d

ayarrWMEvE ayarrwMEvotJ
aya1l'w!Jvq>

ayarrw!JEVl]

ayarrwMEvl]~

ayarrWMEvov
Masculine

ayarrWMEvl) ayarrwMEVl]V
Plural Feminine

ayarrWMEvov ayarrWMEvOtJ ayarrWMEvlll ayarrWMEVOv


Neuter

ayarrwMEVOt ayarrWMEVOt ayarrWMEvwv

ayarrwMEVat ayarrwMEVat ayarrWMEvwv

ayarrWMEva ayarrWMEva ayarrWMEvwv

LESSON 50
ayarrwMEVOt~ ayarrwMEvotJ~

285
ayarrWMEVOt~

ayarrwMEVat~

ayarrwMEva<;

ayarrwMEva

The present infinitive middle/passive is ayarrc'io8al.


It is important to recall again that the listing of these forms as "middle/passive" does not mean that the occurrence of one of these forms in a text can be both middle and passive at one and the sam~ time. The form in a given context must be one or the other. Even If the text is ambiguous and either alternative is possible 3; fo~ cannot be both middle and passive at one and the same time m the same way.

Difficult Verbs: },,{,yw, arpCAl. AEYW, I say, I speak [V 2; DV 116; VP 1-3,4] 'AEyw
Mt 1:20

epw
Mt7:4

s17rov Mt2:8

E'ipl]Ka
Mt26:75

ElPl]Mat
Lk 2:24

eppE8l]v
Mt5:21

epPTi8l]v
Mt1:22

The aorist active of this important verb is strong, with an irregular augment: the unaugmented root is Etrr- and the augmented form is the same (hence the unaugmente~ forms. are EtrrEiv drrwv etc.), The unaugmented form of the aonst passive has only dne P; ;s a result the aorist participle masculine nominative singular, for example, is pl]8d~. . The form EirrE(v), he (she, it) said, given in Lesson 2, IS the third person singular of the aorist indicative active of AEyW. There is another verb AEyW. It means I gather and has different principal parts (cf DV 117, AEYW Il), In the New Testament it is found only in compounded forms. The aorist imperative active second person singular is accented drrE (cf above, Rules for Accents 34, Lesson 45). a'ipw, I take up [V 6; DV 6; VP 1-3, 5-6]
a'{pW
Mt9:16

apw
Mt4:6

l]pa
Mt9:6

Col 2:14

~PKa

npum In 20:1

i]p8TlV
Mt21:21

286

LESSON 50

This verb has a 1 in the present stem. Elsewhere the stem is ap-. In the future the verb follows the rules for a liquid.

Vocabulary for Lesson 50.

A';YW [V 2; DV 116; VP 1-3, 4] I say; I speak.


a{pw [V 6; DV 6; VP 1-3] I raise; I lift up.

braipw [V 6; DV 6; VP 1-3] I raise; I lift up. 130aw [V 9; VPl-3, 5-6] I call out. OlljlaW [V 9; VP 1-3,5-6] I am thirsty. laoj.1al [V 9, V 22; DV 82; VP 1-3, 6] I heal; I restore. KAaw [V 9; DV 100; VP 1-3, 5-6] I break.
xouidouoa [V 9, V 23; VP 3, 6] I sleep; I fall asleep.

ueourvdio [V 9; VP 1-3, 5-6] I am anxious. Often used with genitive.


Vt Kaw [V 9; VP 1-3, 5-6] I conquer; I win. lfgtVaW [V 9; DV 147; VP 1-3, 5-6] I am hungry. rrAavaw [V 9; VP 1-3,5-6] I lead astray; I deceive. rrpoaooKaw [V 9; VP 1-3,5-6] I wait for. rOAj.1aW [V 9; VP 1-3, 5-6] I dare. xpaoj.1at [V 9,22; DV 208; VP 2-3, 6] I use' I make use of[with dative]. ' arrae [Adv 2] once. oBgv [Adv 1, 3] from where; where; whence [logical inference].
Exercises for Lesson 50.

LESSON 50

287

I. Translate into English: 1. j.1~ VlKW urro rof KaKOU, aAAa vixn tv rw ayaBw ro KaKov. (Rom 12:21) " 2. Kat auro<; trrapa<; rou<; o<jlllaAj.10u<; aurou d<; rou<; lJaBTlra<; aurou SAgygV, Mcocdpioi 0\ rrrwxol, on uj.1grepa tortv ti l3aotAla rof 6wfi. (Lk 6:20) 3. 6 lAO<; tilJWV xsxoiunrot. (cf. In 11:11) 4. o6gv, aOgAOt aytOt, od aKoAooBijoat r4' Kupiqi. 5. j.10VOV gin!; AOY'!' Kat ia6~ogral 6 rrat<; j.100. (cf, Mt 8:8) 6. Kat eav nc; UlllV t1TlJ, .Ala rl 1T01E'iTl~ TOUTO; E11TClTE . 0 KUPtO<; aurofi XPlav Sxgt. (cf Mk 11:3) 7. Kat Ouogt<; oUK,;n hOAlJa aorov trrgpwrijoat. (Mk 12:34) 8. j.1~ oov uspiuvrionrs d<; r~v auptov, ti yap auptOv IJgPtj.1V~Ogl Eaorij<;. (cf. Mt 6:34) 9. aj.1~v A';YW Uj.1tV on 0<; av glm) r4' Opgt TOur,!" "Apfln n Kat I3A~BTln d<; r~v BaAaooav, Kat IJfJ otaKptBfj tv rfj Kapoiq. aurou aAAa morgo1,1 on a AaAd viverm , soral aurw. (Mk 11:23) , 10. OUK sonv Bio<; VgKPWV' rrOAu rrAavdoBg. (cf Mk 12:27) 11. Kat tj30TlOgV 6 'ITloou<; lJlvfj j.1gyaA1,1. (cf, Mk 15:34) 12. 6 Advoc oape tY';VgTO arrae tv room rw KOOj.1W. (cf, In 1:14) " , 13. Kat 6 OlljlWV tpxeoBw. (cf. Apoc 22:17) 14. OUVaj.1l<; nuo ' aurofi te~pxgro Kat idro rravra<;. (cf, Lk 6:19) 15. ri trrolTlOgV (, tiyglJWV, org xpglaV eoxgv Kat trrlvaogv aUTo<; Kat 0\ usr ' aurou; (cf Mk 2:25) 16. ~oav yap rravrg<; rrpooOOKWVrg<; aurov. (Lk 8:40) 17. OlV'!' OAlY,!, Xpw ota ro oWj.1a. (cf 1 Tim 5:23) II. Translate into Greek: 1. He will come and lead many astray. 2. I was thirsty and there was no water. 3. Being thirsty I came to the water. III. Mk 6:30-44.

288

LESSON 51

Rules for Co..ntraction of -0 Contracts. Principal Parts of -0 Contracts. <l>av.tp6Ol, l'resentActiveIndicative,ImperfectActive Indicative, Present Active Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. Difficult Verbs: <!>tpOl, tytfpOl.

Lesson5!
Rules for Contraction of -0 Contracts.
For an introduction to contract verbs cf. above, Lesson 46. The rules of contraction for roots ending in 0 are as follows: 0+ a long vowel> 00 (<!>crvcPO-TjTc > <!>crvCPWTC) 0+ a short vowel> 00 (<!>crvcpo-o~cv> <!>avcpoli~cv)' o before 00 is absorbed <<!>avcpo-OOUt > <!>avcpoliat)( o + any diphthong with \ or iota subscript, results in the diphthong ot (<!>avcpo-w; > <!>avcpolC:;, <!>avcpo-lJC:; > <!>avcpotc:;). . The final result is always an "0" sound.

PrincipalPartsof-o Contracts.
In the other principal parts of <!>avcpooo (i.e., other than the present), the root is lengthened to 00: <!>avcpo-oo <!>avcpw-uoo
bpavtpoo-ua

7fc<l>avtpoo- Ka

<!>avcpooo, Present Active Indicative, Imperfect Active Indicative, Present Active Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. The present active system of <!>avcpooo, I make manifest, is as follows (cf. V 10; VP 1-3, VP 5-6; for the participle, Adj 10):

LESSON 51

289

Active Voice, Indicative Mood, Present Tense

Singular
1st Person

Plural
<!>avcpoli~cv

2nd Person 3rd Person

<!>crvcpw <!>crvcpolC:; <j>avcpol

<j>avcpoliTc <!>avcpo (jat(v)

Active Voice, Indicative Mood, Imperfect Tense Singular Plural


1st Person 2nd Person

3rd Person

bpavtpoov bpavtpooc:; bpavipoo

bpavcpoli~sv

bpavcpoliTc bpavipoov

Active Voice, Imperative Mood, Present Tense

Singular
2nd Person 3rd Person

Plural

<!>avipoo <!>avcpOtlToo

<!>avcpolirc dxrvepotirccocv

Active Voice, Subjunctive Mood, Present Tense

Singular
1st Person

Plural
<!>avspw~cv

2nd Person 3rd Person

<!>avspw <!>avcpotC:; <!>avcpot

<!>avcpwTc <!>avcpwat(v)

It should be noted that the singular forms are the same as the singular forms for the indicative.

The present optative of contract verbs is not found in the New Testament.
Active Voice, Participial Mood, Present Tense

Singular
Masculine
n
v

Feminine

Neuter

g d a

<!>avcpwv <!>avcpwv <!>avcpolivTOC:; <!>avcpo(jvTt <!>avcpolivTa

<!>avcpoliua <!>avspoliua <!>avcpotluT]<; <!>avcpotlUlJ <!>avcpoliuav

<!>avcpoliv <!>avspoliv <!>avcpolivTOC:; <!>avcpolivTt <!>avcpo(jv

290

LESSON 51

Masculine
n

Plural Feminine

Neuter

v
g

avepoilvTe~ avepoilvTe~

dxrvspoiivrcov

avepoiloat <!>avepoiloat avepooowv


avepouoat~ avepouoa~

d a

avepoilm(v)
avepoilVTa~

<!>avepoilvTa <!>avepoilvTa <!>avepOUVT<llV avepoilm(v) avepoilvTO:

The present active infinitive is <!>avepoilv. There is no iota subscript in the present active infinitive because the present infinitive ending itself is a contraction of the original vowels e-ev. Hence, <!>avepo-e-ev > <!>avepoil-ev > dxxvepo ov. The rules for accentuation have been given above, in Lesson 46. The middle/passive voices will be given in Lesson 52. Difficult Verbs: 4Jipoo, Eycfpoo. <jlf.pw, I bring; I carry; I bear; I endure [V 6, DV 197, VP 1-4] epw
Mt 14:18

olow
In 21:18

TiveYKov
Mt14:11

v~voxo: Hob 11:17

~vexBTJv Mt 14:11

Th~re are three different roots. The active aorist is strong, although It can have weak endings. The perfect active is also strong. The perfect middle/passive is not found in the New Testament.

Eyeipw, I raise up; I arise [V 6, DV 46, VP 1-3] EYf-ipoo


Mt 1).8

EYf-PW
Mt 12:11

TiYf-tpa
Mt 3:9

EY~Yf-Pllat Mt 11:11

i)yepBTJv
Mt 1:24

The future is contracted as is normal for liquid roots. The aorist active has the last syllable of the stem lengthened, as is also normal. There is no perfect active in the New Testament.

LESSON 51

291

Vocabulary for Lesson 51. avaepw [V 6, DV 197, VP 1-4] I offer (sacrifice); I take up. lilaepw [V 6, DV 197, VP 1-4] transitive: I carry through; intransitive: I am different from, I am better than [with genitive]. npoOEpW [V 6, DV 197, VP 1-4] I offer (sacrifice); I bring. oOIlepw [V 6, 19; DV 197; VP 1-4] usually used impersonally: it is useful, it is profitable; it is better; it is good [with infinitive or 'iva noun clause-v-cf Lesson 75]. (cf Mt 19:13) <pepw [V 6, DV 197, VP 1-4] I bring; I carry; I bear;! endure. Eyt;ipW [V 6, DV 46, VP 1-3] transitive: I raise up; intransitive: I arise. Note that in the present active and in aorist passive the meaning is sometimes equivalent to the intransitive active: I arise, I arose. litKatOW [V 10; VP 1-3, VP 5-6] I make righteous; I declare

righteous.
BavaTow [V 10; VP 1-3, VP 5-6] I put to death. KOWOW [V 10; VP 1-3, VP 5-6] I make unclean; I define. OIlOtOW [V 10; VP 1-3, VP 5-6] I make like; passive: I resemble. OTaOPOW [V 10; VP 1-3, VP 5-6] I crucify. Tf-AaOOO [V 10; VP 1-3,5-6] I make perfect. lllVOW [V 10; VP 1-3, VP 5-6] I exalt; I lift up. avf-pow [V 10; VP 1-3, PV 5-6] I make manifest; I make clear. avwBf-v [Adv 1, 2] from above; from the beginning; again. ll a KpoBf-v [Adv 1] far off [usually found as object of the preposition anD: from far off, from afar].

292
Exercises for Lesson 51.

LESSON 51

I. Translate into English: 1. WOTE aliEA<jJOt /lOV, Kat D/lEl<; ellaVaTWlll]TE T<\l VO/l4' lila TOO OW/laTO<; TOO Xptorofi, (cf, Rom 7:4) 2. Kat Kallw<; 6 rrpo<jJtlTI]<; UljIWOEV TOV O<jJIV Tfj eptl/l4' , OUTW<; DljIwllijval liEl TOV V\OV TOO avllpwrrov, 'iva mi<; 6 morscecv ev aUT<\l lXlJ 'w~v atWVlOv. (In 3:14-15) 3. UAAO<; OE OlOEI orrov ou llAEI<;. (cf. In 21:18) 4. eYEplltlOETat yap lllvo<; err' levo<; Kat t3aolAEta em t3acrtAetav. (Mt 24:7) 5. OUX D/lEl<; /ldnov liwipETE aunov; (ef. Mt 6:26) 6. iioav lie eKEl yvvalKE<; rrOnal arro /laKpollEV Bscopo iiom , ciinvE<; tiKOAOulll]oav T<\l '11]000. (cf. Mt 27:55) 7. Kat arrEKptlll] aUT<{l Et<; h TOO OXAOV, LllliuOKaAE, rlVEYKa TOV V\OV /lOV rrpo<; O, exovTa rrVEO/la KaKov. (cf Mk 9:17) 8. et yap VEKPOt OUK eyetpOVTaI, oulie XPlOTO<; EytlYEPTaI. (1 Cor 15:16) 9. rivt lie O/lOlWOW T~V YEVEaV ronirnv; (Mt 11:16) 10. aUTo<; OUK lXEl Kall' tl/lpav aVUYKI]V, worrEp 0\ apXIEpEl<;, Drrep nov tlitwv U/lapnwv eVOta<; avaipElV. (cf. Heb 7:27) 11. liEl D/ld<; YEvvl]lliivat UVWllEV. (ef. In 3:7) 12. ri oov noirioto '1I]oOOV TOV AEYO/lEVOV XPIOTOV; AEYOVOlV rruvTE<;, LTavpwlltirw. (ef. Mt 27:22) 13. TOTE rrpool]vxlll]oav aUT<\l rratliia. (cf. Mt 19:13) 14. 6 lie rrolwv T~V ciAtlllEWV lpXETal rrpo<; TO <jJw<;, 'tva <jJavEpwllfj aUToo Ta lpya. (cf In 3:21) 15. an' eyw T~V ciAtillEwv AEYW o/llv, OV/l<jJPEl D/llV'tva eyw arrAllw. (cf. Jn 16:17) 16. ou TO dOEPX6/lEVOV Et<; TO OTO/la KOlVOl TOV avepwrrov, aAAa TO eKrropevO/lEVOV eK TOO oroucroc TOOro xorvoi TOV avllpwrrov. (Mt 15:11) 17. Kat rrpOOEAllwv rlYElPEV a1lr~v KpaTrloa<; Tii<; XElPO<;. (ef. Mk 1:31) 18. ouliev yap 6rEAEIWOEv 6 vouoc. (Heb 7:19) 19. lilKatwllVTE<; OUV EK rrtoTEw<; EtPtlVI]V gXO/lEV rrpo<; TOV eEOV lila TOO OW/laTO<; TOO XPtcrTOO. (cf Rom 5:1) 20. arrEKptlll] '11]000<; Kat drrEv aUTol<;, AuoaTE TOV vaov TOOTOV Kat ev rpiotv tl/lpal<; eYEpw aUTOv. (In 2:19) 21. gYElpE Kat lfEpmaTEI. (cf. Lk 5:23)

ev

LESSON 51
II Translate into Greek: . 1. The soldiers brought the slaves t? the king. 2. Jesus was wishing to make manifest the glory of the Father. 3. God raised up the Lord Jesus from the dead.

293

III. Mk 6:45-56.

294

LESSON 52

"'ay.po"" Present Middle and Passive


Indicative, Imperfect Middle and Passive Indicative, Present Middle and Passive Imperative, Participle. and Infinitive. The Periphrastic Construction. Difficult Verbs:
Aa~~dy""dxo8Y~ak"'.

Less<>n52
<!>avtpooo, Present Middle and Passive Indicative, Imperfect Middle and Passive Indicative, Present Middle and Passive Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. The moods of the present middle and passive systems of <!>avepooo are conjugated as follows (cf V 10; VP 1-3, 5-6' for participle, cf. Adj 1): '
Middle and Passive Voices, Indicative Mood, Present Tense

Singular
1st Person 2nd Person
<!>avepou~al

Plural
<!>avepoo~e8a

3rd Person

<!>avepol <!>avepoural

<!>avepoucr8i <!>avepouvral

The form <!>avepol comes from <!>avepo-Wal (<!>avepo-wal > <!>avepo-wl > <!>avepo-ljl > <!>avepol).
Middle and Passsive Voices, Indicative Mood, Imperfect Tense &pavepoo~ljv &pavepoo~e8a

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

&pavepou &pavepouro

&pavepoucr8e &pavepouvro

The form &pavepou comes from &pavepo-wo (&pavepo-wo >

&pave po-co > &pavepo-ou > &pavepou).


Middle and Passive Voices, Imperative Mood, Present Tense

2nd Person

<!>avepou

<!>avepoucr8e

LESSON 52
<!>avepoocr8oocrav

295

3rd Person

<!>avepoocr8w

The form <!>avepou comes from <!>avepo-wo (<!>avepo-wo > <!>avepo-ou > <!>avepoiJ). Middle and Passive Voices, Subjunctive Mood, Present Tense
1st Person

<!>avepW~al

<!>avepw~e8a

2nd Person 3rd Person

<!>avepol <!>avepwral

<!>avepwcr8e <!>avepwvral

. The form <!>avepol comes from <!>avepo-ljcral (<!>avepo-ljal > <!>avepo-ljl > <!>avepo-IJ > <!>avepol). The present optative of contract verbs is not found in the New Testament.
Middle and Passive Voices, Participial Mood, Present Tense

Singular
Masculine Feminine
<!>avepou~6vlj <!>avepou~6vlj <!>avepou~6vlj~

n v g d a

<!>avepoo~evo~ <!>avepou~eve <!>avepou~6vOU <!>avepou~6v'll <!>avepou~evov

Neuter <!>avepoo~evov <!>avepoo~evov

<!>avepOU/l6VOU
<!>avepoU~6v'll <!>avepou~evov
Neuter
<!>avepoo~eva <!>avepoo~eva <!>avepou~6vWV <!>avepo U~6VOl~

<!>avepou/l 6v lJ Plural

<!>avepou~6vljV

Masculine

Feminine
<!>avepoo~eval <!>avepoo~eval <!>avepou~6vWV <!>avepou~6val~ <!>avepou~6va~

n v g d a

<!>avepou~evol <!>avepoo~evol <!>avepou ~6VWV <!>avepoU~6vOl~ <!>avepou~6vOU~

<!>avepoU~6va

The infinitive for the present middle and passive is <!>avepoiJcr8al.

It is important to recall that the listing of these forms as "middle and passive" does not mean that the occurrence of one of these forms in a text can be both middle and passive at one and the

296

LESSON 52

possible at one and the same time in one and the same say.

amb~guous and either alternative is possible, they cannot both be

same time. It must be one or the other. Even if the text is

The Periphrastic Construction.


In New Testament Greek there are a number of texts in which a participle (present for the most part, but occasionally a perfect) is used with a form of the verb dilL Sometimes this combination seems to be used to emphasize the duration of the action in question or the duration of the result of the action. But often there seems to be no reason for using this combination rather then the ordinary form of the verb without dilL This use of the participle. with illl is called the "periphrastic construction". The co,:struct~on has already been seen in the formation of the perfect active, middle, and passive subjunctive and optative (cf. above, Lessons 25, 35, and 42).

6 llu!lTlT~~ J3urrri~wv sortv i TOO rrOTalloo. The disciple is baptizing in the river. ' 6 IlU!lTlT~~ J3CtrrTI~Wv ~v i;v TOO rrOTalloo. The disciple was baptizing in ihe river.' 6 IlU!lTlT~~ J3urrTI~wv EaTUl iv TOO rrOTalloo. The disciple will be baptizing in the river. '
Difficult Verbs: AUllllavlll, dll"OOVJ$OlClll. AUIlJ3avw, I take; I receive AUI.li3avw ArlljlOIlUl
Mt 7:8 Mt 10:41

rv 7, DV 114, VP 1-4]
lATlq,Ct
Apoc 3:3

EAUJ30V
Mt5:40

c'iATlIlIlUl
Jn8:4

eArlllq,!lTlV
Phil 3:12

. The future is a middle deponent (in some texts the Il is omitted). The aorist active is strong. The reduplication in the perfect system is irregular. arro!lvDoKW, I die rv 2, 18; DV 80; VP 1-4] all"o!lvDoKw arro!luvoullUl arr6!luvov T!lVTlKU
Mk 12:20 Rom 5:7 Mt8:32 In 11:44

LESSON 52

297

The future is a middle deponent with the accentuation proper to a liquid stem. The aorist active is strong. The iota subscript is found only in the present system. The perfect has present force: I am dead.

Vocabulary for Lesson 52. avuAullJ3avw

rv 7, DV 114, VP 1-4] I take up; I take. arroACtIlJ3avw rv 7, DV 114, VP 1-4] I get back; I receive [middle:
take aside].

emAullJ3avollCtl rv 7, 22; DV 114; VP 2-4] I take hold of, I seize, I arrest [with genitive or accusative]. KCtTaAullJ3avw tv 7, DV 114, VP 1-4] I obtain; I overtake.

rv 7, DV 114, VP 1-4] I take; I receive. l1CtpaAulli3avw rv 7, DV 114, VP 1-4] I welcome; I take aside. l1pooAullJ3avollUl rv 7, 22; DV 114; VP 1-4] I welcome; I take aside.
ACtIl/3civw oOAAullJ3avw rv 7, DV 114, VP 1-4] I seize;I become pregnant; I . catch (fish). arro!lvDaKw 2, 18; DV 80; VP 1-4] I die [perfect has present force: I am dead]. al1TollUl 4,5,22; DV 14; VP 2-3] I touch [with genitive]. In the . active voice this verb is found with the meaning I kindle (a fire), but this is rare in the New Testament. liXUPlOT6W
!laolla~w

rv

rv

rv 8; VP 1-3, VP 5-6]

I give thanks.

(!luollaow) 5, DV 76, VP 1-3] transitive: I admire; intransitive: I marvel at, I am amazed [this is verb is usually in the active voice in the New Testament, although the passive voice is occasionally used (cf, Apoc 13:3)].

rv

1l106W

rv 8, VP 1-3, VP 5-6] I hate.

298

LESSON 52

urrapXlJl [V 2, DV 19, VP 1-3] I am. The neuter plural of the present active participle, u11'apxovra, is used with the meaning

possessions.
<lJlJlVElJl [V 8, DV 1-3,4-5] I call; I summon. dra [Adv 2, 3] then; moreover. 11'ptV [Conj] before. Normally this conjunction takes the accusative with the infinitive, but it is sometimes found with the subjunctive, especially after a negative principal clause.

Exercises for Lesson 52. I. Translate into English:


1. lrrV BE aurolo:;, 1106 J1 11'tano:; UllWV; <lJo(3IlBEVro:; BE EBaullaaav. (cf Lk 8:25) 2. Kat E1l'IAa(3ollVoo:; laaaro aurov Kat a11'EAUav. (Lk 14:4) 3. Kat ~v aur<;i dPIWEVOV lmo r06 1!'VUllarOe; r06 uytou ll~ lBlv Bavarov 11'p'tv [ij] flv '(BI) roy Xpiorov KUp{OU. (cf Lk 2:26) 4. Aa(3V BE <lJo(3oo:; 11'avrao:;, Kat EMea'ov roy 8ov AEyoVre; on I1po<IJ~r1]O:; llEyao:; EYEp81] EV J1lllv. (Lk 7:16) 5. lrrV oov 11'aAtV aurolo:;, 'Eyw u11'aYlJl Kat '1]r~arE us Kat i rfj ullaprt<;X UIIWV arroBavlaB. (cf In 8:21) 6. Kat ro rrv6l1a <lJlJlvijaav <lJlJlvfj lIyaAI) EeijABv Ee aur06. (cf. Mk 1:26) 7. ol BE 11'apa r~v aMv simv oi aKOUaaVro:;, dra PXHm 6 Bta(3oAoe; Kat a'{pt roy AOYOV a11'o rijo:; KapBtao:; aurwv, 'tva ll~ mcrsuouvrec alJlBwatv. (Lk 8:12) 8. do:; ra '{Bta ~ABv, Kat Ot '{BlOt aurov ou rrapEAa(3ov. (In 1:11) 9. a IIEV oov KUPlOO:; '11la060:; llra ro AaAijaat aurolo:; aVA~II<!J81l de; roy oupnvcv Kat EKaBlOV EK Betwv ro6 Bca6. (Mk 16:19) 10. Kat eawB IItaOUIIVOt U11'O 11'avrlJlv Bta ro ovolla 1I0u. 6 BE 011'0llclvao:; clO:; rsxoc ouroo:; alJl8~0rm. (Mk 13:13) 11. AYV yap EV eaurfj, 'Edv 1I0VOV a1jllJlllat ref tliartOu aur06 alJlB~aOliaL (Mt 9:21) 12. a11'EAa(3o:; ra ayaed oou EV rfj 'lJlfj oou. (cf Lk 16:25) 13. Kat lBou ~ABv av~p, Kat o~roo:; apXlJlv rijo:; auvaYlJlyijo:; 011'ijpXv. (cf. Lk 8:41)

LESSON 52

299

14. Kat 11'pOaAa(3ollVoo:; aurov a arroaroAOe; ~pearo E1l'Inlldv aur<;i. (cf. Mt 16:22) 15. ~pav oov roy AteOV. a BE 'l1]a060:; ~PV roue; o<!J8aAlioue; Kat lrrv, Ildrsp, UxaplOrw ooi on ~Kouaao:; 1I0u. (cf. In 11:41) 16. lrrV oiiv aurolo:; a '11]006e;, "Ert IItKPOV Xpovov [accusative to express duration of time] ro <lJwo:; EV Olllv eanv. rrpl1l'arlr WO:; ro <lJwo:; xr, 'tva II~ oxorin ollde; KaraAa(3l). (cf In 12:35) 17. aUAAa(3wv BE aurov a a11'OarOAOe; ~pearo E1l'Irtudv aur<;i. (cf. Lk 22:54)

II. Translate into Greek:


1. Manifest yourself!

2. I have received the witness of the prophet.


3. We shall die but we shall not go away from the Lord.

III. Now that Mk 1 - 6 have been read twice, the student is prepared to begin reading new sections of Mark with ever greater
comprehension. For the present lesson read Mk 7:1-30, at first without the consultation of any aids, relying entirely on memory. Then re-read the text, checking any doubtful points against the material already seen. Finally, read the verses aloud at least three times.

300

LESSON 53

y\VcJa~""

Aorist Active Indicative,

Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and

Infinitive. ~lliv"" Aorist Active Indicative,


Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and

Infinitive. Difficult Verbs: lrOpe,sollllt,


1t11[T(a).

Lesson 53
yl VOOOKlll, Aorist Active Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive,

Participle, and Infinitive. .


Several verbs conjugated like A15w have special forms, and are important enough to merit special treatment. The verb YlVWOKW, I know, is an irregular verb but with regular endings for the irregular stems except for the aorist active system (there are no aorist middle forms). The aorist active forms of ytVWOKW are as follows (cf. V 2, 18,20; DV 29; VP 1-3):
Indicative Mood, Active Voice, Aorist Tense

1st Person 2nd Person

Singular gyvwv
gyvw~ ~vw

Plural gYVWIlEV gYVWTE


~vwoav

3rd Person

Imperative Mood, Active Voice, Aorist Tense

2nd Person 3rd Person

Singular yvwBt yVWTW

Plural YlJWTE yvwTwoav

Active Voice, Subjunctive Mood, Aorist Tense

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

Singular yvw
yv0~

yv0/ yvoi

Plural YVWIlEV yvwTE yvWOl(V)

LESSON 53

301

The form yvoi as a possible source of confusion with an optative should be noted. The aorist optative is not found in the New Testament.
Active Voice, Participial Mood, Aorist Tense

Singular n
v

Masculine yvo15~
yvo15~ ,
YVOVTO~

Feminine

Neuter

vvouo
yvoiloa yvo150% yvo15olJ yvoiloav Plural

vvov

yvov
YVOVTO~

g d a

YVOVTl YVOVTa

yVOVTl
vvov

n
v

Masculine YVOVTE~ YVOVTE~

Feminine

g d a

YVOVTWV yvOilOI(V)
YVOVTa~

yvoiloat yvoiloat yvouowv


yvo15oat~

yvo15oa~

Neuter , yvovTa yvovTa YVOVTWV yvOilOl(V) yvovTa

The infinitive is yvwval.

IIatVW, Aorist Active Indicative,lntperative, Subjunctive, Active


Participle, Infinitive. .
The simple verb Ilaivw I walk, I go, is not found in the New Testament, but there are numerous compounds based on it. It is irregular, but with regular endings except in the aorist active. The aorist active has special forms throughout and is conjugated as follows (cf. V 7, DV 21, VP 1-2; for the participle, cf. Adj 12):
Active Voice, Indicative Mood, Aorist Tense

1st Person

2nd Person 3rd Person

Singular glllJv gll%


~lJ

Plural glllJllEV iilllJTE

~lJOOv

302

LESSON 53
Active Voice, Imperative Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Plural l3~61 / l3a l3aTE / l3JjTE

2nd Person 3rd Person

l3 a TO:> / l3 JjTO:>

l3 a TO:> aa v

Active Voice, Subjunctive Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Plural 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

[3w l3fje:; l3fj

[3W/JEV
[3~TE

[3Wat( v)

The aorist optative is not found in the New Testament.


Active Voice, Participial Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Masculine Feminine Neuter
n

v
g

d a

Me:; [3ae:; [3avroe:; /3avn l3avra


Masculine

l3daa l3daa [3aane:;


[3aal)

l3aaav
Plural Feminine

[3av [3av [3avroe:; l3avn [3av


Neuter

v
g d a

/3avTEe:; l3avTEe:; [3avTO:>v l3dat(v) l3avrae:;

l3daat
[3daat [3aawv

l3aaale:;
Maae:;

[3avra [3avra l3avTwv l3dat(v) l3avra

The aorist infinitive active is [3~Vat.

Difficult Verbs: ytvwaKw,13alvw.

vrvoioxor, I knour; I learn [V 2, 18, 20; DV 29; VP 1-3]


Ylv05aKw
Mt 1:25

vvoiooum
Lk 1:18

gyvwv
Mt 7:23

gyvWKa
In 5:42

gyvwa/Jat
1eor8:3

i;yv05a6n v
Gal 4:9

LESSON 53

303

Instead of a future active there is a future middle deponent. The reduplication of the perfect system is irregular. The aorist has special forms throughout, as is explained in the first part of the lesson. The perfect active has a present meaning. [3aivw, I walk; I go [V 7, DV 21, VP 1-2J [3aivw
Mt20:17

l3Jjao/Jal
Rom 10:6

g[3n v
Mt3:16

[3El3 TJ Ka
In 3:13

Instead of a future active there is a future middle deponent. The perfect middle/passive and aorist passive exist only in the compound forms; none of them are found in the New Testament. The aorist has special forms throughout as explained above in this lesson.

Vocabulary for Lesson 53.


avaylv05aKw [V 2, 18,20; DV 29; VP 1-3J I read. Ylv05aKw [V 2, 18, V 20; DV 29; VP 1-3J I know; I learn. bnYlv05aKw [V 2,18,20; DV 29; VP 1-3] I krww; I recognize.
ava[3aivw [V 7, DV 21, VP 1-2] I embark; I go up.

i;/Jl3aivw [V 7, DV 21, VP 1-2] I get into; [embark. It should be noted that the prefix of this compound verb is i, which reappears before an augment (e.g., i;VE[3CXlvOV). Karal3aivw [V 7, DV 21, VP 1-2] [descend; [fall down. /JEra[3aivw [V 7, DV 21, VP 1-2] [leave;

t cross over.

aa6EVW [V 8; VP 1-3, 4-5J I am ill; I am weak.

l3AaaQ>TJ/JEw [V 8; VP 1-3, 4-5J I blaspheme; I insult. IitaKOvEW [V 8; VP 1-3, 4-5J I serve; I provide for. The augment is formed by lengthening the a (e.g., 1i1I1KOVOVv). The verb governs the dative case.

304

LESSON 53

EUAoyew [V 8; VP 1-3, 4-5] I bless. KaTotKiw [V 8; VP 1-3,4-5] transitive: I live in [with simple accusative]; intransitive: I live [with preposition].
Aoyt~Oilal

(Xoviooum) [V 5, 22; VP 2-3] I reckon; I think; I classify.

JrEP100EUW [V 1, VP 1-3] I am over;I overflow; I excel. Jrpaoow [V 3, DV 164, VP 1-3] transitive: I do; I practice; intransitive: I act. 1\EUTE [Adv 1] come! [literally, to here! hither!]
Jrw~

[Adv 3] somehow. This is an enclitic. It should be distinguished from the non-enclitic interrogative mJl~.

Exercises for Lesson 53.


1. Translate into English: 1. Kat ilEnl. aVOilwv EAoyt061]. (cf Lk 22:37) 2. Jrw~ EOTal TOUTO, EJrEt aV1\pa ou ytvWOKW; (cf Lk 1:34) 3. EPxoilal Jrpo~ uWx~ ill] JrW~ Jra61]ilaTa UilWV JrEP100EUl). 4. OWOOV OWIJTOV KaTal3a~ aJro TOU OTaIJPou. (Mk 15:30) 5. Kat E~I]TOIJV aUTOV KpaTijoal, Kat t\q>0131]61]0av TOV OXAov, Eyvwoav yap on Jrpo~ aUTou~ T~V Jrapal3oA~v dJrEV. (Mk 12:12) 6. Kat 01 aYYEAot 1\lI]KOVOIJV aun\l. (cf, Mk 1:13) 7. yvW61 OWIJTOV. 8. o~ 1\' av I3Aaa<pl]il1]0l) d~ TO JrVEUila TO ayLOv OUK EXEl a<jlwlv Ei~ TOV a1Wva. (cf Mk 3:29) 9. aJro TWV KapJrwv aUTwv Emyvwow6E aUTou~. (cf Mt 7:16) 10. TOTE EPEI (, l3a01AEu~ TOl~ EK 1\E~lWV aUTou ["on his right"], L\.EuTE, 01 EUAoYl]ilevol TOU JraTpo~ ilOIJ. (cf Mt25:34) 11. JrEPt 1\e Tij~ aVaOT(iOEW~ TWV VEKpWV OUK aviyvWTE TO pT)6ev UillV uJrO TOU 6wu; (cf Mt 22:31) 12. ou yap 0 6iAw TOUTO Jrpaoow, aAA' 5 illOW TOUTO rrOlW. (cf. Rom 7:15) 13. E~TlyaYEv 1\e aUTou~ E~W Kat EJrapa~ Ta~ XElpa~ aUTou EUAOYT)OEV aUTou~. (cf. Lk 24:50)

LESSON 53

305

14. Ka6w~ JrEP100EUEl Til. Jra6TlilaTa TOU XPlOTOU d~ Uila~, oi5Tw~ 1\la TOU Xpl0TOU JrEP100EUEl Kat ~ JrapaKAT)Ol~ ~ilWV. (cf.2 Cor 1:5) 15. l3aJrn06Et~ 1\e (, 'IT)oou~ Eu6iw~ avil3T) aJro TOU i51\aTo~. (cf, Mt 3:16) 16. 0001 E1XOV a06EVOUVTa~ V0001~ TJyayov aUTou~ Jrpo~ aUTOv. (cf. Lk 4:40) 17. Kat ilETal3a~ EKE16EV ~A6EV Ei~ T~V olJvaywy~v aUTwv. (Mt 12:9) 18. TOTE EPXETal Kat JrapaAaill3avEl ETEpa nvsiiunr JrOVT)pOTEpa EalJTOU ErrTa, Kat dOEA6oVTa KaTolKEl EKEI. (cf. Lk 11:26) 19. Kat Eill3avn aun\l E1~ TO JrAolov ~KoAoueT)oav 01 ila6T)Tat aUTou. (Mt 8:23) II. Translate into Greek: 1. If I had known the truth, I would not have come. 2. The crowd, knowing [it], followed him. (cf. Lk 9:11) 3. They have descended in order to do the will of God. (cf In 6:38) III. Read Mk 7:31 - 8:21, at first without the consultation of any aids, relying solely on memory. Then re-read the text, checking any doubtful points against the material already seen. Finally, read the verses aloud at least three times.

306

LESSON 54

ollla: Perfect Form, Present Meaning. ollla, Perfect Active Indicative, Pluperfect
Active Indicative, Perfect Active Imperative, Participle, and Infinitive. Difficult Verbs:

"op&uo/lat, 1<1",0>.

Lesson 54
ollia: Perfect Form, Present Meaning.
The verb ollia is frequently used. It has a perfect form which is normally translated with a present meaning. It is found principally in the perfect active system with this present meaning. The future, dli~ow, is found only once in the New Testament. The verb ollia is etymologically linked with the aorist of opaw, dliov. But the student is advised to keep the two verbs separate.

ollia, Perfect Active Indicative, Pluperfect Active Indicative, Perfect Active Imperative, Participle, and Infinitive.
The forms of ollia are as follows (cf V 18, DV 132, VP 1-2' for the participle cf. also Adj 17): '
Active Voice, Indicative Mood, Perfect Form ( Present Meaning) Singular Plural .

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

ollia . ollia<; olliev

ollia).1ev olliare olliaOl(v)

Active Voice, Indicative Mood, Pluperfect Form ( Imperfect Meaning) Singular Plural 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

ijlielv ijliw; ijliel

ijliel).1eV ijlielTe ijlielOav

LESSON 54
Active Voice, Imperative Mood, Perfect Form Singular Plural

307

2nd Person 3rd Person

toBt Iorto

tare
'{oTwacxv

Note.that the second person singular is the same form as the second person singular of the present imperative of d).1 L The optative of ollia is not found in the New Testament.
Active Voice, Participial Mood, Perfect Form Singular Neuter Feminine Masculine dM~ dlima eiliuS~ eiM~ dlillla eiliuS~ eiMro~ dlillla<; dMro~ eiMT! dlilll~ eiMT!

n v

g d a

elli6TlX
Masculine

eililllav

E.iBo<;

Plural Feminine

Neuter

v
g

dMre~ dMre~

dMrwv dMOl(V)
dMTlX~

dlilllal dlimCXl dlilllWV


dlilllCXl~ eilillla~

eili6TlX dli6TlX
eiMrwv dMol(V)

dMTlX

The infinitive is d5Sval. Difficult Verbs: nopstiourn, mlfrw.


rropeuourn, I proceed; I travel; I live [V 1, 22, 23; DV 163; VP

2-3] lfO petS O).1CXl


Mt8:9

xopeiioourn
Lk 11:5

rrerrOpeU).1CXl
1 Pt4:3

~rropetSBf]v

Mt2:9

The future is a middle deponent; the aorist, a passive deponent.

308

LESSON 54
1l'17rTW, I fall [V 4, 5, 21; DV 155; VP 1-4]

1l11CTOO

1l'EOOO"Wt
Mt 10:29

61TS<JOV

1T1l'TOOKCl

Mt17:15

Mt7:25

Acts 15:16

The future is a middle deponent; the aorist is strong.

Vocabulary for Lesson 54.


ollia [V 18, DV 132, VP 1-2] I know. E101l'OPEUOl.lat [V 1, 22, 23; DV 163; VP 2-3] I enter. SK1l'OPEUOl.lat [V 1, 22, 23; DV 163; VP 2-3] I go out.
~~~EUOl.lat [V 1, 22, 23;

DV 163; VP 2-3] I proceed; I travel; I live.

uva1l'l1l'Tw [V 4,5,21; DV 155; VP 2-4] I recline (at a meal); I lean. emm1l'TW 4, 5, 21; D'-; ~55; VP 2-4] I fall upon [with a simple dative or with a preposition]. 1l'l1l'TW [V 4, 5, 21; DV 155; VP 2-4] I fall.
u01l'a~ol.lat [V 5, 22; VP 2-3] ~OuAOl.lat [V 6, 23;

rv

I greet; I welcome.

DV 26; VP 2-3] I want; I desire; I plan.

5Exol.lat [V 2, 22; DV 35; VP 2-3] I receive. d5xol.lat [V 2, 22; DV 67; VP 2-3] I pray; I wish. I.lETaVOeW [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I repent. 1l'AT1POW [V 10; VP 1-3, 5-6] I fulfill; I fill; I complete. 1l'poo5Exol.lat [V 2, 22; DV 35; VP 2-3] I wait for; I welcome. 1l'POOEuX0l.lat [V 2, 22; DV 67] I pray. eow8Ev [Adv 1] within; from within.

LESSON 54

309

Exercises for Lesson 54.


1. Translate into English:
1. Kat aOTO"; ~v 1l'pooIiExoI.lEvo<; T~V ~aotAdav TOO 8EOU. (cf Mk 15:43) 2. 6 liE '1'1000<; IitEA8wv lita I.leoou <X1hwv e1l'OpEuETO. (Lk 4:30) 3. 0<; iiv f.v TWV TOUlOUTWV 1l'atlitwv 1iE~'1Tat e1l't T<\l ovouuri 1.l0U, el.lE MXETat Kat 0<; iiv el.lE 5EX'1Tat, OOK SIJE MXETaI una TOV U1l'00TE1AavTa I.lE. (Mk 9:37) 4. Kat U1l'oKpt8eVTE<; T<\l '1'1000 d1l'Cl.V, OOK o'fliaI.lEv. (cf. Mt 21:27) 5. Kat empax8'1 6 civ~p lliwv, Kat o~O<; e1l'e1l'WEV e1l" aOTov. (Lk 1:12) 6. 1l'aVTa TaOTCI. Ta 1l'OV'1pa eow8Ev SK1l'OpEUETal Kat KOtVOl TOV av8pw1l'ov. (Mk 7:23) 7. 00 TO dOEPXOI.lEVOV d<; TO OTOl.la KOtVOl TOV av8pw71ov, UAAa TO eK1l'OpEuOI.lEVOV SK TOO OTOl.laTO<; TOOTO KOtVOl TOV av8pw1l'ov. (Mt 15:11) 8. Kat 1l'POEA8wv I.ltKPOV [accusative to express distance] E1l'I1l'TEV e1l't T~<; y~<;, Kat 1l'POO'1UXETO 'iva Ei liuvaTov sorw 1l'apeA8lJ U1l" <XIhoo ~ oopa. (Mk 14:35) 9. " liE yuv~ o~'18Eioa, dliula 0 yeyovEv aUTU, ~A8EV Kat d1l'EV T<\l '1'1000 1l'doav T~V <iA~8Etav. (cf. Mk 5:33) 10. Kat UKouoaVTE<; 01 l.la8'1Tat e1l'wav e1l't lTPOOWlTOV aUTWV Kat e0~~8'1oav. (cf, Mt 17:6) 11. TOTE elTA'1Pw8'1 TO P'18EV lita TOO 1l'PO'1TOU. (cf. Mt 2:17) 12. Kat ifp~aTo u01l'a~w8at aUTov. (cf, Mk 15:18) 13. OUK tj'IiEtTE OTt ev T01<; TOO 1l'aTpo<; I.l0U lid dvat I.lE; (Lk2:49) 14. I.lETavOIE1TE Kat 1l'IOTEUETE ev T<il EuaYVEA1~. (Mk 1:15) 15. KPIT~<; eyw roiirtov ou ~OUAOl.lat dvat. (cf, Acts 18:15) 16. UAA' OTaV KA'18U<; 1l'opEu8Et<; UVa1l'WE El<; TOV eoxaTov T01l'OV. (cf. Lk 14:10) '\ 't "..... ' '\ , , 17. Kal '1V I.lET aUTWV EI01l'OPW0I.lEVO<; Kat EKlTOPEUOI.lEVO<; E't<; T~V lTOAtV. (cf Acts 9:28) 18. dixw8E OlTEP aAA~Awv, OlTw<; ia8~TE. (Jas 5:16)

II. Translate into Greek: 1. We know that the testimonies are true by which [use simple dative] they witness concerning us. (cf, Jn 5:32)

310

LESSON 54

2. The w~men were fearing the prophets, knowing them [to be] Just and holy men. (cf Jn 6:20) 3. And they did not know them but they received them in the name of Jesus. III. Read ~ 8:2~ - 9:1, at first without the consultation of any aids, relymg entirely.on me~ory. Then re-read the text, checking ~y doubtful pomts agamst the material already seen. Fmally, read the verses aloud at least three times.

LESSON 55

311

Verbs in -/It. Mli"'/lt, Present Active Indicative, Imperfect Active Indicative, PresentActive Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. Mli"'/lt, Aorist Active Indicative, Imperative, Participle, and Infinitive. Rules for Accents 37. Difficult Verbs: Mli"'/lt, ,brondv",.

Lesson 55
Verbs in-Ill. Verbs in ancient Greek are divided into two major categories: 1) those whose ending in the first person singular of the present active indicative is -00 (e.g., 1..15(0); 2) those whose ending in the first person singular of the present indicative active is -!-It (e.g., dill). These convenient identifications are based on a fundamental difference in structure between the two categories. Verbs ending in -00 in the first person singular are known as "thematic verbs" because in the present and aorist systems a vowel is interposed between the root and the endings (for example, A15-o-llev); the vowel is called a "thematic vowel". Verbs in the second category do not have a vowel interposed between the root and the endings (for example, lii/io-Ilev); they are accordingly called "non-thematic verbs". What seems to be a vowel between the root and the ending--the vowel o-e-is really a part of the root. (In both categories the thematic and non-thematic vowels are at times not immediately evident because of contractions.) After an initial presentation of dlli this grammar has made an exhaustive presentation of the verbs in the first category. (Cf above, Lesson 9, for the introduction to the distinction between the two categories.) It is now time to consider in detail the second category, the category of non-thematic or "-Ill" verbs. In Greek, verbs in -Il' (second category) have distinctive forms in relation to verbs in -00 (first category) only in the present and (usually, but not always) aorist systems of all three voices. In all other systems the forms are the same for both categories.

312

LESSON 55

A distinctive characteristic of -/It verbs is that the thematic vowel of the root often changes within a tense system. For example, the verb IIll1w).lt has a long root vowel, w, in the present singular, but a short root vowel, 0, in the present plural. This change in the quantity of the vowel is known as "vowel gradation".

MllW/lt, Present Active Indicative, Imperfect Active Indicative, Present Active Imperative, Sub.iunctive, Participle, and Infinitive.
The -Ill verb IIlliw/ll, I give, is conjugated as follows in the present active system (cf. V 13, 21; DV 39; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11; for the participle cf. also Adj 20):
Active Voice, Indicative Mood, Present Tense

Singular
1st Person 2nd Person Srd Person

Plural

IIlllw-/ll llillw-C; IIlliw-ot(v)

IIlllo-/lEV IIll1o-TE Iilli6-aal(v)

The vowel gradation (lilli>!l.- in the singular as contrasted with lllliQ- in the plural) should be noted.
Active Voice, Indicative Mood. Imperfect Tense

Singular 1st Person


2nd Person 3rd Person

Plural

/;-lIlliouv /;-lIlliouC; /;-lIlliou

/;-liilio-/lEV /;-lillio-TE /;-litlio-aav I /;-liiliouv

Contractions in the singular and in the alternate form /;lilliouv of the third person plural preclude distinguishing the stem from the ending by a hyphen.
Active Voice, Imperative Mood, Present Tense

Singular
2nd Person 3rd Person

Plural

IIllio u blllO-rw

IIllio-TE IilbO-Twaav

Contraction in the second person singular (lIllio-ao > IIlllou) precludes distinguishing the stem from the ending by a hyphen.

LESSON 55

313

Active Voice, Subjunctive Mood, Present Tense

Singular 1st Person 2nd Person


Srd Person

Plural

IIlbw litliw-C; I lilliol-C; IItll<ii I l'Hlio!

IilM-/lEV IilBw-TE Blllw-Ol(v)

Contractions preclude distinguishing the stem from the ending by a hyphen. The alternate forms in the second and third person singular should be noted, along with the possibility of confusion with the present optative mood. The present optative mood oflllliw!-Ll is not found in the New Testament.
Active Voice. Part.icipial Mood. Present'l'ense

Masculine
n v
g

Singular Feminine

Neuter

lilbo15c; bllio15c; BlbOvTOC; BlbOvTl blbOvTa


Masculine

lilboiioa lillioiiaa lIlliotlO'lC; Blliotl ( 1) lilboiiaav


Plural Feminine

blbOv blllov lItl\6vTOC; IilbOvTl blbov


Neuter

v
g

d a

btbOvTEC; blbOvTEC; litlloVTwv blboiiot(v) olbOvrac;

bllioiiaal Bllioiiaat lIl/iOUOWV


6lliouaat~

Iitlio15aac;

IilbOvTa IitbOvra bt50vTWV bllloiial(v) IilbOvra

The present active infinitive is /ilbO-vat. The presence of a reduplicated element in the present stem should be noted (lil-). The root is lio-.

MllWilt,AoristActive Indicative, Imperative, Participle, and


Infinitive.

314

LESSON 55

The aorist active system of M5wJJl is conjugated as follows (cf, V 13, 21; DV 39; VP 1-3,7-8,11; there is no paradigm given for the participle because of its peculiar nature, although it clearly has analogies with other adjectival forms):
Active Voice, Participial Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Plural

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

~-uWK-(x

so

~-u~K-aJ.lEY

s::.'

S-5WK-a<;

E-5wK-S(V)

s-5wK-aTs E-5wK-av I E500av

The possibility of confusion with the perfect active should be noted.


Active Voice, Imperative Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Plural

2nd Person 3rd Person

M-<; M-rw

M-TS M-Twoav

Active Voice, Subjunctive Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Plural 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

5w

5wJJsv

50<; I 501<; 5WTS 50 I 1101 I 5wlJ I liWolJ IiWOI(V)

The possibility of confusion with an optative is clear as regards several of the above forms. The aorist optative active of MliwJJI occurs in the New Testament only in the third person singular: 5~1].
Active V-oice, Participial Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Masculine Feminine Neuter
n
v

g d a

lio15<; 11015<; MVTO<; MVTl Mvra

liouoa 50uoa lio15 01] <; lio150lJ 1I0uoav

Mv Mv MVTO<; Mv Mv

LESSON 55

315

Masculine
n

Plural Feminine

Neuter

v
g

.d

Mvrs<; Mvrs<; MVTWV 50UOl(v) MVTa<;

1I0uoat 50uom liooowv lio15oal<; lio15oa<;

Mvra Mvra MVTwv 1I0UOl(V) Mvra

The aorist active infinitive is liouval. The aorist indicative active is irregular because of the presence of K, which is ordinarily the sign of the perfect when occurring at the end of a stem. Inasmuch as the perfect active of M5wJJl also has a K, the aorist (EliwKa) should be distinguished from the perfect (MllwKa). The middle and passive voices will be presented in the following lesson.

Difficult Verbs: MllwJJ1, CilrOKTSIVW.


MliwJJI, I give [V 13, 21; DV 39; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11] 5i5wJJl
Mt 13:8

5wow
Mt4:9

EliwKa
Mt10:1

MllwKa MlioJJal . 6M81]v


.Mk 14:44 Mt 13:11 Mt 14:9

The forms peculiar to the verbs in -JJI are limited for M5wJJl to the present (all voices) and to the aorist active (except for the indicative) and aorist middle. The aorist active indicative has the endings of the aorist active onuw but with the irregular stem containing a K, a fact which makes confusion with the perfect active quite easy. . <X1fOKTslVW, I kill; I murder [V 7, VP 112, VP 1-3]
ciXOKT1v.w Lk 12:4 cbrOKTtvW Mt 17:23

<X1feKTSIVa
Lk 11:48

<X1fSKTav81]v
Mt16:21 .

The form <X1fOKTeVVw is also found in the present system (cf Mt 10:28). In the future there is the contracted form proper to a nasal. In the aorist active the absence of the 0 is compensated for by

316

LESSON 55

the lengthening of the preceding syllable which gives the stem a similarity to the present stem, especially in the moods different from the indicative. There are no perfect forms in the New Testament. Rules for Accents 37. The accent in the present active participle of 5tliw!Jl and the other verbs in -!Jl is on the final syllable ofthe masculine nominative singular, that is, on the final syllable of the root. It remains on this syllable throughout the declension. The accent on the present active infinitive is on the secondlast syllable. The accent on the present active subjunctive falls on the lengthened vowel of the stem.

Vocabulary for Lesson 55.

<bro515w!Jl [V 13, 21; DV 39; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11J I pay; I give back; I reward. 5i5w!Jl [V 13, 21; DV 39; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11J I give. Em515w!J' [V 13, 21; DV 39; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11J I give; I deliver. rrapa5i5w!Jl [V 13, 21; DV 39; VP 1-3, 78, 11J I hand over; I betray. arrOKTglVW [V 7, DV 112, VP 1-3J I kill; I murder. arrapvio!Jal [V 8,22; DV 17; VP 2-3, 6J I deny; I disown. apvio!Jat [V 8, 22; DV 17; VP 2-3, 6J I deny; I disown. ya!Jiw [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6]1 marry. EAeiw [V 8,9; DV 56; VP 1-3, 5-6J I am merciful. In the present system EAaW is also found. This verb can take the accusative case, without a preposition. EArri'w [V 5, DV 59, VP 1-3J I hope; I hope in. EV5Uw [V 1, DV 43, VP 1-3J active: I dress [someone else]; middle: I dress [myself].

LESSON 55

317

eewn(v) [V 16, 19; DV 51; VP 9J [imperfect: eeov DvJ it is permitted; it is possible. EmTAiw [V 8; DV 185; VP 1-3, 5-6J I complete; I accomplish. The final e of the root remains unlengthened in all tenses except the present.
~yio!Jat [V

8, 22; DV 72; VP 2-3, 6J I consider; I rule.

rrpo<PfJTUW [V 1, VP 1-3J I prophesy; I preach.


TAiw [V

8; DV 185; VP 13, 5-6J I finish; I fulfill. The final s of the root remains unlengthened in all the tenses except the present.

atTia [N 2J cause; charge; guilt; relationship. Aiav [Adv 3J greatly.


Exercises for Lesson 55.

I. Translate into English: 1. rrpo<primJoov ~!Jlv, XPWTi. (cf Mt 26:68) 2. E515aoKv yap TOU~ !Ja6fJTa~ aUTou Kat eAYV ccurotc on '0 lJlO~ Toil av6pwrrolJ rrapa51/ioTat [present passive indicative third person singular of 51/iwj.llJ 1~ Xlpa~ av6pwrrwv, Kat arrOKTVOUOlV aUTDV, Kat arroKrav6t~ /leTa Tpi~ ~!Jipa~ Eyp6riOTat. (cf. Mk 9:31) 3. Kat OUK arrKpi6fJ aUT<!i ou5s %v pfj!Ja, WOT 6alJ!Ja'l;lv TOV ~Y!JDva Aiav. (cf Mt 27:14) 4. o~ yap eXl, 506rioTal aUT<!i' Kat o~ OUK eXl, Kat B eXl ap6riOTUl arr' aUToil. (Mk 4:25) 5. KUpl, EAifJODV !JOO TOV lJlDV. (cf Mt 17:15) 6. aAAa Ev5Uoao6 TOV KUPtoV 'Inoofiv XplOTDV. (cf Rom 13:14) 7. 'i r; 6iAl orriow /lOU EA6lv, arrapvfJoao6w ealJTOV Kat aparw TOV orccopov aUToil Kat aKOAOlJ6dTW !JOl. (cf. Mt 16:24) 8. VlJVt /is Kat TO noifiorn EmTAioaT. (2 Cor 8:11)

318

LESSON 55

9. KaAWov TOU<; epyaTa<; Kal alTolio<; <XIlTOl<; TOV I1w80v


10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

ap~al1l::Vo<; alTO nov eaxaTWV ((W<; TWV lTpWTWV. (cf Mt 20:8) iliou avaf3aivOI1l::V l::i<; T~V lTOAlV T~V ayiav, Kal Tl::Aw8rial::Tal lTavTa Ttl Yl::ypal1l1eva li,a TWV lTPOcJ>'1TWV T4' VI4' TOU av8pwlTou. (cf. Lk 18:31) AeyovOlv aVT4' 01 l1a8'1Tal aVTou, El oiSTw<; eaTlv ~ aiTia TOU aV8pullTOV I1l::Ta Ttl<; yvvalKo<;, aVI1cJ>epl::t yal1tlaal. (Mt 19:10) Kal yap 6 vlo<; TOU avBpwlTov OUK ~A8ev litaKOv'18tlvat aAAa litaKOVtllJat Kal lioUVat T~V 1jIVXtlV aVTou aVTI'lTOnwv. (cf. Mk 10:45) eK oof yap e~l::Al::UaeTat ~youl1evo<;. (cf, Mt 2:6) OUK e~l::aTiv coi exelv T~V yvvalKa TOU alieAcJ>ou ocu. (Mk 6:18) Kal elTeMB'1 aUT4' f3tf3AlOV Toil lTPOcJ>riTOV. (cf. Lk 4:17) iliou 6 lTapalitliou<; ue J'fyytKl::V. (cf Mk 14:42) oan<; Ii' av apvria'1Tal us el1lTpoa8l::v TWV av8pwlTwv, apvriaol1al Kayw aUTov el1lTpoa8l::v TOU lTaTpo<; 110V Toil /;v roic ououvotc, (Mt 10:33) Kal J'fAlTl~eV TL onusiov ilil::lv OlT' aVToil YlVOI1l::VOV. (cf, Lk23:8)

ov

II. Translate into Greek: 1. And they gave the [loaves of] bread to the one who was with them. 2. We shall kill these soldiers but not those. 3. You will disown your friends. III. Read Mk 9:2-29, at first without the consultation of any aids, relying entirely on memory. Then re-read the text, checking any doubtful points against the material already seen. Finally, read the verses aloud at least three times.

LESSON 56

319

/;(11"'l1t, Present Middle and Passive Indicative, Imperfect Middle and Passive Indicative, Present Middle and Passive Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. 5111"'111, Aorist Middle Indicative. Rules for Accents 38. Difficult Verbs: td.oo, dvowco.

Lesson 56
Mliwl1t, Present Middle and Passive Indicative, Imperfect Middle and Passive Indicative, Present Middle and Passive Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. The present middle and passive system of lilliWI1 1 is conjugated as follows (cf. V 13, 21; DV 39; VP 1-3,7-8, 11; for the participle also cf. Adj 1):
Middle and Passive Voices, Indicative Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

1ii1i0-l1al lillio-aat liilio-Tal

IilM-l1eBa Iillio-a8l:: Iiilio-VTal

Middle and Passive Voices, Indicative Mood, Imperfect Tense Singular Plural
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

e-lilM-11 nv e-liilio-ao e-liilio-TO

e-lilM-I1l::8a e-liilio-aBe e-liilio-vTO

Middle and Passive Voices, Imperative Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural 2nd Person 3rd Person

liilio-ao IilM-a8w

Iillio-a8l:: IilM-a8waav

320

LESSON 56

Middle and Passive Voices, Subjunctive Mood, Present Tense

1st Person 2nd Person srd Person

Singular litliw-I.lat litliw litlidi-mt

Plural litliw-I.leea litliw-oee litliw-vmt

The optative mood of the present middle or passive is not found in the New Testament.
Middle and Passive Voices, Participial Mood, Present Tense

Singular
Masculine Feminine

Neuter

n v g d a

IitMl.levo~

IitMl.leve Iitliol.lEVOU Iitliol.lEV'll IitMl.levov


Masculine

Iitliol.lEVT) Iitliol.lEVT)
IitlioI.lEVT)~

Iitliol.l~v1J

Iitliol.levT)v Plural
Feminine

IitMl.levov IitMl.levov Iitliol.lEVOU Iitliol.lEV'll IitMl.levov


Neuter

n v g d a

IitMl.levot IitMl.levOl Iitliol.lEVUlV


Iit150I.lEVOt~ IitlioI.lEVOU~

IitMl.levat IitMl.levat Iitliol.lEVUlV


Iitliol.lEvat~ Iitliol.lEVa~

IitMl.leva IitMl.leva Iitliol.lEVUlV


litliol.l.vot~

litliol.leva

The present middle and passive infinitive is /illio-oem. It should be noted once again that the expression "middle and passive" does not mean that a word can be both middle and passive at one and the same time in the same respect in a given context. MIiUlllt,Aorist Middle Indicative. The aorist middle of 1i(IiUll.lt is strong and in the New Testament is found only in the indicative. It is conjugated as follows (cf. V 13, 21; DV 39; VP 1-3, 7-8,11):

LESSON 56

321

1st Person

2nd Person 3rd Person

~iddle Voice, Indicative Mood, Aorist Tense Smgular Plural , 5::' , e-oo-jmv e-M-I.leea E-liou E-lio-OeE E-lio-TO E-lio-VTO

Eliou < Elio-oo. Difficult Verbs: taUl, aVOtyUl. (aUl, I am alive; I live [V 9; DV 69; VP 1-3, 5-6]
(nUl

Acts 17:28

Mt4:4

(~OOl.lat

E(T)Oa Rom 14:9

The irregularity of this frequently-used word lies in the fact that it is really a verb in either -aUl or -T)Ul, depending on the form u~ed. The present indicative is as follows: ~w, ((1<;, ~(I, ~wl.lev, (ijre, ~Ulat(V). The only form of the imperfect found in the New Testament is the first person singular, E~UlV. The present infinitive is (ijv the present participle is ~WV, (woa, ~wv (~WVTO<;, ~WOT)<;, ~WVTO<;). The future is also found in the active voice (cf In 6:51). avo(yUl, Lopeti [V 2, DV 13, VP 1-3] avo(yUl Mt20:33
avo(~a

Mt 13:35

In 9:21

rlvot~a

aVE'Ilya In 1:51

rlvotYl.lat ~VO(xeT)v Apoc20:12 Acts 7:56 aVE'IlYllat ave<;ixeT)v Mt3:16 Acts 9:8 [variant] Apoe 3:8
~vE'IlYl.lat

aVEUl~a

In 9:14
~VE'Il~a

In 9:17

Mt3:16

~ve<;ixeT)V

The complexity of this verb is more apparent than real. In the aorist active indicative and the aorist passive indicative these are three types of augment, and in the perfect middle and passive there are three types of reduplication. In each of these parts the first form has one augment or reduplication, the second has two and the third has three. There is also an alternative form for the aorist passive ~vo(YT)v, which is strong (cf. Mk 7:35). '

322
Rules for Accents 38.

LESSON 56

The accent of several verbs in -1.1 I falls on the lengthened vowel of the stem in the present middle and passive subjunctive.

Vocabulary for Lesson 56~aw [V 9; DV 69; VP 1-3, 5-6]

I am alive; I live.

avoiyw [V 2, DV 13, VP 1-3] I open. aBlK6w [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I harm; I do wrong. ava[3Abrw [V 4, DV 25, VP 1-3] I look up; I regain my sight. As a prefix ava can mean up or again.
yvwpi~w

(vvcopioco) [V 5, VP 1-3] I make known.

YPflYOP6W [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I keep awake; I watch; I am vigilant. 61J[3Abrw [V 4, DV 25, VP 1-3] I look at; I co.nsid~r [governs dative case). The prefix is sv and appears In this form before a vowel

(e.g., 6v6[3A~1fOV).
6~01J0AOY6W [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] active: I agree; middle: I confess; I

acknowledge.
KaTapY6w [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I cancel; I destroy; I abolish. KaTflYOP6W [V 8; VP 1-3,5-6] I accuse [with genitive of person being accused].

AV1f6W [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I pain, I grieve; I injure.


OIJOAOY6W [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I profess; I admit. POV6W [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I think. XapRolJ<Xl (xapioOlJ a l) [V 5, 22; DV 206; VP 2-3] I grant; I deal graciously with [with dative). lJaAIOTa [Adv 3] especially.

LESSON 56
1fptdl [Adv 2] early in the morning.

323

Exercises for Lesson 56.


I. Translate into English: 1. YPflPOp~1T~ ouv, on OUK o'(BaT~ T~V ~1J6paV ouBe T~V
Wpav. (Mt 25:13) oupavov aV~(jlYOTa Kat TOU<; aVV6AOV<; Toil 6eoil ava[3atvovTa<; Kat Kam[3atvOVTa<; br't TO\l viov Toil av6puJ1fov. (In 1:51) 3. /;v i:KdvlJ TlJ wpq i:e~pa1f~vo~v 1fOnou<; a1fo VOOWV Kat 1fV~VlJaTWV 1fOVflPWV, Kat TVAol<; 1fOAAOt<; 6xaptOaTo [3A61f~IV. (cf. Lk 7:21) 4. OUK 61f' apT(jl IJOV(jl ~~06T(Xl 6 av6pw1f0<;, an' 61ft 1faVTt p~lJan 61fOP~VOIJ6V(jl Bla OTOlJaTo<; 6~oil. (cf Mt4:4) 5. OlJii<; AV1ffl6~ow6~, aAA' ~ AU1ffl OIJWV el<; Xapav

2. Kat A6y~t aun!l, 'AIJ~V alJ~v A6YW ulJlv, oljlecr6~ TOV

6. TVAOt aVCt[3A61fOVOlV Kat KWOt aKOlJOU<JlV, KCtt V~KPOt 6ydpOVTal KCtt 1fTWXOt ~uayy~AI~OVml. (cf Mt 11:5) 7. KCtt 6[3Ct1fri~ovTO 6V T<jl 'lopBavlJ 1fOTaIJ<jl 01f' aUToil
8. ou si 6 XptOTO<; 6 uio<; Toil 6~oil TOil ~WVTO<;. (cf Mt
16:16)
6~01J0AOYOUIJ~VOI Ta<; aIJCtpTiCt<; Ctun;lv. (Mt 3:6)

y~v~O~Tal.

12. i51fay~ 61ftow IJOV' oKcXvBaAov si 61J0il, on ou povd<; Ta Toil 6eoil aAAa Ta TWV av6pw1fwv. (cf Mt 16:23) 13. Kat 6V T<jl KaTflyop~106Ctl aUTOV U1fO TWV apXI~p6WV Kat 1fPW[3UT6PWV ouBev a1f~KptVaTO. (Mt 27:12) 14. el<; rouro yap K01!"lWIJ~V, on ~A1ftKalJ~V 61ft 6~<jl ~wvn, 0<; 60nv OWT~ p 1faVTWV av6p.uJ1fwv, IJcXAtOTa 1!"lOTWV. (cf. 1 Tim 4:10) 15. Kat W<; ~A6~v ht TOV T01fOV, ava[3A6ljla<; 6 'Iflooil<; si1f~v 1fpo<; aUTov, KaTa[3f161, O~IJ~POv yap 6V T<jl O'tK(jl co o Bd IJ~ ueivm. (cf Lk 19:5) 16. 6 Be '1l]ooil<; 61J[3A~ljla<; aUT<jl ~ya1fl]o~v aUTov. (cf. Mk 10:21)

9. VOIJOV ouv KCtTapyoillJ~v Bla Tll<; 1fiOT~W<;; (Rom 3:31) 10. KCtt AtCtV 1fPWl 6PXOVTat 61ft TO uvnueiov. (cf. Mk 16:2) 11. el usv ouv aBIKw KCtt &l;LOV 6avaTou 1f61fpaxcX n , ou 1fapaLToillJCtI TO a1f06av~lv. (Acts 25:11)

324

LESSON 56

17. DIJIie; liE EtpT)Ka <j>i}"oIle;, on :n:avra a TfKolloa :n:apa r06 :n:arpoe; IJOIl gyvuSpwa DlJlv. (cf, In 15:15)

II. Translate into Greek: 1. These our sons were dead and now they are alive. (cf Lk 15:24) 2. And having opened his treasure he offered them a gift. (cf, Mt2:11) . 3. Humans would not have possessions if they had not been given them from heaven.
III. Mk 9:30 - 10:12.

LESSON 57

325

n6~~" Present Active Indicative, Imperfect Active Indicative, Present Active Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. n6~~" Aorist Active Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. Difficult Verbs:

1'19q Ill,

m vo,

Lesson 57
T16Tun, Present Active Indicative, Imperfect Active Indicative,

Present Active Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and. Infinitive.


The word TleT)lJl, I put, I place, is conjugated as follows in the present system (cf. V 12, 21; DV 188; VP 1-3,7-8, 11; for the participle cf. also Adj 20). Contractions often preclude distinguishing stem from ending in the paradigms below.
Active Voice, Indicative Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

ri6T)-lJt ri6T)-e; ri6T)-ol(v)

rI6E-IJEV ri6E-rE n6e-a(Jl(v) / n6t-dot(v)

Active Voice, Indicative Mood, Imperfect Tense Singular Plural


1st Person

2nd Person 3rd Person

gri6T) v gri6Ele; gri6El

hi6E-IJEV hi6E-IE hi6E-oav / hi60llv

Active Voice, Imperative Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural

2nd Person 3rd Person

Ti6Et nee-TW

ri6E-TE nee-TWOaV

326

LESSON 57

Active Voice, Subjunctive Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

n8w
n8fj~

n8W~EV

n8fj

n8ijTE n8wat(v)

There is no present optative active in the New Testament.


Active Voice, Participial Mood" Present Tense Singular Masculine Feminine Neuter n8iv n8daa n8Ei~ n8iv n8daa n8Ei~
n8ivTo~

n
v g

n8ivn n8ivTa
Masculine

n8Eia% n8Eial) n8daav


Plural Feminine

n8ivTo~

n8ivn n8iv
Neuter

n
v
g

n8ivn~ n8ivTE~

d a

n8ivTUlv n8dat(v)
n8ivTa~

n8Elaa1 n8daa1 n8E1awv


n8E[am~ n8Eiaa~

n8ivTa n8ivTa n8ivTUlv n8dat(v) n8ivTa

The present infinitive active is n8i-val. The reduplicating element n is part of the present stem. Cf. and V 21. The accents peculiar to the present subjunctive, participle, and infinitive should be noted (cf. above, Rules for Accents 37, Lesson 55).
lii-(iUl~l

n8ll ~ 1, Aorist Active Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. The aorist active system of T[81l~1 is as follows (cf, V 12, 21; DV 188; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11; for the participle cf. also Adj 18):

LESSON 57

327

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

v 8 11K-a Ev E- 8 IlK-a~ S-8Il K-E(V)

Active Voice. Indicative Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Plural

. 8' EIlK-a~EV . 8' E11K-aTE s-8IlK-av

2nd Person 3rd Person

Active Voice. Imperative Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Plural 8i-~ 8i-TE

8i-TUl

8i-TUlaav

Active Voice, Subjunctive Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Plural

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

8w
8fj~

8W~EV

8fj

8ijn 8wa1(V)

The aorist optative active is not found in the New Testament.


Active Voice. Participial Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Masculine Feminine Neuter 8Ei~ 8Elaa 8iv

v
g

8Ek
8ivTO~

8daa
8Eiall~

8iv
8iVTO~

d a

8ivn 8ivTa
Masculine

8Eial) 8daav
Plural Feminine

8ivn 8iv
Neuter

n
v g

8ivTE~ 8ivTE~

d a

8ivTUlV 8dat(v)
8ivTa~

8daa1 8dam 8ElOWV


8Eiam~ 8Eiaa~

8ivTa 8ivTa 8iVTUlV 8Ela1(v) BevTu

The aorist infinitive active is 8dvm.

328

LESSON 57

The aorist indicative stem has Kwhereas the other mood stems do not. Inasmuch as the perfect stem also has a K(T66elKa) the possibility of confusion should be noted. The middle and passive forms will be presented in the following lesson. Difficult Verbs: T16'l1l1, X1VOl. TiB'llll, I place, I put [V 12,21; DV 188; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11] Ti6'l/l1
Lk 8:16
6~OOl Mt12:1

l6'lKa
Mt27:60

n\6elKa
Jnll:34

TeBel/lal
Mk 15:47

i:Te6'lv
Mk 4:21

The present active and middle/passive, and the aorist active (except for the indicative) have special endings appropriate for -/ll verbs. The middle aorist also has special forms. X1VOl, I drink [V 7, DV 153, VP 1-4]

niveo
Mtll:18

Jrio/lal
Mt20:23

E1l'10V

JreJrOlKa
Apoc 18:3

Mt6:25

The future is a middle deponent. The aorist is strong. The perfect middle/passive and aorist passive are not found in the New Testament. The form Jreiv is found at In 4:7 for the aorist active infinitive.

Vocabulary for Lesson 57.


tJr1Tie'l/ll [V 12, 21; DV 188; VP 1-3, 7-8,11] I put on [with dative case]; I place. JrapaTi6'l/l1 [V 12, 21; DV 188; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11] I place before; I distribute. JrpoOTi6'l/l1 [V 12, 21; DV 188; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11] I add to; I give; I continue.

LESSON 57
n6''l/l1 [V 12, 21; DV 188; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11] I put; I place.

329

nivoi [V 7, DV 153, VP 1-4] I drink.


paolAe15Ol [V 1, VP 1-3] I rule.
50Kl/la~0l (50Kl/laoOl) [V 5, VP 1-3] I

test; I discern.

6u50KeOl [V 8; DV 41; VP 1-3,5-6] I am well; I am pleased with [with tv and the dative]; I choose. Ka6e1550l [V 1, VP 1-3] I sleep.
KaT6pya~0/lal [V 5, 22; DV 62; VP 2-3] I

do; I produce.

AaTpe150l [V 1, VP 1-3] I serve; I worship [with the dative case).

uvnuovstico [V 1, VP 1-3] I remember [with the genitive or the accusative case).


JrOlAeOl [V 8; VP 1-3] I sell. oJraKo15Ol [V 1, VP 1-3] I listen to; I obey [usually with the dative case]. Tax15 [Adv 2] quickly.
Tpi~

[Adv 2] three times.

Exercises for Lesson 57.

1. Translate into English:


1. uJraye ooa lxel~ JrWA 'lOOV Kal 50~ TO'i~ JrTOOXO'i~, Kal e~el~ 6'loaupov tv oupav<{j, Kal 5eilpo (hoAo156el /l01. (cf. Mk 10:21) 2. nptv aAeKTopa <POlV~Oal oriuspov aJrapv~olJ us TPk, (cf. Lk22:6l) 3. elr JraAlv hW'lK6v TlX~ xeipa~ tJrI TOU~ o<j>6aA/lOU~ aUToil. (cf. Mk 8:25) 4. Kal i500 <pOlV" h TWV oupavwv Aeyouoa. O{jT6~ icniv 6 ui6~ /lOU 6 ayaJr'lT6~. tv ~ eU56K'lOa. (Mt 3:17)

330
5.
~TjTelTE

LESSON 57
lif; rrpt3Tov T~V ~a01Adav TOU Swu Kal T~V IitKalOOUVTjv aUTou, Kal TaUTa rravTa rrpooTES~OEmt uI-av. (Mt 6:33) 6. Kal iliou avlipE~ </>epovTE~ avSpwrrov Kal /;~~TOllV aUTov EioEvEyKE1V Kal Selvat aUTov /;vuSmov TOU 'Inocu. (cf. Lk 5:18) 7. Kal d~ ilv llv rrOAtv doepXTjOSE Kal MXWVTal u/.la~, toStETE Ta rrapanSe/.lEVa U/.llV, Kal SEparrEuETE TOV~ tv aUT~ aOSEVel~, Kal AeYETE aUTol~, "HyytKEV /;</>' u/.la~ ~ ~aotAda TOU Swu. (Lk 10:8,9) 8. TO rratlitov OUK arreSaVEV KaSEUIiEl. (cf. Mk 5:39) 9. Kal mxu rropEllSE10al clrraTE TOl~ /.laSTjTal~ aUTou on 'HyepSTj arro Tt3v vEKpt3V. (cf. Mt 28:7) 10. ouliEl~ alpEt T~V lIl11X~V arr' t/.lOU, aAA' tyw TiSTj/.lt a1iT~v arr' t/.lallTou. /;~olloiav Iixw SElVat aUTllv, Kal /;~ollOtav Iixw rraAtv Aa~Elv aUT~v' rmimv T~V /;VTOA~V IiAa~ov rrapa TOU rraTpo~ uou. (cf; In 10:18) 11. ou SeAo/.lEv TOUTOV ~aotAEuoat /;</>' ~/.la~. (cf. Lk 19:14) 12. TO norri PlOV 8 /;yw rrtvw rrtWSE Kal TO ~arrno/.la 8 /;yw ~arrTt~O/.lal ~arrnoS~owSE. (cf Mk 10:39) [TO ~arrno/.la and 8 are "accusatives of respect": with

ana

respect to. . . ".]


13. Kiipiov ,TOV SEOV OOll npooxuvriostc Kal auniJ /.lov<{l AaTpElloEt~. (cf. Mt 4:10) [The future tense is an
expression of a command.]
an~Aoll~, Tic apa OVTO~ sonv OTt Kal 6 aVE/.lO~ Kal ~ eaAaooa urraKOUEt auniJ; (Mk 4:41) 15. 8 yap KaTEpya~O/.lat ou ytVuSOKW" ou yap 8 SeAw TOUTO rrpaoow, aAA' 8 /.lwt3 TOUTO rrott3. (Rom 7:15) 16. mum AEAc%ATjKa U/.llV 'tva omv IiASIJ ~ wpa aUTt3v /.lVTj/.lOvE15TjTE aUTt3v OTt /;yw ElrrOV U/.llv. (In

14. Kal /;</>o~r\STjoav </>o~ov /.leyav, Kal IiAEYov rrpo~

ana

16:4)

II. Translate into Greek:


1. All men first put out the good wines; you (pl.) have saved the good wines until now. (cf. In 2:10)
2. We placed you (sg.) so that you might go and bear fruits and so that your fruits might remain. (cf. In 15:16) 3. Now remain (sg.) in the same house, eating and drinking their food, for workers are worthy of their wage. (cf Lk

10:7)

LESSON 57
III. Mk 10:13-45.

331

332

LESSON 58

Present Middle and Passive Indicative, Imperfect Middle and Passive Indicative, Present Middle and Passive Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. nO~lll, Aorist Middle Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. x.'lla., Present Passive Indicative, Imperfect Passive Indicative, Present Passive Participle and Infinitive. Difficult Verbs: O1rdpro.

nO~lll,

".,0""

Lesson 58
r(BTll.lt, Present Middle and Passive Indicative, Imperfect Middle and Passive Indicative, Present Middle and Passive Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. The present middle and passive systems of TlBrl/.n are conjugated as follows (cf. V 12, 21; DV 188; VP 1-3, 7-8,11; for the participle cf. also Adj 1): Middle and Passive Voices, Indicative Mood, Present Tense Singular PIural TlB6-1l Cll nBe-IlEBa TlB6-acX\ TlBE-aBE TlB6-TCll TlBE-vTat Middle and Passive Voices, Indicative Mood, Imperfect Tense Singular Plural g-nBe-llT]v g-nBe-IlEBa g-TlB6-ao g-TlBE-aBE g-TlB6-ro g-rlBE-vro

1st Person
2nd Person 3rd Person

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Persian

LESSON 58

333

Middle and Passive Voices, Imperative Mood, Present Tense

2nd Person 3rd Person

Singular riB6-00 nBe-aBw

Plural nB6-oBE nBe-aBwoav

Middle and Passive Voices, Subjunctive Mood, Present Tense

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person


nB~

Singular nBw-llat
nB~
nB~ral

Plural nBW-IlEBa
nB~oB

nBwvrat

< nBe-T]aal.

The optative mood of the present middle and passive is not found in the New Testament.
Middle and Passive Voices, Participial Mood, Present Tense

Singular
Masculine Feminine
Neuter

n v g d a

nBellvo<; nBell6v6 nB61leVOlJ nB61leVW nBeliEvov


Masculine

nB61leVT] nBllevT] nBElleVT]<; nB61l6vT]V Plural


Feminine

nB61l~V'3

nBellvov nBellvov nB61leVOlJ nBEllevw nBellvov


Neuter

n v g d a

nBell6vOl nBell6vol nBllevwv nBlleVol<; nB61leVO uc

nBel.l6Vat nBeliEVat nBllevwv nBlleVIXl<; nB6lleva<;

nBell6va nBell6va nBll evwv nB6llevOl<; nBellva

The present middle and passive infinitive is rlBwBm. It should be noted again that the middle and passive voices are identical in form in the present system but not in meaning: a given form has to be one or the other voice.

334

LESSON 58

n6T\1II, Aorist Middle Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. The aorist middle system of r(6lHlt is conjugated as follows (cf. V 12, 21; DV 188; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11; for the participle cf. also Adj 1):
Middle Voice, Indicative Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Plural
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

E-6E-1I!]V e-601J e-6E-rO

E-6E-lIE6a e-6E-a6E e-6E-VrO

e601J < e6E-aO.


Middle Voice, Imperative Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Plural 2nd Person 3rd Person

60u 6E-a6w 60u < 6E-ao.

6E-a6E 6E-a6waav

Middle Voice, Subjunctive Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Plural 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

6WlIal 6fj
6~rat

6wllE6a
6~a6E

6WVTal

The aorist middle optative is not found in the New Testament.


Middle Voice, Participial Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Masculine Feminine Neuter
n

6ElIEVO~

d
a

6ElIEVE 6ElIEVOU 6ElIEVlp 6ElI EVOV

6ElIEV!] 6ElIEV!]
6ElIEV!]~

6ElIEVlJ 6ElIEV!]V

6ElIEVOV 6ElIEVOV 6ElIEVOU 6ElIEV<!' 6ElIEVOV

LESSON 58

335

Masculine
n

Plural Feminine

Neuter

v
g

6ElIEVOI 6ElIEVOI 6ElIEVWV


6ElIEVOI~ 6ElIEVOU~

6ElI Eval 6ElIEvat 6ElIEVWV


6ElIval~

6ElIEva 6ElIEva 6ElIEVWV


6ElIEVOI~

d a

6ElIEva~

6ElIEva

The aorist middle infinitive is 6E-a6at.


KEi~al, Present Passive

Indicative, Imperfect Passive Indicative, Present Passive Participle and Infinitive.

A verb associated with r(6!]111 is KElllal, I lie, I am laid. It tends to replace the perfect passive of ri6!]111 in the New Testament. For example:
()e:UTf. '{BeT. TOV ronov 011'OU eKsITo. Come see the place where he was laid.

Kelliat is probably best taken as a true passive, although there is no attestation of any active form. It resembles in some ways a perfect, but is best taken as a present, although it is used in contexts where the perfect ofri6!]111 could be expected. It is a -111 verb and is conjugated as follows (cf. V 17, DV 95, VP 2; for the participle cf. Adj
1.):

Passive Voice, Indicative Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

Kel-lial KEt-aal KEl-rat

Kd-lIE6a KEl-a6E KEt-VTal

Passive Voice, Indicative Mood, Imperfect Tense Singular Plural 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

E-Kd-lI!]v E-KEI-ao
e-KEI-TO

i;-Kd-lIE6a e-KEI-a6E
e-KE1-vTO

336

LESSON 58

The imperative, subjunctive, and optative moods are not found in the New Testament.
Passive Voice, Participial Mood, Present Tense Singular Masculine Feminine Neuter

n
v g

d a

K&tfJ&VO<; K&tfJ&V& , K&lfJ&VOU K&lfJEV<{J KelfJ&VOV


Masculine ,

K&lfJEVT] K&lfJEVT] K&tfJEVT]<; K&lfJEVl) K&lfJEVT]V


Plural Feminine

K&ifJ&vOV KelfJ&VOV K&lfJEVOU K&lfJEV<{J


xsiuevov
Neuter

n
v g

d a

K&lfJ&VOl xsiusvoi K&lfJEVWV K&lfJEV01<; K&lfJEVOU<;

xeiuevoi xeiusvzn

K&lfJEVWV K&tfJEVal<; K&lfJEva<;

xsiusvn xeiusv K&lfJEVWV K&lfJEVOt<; xelusv

The present infinitive passive is K&l-aBat.

Difficult Verbs: lfE:l6w, Olf&lpw.


lfetBw, [ persuade (cf. Lesson 11) [V 5, 18; DV 146; VP 1-3] lfetBw
Acts 18:4

If&tUW
Mt28:14

~7TEtaa

1TE1T01Ba
Mt27:43

1TElf&lOfJUl 61TetaBT]v
Lk 20:6 Acts 17:4

Acts 12:20

The perfect active is strong. The special feature of this verb is the shifts of meaning which take place in the various parts. The present, future, and aorist active mean persuade; the perfect active means trust, with the force of a present tense; the passive means be persuaded, obey. UlfetpW, [sow [V 6, DV 176, VP 1-3] U1TetpW
Mt6:26

eUlf&lpa
Mt25:24

eU1Tap u ct1 Mt 13:19

6UrrapT] v
Mt 13:20

LESSON 58

337

There are no future active or perfect active forms found in the New Testament. The aorist active is typical of a liquid verb. The aorist passive is strong.

Vocabulary for Lesson 58.


dvdxsuirn [V 17, DV 95, VP 2] [recline; [recline at table [a normal] posture for eating].
KllTaK&lfJUl [V 17, DV 95, VP 2]llie in bed; [ recline at table [a normal posture for eating]. KelfJUl [V 17, DV 95, VP 2] [ lie; [ am placed. 1TetBw [V 5, 18; DV 146; VP 1-3] (cf Lesson 11) active present, future, and aorist: [persuade; active perfect: [trust in [present force; governs the accusative case]; passive: [am persuaded; [obey [with the dative].

oxeipco [V 6, DV 176, VP 1-3] [sow.


a.B&TEW [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] [ reject; [ make invalid. a.pEUKW [V 2, DV 15, VP 1-3] [please [governs the dative]. ()lllAOytCOfJUl (lhaAoytuofJUl) [V 5, 22; VP 2-3] [discuss; [ reason. hTetvee [V 7, DV 184, VP 1-3] [ stretch out [with the direct object in the accusative case]. 6V&PYEW [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] transitive: [effect; intransitive: [work. KaTa.AUW [V 1, VP 1-3] transitive: [destroy; intransitive: [find lodging. KAT]POVOfJEW [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] [ inherit. VT]UT&UW [V 1, VP 1-3] [fast. PUOfJUl [V 1, 22; DV 171; VP 2-3] [ rescue. KaTW [Adv 1] down; below.

338

LESSON 58

o<j>olipa [Adv 3) very much; greatly.

Exercises for Lesson 58.

1. Translate into English:


1. /) rrpo<j>~TI]~ I;Y~YEPTat /;K VEKpWV, Kat lila roOTO f.VEPyoiiOlV at liuva~El<; I;v mirw. (cf. Mk 6:14) 2. <XAAI]V rrapaf3oA~v rrape61]KEv auiol~ AiyOlv, '0/l0Iw61] ~ l3aOlAEla TWV oupavwv dv6pwrr41 oxsiprrvtt KaAov orrep/la /;v T<.\i <XYP41 aUToii. (Mt 13:24) 3. Kat dKouoavTe~ oi /la6l]Tat Errwav I;m rrpooOlrrov aUTWV Kat /;<J>0f3~61]0av orro/ipa. (Mt 17:6) 4. Kat 6eOlpEl 5U0 dyyeAou~ I;v AEUKOl<;, Eva rrpo<; nl Kt<I>aA(i Kat Eva rrpo~ TOl~ zooiv, orrou EKElTO' TO OW/la TOO '11]000. (cf In 20:12) 5. EKaoTo<; ~/lWV T<.\i rrAl]oiov dpEoKeTOl d~ TO dya60v rrpo~ otKolio/l~v. (Rom 15:2) 6. arav /is VI]OTEUI]TE, /l~ yivw6E W~ oi DrroKplrai' d/l~v AeyOl D/llV, drrexouolv TOV ~106ov aUTwv. (cf, Mt 6:16) 7. 6 aKouwv u}.H.3v EJlOU (heaUel, Kat 6 d6ETWV uJldC; EIJS d6ETEl' /) lis I;~s d6eTwv d6ETE! TOV drrOOTtlAaVTa ~E. (Lk 10:16) 8. TOOTOV tliwv /) '1l]ooii~ KaraKEi/lEVOV, Kat yvou~ OTt filiI] XPOVOV EXE1, AeYEI aUT<.\i, eeAEI~ DYI~~ YEve06al; (In 5:6) 9. sl UtO~ ci TOU 6toU, f3aAE OWUTOV KaTOl. (cf. Mt 4:6) 10. rrerrol6Ev I;rrt TOV 6eov, puoa06Ol vfiv d 6eAEI aUTov' tin;Ev yap OTt 6EOU dIll UtO~. (Mt 27:43) 11. TOTE I;pEl /) f3aolAEu~ rotc /;K 1iE~IWv aUTou, 1l.tUTE, oi EUAOYI]/leVOl TOU rraTpo~ /lOU, KAI]POvO/l~OaTE T~V ~TOI~aO/levl]v D/llV f3aolAEiav drro rfj~ apxfj~ rof KOO/lOU. (cf, Mt 25:34) . 12. Ti~ yap /lEi~OlV, /) dvnxeiuevoc il /) lilaKOvwv; OUXt /) dVaKei/lEVO~; I;yw lis I;v /leoqJ D/lWV eliu w~ /) 1haKovWv. (Lk 22:27) 13. Kat /;KTEiva~ T~V xE1pa aUTOO Ell! TOU~ /la6I]Ta~ aUTOO tirrEv, 'Iliou ~ /l~TI]P /lOU Kat Ot ci/iEA<j>oi /lOU. (Mt 12:49) . 14. cirrev lis Kat rrpo~ Ttva~ TOU~ rrErrol6ora~ /;<J>' l:auTol~ OTt doh liiKalOl. (cf. Lk 18:9) 15. oj lis lilEAOyi~ovTO I;v l:auToi~ A.YOVTf;~ OTt "Aoro uc OUK 1;A6.f30/lEV. (Mt 16:7)

LESSON 58

339

16. I;av ~ I;~ dv6pwrrOlv TO EPYOV TOUro, KaTaAU6~OEral. (cf Acts 5:38)

II. Translate into Greek:

1. And one of them was persuaded and followed Jesus. 2. And they stretched out their hands and they became healthy. 3. An unjust person will not inherit the kingdom of God.

III. Mk 10:46 - 11:25

340

LESSON 59

Principal Parts. ~<JT~Ilt, Present Active Indicative, Imperfect Active Indicative, Present Active Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. ~<JT~1l1, Aorist Active Transitive and Aorist Active Intransitive. ~(JT~1l1, Aorist Active Indicative Intransitive, Aorist Active Imperative Intransitive, Aorist Active Subjunctive Intransitive, Aorist Active Participle Intransitive, Aorist Active Infinitive Intransitive. ~<JT~1l1, Perfect Active, Forms and Meaning. Difficult Verbs: ~<JT~1l1, "ciOX""

~(JT~1l1,

Lesson 59
'{OTlHIl,

Principal Parts.

The common and difficult verb '(aTlJ/.I1, I stand, has the following principal parts:
orrioto

eaTlJKa

The active forms of the present active, '(aTlJ/.I1, as well as the forms of the future active, orrioeo, and the aorist active, eaTlJaa, all have transitive meanings, i.e., they are construed with an object (e.g., I stand a book on the shelf or I station him in the front line), The other aorist active, eaTlJV, the perfect active eaTlJKa (along with the pluperfect active), and all the middle forms have intransitive meanings, i.e., they are not construed with an object (e.g., I stood on the corner for a full hour). The aorist passive eOTaBlJv also frequently has an intransitive meaning.
Transitive Force Intransitive Force

'icrn /.11
aT~aw

eaTlJv
i:arTl K(X

eOTlJaa

all middle forms

LESSON 59
'{OTTIIIl, Present Active Indicative, Imperfect

341

Active Indicative, Present Active Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive.

The present system of''iornui is conjugated as follows (cf. V 11,21; DV 86; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11; for the participle, cf. also Adj 20):
Active Voice, Indicative Mood. Present Tense [Transitive Force]

Singular
Lst Person

Plural

'Iorn-ju

'iorce-uev

2nd Person

'icrn-;
'(aT!)-at( v)

Srd Person

Iorc-rs '(oTa-at(v)

Active Voice, Indicative Mood, Imperfect Tense [Transitive Force]

Singular
1st Person

Plural

'(aTlJ-V
'(aTT]-~

2nd Person
3rd Person

'iaTT]

'icrc--uev '{ara-Te 'iorcc-oov

The initial 1 is long because it functions as the augment as well as the first letter of the stem.
Active Voice, Imperative Mood, Present Tense [Transitive Force]

Singular 2nd Person 3rd Person


'{GTll

Plural
'{OTet-TEo

laTa-TOO

iora-Toooav

Active Voice, Subjunctive Mood, Present Tense [Transitive Force]

Singular
1st Person

Plural

ian;; iaTfj
iaT6~

iaTw/.Iev
iaTwa1( v)
iaT~Te

2nd Person 3rd Person

Active Voice, Participial Mood, Present Tense [Transitive Force]

Singular
Masculine
n

Feminine

Neuter

v
g

lorde:;

iani~

iordvroc

iordo iaTdaa iaraa%

tOTaV iordv iordvroc

342
d

LESSON 59

icrdvn iordvr
Masculine

tOTaOIJ
tonxaav

iordvn icrdv
Neuter , ,

Plural
Feminine
n

iordvrsc

v
g d

icrdvrec iordvnov tOniOl(v)


tOTavra~

tOTdoal toraoext toraooov


tOTaO<Xl~ tOTaoa~

lOTaVTa loTavTa icrdvrtov tOTdOl(V) , , IOTaVTa

The present active infinitive is tOTa-V<Xl (transitive force). '{OTTUIl, Aorist Active Transitive and Aorist Active Intransitive. The forms ofthe transitive active aorist, SOTI)Oa, are 'conjugated like sAuoa, in all moods. The forms of the intransitive active aorist, SOTI)V, have a special conjugation (see the following section). '{OTI) 11 i, Aorist Active Indicative Intransitive, Aorist Active Impemtive Intransitive, Aorist Active Subjunctive Intransitive, Aorist Active Participle Intransitive, Aorist Active Infinitive Intransitive. The forms of the intransitive active aorist of '{OTI)I-Il, SOTI)V, are conjugated as follows (cf. V 11, 21; DV 86; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11; for the participle cf. also Adj 12):
Active Voice, Indicative Mood, Aorist Tense [Intransitive Force]

1st Person

Singular SOTI) V
SOTI)~

2nd Person 3rd Person

SOTI)

Plural SOTI)/.leV S01l1Te SOTI)OaV

It should be noted that the third person plural form, 6-0TI)-

oav, has the same appearance as the third person plural form of the
aorist active indicative transitive. 6-0TIj-0-av.

LESSON 59

343

Active Voice, Imperative Mood, Aorist Tense [Intransitive Force]

Singular 2nd Person 3rd Person


OT~TW
oT~6l

Plural
OT~T

crrirorocv

Active Voice, Subjunctive Mood, Aorist Tense [Intransitive Force] 1st Person

Singular oroo
orfj~

Plural oroo/.lev
or~re

2nd Person 3rd Person

orfj

orooOl(v)

There is no intransitive active aorist optative in the New Testament.


Active Voice, Participial Mood, Aorist Tense [Intransitive Force]

Singular n v g d a
Masculine ora~ ora~ Feminine Neuter

ordvroc ordvn oravra


Masculine

ordco ordou ordonc oraol) ordoav

orav orav

ordvroc crdvri ordv


Neuter

Plural
Feminine

n v g d a

ordvrec ordvrec ordvrcov ordol(v)


oravra~

ordoat ordom oraooov


orcioat~ oraoa~

ordvro
aravTa

ordvrev ordOl(v) oravra

The intransitive aorist active infinitive is orfivm, '{OTT1I1 t, Perfect Active, Forms and Meaning. The perfect active forms have an intransjtive meaning, with the present aspect of the perfect emphasized so that for practical purposes the form means I stand (intransitive).

344

LESSON 59

There are two forms used in the perfect active, the weak and the strong, with no difference in meaning. Only the weak perfect is found in the indicative (perfect: Eon] Ka; pluperfect: eion] Kelv---the augment is irregular). Only the strong perfect is found in the infinitive (scrdvcr). Both the weak and the strong perfect forms are found in the participle (weak: eOTTlKW~, eOTTlKula, eOTTlK6~, stem eOTTI KOT-; strong: eOTw~, eOTwoa, eOT6~, stem eOTwT- ). Both participial forms are found in the subjunctive, which uses the perfect participle with the present subjunctive of d/ll. The optative perfect is not found in the New Testament. The middle and passive forms will be presented in the following lesson. Difficult Verbs: '{OTTI/ll, mxoxw. '(OTTI/ll, transitive: I make stand; I establish; intransitive: I stand; I come to a halt [V 11, 21; DV 86; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11] , Eonx8T1v EOTTlKa OTTlOa '(OTTI/ll OTTIOW
Heb 7:28 Mt25:33 Mt4:5 Mt 12:47 Mt2:9

EOrJlV
Lk 6:8

eOTW<;
Mt6:5

The present active and future active and weak aorist active (OTTlOa) are all transitive: I stand in the sense of I cause to stand, I make stand, I establish. The strong aorist active (special endings) and perfect active (both weak and strong forms) are intransitive: I stand in the sense of I come to a halt.L am in a place. The aorist passive, EOTa8T1v, is frequently used with this latter, intransitive meaning, although it can also have a normal passive meaning, The perfect active is used with a present meaning in both weak and strong forms. The perfect middle and passive are not found in the New Testament. The reduplicating element i is found in the present system but not in the aorist. There are rough breathings in the present and perfect systems. In brief, this is a difficult verb---the most difficult in the New Testament.

11aoxw, I suffer

[V 2, DV 144, VP 1-4]

LESSON 59

345

11aoxw
1 Cor 12:26

11a8ov
Mt16:21

m11ov8a
Lk 13:2

The future is not found in the New Testament. The aorist and the perfect are strong.

Vocabulary for Lesson 59. d.v8ioTTI/ll [V 11, 18,21; DV 86; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11] I resist [governs the dative case]. d.viOTl'I/ll [V 11, 18,21; DV 86; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11] transitive: I raise; I appoint; intransitive: I rise; I stand up. d.iOTTI/ll [V 11, 18,21; DV 86; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11] I leave; I apostatize [with the genitive or a preposition and the genitive]. EeioTTI/ll [V 11, 18,21; DV 86; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11] transitive: I amaze; intransitive: I am amazed. i;iOTTllll [V 11, 18,21; DV 86; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11] I come up to; perfect active: I am present.

Iorrun [V 11, 18,21; DV 86; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11] transitive: I make stand; I establish; intransitive: I stand; I stop.
Ka8ioTTlIll [V 11, 18,21; DV 86; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11] I put in charge; passive: I am made to be; I am appointed. 11apioTTI/ll [V 11, 18, 21; DV 86; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11] transitive: I present; I provide; intransitive: I stand by [with the dative case].

ouviornut [V 11, 18, 21; DV 86; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11] transitive: I recommend; intransitive: I stand with; to stand together with the dative case].
11aoxw [V 2, DV 144, VP 1-4] I suffer; I experience. EVTino/lal [V 6, 22; DV 186; VP 2-3] I order [ with the dative case]. E11l8u Iliw [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I desire strongly.

346

LESSON 59

KAelW [V 1,DV 101, VP 1-3] I shut; I close. llapEtlit [V 16, DV 51, VP 9] I am present. EllEtliri [Conj] since; because; when; after. alia [Adv 2] at the same time; together. This word is also found as a preposition governing the dative case [Prep 1]: together with.

Exercises for Lesson 59.


I. Translate into English: 1. OIirot exouOlv r~v Eeouoiav KAEtOal TOV o upuvov. (cf. Apoc 11:6) 2. ali~v AEYW UlilV on Ellt mxotv TOl<; ullapxouolV aUTo13 KaraOTriOEt aUTov. (Mt 24:47) 3. llioo ~ urirnp Kat 01 aliEA<j>Ot aUTo13 EI0rrlKElOaV eew ~I1To13vrE<; aUT4l AaA~om. (cf Mt 12:46) 4. EYW liE: AEYW UlilV li~ avnoT~vm T4l 1l0Vl1p4l. (Mt 5:39) 5. EllEtli~ yap lit' av6pwrrou 6avaTO<;, Kat lit' av6pwlloU avaoraot<; VEKpWV. (cf. 1 Cor 15:20) 6. Kat Aa(3wv llmlitov eOTI10EV aUTO EV liEO<;J aUTWv. (cf. Mk9:36) 7. Kat Ellt ~YEliOVWV Kat (3aoIAf.WV ora6r1ow6E EVEKEV Elio13 d<; unp nipiov aUTol<;. (Mk 13:9) 8. TOUTO yap scnv TO 6EAI1lia To13 llarpo<; uou, 'iva llcr<; 0 6EWPWV TOV uiov Kat mOTEUWV d<; aUTOV eXlJ ~W~V alwvtov, Kat aVaOTriOW aUTOV EYW ;v Tfj EoxaTl] ~liEpc,x. (In 6:40) [The 'iva-clause is not a purpose clause but a substantive clause, in apposition to TOUTO and 6EAI1lia. Cf. Lesson 75.] 9. llPOOEUxw6E alia EV EuXaPlOTic,x. 10.'1110013<; oov lliwv T~V lil1TEpa Kat TOV lia611TDV llapWTwra Bv rlvalla, MYEt Tfj unrpi, I'iivrn , '1IiE 6 uio<; ooo , (In 19:26)' 11. Kat EpEt AEYWV UlilV, OUK ollia Uli<X<; 1l06EV EOTE' allOOTI1TE all' EliOU, llavTE<; Epyaral aliIKia<;. (Lk 13:27) 12. AEYEt oiiv aUTO-t<; 0 '1110013<;, '0 Katpo<; 6 EliO<; Oi5llW llapwnv, 6 liE: Kmpo<; 6 Ulif.TEPO<; llaVTOTf. Eon v ErOlliO<;. (In 19:26) 13. EeioTaVTO liE: llavTE<; oi aKouovTE<; aUTo13. (cf Lk 2:47)

LESSON 59

347

14. ali ~v yap Af.yw UlilV on 1l0AAOt llpo<j>~Tm Kat IitKatot EllE6ulil10av lliEtV Ii (3MllETE Kat OUK dliav, Kat aKOUOat Ii aKoUETE Kat OUK i)Kouoav. (Mt 13:17) 15. Kat llioo TPEt<; avlipE<; Ellf.OTI10aV Ellt T~V olKlav EV U ~liEV, allwraAliEVOt allo TOU ~YEliOVO<; llPO<; us. (cf. Acts 11:11) 16. OUV10TI10tV liE: r~v f;auTou ayalll1V El<; ~li<X<; 6 6io<; on XptOTO<; imE:p ~liWV arri6avEv. (cf. Rom 5:8) 17. Af.yW liE: OlilV on 6 llPO<j>r1TI1<; i)1il1 ~A6EV, Kat OUK 1Teyvoooav (lurav cixAU brol'1uav BV auni3 Qua rl6EAI1oav' OOTW<; Kat 0 uio<; TOU av6pWllOU lif.AAEl llaOX~tV Oll' aUTWV. (cf Mt 17:12) 18. OliEt<; <l>1AOt liOU EOTE EaV 1l0111TE Ii EYW EvTEAAOliat OlilV. (In 15:14) II. Translate into Greek: 1. There is a certain woman standing here who has suffered greatly. (cf. Mt 16:28) 2. And having descended with him they stood on that place. (cf. Lk 6:17) 3. They will stand this sheep on their right hand. (cf Mt 25:33) III. Mk 11:27 - 12:27.

348

LESSON 60

lorQIl" Present Middle and Passive


Indicative, Imperfect Middle and Passive Indicative, Present Middle and Passive Imperative, Sul!junctive, Participle, and Infinitive. The Verbs lorav", and or1\""'. Difficult Verbs: xaipw, allapraV"',

"Aalw.

Lesson 60.
iOrTlJ.l', Present Middle and Passive Indicative, Imperfect Middle and Passive Indicative, Present Middle and Passive Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. The present middle and passive of''iornut is conjugated as follows (cf, V 11, 21; DV 86; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11; for the participle cf. also Adj 1):
Middle and Passive Voices, Indicative Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

'iorc--ucn 'ioTa-Oat u lora-rat

iora-j.leea '{oTa-oBe
ff

iorce-vror

Middle and Passive Voices) Indicative Mood, Imperfect Tense Singular Plural

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

iord-unv 'icrc-oo
'ioTa-To

iora-j.leea
'loTa-oBe

YOTa-ViO

Middle and Passive Voices, Imperative Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural

2nd Person 3rd Person

'iora-oo iora-oew

'iora-oee iora-oewoav

LESSON 60
Middle and Passive Voices, Subjunctive Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person
ior~

349

iorwj.lat
ior~

iorij rm

ioruJj.leea iorDOee iorwvrat

< iora-I]oal.

There is no present middle or passive optative in New Testament.


Middle and Passive Voices, Participial Mood, Present Tense Singular Masculine Feminine Neuter iOTcXJ.lf:VOC; iOTlXj.ltVT] iorduevov

v
g

icrdueve iorcusvo o
iOTlXj.ltV<p

iotaj.ltvl]
iotaj.ltvl]~

iorduevov
'lOraj.ltvou iOTlXj.ltV<p iordusvov
Neuter

d a

iorduevov
Masculine

ioraj.ltvlJ iotaj.ltvl]v
Plural Feminine
tOTcXJ..lEVUl

t.OTcXJ..lEVOl

v
g

iorducvoi ioraj.ltvwv
iOraj.ltvol~

ioralJeva

ioraj.levat ioralJtvwv
iOraj.ltval~ ioraj.ltva~

iordusvc
tOTU/leVWv

ioraj.leva

- iOtaj.ltV01~
iOTcXjJEVU

The present middle and passive infinitives have the same form: 'iora--'oeat_ There are no special formsfor a strong aorist middle as there are for the strong aorist active. The weak aorist is not found in the middle voice. The passive voice of Iorrun is used at times in an intransitive sense (e.g., Mt 2:9 and 12:25).

The Verbs Iordvo and OTl{KW.

350

LESSON 60

There are two verbs related to 'lOTT]~l which call for special comment, The verb icrdvcc, I make stand, I establish, is found in the present system. It is conjugated like AVUl. The verb OTtlKUl, I stand [intransitive], is based on the weak perfect stem of 'iOTT]~1. It used in the present tense and is also conjugated like AVUl.

Difficult Verbs: XaiPl1l, dunp rdvto, KAail1l.


xalpl1l, I rejoice [V 6, DV 205, VP 1-4] xalpUl
Mt5:12
[xapT]Oo~<X1]

txapT]v
Mt2:10

Lk 1:14

This verb is regular in the present system, and deponent in the future and aorist. It is a passive deponent in these tenses, and the aorist is strong. The fact that the aorist is strong and is deponent gives the future the appearance of being a middle form whereas it is in fact passive. (The form is put in brackets above to alert the student to this fact.) Both deponent forms have the same active meaning as in the present system.
a~apTcivUl,

I sin [V 7; DV 10; VP 1,4]


li~apTov t\~apTT]Ka

a~apTcivUl a~apTT]OUl

1 Cor 6:18

Mt 18:21

Mt27:41
tl~cipTT]Oa

In 1:10

Mt 18:15

There are two aorists, one weak and one strong. There are no perfect middle or passive forms in the New Testament, nor aorist passive. KAalUl, I weep [V 1, DV 99, VP 1] KAalUl
Mt2:18

KAavoUl
Lk 6:25

~KAauoa

Mt26:75

Vocabulary for Lesson 60.

LESSON 60

351

lOTcivUl [V 7, VP 1] transitive: I make stand; I constitute. This verb is found only in the present system. OTT] KUl [V 2, VP 1] intransitive: I stand. This verb is found only in the present system. xa1PUl [V 6, DV 205, VP 1-4] I rejoice.
a~apTavUl [V

7; DV 10; VP 1,4] I sin.

KAalUl [V 1, DV 99, VP 1] I weep.


aVEXO~<X1 [V

2, 22; DV 68; VP 2-3,4] I endure, I am patient [with the genitive case].

YEVO~<X1 [V

1, 22; VP 2-3] I taste; I experience [with the genitive case].

MpUl [V 6, DV 34, VP 1-4] I beat; I hit.


li1a~apTvpo~al [V

6, 22; VP 2-3] I warn; I testify solemnly.

tpyci~o~<X1 [V
OiKOlio~EUl [V

5, 22, DV 62; VP 2-3] I work; I trade. 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I build; I encourage.

6<jlE1AUl [V 6, DV 142, VP 1-3] lowe; I ought. UOTEPEUl [V 8, VP 1-3] I lack; I am inferior.


xopTci~Ul

(xopTcioUl) [V 5, DV 1-3] I feed; I satisfy.

K(lKEt = Kat hE! [crasis] [Conj + Adv 1] and there; also there. KaKE16Ev = Kat tKEt8EV [crasis] [Conj + Adv 1] from there [time and place]. KaKEtVo<;

= Kat

tKEtVO<; [Conj + Adj 1Pro] and that one; also that

one.
UOTEPOV [Adv 2] afterwards;finally.

352 Exercises for Lesson 60.


1. Translate into English:

LESSON 60

1. lita/lapnlpo/lat E:VWrrtoV Toil Bsof Kal XPIOTOil 'ITl<JOil, Toil /lEAAOVTO~ xpivsiv ~<i3VTa~ Kal VeKpOU~ . . . . (cf, 2 Tim 4:1) 2. uOTepov liE arrEoTelAev rrpo~ aVTou~ TOV ulav aVToil. (cf. Mt21:37) 3. Kal epxeTal ~ /lrlTTlP aVToil K<ll 01 alieA<po1 aliToil Kal eew OTrlKOVTe~ arrEoTelAav rrpo~ aliTov KaAOilvTe~ aVT<Jv. (Mk 3:31) 4. wvevea ctJnoTot:;, Ewe; 1f6Tf~ J.1eS' OIJWv EOOIJOt; EWe; nOTE aVEeO/lat U/lWV; (cf. Mt 17:17) 5. ri liE U/llV liOKel; avllpw1ro~ elxev TEKva /iU0. Kal 1rpooeAllwv T<1J 1rPWT<\l ehev, TEKVOV, u1raye oriusoov E:PYcl~OU E:V T<1J a~l1reAWVl. (Mt 21:28) 6. /laKclptol 01 1relVWVTe~ viiv, on XopTaollrioealle. (cf Lk 6:21) 7. i:J liE aKouoa~ Kal /l~ rrOlrlOa~ O/lOlO~ soriv avllpw1r<\l oucooouriouvn OlKlav E:1rl T~V y~v XWP1~ lle!JeAlou. (Lk6:49) 8. VO/lOV ouv KaTapyoO/lev lil(x Tij~ rrloTew~; !J~ YEVOlTO, aAAa vouov 10TclVO/lev. (Rom 3:31) . 9. 6 liE 'ITlooil~ E:!JPAiljla~ aUT<1J r1Ycl1rTlOeV aUTaV Kal elnev aun;). "Ev os uOTEpl: {Straye Qoa eXEl<; rrwAlloov Kat liO~ ~ol~ rrTwxol~, K<ll 6eel~ llTloaupav E:V oupav<1J, Kal aKoA.oullel !J0l. (cf. Mk 10:21) 10. KaKel euayyeAl~O/leVOl ~o<lv. (cf, Acts 14:7) 11. 01 liE aKouoCLvTe~ E:XclPTlOaV KCLl E1rTlyyetAavTo aUT<1J apyuplOv lioilvat. (cf Mk 14:11) 12. 1rOOOV 6<petA.el~ T<1J KUP1<\l uou; (cf Lk 16:5) 13. 0 W<jletAO/leV 1rOlfjOat rre1rOlriKCL!Jev. (cf. Lk 17:10) 14. ana lila Tij~ XclPlTO~ TOO KUP10U 'Inoof mcreuousv owllijvat KaTa TOV TP01rOV Kall' OV morsoouev on KaKelVOl OW~OVTal. (cf. Acts 15:11) ,', ,." ,.~ 15. avaOTa~ nopeuooum npoc TOV 1raTepCL !JOU Kat spec aUT<1J, Ildrsp, li!JapTOV el~ TaV oupcvov Kal EVW1rlOV oou, OUKEn el/ll aeto~ KATlllijvat U10~ oo u. (cf. Lk 15:18-19) 16. KaKelllev ~TrlOCLVTO pCLOlAEa, K<ll eliwKev CLUTOl~ 6 llea~ TOV LaouA [Saul]. (cf Acts 13:21) 17. AEYW yap u!J1v on ouliel~ TWV avlipwv hetvwv TWV KeKATl!JEvWV yeuoeTal !JOU Toil lietrrvou. (Lk 14:24)

LESSON 60

353

18. EKelvo~ liE 6 lioilA.o~ (, yvou~ TO llEA.Tl/la Toil KUPlOU aUToil liaprioeTal 1r6AAa~ [sc., 1rA.Tlycl~---the accusative of the direct object used with the active voice is retained in the passive; cf. English;I am given a book]. 19. lilie yuv~ e10TriKel 1rPO~ T<1J /lVTll.let<\l eew KAalOUaa. (In 20:11)

II. Translate into Greek:


1. And going out around the third hour they saw another man standing alongside the road. (cf. Mt 20:3) 2. Many things are lacking to you. (cf. Mk 10:21) 3. And we should wash each others' feet. (cf In 13:14)

m. Mk 12:28 - 13:13.

354

LESSON 61

5tl1<VU J11, Present Active Indicative, Imperfect Active Indicative, Present Active Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. Difficult Verbs: 5d1<vUJ11,
(JTP~W,

!j>a{vw.

Lesson 61
adKVllIJt, Present Active Indicative, Imperfect Active Indicative, Present Active Impemtive, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. Another important verb in -ill is OelKVUi\l, I show. It has distinctive endings only in the present system (V14; DV 32 VP 1-3 " 9-10, 12; for the participle cf. also Adj 20):
Active Voice, Indicative Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

OE01KVU-i\1
OE01Kvu-~

OE01KVU-0l(V)

OelKVU-i\EOV OelKVU-TEO OE01KVtl-aol(v)

Active Voice, Indicative Mood, Imperfect Tense Singular Plural 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

EO-uE01KVU-V
e-/ielKVU-~

~,

EO-uE01KVU-i\EOV e-OelKVU-TEO
E-~eiKvt5-aav

S-OctKVU

Active Voice, Imperative Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural

2nd Person 3rd Person

OelKVU OE01KVtl-TW

OelKVU-TEO OE01KVtl-TWOaV

LESSON 61

355

Active Voice, Subjunctive Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

OE01KVtl-W
/iE01KVtl-~

OE01KVtl-l]~

OE01KVtl-Wi\EOV OE01KVtl-l]TEO OE01KVtl-WOl(V)

The accent does ill!! fall on the last syllable of the subjunctive. The present optative is not found in the New Testament.
Active Voice, Participial Mood, Present Tense Singular Neuter Feminine Masculine
n v g

OE01KVtl~ OE01KVtl~ OE01KVtlVTO~

OE01Kvuoa OE01Kvuoa
OE01KVtlOl]~

OE01KVtlV OEOtKVtlV
OEOtKVtlVTO~

d a

OE01KVtlVTl OE01KVtlVTa
Masculine

OE01KVtlOlJ OE01Kvuoav
Plural Feminine

OEOtKVtlVTl OEOtKVtlV
Neuter

v
g

OEOtKVtlVTEO~ OEOtKVU\IrEO~

OEOtKVtlVTWV OEOtKVUOl(V)
OE01KVtlVTa~

OEOtKVUOat OEOtKVUOat OE01KVUO<iiV


OE01KVtlOat~ OEOtKVtlOa~

/iEOtKVtlVTa OEtKVtlVTa OEtKVtlVTWV OHKvUOt(V) OEtKVtlVTa

The present infinitive is OEOtKVtl-vat. The aorist endings are like the endings of AtlW in all voices. Difficult Verbs: .aelKVlli\t, OTPlcl>W, 4>a{vw. OE01KVUi\l, I show [V 14; DV 32; VP 1-3, 9-10, 12] OelKVUi\t
Mt4:8
od~w
1iOe;t~a

OSOEtYi\Ut
Acts 2:22

eodx8l] v
Heb 8:5

Mk 14:15

Mt8:4

OE1KVUW
Jn2:18

356

LESSON 61
OTP&!>W, 1 turn [transitive in the active voice] [V 4, DV 179, VP
1-4]

OTP&!>W

OTPE1l'W

gOTPE1l'CX
Mt 5:39

Acts 13:46 Mt 12:44

gOTPCX/l/lCXl
Mt 17:17

e:OTPa<j>llv
Mt7:6

The present active is used in a transitive sense (1 turn [someone or something else], 1 return [someone or something else]). The aorist passive is usually used in an intransitive sense turned [myself]) 1 returned [myself)) and a truly passive sense. <j>CXIVW, 1 shine, 1 appear [V 7, DV 196, VP 1-4J <j>CXIVW
In 1:1

(l

<j>CXVOU/lat
1 Pt4:18

E:<t>aVIJV
Mt1:20

[<j>cxvTjOO/l at]
Mt24:30

In the New Testament the present active is used intransitively. The middle is also used in this way. The future forms are deponent, one middle in form and the other passive. The aorist is strong passive deponent.

Vocabulary for Lesson 61.

BEIKVVIJI/ BEIKVUW [V 14; DV 32; VP 1-3, 9-10, 12] 1 show; 1 prove. e:VBElKVV/lCXl [V 14; DV 32; VP 1-3, 9-10, 12] 1 show; 1 prove. avaoTp&!>w [V 4, DV 179, VP 1-4] intransitive: 1 return [stay' passive forms: 1 live, [ conduct myself. ' , i:1noTPi<t>w [V 4, DV 179, VP 1-4] transitive: I cause to turn back' [ change; intransitive: [turn irnyself), 1 change (myself!. ' OTP&!>W [V 4, DV 179, VP 1-4] transitive: !turn (someone or something else), 1 give back; 1 change; intransitive: 1 turn

(myself!, [ change (myself!. back.

urrooTp&!>w [V 4, DV 179, VP 1-4] [return [intransitive sense]; [go

LESSON 61

357

<j>CXIVW [V 7, DV 196, VP 1-4] intransitive: [shine; 1 appear. avarrauw [V 1, DV 145, VP 1-3] transitive: [refresh; intransitive: [

stop; [ rest.
KTI~W

(KTIOW) [V 5, VP 1-3] [ create.

/lOIXEUW [V 1, VP 1-3] [commit adultery [with the accusative or with the genitive].
VO/lt~W

(vouioto) [V 5, VP 1-3J [think; [ am accustomed to.

rrCXuo/lat [V 1,22; DV 145; VP 2-3] [ cease, [ cease from [used absolutely or with the participle; the active form is found at 1 Pt 2:10 with a transitive meaning: 1 cause to cease].
rroTI~W

(rrorioco) [V 5, VP 1-3] [cause to drink; [ water.

OCXAEUW [V 1,VP 1-3] [ shake.


o<j>paYI~w

(o<j>paYlow) [V 5, DV 1-3] 1 seal, [ mark with a seal; [

acknowledge.
W<pEAEW [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] [am useful; [benefit (someone else) [with the accusative for the person benefitted]. a/l<j>OTEpOl, -at, -a [Adj 6J both; all.
Exercises for Lesson 61.
1. Translate into English: 1. e:rrElvaocx Kal e:BwKaTE /l01 e:oBlElV, e:B11l'llOa Kal e:rroTloaTE us, eEVO~ if/lIJV KCXl ovvllyaYETE us. (cf; Mt 25:35) 2. Kal rrw~ Bd e:v O'tK41 llEau avcxoTp&!>wllEl; (cf, 1 Tim 3:15) 3. <irra TOTE ifpeaTO 6 'Inooec BEIKVUElV TOt~ lJallllTat~ CXUTOU Bd aUTaV El~ T~V ayiav rrOAIV arrEAlldv Kal rroAAa. rralldv arra TWV rrpwl3vTEPwv Kal apXIEpEWV KCXl YPCX/llJaTEWV KCXl arroKTavllfjvat KCXl Tfj TPITIJ ~/lEP~ e:YEpllfjvat. (ef Mt 16:21) 4. ~ oape OUK W<pEAEt ouBEv. (cf. In 6:63)

on

358

LESSON 61 5. lil;UTl; rrpC){; us rrcivTl;~ oi K01flWVTl;~, KayOl avarrauaw uJ.ld~. (cf Mt 11:28) .. , t / " .... ' ... 6. Kat 01 aaTl;pl;~ l;OOVTat sx TOU oupuvo u mxrovrsc, Kal ai IiUVaJ.ll;I~ ai 6V T01~ oupcvotc OaAl;U8~oOVTat. (Mk 13:25) 7. 6 Aa~Olv aOTou T~V J.lapTuplav 6ml>paYIOl;v OTt 6 8l;O~ ciA'18~~ 60TtV. (In 3:33) 8. 6V atiT~ 6KTlo8'1 TU rrcivTa 6V TOl~ oupovoic Kat 6rrt Tij~ yij~. (cf Col 1:16) 9. aAAu IilU To13To t\Al;~8'1v, 'tva 6V 6J.lOt rrptolrw 6vlide'1Tal Xptoroc 'I'1oou~ T~V arraoav' J.laKap08uJ.ltav. (cf. 1 Tim 1:16). 10. Kat TO <l>w~ 6V TIl oxorin <l>atVl;I, Kat ~ oxori aOTo 00 KaTEAa~l;V. (In 1:5) . 11. Kat l;trrl;V, 'AJ.l~V AEYW UJ.llV, Mv J.l~ oTpa<l>ijTl; Kat
1 ..

YEV'108l; w~ TU rrallila, OOK dOl;Al;Uow8l; l;i~ T~V ~aOlAdav nov oopavwv. (cf. Mt 18:3) 12. Doav lif; IilKalOl aJ.l<l>onpOl.6vavTlov TOU 8w13. (cf. Lk

1:6) 13. Kat sav usv 14. Kat

61flOTpa<l>~Tw. (Mt 10:13) 6A8oVTl;~ oi rrpwTol hOJ.llOaV A~J.ll/lOVTaI. (cf. Mt 20:10)


, ..."

aOT~v' 6UV lif; J.l~ ~. aeta, tl slprivn UJ.lWV rrpo~ uJ.ld~

olxi

d~ia,

SXecXTW tl dptlvl1 UJ.lWV br'


OTt rrAl;lov
I'
riv),

15. Kat SYEV6TO ev TW Elvat aVTOV SV T01rW


't

rrpOOl;UX0J.ll;VOV, W~ l;rrauoaTO, srnsv Tt~ TWV J.la8'1Twv aOTOU rrpo~ aOTov, KUPll;, Iilliaeov tlJ.ld~ rrpool;uxw8at. (cf. Lk 11:1) 16. tlKouoaTl; OTt 6PPE8'1, Ou J.I01Xl;UOl;I~. (Mt 5:27) 17. Kat urrEOTpl;l/IaV oi rrOtJ.lEVl;~ 1i0eci~oVTl;~ Kat a1.VOUVTe<; TOV 8eov ext rraolv tlKOuaav Kat dliov Ka8Ol~ 6AaA~8'1 rrpo~ aOTou~. (cf Lk 2:20)

...

II. Translate into Greek: 1. On saying this the women turned around and they see the
disciples of Jesus, and they did not know that they were the disciples of Jesus. (cf, Jn 20:14) 2. And then the signs of the son of man will appear in heaven. (cf. Mt 24:30) 3. He did not cease teaching and preaching the Good News of the Christ, Jesus.

III. Mk 13:14-37.

LESSON 62

359

~&{"VUllt, Present Middle and Passive Indicative, Imperfect Middle and Passive Indicative, Present Middle and Passive Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive. Difficult Verbs: ~tly"" /I""',

llavDav",.

Lesson 62
IiEtKVll Ilt, Present Middle and Passive Indicative, Imperfect Middle

and Passive Indicative, Present Middle and Passive Imperative, SuQjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive.
The middle and passive systems of IiEiKVUJ.lt are conjugated as follows (II 14; DV32; VP 1-3, 9-10, 12; for the participle cf. also Adj
1):

Middle and Passive Voices, Indicative Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural .
1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

IidKVU-J.lat IidKvu-aal Bf,lKvv-tat

IiEtKVU-J.IE8a IiEiKvu-a8l;

Bet KYO-VTal

Middle and Passive Voices, Indicative Mood, Imperfect Tense Singular Plural 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

6-IiEtKVU-J.l'1V 6-lietKVU-ao 6-lielKVU-TO

6-lietKVU-J.Il;8a 6-lidKvu-a8l; 6-liel KVU-VTO

Middle and Passive Voices, Imperative Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural 2nd Person 3rd Person

IidKvu-ao lietKVU-a8w

IidKvu-a8e lil;tKVU-a8waav

360

LESSON 62
Middle and Passive Voices, Subjunctive Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

661KVU-WIJUl 661KVU-U 661KVU-~Tat

661KVlJ-W1J68u 661KVUTl-086 661KVU-WVTUl

Neither the present optative middle nor the present optative passive is found in the New Testament.
Middle and Passive Voices, Participial Mood, Present Tense Singular Neuter Feminine Masculine 1i61KVUIJ6VOV 1i61KVlJlJivTl 661KVUIJ6VO~

v
g

d a

661KVUIJ6V6 661KVlJ lJivolJ 1i61KVlJlJiv4l 661KVUIJ6VOV ,


Masculine

1i61KVlJlJivTl
1i61KVlJlJivTl~

661KVlJIJ i v lJ 661KVlJIJivTlv
Plural Feminine

661KVUIJ6VOV 1i61KVlJlJivolJ 661KVlJlJ i v4l 661KVUIJ6VOV


Neuter

g d a

661KVUIJ6VOl 661KVUIJ6VOl 661KVlJIJivwv 661KVlJ lJivolJ~


661KVlJlJivOl~

1i61KVUIJ6VUl 1i61KVUIJ6VUl 661KVlJIJivwv


661KVlJlJivat~ 661KVlJlJivu~

1i61KVUIJ6VU 661KVUIJ6VU 1i61KVlJlJivwv


661KVlJlJivOl~

661KVUIJ6VU

The present infinitive form is 661KvlJ-08at. In the aorist middle the endings are like those ofAuw.

Difficult Verbs: cjl1Syw, jfKW, IlUVBavlll.


6UYW, I flee [V 2; DV 198; VP 1-2,4] 6uyw
Mt2:13
et5~OIJUl

fX!>lJYOV
Mt8:33

rrielJYu
Acts 16:27

In 10:5

LESSON 62

3B1

The future is a middle deponent. The aorist is strong. IjKW, I have come [V 2, DV 73, VP 1]
J1KW

Ij~w

Lk 15:27

Mt8:11

Apoc2:25

J1~U

Jim
Mk 8:3

This verb has perfect meanings even with non-perfect tenses. lJ<Xv8civw, I learn [V 7; DV 121; VP 1, 4] lJuv8civw
1 Cor 14:31

ElJuBov
Mt9:13

1J6IJci8Tl K<X
In 7:15

There is a strong (second) aorist.

Vocabulary for Lesson 62.


6UYW [V 2; DV 198; VP 1-2,4] I take flight; I disappear. IjKW

rv 2, DV 73, VP 1] I have come; I am present.

lJuv8civw [V.7; DV 121; VP 1,4] I learn; I discover; I learn by experience, ayvoiw [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I do not know, I am ignorant. avuXlllpiw [V 8; VP 1-3] I retire, I withdraw. arr618iw [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I disobey [with the dative for the person or thing being disobeyed].
aT6vl~w

(drevioto) [V 5, VP 1-3] I stare at [with the dative case alone or with d~ and the accusative].

6U<!>PU1VW [V 7, DV 66, VP 1-3] I make happy; passive: I am happy. KUTavoiw [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I consider; I observe.
1J6Pl~W

(1J6P10lll) [V 5, VP 1-3] I divide; I distribute.

362

LESSON 62

VOEW [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I understand; I reflect; I think. utipov, -OU, TO [N 7] ointment, perfume.
IIWPO~,

-a, -OV [Adj 2] foolish.


-ou, 0 [N 6m] earthquake.

11UElva, -liiv; Ta [N 7] birds.


OWJIIO~,

ciroc, -OU, 0 [N 6m] grain; wheat.

Exercises for Lesson 62.


1. Translate into English: 1. rrlii~ ou voeirs on ou rrEp! apTwv etrrov Dlllv; (ef Mt 16:11)

2. 6 mcreiiov ek TOV ulov 6Xel ~w~v a.1WV10V 0 liE; arrE1Bliiv nil ul<iJ OUK Oljleml ~wriv, aAA' ~ 6py~ TOU Beou IIEvel err' a.UTOV. (In 3:36) 3. ou liE, J avBpwrrE Beau, mum cJ>e;uye. (1 Tim 6:11) 4. Ka.t ouva~w hel rravm TOV oirov Ka.t nl aya.Ba 1I0u. (cf Lk 12:18) 5. oBev, a/iEA<j>Ot aYl0l, Ka.mvorioa.Te TOV arrooToAoV Ka.! apX'EpEa. ~lIliiv, 'Inoouv. (cf. Heb 3:1) 6. rrlii~ OOTO~ ypalilla.m ol/iev II~ IIEIla.BT]KW~; (cf In 7:15) . 7. Ka.t rru~ 0 dxouoiv 1I0U TOU~ AOYOU~ TOUTOU~ Ka.t II~ rrolliiv a.UTOU~ ollolwBrioeml av/ipt IIwP<iJ. (cf, Mt 7:26) 8. 600vml OElOlIOt Ka.nl roxouc. (cf Mk 13:8) 9. Ka.t rrvsc a.uTliiv arro IIa.KpoBEV j]Ka.01V. (cf Mk 8:3) 10. ell13AEljIa.Te d~ TtlrreTelVtl TOU oupuvou. (cf Mt 6:26) 11. 01 /if; ~yvoouv TO i>!illa., Ka.t 6<j>0130UVTO a.UTOv errepwT!i om. (Mk 9:32) 12. d~ ri ~ arrwAew a.UTT] TOU uiipo o YEYOVEV; (cf. Mk 14:4) 13. 0 /if; 'Inoouc yvou~ avexwpT]oev ;KElBEV. (cf. Mt 12:15) 14. rruoa. rroAl~ ~ olxin lJeplOBeloa. Ka.B' f.a.UT!i~ ou omBrioeml. (cf Mt 12:25) 15. Wt eplii T~ ljIUX~ IJOU, 'uxri, 6XE1~ rroAAtl aya.Btl xsiusvn ek 6TT] rroAAcl' ava.rra.uou, <j>clye, nis, EU<j>pa.tVou. (Lk 12:19) 16. Ka.t rrclvTwv 01 6<j>Ba.AIJ0! ev T~ ouva.ywy~ ~oa.v aTeVt~OVTe~ a.UT<iJ. (cf Lk 4:20)

LESSON 62

363

II. Translate into Greek: 1. All those having heard the father and having learned will come to Jesus. (cf In 6:45) 2. And one ofthem will come from afar. (cf. Mk 8:3) 3. And the woman, going out, fled from the tomb. (cf Mk 16:8) III. Mk 14:1-21,

364

LESSON 63

l~lIt, Present Active Indicative, Imperfect

Active Indicative, Present Active Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive, l~lIt, Aorist Active Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle [Summary), and Infinitive. l~lIt, Middle and Passive Forms in the Present System [Summary). Middle Forms in the Aorist System [Summary) DifficultVerbs: l~lIt fl"" atpt"" Ad"",.

Lesson 63
'{ 1'1111, Present Active Indicative, Imperfect Active Indicative, Present Active Imperative, Subjunctive, Participle, and Infinitive, The simple verb 't'lllt, [ send, does not occur in the New Testament. But it is the basis for a compound verb of considerable importance: a<jll'lllt, [forgive. The conjugation of the simple verb will be given here. The present active system is conjugated as follows (cf V 12, 21; DV 83; VP 1-3, 9-10, 12; for the participle cf. also Adj 18):
Active Voice, Indicative Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural 'IT)- J..Lt Is-uev
'{11-<;. 'lE-TS

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

'1'l-at(v)

Idat(v)

The usual contrast between the long stem vowel in the singular and the short stem vowel in the plural should be noted.
Active Voice, Indicative Mood, Imperfect Tense Singular Plural 1st Person 2nd Person

lov 'tel;

~Il~

Isre

LESSON 63

365

3rd Person

'IE(v)

'lOV

These forms are not from '1'1 lit but fromier, which has the same meaning as '1'1 lit and shares the root element 1. The augment is formed by lengthening the 1.
Active Voice, Imperative Mood, Present Tense Singular PluTal u " tst tE-TE

2nd Person 3Td Person

16-1W

ii-Twaav

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

Active Voice, Subjunctive Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural ic.3 ic.3J..lSV ifj~ I~TE I fj IWat(v)

The present active optative does not exist in the New Testament.
Active Voice, Participial Mood, Present Tense Singular Masculine Feminine Neuter , , , tEV l.E.l<; ieio

v g d a

lE.l<; ieVTO~ , , lE.VTL lEvnx


Masculine

, ieioc IEI0% iE/ioT) ,isiccv -

iEV \iVTO<; l.EVn iEV


Neuter

Plural Feminine

n v

levTE~

ieioen
IElom

iEVTCl
\'YTCX

g d a

iEVTE.<; \EVTWV
IE10t(v)

iel0wv ieloulC;
tEloa~

livTWV
tElOl(V)

l.EVnx.c;

l.vTa

The present active infinitive is Ie-vat.

366

LESSON 63

'('l1l1, Aorist Active Indicative, Imperatiye, Subjunctive, Participle [Summary], and Infinitive.

The aorist active system is conjugated as follows (cf V 12, 21; DV 83; VP 1-3; for the participle cf. also Adj 18):
Active Voice, Indicative Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Plural

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

T]K-a K-a<; 'l

~K-S(V)

u T]K-aIlSv u nx-rrrs

~K-av

2nd Person 3rd Person

S-TW

Active Voice, Imperative Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Plural E-~ e-TE
u

s-Twoav

Active Voice, Subjunctive Mood, Aorist Tense Singular Plural

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

00

~<; 1J

WIlSV
nTS

WOI(V)

There is no aorist active optative in the New Testament. The aorist active participle is F!i<;, s\oa, gV (gVTO<;, F!fo'l<;, gVTO<;) and is declined like the present participle of 'i'lilt. The aorist active infinitive is shat. The presence of the reduplicating element I in the present system, and its absence in the aorist, should be noted.

'(nui, Middle and Passive Forms in the Present System [Summary]. Middle Forms in the Aorist System [Summary].

LESSON 63

367

The use of the present system of 'i'lJ.lI in the middle and passive voices is limited. The forms Isrrn (third person singular of the indicative mood) and 'isvrrn (third person plural of the indicative mood) are found in the present tense. The present middle and passive participle forms 1l;;J.lSvo<;, tSJ.lf,v'l, tEIlSVOV are also found. In the aorist middle system only the participle is found: gJ.lsvo<;, EJ.lEV'l, gJ.lsvov. The presence and absence of the reduplicating element I should be noted. Difficult Verbs: '('lIn f'(w, aipEw, >,s11rW. 'f'lJ.lI, I send [V 12, 21; DV 83; VP 1-3,9-10, 12]
f{Tlll!

flaw
Mt6:14

nKCX

s\J.lal gWJ.lal
Lk 5:20

g6'lv

Mt3:15

Mt6:12

Heb 12:12 Mt 24:2

'iw
Mk 1:34

The simple verb 'f'lJ.lI is not found in the New Testament. The principal compound verb based on it is cr<l>f'lill from which most of the above forms are taken. atpEW, I take, I grasp [V 8, 22; DV 5; VP 2-3, 4]
ui.piw
Acts 16:27

EAW
2Thes 2:8

e\AOV Mt2:16

ijp'lilat
2 Cor 9:7

Lk 23:32

~pE6'lv

atprl oouci
Phil 1:22

slAall'lv
2 Thes 2:13

The simple verb atpEW occurs only a few times in the New Testament, as a deponent (atpEOJ.lal, I choose). The above forms are taken for the most part from compound verbs having atpEW as a base. The aorist stem is EA-. The s is lengthened in the perfect middle and passive, but not in the aorist passive. The aorist middle ending is weak, although the stem is strong. atpEw is easily confused with atpw in both form and meaning. Aslrrw, I lack [V 4, DV 118, VP 1-3]

368

LESSON 63

Ad1rUl Lk 18:22

AEhVUl Eph5:31

Al1TOV

AgAEl/l/lat
Acts 25:14

Mk 12:21

EAd8TJV Jn8:9

The use of the simple verb Ad1rUl is relatively infrequent in the New Testament. The above forms are taken for the most part from its compounds. The aorist active is strong. Some of the forms of Ad7[(u can be confused with some of the forms of the verb AauBaV(u.

Vocabulary for Lesson 63.


acjliTJ/ll/ acjliUl [V 12, 21; DV 83; VP 1-3, 9-10, 12]

I dismiss; I forgive

(sin); I send; I allow; I leave.


OUViTJ/ll [V 12, 21; DV 83; VP 1-3, 9-10, 12]1 understand. atpgO/lal [V 8, 22; DV 5; VP 2-3, 4] aVatpgUl [V 8; DV 5; VP 1-3,4] I acjlalpgUl [V 8; DV 5; VP 1-3, 4]

I prefer; I choose.

take away; I abolish; I kill.

I remove;I take away. I desert, I abandon.

EYKaTaAd1rUl [V 4, DV 118, VP 1-4] KaTaAd1rUl [V 4, DV 118, VP 1-4]

I leave [a place or thing]. I leave, I abandon;

Ad1rUl [V 4, DV 118, VP 1-4] transitive: intransitive: Ilack:


ap1ra~Ul (ap1raoUl)

[V 3,5; DV 18; VP 1-4] I take by force. This verb is usually found as a dental, but it also has palatal forms.
and OTTJPl~Ul) [V 3, 5; DV 178; VP 1-3]

OTTJPi~Ul (oTTJPiOUl

I establish;

I strengthen.
rcoreivoco [V 10; VP 1-3, 5-6] I humble, I humiliate.
avaoTpocjlti, -ij.;,
~OUA ti, -ij.;,

Ii [N 1] conduct.

Ii [N 1] firm purpose; plan.

TaAaVTov, -OU, TO [N 7] talent. This was a sizeable unit of money in the ancient world.

LESSON 63

369

cjlPOV1/l0';, -0';, -ov [Adj 5]

intelligent;prudent.

XUlAO';, -ti, -ov [Adj 1] lame.

Exercises for Lesson 63. 1. Translate into English: 1. Kal cjlo~TJ8El'; arrEA8wv liKpUlJla TO TaAaVTOV OOU EV TlJ
yfj' '(BE liXE1'; TO OOv. (Mt 25:25) 2. Kal Et.; rtc E~ aUTli3v acjlElAEv TO OU.; TOU BOUAOU TOU apXlgpEUl'; TO BE~lOV. (cf Lk 22:50) 3. oon.; ouv Ta1rE1VWOEl eauTov to.; TO 1rat()(OV TOUTO

OUTO'; scnv 6 /lEi~iuv EV Tfj ~aolAd~ TWV oupa~wv. (Mt 18:4) 4. TOTE 6 ~amAED'; a1rooTdAa.; aVElAEV 1ravTa'; TOD'; 1raIBa.;. (cf Mt 2:16) 5. on oi UtOl TOU atwvo.; TOUTOU cjlPOV1/lWTEPOl U1rep TOD'; UtOD'; TOU cjlWTO'; d.; T~V YEVEaV T~V eauTwv slorv, (cf. Lk 16:8) 6. Kal 1rpOOKaAWa/lEvo,; 1raA1V TOV OXAOV liAEYEV aUTol,;. AKOUOaTg /lOU rravTE'; Kal OUVETE. (Mk 7:14) 7. Kal 1rpooijA80v aUTw TucjlAol Kal XUlAol E\I TW tEPW Kat E8Epa1rEUOEV aUTO'U.;. (Mt 21:14) " . 8. TgKVOV, acjliEvTai oou at a/lapnat. (cf, Mk 2:5) 9. Kal 015 1rOTE EmOTpglJla.; OTtiP100V TOD'; aBEAcjlou.; oou. (cf Lk 22:32) 10. aKouoa.; Be 6 'ITJoou,; El7rEV aUTliJ. "En ev 001 Ad1rEl' 1raVTa ooa liXE1'; 1rWATJOOV Kal 1\0.; 1rTUlXOI';, Kal e~el'; 8TJoaupov EV TOI'; o upovoic, Kal aKoAou8El uot. (cf

Lk 18:22) 11. Kal vuv AgyUl U/llv. a1rOOTTJTE a1ro

TWV

aV8pW1rUlV
E~ aV8pW1rUlV

~OUA~ aUTTJ ij TO lipyov TOUTO. Ka~aAu8tioETat. (cf Acts 5:38) 12. 6 8eo.; /lOU 6 8eo.; uou , d.; ri EYKaTgAt1rg.; us; (cf. Mk 15:34) 13. 'ITJoou,; ouv yVOD'; on /lgAAOUmV lipxw8al Kal

roiirtov Kal acjlETE auTOu,;' on EaV Jj

Ii

ap1ra~E1V aUTov 'iva '1rOltioUlolV ~amAga avexwPTJoev 1raA1V d.; TO oPO'; aUTO'; /lOVO';. (In 6:15) 14. Kal KaTaAt1rWV aUToD'; a1rijA8Ev. (cf. Mt 16:4) 15. f}KOUOaTe yap T~V E/l~V avaoTpocjltiv 1rOTe. on E()(UlKOV T~V EKKATJalaV TOU 8EOU. (cf. Gal 1:13)

370

LESSON 63

II. Translate into Greek: 1. All sins and blasphemies will be forgiven this man, but the blasphemies of the Spirit will not be forgiven. (cf. Mt 12:31) 2. The soldiers were killed and the young men who obeyed them. (cf. Acts 5:36) 3. And all died without leaving a discendant [literally, "not leaving seed"]. (cf. Mk 12:22)

III. Mk 14:22-50.

LESSON 64

371

m,,"An" t,
Lesson 64

Selected Forms. tt"" Selected Forms. Comparison ofAdverbs. Difficult Verbs: d"OAAU,,' I d"oAA15"" cI""vu", I 6"v15""

d"OAAUIl' and cl"IlvuIl' [Summary].

"'nlli.

The important verbs arrOAAUl-n, I destroy, and swear, are conjugated like 51KVUI-IL Cf. V 14. cPI1I-It, Selected Forms.

OI-lVWn, I

cPtW1, I say, is conjugated like Iornui, It has a root with two degrees, cPa- and cPT]-. The forms used in the New Testament are as follows: cPT] 1-1 1: present active indicative, first person singular [enclitic]; cPT]Ol(v): present active indicative, third person singular. [enclitic]; cPao1(v): present active indicative, third person plural [enclitic]; E4>T]: imperfect active indicative, third person singular.

dl-ll, Selected Forms.


Because of its resemblance to the verb elui, the verb ell-l' should be noted. It means I come, I go, but is found in the New Testament only as a part of compound verbs. The following forms are found: '(a01(v): present indicative active, third person plural; Del: imperfect indicative active, third person singular;

372

LESSON 64

ijeaav: imperfect indicative active, third person plural; lovroc: present participle active, masculine genitive singular; touolJ: present participle active, feminine dative singular; tovTWV: present participle active, masculine genitive plural; tival: presentactive infinitive.
Comparison ofAdverbs. Some adverbs are formed from adjectives, other are not. Those adverbs in the positive degree which are, are formed from the positive degree of adjectives in one of two ways: 1) through the use of the neuter accusative singular (e.g., utxpdv, for a little (while); 2) through the use of the suffix -we;; (e.g., KaKWe;;, badly [the v of the neuter genitive plural is changed to e;;]). The comparative and superlative degrees of adverbs are usually, but not always, formed from the comparative and superlative degrees of the corresponding adjectives. The . comparative degree is often formed by taking the neuter accusative singular of the comparative degree of the adjective: OOWTEPOV, more wisely. The superlative degree is often formed by taking the neuter accusative plural of the superlative degree of the adjective: oowTaTa, most wisely. Some comparative and superlative degrees of the adverb are formed irregularly. A selection of these forms is given in Lesson 65. The superlative degree of the adverbis rare in the New Testament. Its place is often taken by the comparative degree. The superlative degree can have either a relative or an absolute meaning (relative meaning: most wisely; absolute meaning: very wisely). The idiomatic use of we;; with the superlative should be noted. In this usage the we;; with the superlative should be noted. In this usage the we;; with the superlative means as ... as possible (e.g., we;; oowTara, as wisely as possible). Difficult Verbs: a1l"o>">"IlI.ll I a1l"o>">,,uoo, O/lVIl/ll I OIlVVOO, 11"(1111">" '1 Ill.
anDAAlJ/lll

anoAAuw, 1 destroy, 1 perish [V 14; DV 136; VP 12,4,9]

LESSON 64

373

anOAAlJ/ll
Mt9:17

anoAiow
Mt16:25

anw>..wa
Mt2:13

unDAWAa
Mt10:6

anoAAuw
In 12:25

anoAw
Acts 27:34

anWAo/lllV
Mt5:29

The active voice is transitive (l destroy) except in the perfect, which is intransitive (l have perished). The middle voice is intransitive (1 perish). There is an alternative for~ in the J?resen~ system based on the the use of the root ~s a t~ema~lc verb: anOAAlJW. The aorist active is weak (first), the aonst middle IS strong (second).
O/lVlJ/ll/O/lVUW,

I swear [V 14; DV 137; VP 1, 9]


WJ.locret
Mt23:16

O/lVlJ/ll
Mk 14:71

OJlVOW
Heb6:16

There is an alternate form for the present system based on a use of the root as a thematic verb: o/lvuw. rrl/lnAIUll, I fill [V 12, 21; DV 151; DV 1-3, 7] 6nAlloa
Mt27:4

ni/lnAllO/lCXl
Lk 6:25

srrAtlo811V
Mt22:10

The present is not found in the New Testament, nor is the future or the perfect active.

Vocabulary for Lesson 64.


anOAAlJ/ll ~ anoAAUW [V 14; DV 136; VP 1-.2,4,9] transiti,:e: ! destroy; I lose; intransitive: I perish. [perfect active IS intransitive].
o/lVlJ/ll/O/lVUW [V

14; DV 137; VP 1, 9] I swear.

nl/lnAll/ll [V 11, 21; DV 151; VP 1-3, 7] I fill [the thing which. i:, being used to fill is expressed either by the simple genitive or by h with the genitive]; I fulfill.

374

LESSON 64

a1fEl)ll [V 15, DV 52] I go. dOE1)l1 [V 15, DV 52] I enter.


~El)ll [V 15,

DV 52] I depart.

1fEl)ll [V 15, DV 52] I am next. aUVE1)l1 [V 15, DV 52] to gather together [used of crowds]. ejlT1J.lt [V 11, DV 199, VP 7] I say. This verb is enclitic in the present tense. It is often used to introduce a direct quotation.
6al)lOVt~0)lUl [V

5, 23; VP 3] I am possessed by a demon.

61aAEYO)lUl [V 2,22,23; DV 117; VP 2-3) I converse with; I debate with; I address. The simple dative is usually used with all meanings. f:K1fArlOOO)lal [V 3, 23; DV 159; VP 3-4) I am amazed; I am stricken

with fear.
f:)l1fat~w (f:)l1fat~w) [V 3,

DV 143, VP 1-3] I mock; I make fun of[with

dative].
f:1fl~I]TEW [V 8,

VP 1-3,5-6] I seek; I desire.

KaTalOXUVW [V 7, VP 1-3) I shame; I disagrace. 6PeXKWV, -OVTO~, 0 [N 22) dragon; serpent [the devil]. f:AEI])lOaUVI], -%, hJ [N 1) alms; gift.
~UJ.lI], -%,1\ [N 1)

leaven.

8EPlO)lO~, -06,0 [N 6m]

harvest.
Ka1fVO~, -06,0 [N

6m] smoke.

E~ [Adj 21]

six.

LESSON 64

375

Exercises for Lesson 64.


1. Translate into English:
1. 1feXVTa yap Ta6Ta Ta 8vI] f:1U~I]T0601V. (cf. Mt 6:32) 2. Kat d:1fOKP18EVTE~ nii '11]006 Ehav, OUK 0'(6aJ.lEv. E4>I] aunii~ Kat aUTO~, Ou66 f:Ye;, AEYW UJ.lIV f:V 1fOt~ f:~OVOt~ Ta6Ta 1fOll;;. (Mt 21:27) 3. aAAI]V 1fapapOAf)v EAeXAI]aEV mJTol~' "Ouoio; eOTlv 1\ paatAda TWV oupavwv ~U)ll). (cf Mt 13:33) 4. Kat f:1fArla81]oav 1feXVTE~ 8V)loU EV nj ovvaywyij d:KOUOVTE~ TauTa. 5. TOTE AEYEl TOI~ J.la81]Ta1~ aUTou, '0 J.l6V 8EPlO)lO~ 1fOAU~, 0\ 66 f:PYeXTal OAtyOl. (Mt 9:37) 6. Kat, "O~ llv O)lOOl) i Tqi 8VOWaTI]pil;l, ouMv eoriv- a~ 6' llv O)lOOl) EV Tqi 6wPl;l Tqi E1feXvW aUT06 Oq,dAEl. (Mt 23:18) 7. Kat EK TWV OTOJ.leXTWV aUTWV hrropEUETUl 1fUP Kat KarrvO~. (cf Apoc 9:17) 8. a~ yap f:aV 8EAI) nlv ljIvxnv aUTOU OWOUl a1fOAEOEl aUTriv' a~ 6' llv a1fOAEOEl TnV ljIVXf)v auTOu EVEKEV f:J.I0U Kat TOU EuaYYEAlov owaEl aUTriv. (Mk 8:35) 9. 0 1flOTEUWV f;1f' mJTqi ou KaTalOxvv8r\oETal. (cf. Rom 9:33) . 10. Kat 1fPOOEA8oVTE~ eyElpav mJTOV Ai;yoVTE~, KUP1E, owoov, a1fOAAU)lE8a. (Mt 8:25) 11. TWOEPeXKOVTa Kat E~ TW1V [the dative to express time] otK060J.lrl81] 0 vao~ OtiTO~, Kat au f:V rpimv T\)lEpal~ f:YEpii~ mJTOv; (In 2:20) 12. 0\ 66 d:6EAq,Ot 1fapayEVO)lEVOl d~ Tf)V avvaywYT1v f:1ftiwav. (cf. Acts 17:10) 13. 1fapa608r1oETal yap roic 8VW1V Kat f:J.Irralx8r\aETal. (cf. Lk 18:32) 14. 0 6e aVf)p 0 XWAO~ d6EV TOU~ a1fOOTOAOV~ J.Ii;AAOVTa~ datEval d~ TO \EpOV. (cf, Acts 3:2-3) 15. 1fWAr\oaTE Ta U1feXPXOVTa UJ.lWV Kat l'i6TE EAI]J.lOaUVI]v. (cf. Lk 12:33) 16. 0 a1fOOTOAO~, J.IEAAWV E~lEvm nj f;rrauplOv, 61EAEYETO TOI~ J.la81]Tal~. (cf, Acts 20:7) 17. Kat aKouoaVTE~ 0\ OXAOl f;~E1fAr\aOOVTO f:rrt Tij 616axij aUT06. (Mt 22:33) 18. Tij TE f:mouolJ 1\J.lEp~ W4>81] aUTol~. (cf Acts 7:26) 19. Kat f:PArl81] 0 6PeXKWv 0 J.li;ya~, 6 Oq,l~ 0 apxalo~, 0

376

LESSON 64
KaAOUIJ~VO<; lltaf:\oAo<;, 6 nAavwv T~V olxouusvnv OAT]V. (cf. Apoc 12:9) 20. nOAo<; QXAO<; otJv~~t npo<; TOV 'Inoouv. (cf. Lk 8:4) 21. oi lJa8T]Tal lit~Aex8T]oav npo<; aAAtlAotJ<; f.V Tfj <ili0 (cf. Mk9:34) 22. f4>epov npo<; mhov navTa<; TOO<; KaKw<; lixoVTa<; Kal TOO<; liatlJovt'olJevotJ<;. (cf, Mk 1:32)

II. Translate into Greek: 1. And often they threw her into fire in order to kill her. (cf Mk9:22) 2. God gave his Son so that all believing in him may not perish but have etemallife. (cf. In 3:16) 3. The disciples went out of the synagogue and debated with him. (cf, Acts 17:2) III. Mk 14:51-72.

LESSON 65

377

llllvapat, Present Deponent Indicative, ImperfectDeponentIndicative, Present Deponent Subjunctive, Optative, Participle [Summary], and Infinitive. slrletrapat [Summary]. Comparison ofJrregular Adverbs. Difficult Verbs: llllvapat. /It/lvJj<J1Co/lat, rpx",.

Lesson 65
IitlvalJat, Present Deponent Indicative, Imperfect Deponent Indicative, Present Deponent Subjunctive, Optative, Participle [Summary], and Infinitive. . The important deponent verb liuvalJat, I can, I am able, is conjugated like the middle and passive forms of 'lOTT]lJt in the present system. In the other systems the endings do not demand special treatment (cf. V 11, 22, 23; DV 42; VP 2-3, 11' for the present participle cf. also Adj 1): '
Deponent; Indicative Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural liuva-lJat litJva-IJ~8a liuva-oau6uvD liuva-08~

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

6uva-Tat'

6tJva-VTat

Deponent, Indicative Mood, Imperfect Tense Singular Plural

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

~-utJva-lJT]v

s:.

~-utJva-IJ~8a

s::

'

f.-6tJva-oo f.-6UVa-To
~

f.-6tJva-06e f.-liUVa-vTo

The augment

is also found.

The imperative is not found in the New Testament.

378

LESSON 65

Deponent, Subjunctive Mood, Present Tense Singular Plprel

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

1iUVW/l<X1
1iuv~ 5UV~T<X1

1ivv05/lEBa
1iuv~OBE

5UVWVT<X1

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

Deponent, Optative Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural 1ivval/l nv 1ivval/lEBa

5UvalO 1iuvalTo

5UvalOBE 5UV<X1VTO

The deponent present participle is 1ivVa/lEvO~,-~, -ov. The deponent present infinitive is Mva-oB<X1. IbnOTallat [Summary]. The much less frequently used verb ElTloTa/lat, I know, is found only in the indicative and participle of the present system. It is also conjugated like the middle and passive forms of 'iOT~ /l t. Comparison of Irregular Adverbs. Some of the more important adverbs which are irregularly compared are the following:
Positive Degree Comparative Degree Superlative

[EU] well

xpeiooov KpElnov l3eATlov


~OOOV

WeATlOra]

KaKW~,

badly Cf. Lesson 47. well


Cf. Lesson 35.

nrrov
KaAAlOV

, ,

KaAW~,

LESSON 65

379
/laAtOra Cf. Lesson 56.

[/laAa], very

/laAAOV Cf. Lesson 30. (!;Aaooov (!;Aanov lTAEIOV lTAeOV

uixpov, a little (while) Cf. Lesson 26. lTOAU, greatly lTOAAOil lTOAAa lTOAAtji TaXU, quickly Cf. Lesson 57.
Taxew~

niXElOv TaxlOv

TaXlOTa

Words in brackets [] are not found in the New Testament. Difficult Verbs: 1iuvajlat, /ltjlvtj'olCOllat, Tpexw. 5Uva/lat, I can,! am able [V 11, 22, 23; DV 42; VP 2-3,11] 1iuv<Xll<X1
Mt3:9

1ivvrioO/lat
Mk 3:25

~1ivvriB~v Mt 17:16

The future is a middle deponent; the aorist is a passive deponent. In the aorist the form ~1ivvaoB~v is also found. jlt/lvTjoKO/lal, I remember [V 2, 18, 23; DV 127; VP 3] /lljlVTjOKO/l<X1
Heb 2:6

/l ~v~oBrioo/l<X1 Heb 10:17

/lejlV~/lal 1 Cor 11:2

E/lvrioB~

Mt5:23

This is a passive deponent whose forms occasionally have a true passive meaning. The perfect has present force. TpeXW, I run [V 2; DV 192; VP 1 4] Tpexw
In 20:2

(!;1iP<XjlOV
Mt27:48

380

LESSON 65

Vocabulary for Lesson 65. Iit5va/1at [V 11, 22, 23; DV 42; VP 2-3, 11] I can; I am able; I have the right to; I have the power to. . /1l/1V!jOKO/1at [V 2,18,23; DV 127; VP 3] I remember [with the genitive case for the person or thing remembered]. Although this verb is usually a passive deponent, in some texts the passive form has a truly passive meaning: I am

remembered.
TPEXW [V 2; DV 192; VP 1,4]1 run. EKAEYO/1at [V 2, 22; DV 117; VP 2-3] I choose; I select. EJr10Ta/1al [V 11; DV 60; VP 11] I know; I understand. rratlisuw [V 1, VP 1-3] I educate; I chastize. [3EAnov [Adv 3] better.

lAaooov, lAaTTov [Adv 3] a short while.


nooov, nTTOV [Adv 3] worse. KaAAlOV [Adv 3] better. xpziocov, KpslTTov [Adv 3] better. rrAelOV, rrAEov [Adv 3] more. rrOAU, rroAAoo, rroAAa, rroAA<iJ [Adv 3] greatly. TaxslOv, TaxlOv [Adv 2] more quickly. TaXEWC; [Adv 2] quickly.
TaXWTa

[Adv 2] most quickly.


-I]~, ~

rratlilOKI],

[N 1] maidservant.
~ [N 281] tradition.

rrap alioOl~, -sw~,

LESSON 65

381

Exereises for Lesson 65.


1. Translate into English: 1. 6EAW EA6elv W~ TaXWTa rrpo~ ~UTOU~. 2. OTS oov ~YEp61] EK VSKpWV, E/1Vtl061]0av 01 /1a61]TaI aUToo on TOOTO EASYSV, Kal ErrioTsooav Tfj ypa<!>fj Kat nii AOYW OV elrrsv /) 'Inooec. (In 2:22) 3. rrallisuoa~ oov' aUTov arroAuow. (Lk 23:16) 4. avlips~ alisA<!>Ol, u/1s1~ ErrioTa06s on Up' ~/1SPWV apxaiwv, EV u111v EeSAEeaTo /) 6so~ lila TOO OTO/1aTO~ /100, Ta l6vI] aKoooal TOV AOYOV TOO suayysAioo Kat morsticui. (cf Acts 15:7) 5. Kat ~ rratMoKI] tlioooa aUTov ifp~aTo rraAlv AEyelv roic rrapcoTwOlv on, OOTO~ E;~ aUTwv scnv. (Mk 14:69) 6. Kat npoorivevx aUTOV roic /1a6I]Tal~ 000, Kat OUK ~liovtl61]0av aUTov 6sparrsooal. (cf. Mt 17:16) 7. Kat EASYSV aUTol~, KaAw~ a6STelTS TJ]V EVTOAJ]V TOO 6soo, 'iva TJ]V rrapalioOlv U/1WV OTtlOI]TS. (cf. Mt 17:16) 8. gaY 6EA1]~, Iit5vaoai /1S Ka6apiom. (cf Mk 1:40) 9. EASUOO/1Cxl lie TaXEW~ rrpo~ V/1<X~, EaV /) KUPlO~ 6SAtl (1). (cf. 1 Cor 4:19) 10. Kat tliwv TOV 'Il]oOOV arro /1aKpo6sv llipa/1sv Kat rrpooSKUVI]OSV aUT<iJ. (Mk 5:6) 11. AEYSl oov avnil b 'Inoouc, "0 rrols-l~ rroil]oov TaXlOV. In 13:27) , 12. Kat ooa EV Tfj rrOASl EKSiv1) lill]KOVI]OSV, [3EAnov 00 Y1VWOKS1~. (cf. 2 Tim 1:18) 13. OUK lonv 6so~ VSKPWV aAAa ~WVTWV' rroAu rrAav<X06s. (Mk 12:27) 14. et rrspwooTEPW~ V/1<X~ ayarrw, nooov ayarrw/1al; (cf, 2 Cor 12:15) 15. gay /1J] rrspwoSU(1) ~/1WV ~ IilKal~ouv~ rrAslov ;wv _ ypa/1/1aTEWV, OUK SWSAsooco6s Sl~ TI]V [3aOlA6lav TWV ouprrvoiv. (Mt 5:20) 16. rrpoosAI]AU6aTS di/1an xpeirrov AaAoovn rrapa TO TOO rrpo<!>tlTOO. (cf Heb 12:24) 17. Xtlpa 6V0/1a~Ea6w /1J] EAaTTov hwv E~tlKOVTa [sixty] ysyovoia. (cf 1 Tim 5:9)

II. Translate into Greek: 1. Now the apostles stood up and ran to the tomb. (cf. Lk 24:12)

382

LESSON 65

2. If you (pl.) should place your gifts upon the altar and there remember that your brothers have something against . you, leave your gifts there and go to your brothers. (cf, Mt5:23-24) 3. His disciple was asking him, "Why was I unable to cast out the unclean spirits?" (cf. Mk 9:28) III. Mk 15:1-20.

LESSON 66

383

~aBnlllXl. Present Deponent Indicative. Imperfect Deponent Indieative, Present Deponent Imperative [Summary], Participle [Summaryl. and Infinitive. Difficult Verbs: ~aBnlllXl, tM.yx.,. Tpt"." n~T". ~.p~lX{V".

Lesson 66
Ka6TJJ.lcxt. Present Deponent Indicative. Imperfect Deponent Indicative. Present Deponent Imperative [Summary], Participle [Summary], and Infinitive. The deponent -jn verb Ka6111.lt, I sit, is a compound verb, with the prefix Kcmx and the root possibly ~~, but in practice the augment is placed before the prefix (cf. V 17, 22; DV 89; VP 2; for the participle, cf. also Adj 1):
Deponent. Indicative Mood, Present Tense Singular Plural

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

Ka6-1j-/lal Ka6-Q Ka6-Ij-Tat

Ka6-rj-/le6a Ka6-Ij-06e Ka6-Ij-vTat

Deponent, Indicative Mood, Imperfect Tense Singular Plural 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person

t-Ka6-rj-/lljv i-Ka6-Ij-oo i-Ka6-Ij-TO

i-Ka6-rj-/le6a i-Ka6-Ij-06e i-Ka6-Ij-VTO

The present imperative is found in the second person singular: Ka601J (from Ka6Ijoo).

384

LESSON 66

The subjunctive and optative are not found in the New Testament. The present participle is Ka6TlIIEVOC;, -f\, -ov. The present infinitive is Ka6"o6<Xl.

Difficult Verbs: Ka6f\lIa1, EXEYXlll, TPE1rlll, TlKTlll, KEplialvlll.


Ka6f\1I<Xl, I sit [V 17, 22; DV 89; VP 2] Ka6TjoOIl<Xl
Mt 19:28

This compound verb is treated as a non-compound---the augment is affixed to the K even though the stem begins with the n. The verb is a middle deponent in both present and future. Xf-YXUJ, I convict, I convince, I reprove [V 2, DV 55; VP 1-3] Xf-YXUJ
Lk 3:19
Xf-Y~UJ ~Xf-YX6f\V

In 16:8

In 3:20

TPf-1rUJ, I turn [V 4, DV 190, VP 13] TPf-1rUJ


Acts 26:1

ETpEljfa
Mt8:21

Tpa1rf\V
Acts 28:16

The aorist passive is strong. The simple verb TPf-1rUJ does not occur in the New Testament. The above forms are from the compound verb mTpf-1rUJ, I permit. rlKTUJ, I give birth to [V 2, DV 189,VP 1-4]
TlKT<JJ

ETEKOV
Mt 1:25

Tf-X6f\V
Mt2:2

In 16:21

LESSON 66
KEplialvUJ, I gain [V 7, DV 97, VP 1-3] KEpliTjoUJ
Jas4:13

385

iKf-plif\oa
Mt 16:26

iKEpliTj6f\v
1 Pt3:1
[variant reading]

Kf-pliava
1 Cor 9:21

The present system is not found in the New Testament. There are two aorist active forms.

Vocabulary for Lesson 66.


Ka6f\1I<Xl [V 17, 22; DV 89; VP 2] I sit; I am seated. MyxUJ [V 2, DV 55, VP 1-3] I covict, I convince, I reprove. mTpf-1rUJ [V 4, DV 190, VP 1-3] I permit; I allow. T1KTUJ [V 2, DV 189, VP 1-4] I give birth to; passive: I am born. KEplialvUJ [V 7, DV 97, VP 1-3] I gain. KaTaVTaUJ [V 9; VP 1-3, 5-8] I come to [takes dc; with the accusative]
KaTapTl~UJ (KaTapTloUJ) [V

5, VP 1-3] I repair; I prepare.

KXf-1rTUJ [V 4, 5; DV 102; VP 1-3] I steal. 'Io oocdoc, -a, -ov [Adj 2, N 8m] Jewish; as a substantive: a Jew. TIIJIOC;, -a, -ov [Adj 2] precious; honored. OVVEPYOC;, -ov, 6 [N 8m] co-worker. TP01rOC;, -ov, 6 [N 8m] manner; way of life. xolpoc;, -ov, 6 [N 8m] pig, swine.

Exercises for Lesson 66.

386

LESSON 66

I. Translate into English: 1. 6 ovv 1hliaoKwv lhepov OWUTOV 00 1i1IiaoKe1~; 6 Kl]pUOOWV ~~ KA1fTe1V KAE1fTe1~; (Rom 2:21) 2. Tt~ e~ UIlWV eAEyxe1 us 1fepl allapna~; (cf. In 8:46) 3. 6eai3 yap souev ouvspvoi. (cf, 1 Cor 3:9) 4. Kal 11i00 OUAArlllljllJ ev yaoTpl Kal TE~lJ UlDV, Kal KaAEoe1~ TO ovolla aOToi3 "Inoofiv. (Lk 1:30) 5. riuroc gOTW 6 yallo~ ev mi01V. (cf. Reb 13:4) 6. Kal 1fapeKaAwav aOTov AEyovTe~, IIEllljlOV ~Ila~ d~ TOO~ XOtPOU~, 'tva d~ aOTou~ doEA6wllev. Kal hETpeljlOeV aOTOt~. (cf Mk 5:12-13) 7. O1iTO~ 6 'Il]ooi3~ 6 UVaAI]Il<l>6el~ u<j>' UIlWV d~ TOV oopavov Oi5TW~ eAeUoeTa1 KaTa TOV TPD1fOV Ka6' Bv f.6eaoa06e aUrov xopeudusvov d~ TOV oupcvov. (cf, Acts 1:11) 8. Kal lleTa~a~ het6ev 6 'Il]ooi3~ ~A6ev 1fapa T~V 6aAaooav, Kal uva~a~ e1~ TO opo~ eKa61]TO eKe!. (cf Mt 15:29) 9. OOK gOTtV lla6I]T~~ U1fEP TOV 1i1liaoKaAov, KaTl]pTtOIlEVO~ liE 1fa~ SOTal W~ 6 1i1liaoKaAo~ aOToi3. (Lk6:40) 10. ri yap W<PeAetTa1 &v8pw1fO~ Keplirloa~ TOV KDOIlOV OAOV 6auTov liE U1fOAEOa~; (cf, Lk 9:25) 11. il <X<!>' UIlWV 6 ADYO~ TOi3 8eoi3 e~~A8ev, il ~Ila~ IlDVOU~ KaTrlVTI]Oev; (1 Cor 14:36) 12. 1foi3 sorrv 6 Tex6el~ f3a01Aeo~ TWV 'Iouliatwv; (cf Mt 2:2), II. Translate into Greek: 1. And the robbers came so that as a result all of the poor got into boats and sat far from the land. (cf, Mt 13:2) 2. Women, when they give birth, have grief, because their hour has come. (cf In 16:21) 3. A vessel of anger is he, fitted for destruction. (cf Rom 9:22)

III. Mk 15:21-47.

LESSON 67

387

A System of Transcription. DifficultVerbs:

xtool XUVVol, lo9{0l, &Up{OlCol, elJpa{vOl, xa{oo, TUvxaV(I), lcXlJ3.

Lesson 67
A System of Transcription.
It is useful to have knowledge of a system of transcription of Greek into characters proper to a different language. Such systems of transcription differ among themselves according to the possibilities of the receptor language and the typographical possibilities of reproduction. The following transcriptions have been chosen as a typical example of how such a system works:
a=a
~=b

1=

P= r 0,
~

au = au eu = eu I]U = eu ou = ou

K= k A= I Il = m v =n
~ = x

=s

y =g

T= t U= u <j> = ph x= ch
ljI

Ii=d

e=e
~

=z
=

.=h
q.=~

U1 =

UI

I]

0 =0 1f = P

= ps

or ai or iii

6 = th

W= 0

lJ =

<1/ = Q orOi

Thus Mk 1:1-5 can be expressed as follows:

388
1:1 1:2

LESSON 67

Archil tou euaggeliou Iesou Christou [huiou theou]. KathOs gegraptai en t9 Esara t9 prophets, Idou apostello ton aggelon mou pro prosopou sou, hos kataskeuasei ten hodon sou' phone boontos en ~ eremii, Hetoimasate ten hodon kyriou, eutheisas poieite tas tribous autou --egeneto Ioannes rho] baptizon en ~ eremii kai kerysson baptisma metanoias eis aphesin hamartion. kai exeporeueto pros auton pasa he Ioudaia chora kai hoi Hierosolymitai pantes, kai ebaptizonto hyp ' autou en t9 Iordane potamo exomologoumenoi tas hamartias auton.
~TlpalVOO,

1:3

1:4

1:5

Difficult Verbs: XEOO I xuvvoo, E08100, EUPlOKOO, Tuyxavoo, smo.


, t ,

Kaloo

xioo I xuvvoo, I pour [V 7, 8; DV 207; VP 1-3, 5-6]

xiw
In 2:15

XEW
Acts 2:17

i:xw
Rom 3:15

Kixu!Jat
Lk 11:50

hu8Tlv
Lk 5:37

xuvvw
Mt23:35

The simple verb xiw does not exist in the New Testament. All the forms above have been taken from the compound verb i:KXE.w/hxuvvw.
i:a8lw, I eat [V 1, DV 64, VP 1-4]
Eo61w
Mt9:11

<l>ayo!Jal
Lk 17:8

~UYov

Mt12:4

LESSON 67

389

The variant i:08w is also found in the present system.


EUPlOKW,I find [V 2, DV 65, VP 1-4] EUPlOKOO
Mt7:8

EUPTlOW
Mt7:7

EVPOV
Mt2:8

Ei5PTlKa
In 1:45

EUpE.8Tlv
Mt 1:18

The contrast between the Tl of the future and the perfect active on the one hand and the E of the aorist passive on the other should be noted.
~T]PUlVW, I

dry up [V 7, DV 131, VP 1-3]


i:~TlPUVU

~T] PUlVW Mk 9:18

---

Jas 1:11

i:~TlPU!J!JUl Mk 3:1

i:~T]pav8T]v

Mt13:6

This liquid can easily be confused in its augmented or reduplicated forms with a compound verb having the prefix h <i:E).
KUlW, I burn; I light [V 1, DV 91, VP 1-4]
KCX1CJJ

Kauow
Lk 3:17

i:KUUOU
Mt13:30

KE.KUU!JUI
Reb 12:18

hau8T]v
Rom 1:27

Mt5:15

eKallV
Apoc 8:

Tuyxavw, I obtain; I happen [V 7, DV 194, VP 1-4] Tuyxavw


Acts 24:2
STUXOV

TE.TUxa
Reb 8:6

Lk 20:35

The aorist and perfect are strong.


i:aw, I permit, I allow [V 9; DV 44; VP 1, 5]

saw

enaw

Lk 22:51 1 Cor 10:13 dwv [imperfect] Lk 4:41

g'(uoa Mt24:43

390

LESSON 67

The augment is irregular in the imperfect and aorist.

Vocabulary for Lesson fn.


6KXEW [V 7,8; DV 207; VP 1-3,5-6] I pour out. 608iw [V 1, DV 64, VP 1-4] I eat. Cf. Lesson 10. KaTw8iw [V 1, DV 64, VP 1-4] I deuour, I eat up.

supioxco [V 2, DV 65, VP 1-4] I find. Cf. Lesson 10.


ellPaivw [V 7, DV 131, VP 1-3] intransitive: I dry up. Kaiw [V 1, DV 91, VP 1-4] I burn; I light. KaTaKaiw [V 1, DV 91, VP 1-4] I burn up. Tllyxavw [V 7, DV 194, VP 1-4] I obtain; I happen. Mw [V 9; DV 44; VP 1, 5] I permit; I allow; I let go. T1511'TW [V 4, 5; DV 195; VP 1-5] I strike, I beat; I injure; I punish. Forms based on T1511'TW are found only in the present system. In the future active and aorist active the verb 11'aTaaaW is used(i.e., 11'aTaeW, 611'aTaea). In the aorist passive the verb 11'Ar]aaw is used in its strong aorist form (i.e., 611'Ar]YTlV). In the aorist active the verb 11'aiw is also found (i.e., 611'maa).
xwpi~w

(xwpiaw) [V 5, VP 1-3] I separate. In passive it can have the meaning I depart.

U1jIlaTOe;, -Tl, -ov [Adj 1] highest. 6 U1jIlaTOe;, God [N 6m]. <j>UOle;, -ewe;,
~ [N

28f] nature.

XPllaiov, -r-O'u, TO [N 7] gold. Exercises for Lesson fn.


1. Translate into English:

LESSON 67

391

1. OUTOe; 6aTal J.lEyae; Kal lltOe; UwtaTOll KATl8r]aeT<Xl. (cf, Lk 1:32) 2. 6 eupwv T~V 1jIllX~V aUTou a11'0AEael aOTr]v, Kal 6 a11'0AEaae; T~V 1jIllX~V aOTou eveKev 6J.lOU eupr]ael aOTr]v. (Mt 10:39) 3. ~J.lele; <j>uael [a dative of respect: by nature] 'IollBaiol Kal OOK 6e 68vwv aJ.lapTWAO;' etMTee; Be on 00 B1KalOUTal av8pw11'0e; 6e 6PYWV VOJ.lOll 6CXV J.l~ Bla 11'iaTeWe; 'Inoof XplOTOU ... (cf. Gal 2:15-16) 4. 6J.lvr]a8Tlaav Ot J.la8TlTal aVTou on yeypaJ.lJ.lEVOV 6aTtV, 6 ~fiAOe; TOU OlKOll oo o KaTa<j>ayemi J.lL (In 2:17) 5. apyUplOv Kal XPlloiov OOX U11'apxel uor, 0 Be 6XW TOilTO ooi BtBwJ.lI. (cf, Acts 3:6) 6. Kal 6Pxeml ete; olKov' Kal allvEPxeml 11'aA1V 6 oXAoe;, waTe J.l~ B15vao8m aVTOUe; J.lTlBe apTov <j>ayelv. (Mk 3:20) 7. Tie; ~J.lde; XWptael a11'0 Tfie; ayarrTle; TOU XPWTOU; (Rom 8:35) 8. Kai ye 611'1 TOUe; BouAOlle; uoo 6V mte; ~J.lEpate; helvme; 6Kxew a11'0 TOU nveiiuuroc 1J0ll, Kal npoqmrsiioocorv. (cf. Acts 2:18) 9. 11'po<j>r]Tellaov ~J.1'iv, XPWTE, Tte; sortv 6 11'aiaae; oe; (Mt 26:68) ,. , 10. Kal eWfiA8ev rraA1V ele; TTlV allvaYWYTlv. Kal TlV eKel av8pw11'0e; 6eTlpaJ.lJ.lEvTlv 6XWV T~V xetpa. (Mk 3:1) 11. Kal 611'Ar]YTl TO TptTOV TOU ~Aioll. (cf, Apoc 8:12) 12. Kal ehav 11'pOe; aAAr]AOlle;, OOXl ~ KapBta ~J.lwV xorouevn ~v 6V ~J.liv we; 6AaAel ~J.liv 6V Tfj 6B<\i, we; Blr]volyev ~J.liv Tae; ypa<j>ae;; (Lk 24:32) 13. TOTe AEyel aOToie; 6 'Incouc, Ildvrsc uJ.lete; aKavBaAw8r]aw8e 6V 61J01 6V Tfj vuxrr mUTD, YEypa11'ml yap, llaTaew TOV 11'01J.lEva. (cf, Mt 26:31) '" "'-, n, Kat "" '" 14. Kal TO TplTOV rnc YTle; xarexc TO TplTOV TWV MvBpwv KaTeKaTl, Kal 11'de; xopToe; KaTeKaTl. (cf, Apoc 8:7) 15. Kal 6Tll11'TOV ete; T~V Ke<j>aA~v aVTou. (cf, Mt 27:30) 16. Bla TOUTO 11'avm U11'0J.lEVW Bla TOUe; 6KAeKTOUe;, 'iva Kal aOTol oornpicc TUXWOlV Tfie; 6V XplaT<\i 'Inocf usr MeTle; alwvioll. (2 Tim 2:10) 17. 6erfPxeTO Be Kal BalJ.lOVlU a11'0 11'0AAWV, 'AEyovm on LU 1 6 uio<; TOU 8eou. Kat bTtTL/.H.OV aUK la aura AaAelV, on l]Bewav TOV XPWTOV aOTov dvm. (cf. Lk 4:41)
~." ,1"~

392

EXPLANATORY NOTE AT THE END OF LESSONS 1-67

II. Translate into Greek: 1. And at once all the fig trees in that region dried up. (cf. Mt 21:19) . 2. We found our sheep which were lost. (cf. Lk 15:6) 3. For he does not wash his hands when he eats bread. (cf Mt15:2) III. Mk 16:1-20.

Explanatory Note at the End ofLessons 1-67.


This lesson concludes the first section of this introduction to the morphology ofthe Greek of the New Testament. At this point the student has seen all the common words (as opposed to proper nouns) of the New Testament which occur more than twelve times. This includes all the more important irregular verbs. All the important forms of words have been seen as well. The remaining portion ofthis first part of will be devoted to a reading of the Gospels of Mark and of John. Thus the material studied up until now can be used as it is intended to be used in the reading of the New Testament. For a thorough introductory knowledge more vocabulary and syntax will be needed. These will be added gradually as the reading of Mark progresses. Only the more fundamental points of syntax will be mentioned: a systematic presentation of syntax must await the second part of this grammar.

LESSON 68

393

The Genitive Absolute.

Mark1:1-34.

Lesson 68.
The Genitive Absolute. The "genitive absolute" is found frequently in the Greek text of the .New Testament. It is a subordinate phrase composed of a noun or pronoun and a participle, the latter agreeing with the noun or pronoun in gender and number. Both the noun/pronoun and the participle are in the genitive case (hence the word "genitive"). The subordinate phrase is conceived of as being separated from the main clause syntactically (hence the word "absolute"). The genitive absolute can express various meanings with reference to the main clause: causality, opposition, time, condition, general circumstances. The meaning must be determined from the context. At Mk 1:32 the words' Oljlta<; ... YVOI.IIVll<; constitute a genitive absolute with the meaning When it was evening. The words and their context indicate that the genitive absolute here has a temporal connotation. If a genitive absolute is to be truly "absolute", it must. strictly speaking, be grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. In the Greek of the New Testament this independence is not always present. For example, at Mk 5:2 the text reads: eeA8oVTO<; <X1lToil 6K Toil ll"Aoioo ... , umlvTll0V aunil av8pwll"o<; (When he came from the boat, a man met him). This idea could also have been expressed as follows, without the use of a genitive absolute: av8pwll"o<; Ull"~VTll0V aunil i;eA8ovn i;K Toil ll"Aoioo (A man met him coming from the boat). In the latter sentence the word he (auTo<;) is not repeated as it is in the sentence with the genitive absolute. The fact that the word he occurs in both the genitive absolute and in the independent clause shows that the genitive absolute is not really "absolute", i.e., is not really syntactically cut off or independent from the main clause. Such a genitive absolute is termed an "illegitimate" genitive absolute. It occurs in the New Testament alongside of genitive absolutes which are "legitimate", i.e., in which the noun or pronoun of the genitive

394

LESSON 68

absolute does not occur in the main clause. In this "legitimate" type of genitive absolute, the genitive absolute is really "absolute", i.e., really syntactically cut off or independent from the main clause. For examples of "legitimate" genitive absolutes cf. Mk 4:17, 5:35, and 6:54. For examples of "illegitimate" genitive absolutes cf. Mk 6:22, 9:28, and 10:17. It is doubtful if the authors of the New Testament really adverted to the distinction between "legitimate" or "illegitimate" genitive absolutes or even cared. They simply chose the expression which would most effectively convey their meaning. But the distinction is emphasized here to help the student understand the nature of the construction.

Mark 1:134
The word lists which follow here and in subsequent lessons are designed to give all the words in the relevant portion of text which have not been seen in the first sixty-seven lessons. Once given, these words will not be repeated. They include proper nouns. The references in brackets [ ] to New Testament texts indicate where another example of the word in question may be found. 1:2 - 'Hcra:ia~, ou, 6 [N 5] Isaiah [Mt 3:3]; KaTacrKella~w (KaTacrKeuacrw) [V 5, VP 1-3] I prepare [Lk 1:17] II 1:3 - TP1(30~, -Oll t\ [N 6f] path [Mt 3:3] II 1:4 - 'Iwav[v]ll~, -Oll, 6 [N 4] Jo'vt [Mt 3:1] , I( 1:5 - '~oulia~a, -a~, t\ [N 2] Judaea [Mt 2:1]; "Ieoocoxuuirnc, -Oll, o [N 4] inhabitant of Jerusalem [In 7:25] II 1:6 - Ka/.l'1AO~, -r-O'u, 6/t\ [N 6m, N6f] camel [Mt 3:4]; ~05v'1, -'1~, t\ . [N 1] belt [Mt 3:4]; liep/.laT1vO~, -'1, -ov [Adj 1] made ofleather [Mt 3:4]; aKpl~, -ilio~, t\ [N 14f] loclfst rM:t 3:4]; /.leAl, -lTO~, TO [N 17] honey [Mt 3:4]; ayplO~, -a, -ov [Ad] 2] Wild [Mt 3:4] II 1:7 - Kl51rm [V 4,5; VP 1-3] I stoop down [In 8:6]; i/.la~, -avTo~, 6 [N 13m] strap [Lk 3:16]; u1I"olill/.la, -nroc, TO [N 16] sandal [Mt 10:101 II 1:9 -Na~apeT (Na~apa, Na~apeB) [N 32] Nazareth [Mt 2:23]; raAIAaia, -a~, t\ [N 2] Galilee [Mt 2:22] II 1:10 - euBo~ [Adv 2] at once [Mt 3:16]; crXi~w (crxicrw) [V 5, VP 1-3] I split [Mt 27:51]; 1I"eptcrTepa, -a~, t\ [N 2] dove [Mt 3:16]
-r

1:16 - Ll/.lWV, -wvo~, 6 [N 21m] Simon [Mt 4:18]; a/.l<j>I(3aAAw [V 6, DV 1-4] I cast a net [hapax legomenon]; aAleo~, -ew~, 6 [also aAeE.lJ~] [N 29] fisherman [Mt 4:18] 111:18 -MKTllOV, -Oll TO [N 7] fish net [Mt 4:20] II 1:19 - 1I"po(3alvw [V 7, DV 21, VP 1-2j I go forward [Mt 4:21]; 'IaKw(3o~, -ou, 6 [N 6m] James [Mt 4:21];
~2,

Vf

LESSON 68
Ze(3elialo~,

395

-ou, 6 [N 6m] Zebedee [Mt 4:21] II 1:20 - /.ltcrBWTO~, -06, 6 [N 6m] hired man [In 10:12]. .

1:21 - Ka<j>apvaoo/.l, t\ [N 32] Capernaum [Mt 4:13] II 1:23 avaKpa~w [V 3, VP l e3] I cry out [Mt 1:23] II 1:24 - N a~ap'1vo~, -06, 6 [N 6m] Nazarene [Lk 4:34] II 1:25 - <j>i/.loW [V 10; VP 13, 5-6] I muzzle, i.e., silence [Mt 22:12] II 1:26 - cr1l"apacrcrw [V 3, VP 1-3] I cause convulsions [Mk 9:26] II 1:27 - Ba/.l(3eo/.lat [V 8, 23; VP 3, 6] I am shocked [Mk 10:24]; crll(vKllTew [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I question [Lk 22:23]; smrdooco [V 3, DV 183, VP 1-3] I command [Lk 4:36] 111:281I"aVTax06 [Adv 1] everywhere [Lk 9:6]; 1I"eplXwpo~, -ou, t\ [N 6f] surrounding district [Mt 3:5] 1:30 - 1I"6vBtpa, -a~, t\ [N 2] mother-in-law [Mt 8:14]; mipsooco [V 3, VP 1-3] I have a fever [Mt 8:14] II 1:31- 1I"UpeTO~, -06,6 [N 6m] fever [Mt 8:15] /I 1:32 - M(v)w [V 1, DV 43, VP 1-3] I set [of sun][Lk 4:40] II 1:33 - 1I"lcruvayw [V 2, DV 4, VP 1-4] I gather together [of a group] [Mt 23:37] II 1:34 - 1I"0IK1AO~, -'1, -ov [Adj 1] various [Mt 4:24] Once the passage has been worked through it should be read quietly at least three times to get the feel for the meaning of the new vocabulary, and then should be read at least three times out loud.

Exercise for Lesson 68. Translate into Greek: Now after Jesus had been heard, his disciples went to the surrounding districts preaching the good news of God and saying, "The times have been fulfilled and the judgment of God is approaching". (cf. Mk 1:14)

396

LESSON 69

Indirect Questions. Mark 1:35 - 2:28

Lesson 69
Indirect QuestiODS.
Indirect questions are questions placed in dependence on a verb in an independent clause. The verb in the independent clause need not be a verb of asking---the word ot/ia is often used. Indirect questions are introduced by a word used to introduce a direct question (i.e., Tl~, Jr(jj~) or d.
English a
b Greek

What are they saying?


I know what they are saying. I knew what they were saying.

a
b'

TI AEyollalv; ollia ri MyollOlv. '1'5 siv TI' A' 1) svcuorv.

When the direct question in English (a) becomes an indirect ' question (b) it keeps the same tense and mood as the direct question, if the main verb is present and is viewed as being contemporary with the time of the indirect question. But if the main verb is in past time and is viewed as being contemporary with the time of the indirect question, the tense of the indirect question is changed to the past (c). In Greek this change of tense does not take place, as is clear from the examples a', b', and c'. If the direct question is deliberative (i.e., ifit uses a subjunctive to express doubt about a course of action---cf. below, Lesson 74), the indirect question also uses a subjunctive, i.e., it uses the exact form of the direct question, which is the basic rule for indirect questions: the indirect question uses the exact form of the direct question.
a

What should he do?

TI 7rOlTlalJ;

LESSON 69

397

He does not know what he should do. He did not know what he should do.

b'

, OIlK Ollie TI 7rOlTlalJ


OUK

Ifliet TI 7rol~alJ .

Here the English usage is the same as the Greek in that the form of the direct question is conserved in the indirect questions both in the present and in the past. For examples of indirect questions cf. Mk 1:24, 2:25, and 9:6. Mark 1:35 - 2:28
[V 2, DV 40, VP 1-3] I lookfor [hapax] II 1:38 - aAAaxo6 [Adv 1]

1:35 - evvoxa [Adv 2] durina the niaht lhaoaxl II 1:36 - KaTlXlitWKW


KWI'07rOAI~, -ew~. ~

elsewhere [hapax];

[N 28f] market town [hapax]

1:40 - Ae7rpO~, -o ii, 6 [N 6m] leper [Mt 8:2]; YOV07reTEW [V 8; VP 1-3,56] I kneel [Mt 17:14] II 1:41- a7rAayxvl~ol'at(sa7rAayxv1a8T]v) [V 5, 23' VP 3] I feel compassion [Mt 9:36] II 1:42 - AE7rpa, -a~, ~ [N 2] leprosy [Mt 8:3] II 1:43 - el'f3pll'aol'al [V 9, 22, 23; VP 2-3] I speak harshly to [Mt 9:30] II 1:44 - Ka8aptOl'o~, -ov, 6 [N 6m] purification [Lk 2:22]; 7rpOaTaaow [V 3, DV 183, VP 1-3] I prescribe [Mt 1:24]; Mwiio~~, -EW~, 6 [N 29, 33] Moses [Mt 8:4] II 1:45 - btlXlj>T]I'I~W (litlXlj>T]l'low) [V 5, VP 1-3] I spread (news of) [Mt 9:31]; lj>avepw~ [Adv 3] openly [In 7:10]; 7ravT08ev [Adv 1] from all sides [Lk 19:43] 2:2 - XWPEW [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] to have room [intransitive; transitive: to make room [Mt 19:11] II 2:3 - 7rapaAIlTlKO~, -Oil, 6 [N 6m] cripple [Mt 4:24] II 2:4 - a7rOOTeya~w (dnoorsvdcco) [V 5, VP 1-3] I unroof [hapax]; OTEYT] , -%, ~ [N 1] roof [Mt 8:8]; eeopuoow [V 3, DV 141, VP 1-3] I make an opening [Gal 4:15]; xaAaw [V 9; VP 1-3,5-6] I lower [Lk 5:4]; Kpaf3aTTo~, -00,6 [N 6m] cot [In 5:8] II 2:9 - eUK07rWTepO~, -a, -ov [ei5K07rO~,-T], -ov (Ad] 1)] easier [Mt 9:5] 2:14 - AWl (Aeol~, Asusi) [N 32] Levi [Lk 3:24]; 'AAlj>aio~. -00, 6 [N 6m] Alphaeus [Mt 10:3]; TeAwvlov, -Oil, TO [N 7] tax house [Mt 9:9] II 2:15 - ouvuvdxsium [V 17, DV 95, VP 2-3] I recline at table with [Mt 9:10] II 2:16 - <I>aptOaio~, -00, 6 [N 6m] Pharisee [Mt 3:7] II 2:17 - iaTpo~, -ov, 6 [N 6m] physician [Mt 9:12]

398

LESSON 69

2:19 - VUlI<PWV, -wvo~, 0 [N 21m) wedding hall [Mt 22:10] II 2:20arraip<il [V 6, DV 6, VP 1-3] I take away [Mt 9:15) 2:21- erril3Alllla, -xrroc, TO [N 16] patch [Mt 9:16); paKo~, -OU~, TO [N 31] piece of cloth [Mt 9:16]; a:yva<t>o~, -o~, -ov [Adj 5] unshrunk [Mt 9:16]; errtparrT<il [V 4,5; VP 1-3; I sew on [hapax]; axiOlla, ~aTo~, TO [N 16) tear [Mt 9:16) 1/ 2:22 - aOKo~, -OU, 0 [N 6m] wineskin [Mt 9:17]; P~YVUlit [V 14; DV 169; VP 1-3,9,12] I burst [Mt 9:17) [In the present system also found as p~oooo 01 3).] 2:23 - rraparropEuOliat [V I, 22, 23; DV 163; VP 3] I go by [Mt 27:39); orroptllu, -OOV, Ta [N 7] crops [from orroptllO~, -o~, -ov (Adj 5) sown] [Mt 12:1]; Tinoo [V 6, VP 1-3] I pick [Mt 12:1] II 2:25 - Aau(E)(1) [N 32] David [Mt 1:1] II 2:26 - 'AI3LaecXp [N 32] Abiathar [hapax]; rrpOeWL~, -EOO~, Ii [N 28f] laying out [In other contexts this word can have the meaning purpose (Mt 12:.4).] Once the passage has been worked through it should be read quietly at least three times to get the feel for the meaning of the new vocabulary, and then should be read at least three times out loud.

Exercise for Lesson 69.

Translate into Greek: And they said to the lepers who had been healed, "See that you say nothing to anyone but go, show yourselves to the priests and bring what Moses commanded for the purification as a witness for them". (cf Mk 1:44)

LESSON 70

399

Repetition of Negatives. Mark 3:1-35.

Lesson 70
Repetition ofNegatives. Repetition of negatives in Greek is a common practice and results in greater emphasis on the negation. For example, opa /Jllliev11lllliEv drr1J~ (Mk 1:44---cf. Lesson 72 for the use of the aorist subjunctive in prohibitions) is stronger than opa lI11Mv nVL drr1]S. Current English does not permit this .usage: repetition of a negative, where not a barbarism, results in an affirmation. The double negative in the Greek sentence must have the negation emphasized in a different way in English, perhaps, See to it that you say not one word to anyone. The unemphatic Greek sentence used for contrast could perhaps in English be rendered See to it that you tell no one. For other examples of repetition in the use of negatives cf. Mk 2:2, 3:20, and 3:27. Mark 3:1-35. 3:2 - rrapaTllpe<il [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I watch closely (Lk 6:7l II 3:3ellPO~, -ov [Adj 2) dry [Mt 12:10] II 3:4 - KaKorroLEoo [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I do evil [Lk 6:9]; oLoorraoo [V 9; VP 1-3, 5-6] I am silent [Mt 20:31) II 3:5 - rrEpLI3AerrOll<XL [V 4,22; DV 25; VP 2-3] I look around [Lk 6:10); oUAAurreo/JaL [V 8, 22; VP 2-3] I feel sorry for [hapax legomenon]; rrwp<ilOL~, -EOO~, Ii [N 28f] hardness [Rom 11:25]; arroKa8ioTllllL [V 11, 21; DV 86; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11] I restore [Mt 12:13] II 3:6 -' Hpl(JIiL<Xvoi, -wv, oi [N 6m] Herodians (Mt 22:16]; OU/J130DALOv, -OU, TO [N 7) plan [Mt 12:14)

.,-a,

3:8 - 'IEpoOOAulI<X, -oov, [rd] [N 7, 33] [also "Iepououxriu, Ii (N 32)] Jerusalem [Mt 2:21]; , Ioouucdu, -<X~, Ii [N 2] Idumea [hapax]; TDPO~, -OU, Ii [N 6f] 'I'yre [Mt 11:21);LLliwv, -wvo~, Ii [N 21f] Sidon [Mt 15:21] II 3:9 - rrAOLapLOv, -ou, TO [N 7] small boat [In 6:22]

400

LESSON 70

11pOOKCXpTepelJl [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I remain at hand [A~ts 1:14] II 3:10 - Ilaon~, -tyo<;, ~ [N 9f] disease [also: scourge (the basic meaning)] [Lk 7:21] 3:16 - IUTpo<;, -OD, 6 [N 6m] Peter [Mt 4:18] 113:17 - Boovnpvsc [N 32] Boanerges [hapax]; ~POVT!f, -~<;, ~ [N 1] thunder [In 12:29] II 3:18 - 'l>1A111110<;, -OD, 6 [N 6m] Philip [Mt 10:3]; Bcxp8oAOIlCXtO<;, -OD, 6 [N 6m] Bartholomew [Mt 10:3]; Mcx88cxlo<;, -OD, 6 [N 6m] Matthew [Mt 9:9]; 0lJllllX<;, 6 [N 5, 33] Thomas [Lk 6:15]; 0cx1)1)cxto<;, -OD, 6 [N 6m] Thaddaeus [Mt 10:3]; Knvcvuioc, -OD, 6 [N 6m] Cananaean [Mt 10:4] II 3:19 - 'Iou1)cx<;, 6 [N 5, 33] Judas [Mt 10:4]; ,IOKCXptw8, 6 [N 32] Iscariot [Mt 10:4] 3:22 - BeeA~e~ouA [N 32] Beelzebul [Mt 10:25] II 3:27 -1)1CXp11a~lJl (1)lcxp11aOlJl) [V 5, DV 18, VP 1-3] I plunder [Mt 12:29] II 3:28<XllapTI]IlCX, -CXTO<;, rd [N 16] sin [Rom 3:25] 3:34 - KtlKAlJl [Adv 1] round about [Lk 9:12] [also found as a preposition with the genitive: round (Prep 1)] Once the passage has been worked through it should be read quietly three times to get the feel for the meaning of the new vocabulary, and then should be read at least three times out loud.

Exercise for Lesson 70.


Translate into Greek: And they come into the houses of the village, and the crowds gather again so that Jesus and his disciples are unable even to eat bread. (cf. Mk 3:20)

LESSON 71

401

The Hortatory Subjunctive. Mark 4:1-41.

Lesson 71
The Hortatory Subjunctive. The "hortatory subjunctive" consists of a subjunctive in the main clause of a sentence to express an exhortation. The verb is always in the first person. (And thus, in a sense, this construction supplies the lacuna for the lack of the first person in the imperative mood.) Cf. Mk 1:38: aYlJllleV aAAcxxoi3 et<; nx<; 6xollevcx<; KlJlIl011oAel<; --- Let us go elsewhere into thenearby market towns. Cf. also Mk 4:35, 9:5, and 14:42.

Mark 4:1-41.
4:5 - 11eTpw1)e<;, -OD<;, TO [from 11eTpw1)I]<;, -1]<;, e<; (Adj 15)] rocky ground [Mt 13:5]; f.~CXVCXTeAAlJl [V 6, DV 186, VP 1-3] I spring up [Mt 13:5]; ~a80<;, -OD<;, TO [N 31] depth [Mt 13:5] II 4:6 - aVCXTeAAlJl [V 6, DV 186, VP 1-3] I rise [Mt 4:16]; KCXDIlCXT1~lJl (xuuuccricco) [V 5, VP 1-3] I scorch [Mt 13:6] II 4:7 - ODIl11VlYlJl [V 2, DV 161, VP 1-4] I choke [Mt 13:22] II 4:8 - TPllXKOVTa [Adj 21] thirty [Mt 13:8]; f.~~KOVTa [Adj 21] sixty [Mt 13:8] 4:17 - 11POOKatpO<;, -0<;, -ov [Adj 5] temporary [Mt 13:21]; 1)tlJlYIlO<;, -013,6 [N 6m] persecution [Mt 13:21] II 4:19 -lleptIlVCX, -1]<;, ~ [N 3] anxiety [Mt 13:22]; a11aTI] , -1]<;, ~ [N 1] deception [Mt 13:22] 114:2011apaMxollal [V 2, 22; DV 35; VP 2-3] I accept [Acts 15:4]; Kap11o<jlopelJl [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I bear fruit [Mt 13:23] 4:21 - 1l01)lO<;, -OD, 6 [N 6m] basket [Mt 5:15]; KA1VI], -T]<;, ~ [N 1] bed [Mt 9:2]; Auxvla, -a<;, ~ [N 2] lampstand [Mt 5:15] 114:22a11oKpu<jlO<;, -0<;, -ov [Adj 5] secret [Lk 8:17] 4:24 - usrpsco [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I measure [Mt 7:2]

402

LESSON 71

4:26 - cnopoc, -00, 6 [N 6m] seed [Lk 8:5] II 4:27 - I3Aaoraw [V 9; DV 24; VP 1-3, 5-6] I sprout [This word is also found in the present system as I3Aaoravw rv 7).] [Mt 13:26]; 1111 KtlVW [V 7, VP 1-3] I lengthen [hapax] II 4:28 - aurollaro~, -11, -ov [Adj 1] by itself [Acts 12:10] II 4:29 -5pErravov, -Oll, ro [N 7] sickle [Apoc 14:14] 4:31- KOKKO~, -00, 6 [N 6m] grain (of seed) [Mt 13:31]; oivcon, -EW~, Ji [N 33] mustard plant [Mt 13:31] II 4:32 - Aaxavov,-oo, ro [N 7} vegetable [Mt 13:32]; KAa50~, -00, 6 [N 6m] branch [Mt 13:32]; oxid, -d~. Ji [N 2] shade [Mt 4:16]; KaraOKI1VOW [V 10; VP 1-3, 5-6] I dwell in [Mt 13:32] 4:37 - KUlla, -aro~, ro [N 16] wave [Mt 8:24]; YEII1~W (YElllOW) [V 5; VP 1-3] I fill [Lk 14:23] II 4:38 - nptiuvn, -11~, Ji [N 3] stern (of a ship) [Acts 27:29]; rrpooKE<j>aAlOv, -Oll, ro [N 7] cushion [hapax]; IIEAEl [V 6,19; VP 1] [used with dative case] it concerns [Mt 22:16] II 4:3951Eydpw [V 6, DV 46, VP 1-3] I awake; 1 rise [Lk 8:24]; Korra~w (xoxdoco) [V 5, VP 1-3] I cease [Mt 14:32]; yaA~VTJ, -%, Ji [N 1] calm [used with regard to the sea] [Mt 8:26] 114:40 - 5E1AO~, -~, -ov [Adj 1] afraid [Mt 8:26]

Exercise for Lesson 71. Translate into Greek: To you (sg.) are given the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven; but to all outside every word happens in a parable. (cf, Mk
4:11)

LESSON 72

403

Prohibitions. Mark5:1-43.

Lesson 72
Prohibitions.
One view of prohibitions in Greek is that they are are usually expressed in either of two contrasting ways: If the prohibition is against the continuation of an action the present imperative is usually used with II~ or some form thereof: II~ <l>013E106E (Mk 6:50). The fact that the present imperative is used implies that the persons to whom the prohibition is directed were already afraid and that they should not continue to be so. ~el!-<:e the translation Stop being afraid is warranted. For other prohibitions of this type cf. Mk 9:39 and 10:14. . If the prohibition is against the inception of an action the aorist subjunctive is usually used with II ~ or some form thereof: <l>013TJ6ijrE (Mk 10:26). The fact that the ao~s~ ~ubj~c.tive is used implies that the persons to whom the prohibition IS directed were not yet afraid and that they should not begin to be so. Hence.the translation Do not begin to fear is warranted. The translation Stop being afraid would not correspond to the Greek. For other prohibitions of this type cf. Mk 8:26 and 10:19. . The above view is prohibitions is not held by all grammanans. A number hold that there are so many exceptions to the theory as outlined above that the theory is invalid. The student should be alert to note how prohibitions are expressed so that he can form his own judgment.

lin

Mark 5:1-43 5:1- rEp(X.OTJVO~,-~, -ov [Adj 1] of Gerasa [Lk 8:26] II 5:2 - urravraw [V 9; VP 1-3, 5-6] I go to meet; I meet [with dative case] [Mt 8:28] I~ 5:3 - KaroiKTJ01~, -EW~, Ji [N 28f] dwelling [hapax]; IIvijlla, -aro~, ro [N 16] grave [Lk 8:27]; aAool~, -EW~, Ji [N 28f] chain [Lk 8:29] II 5:4 _ rrE511, -TJ~, Ji [N 1] chain (for feet) [Lk 8:29]; 5l(Xorraw [V 9; VP 13, 5-6] I tear apart [Acts 23:10]; oovrpil3w [V 4, DV 193, VP 1-4] I

I I

404

LESSON 72

shatter [Mt 12:20]; lialJaCw (lialJaaw) [V 5, VP 1-3] I subdue [Jas 3:7] II 5:5 - KaTaKOrrrW [V 4,5; DV 105; VP 1-3] I cut [hapax] 115:7 - oPK1Cw (opxioco) [V 5, VP 1-3] I adjure [Acts 19:13]; (:\aaavlCw (:\aaavlaw) [V 5, VP 1-3] !torment [Mt 8:6] 115:9 - Af;YlWV, -oovoe;, 0 [N 21m] legion [i.e., a large number] [Mt 26:53]
5:11 - ayeAIJ, -1')<;, ~ [N 1] herd [Mt 8:30]; (:\oaKw [V 2, VP 1-3] I feed [Mt 8:30] II 5:13 - oplJaw [V 9; VP 1-3,5-6] I rush [Mt 8:32]; KpT]J.IVOe;, -06,0 [N 6m] precipice [Mt 8:32]; li1OX1AlOl, -at, -a [Adj 6] two thousand [hapax]; rrviyw [V 2, DV 161, VP 1-4] I choke [Mt 13:7] II 5:15 - iJ.lanCw (urccricco) [V 5, VP 1-3] I clothe [Lk 8:35]; aw<ppovew [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I am in my right mind [Lk 8:35] II 5:16lil"TJYeOlJat [V 8,22; DV 72; VP 2-3] I recount [Lk 8:39] II 5:17 OptOV, -Oll, ro [N 7] boundary [Mt 2:16] 115:20 - AeKarroAle;, -ewe;, ~ [N 28f] Decapolis [Mt 4:25] 5:21- lilarrepaw [V 9; VP 1-3, 5-6] I cross over [Mt 9:1] 115:22apXlOllvaywyoe;, -r-O'u , 0 [N 6m] head of a svnaacaue [Lk 8:49]; . 'Idipoc, -Oll, 0 [N 6m] Jairus [Lk 8:41] 115:23 - 8llyarplOv, -Oll, ro 7] littie daughter [Mk 7:25] 115:24 - ollv8Al(:\w [V 4, DV 79, VP 1-3] I press; I crowd [Mk 5:31] II 5:26 - liarravaw [V 9; VP 1-3, 5-6] I spend [Lk 15:14] 1/ 5:29 - rrIJyJj, -fie;, ~ [N 1] spring [In 4:6] II 5:33 - rpelJw [V 7, VP 1-3] I tremble [Lk 8:47]; rrpoarr(rrrw [V 4,5; DV 155; VP 1-4] I fall down before [with dative case] [Lk 5:8] 5:35 - aKuAAw [V 6, VP 1-3] I trouble [Mt 9:36] II 5:36 - rrapaKouw [V 1, DV 7, VP 1-3] I take no heed of [Mt 18:17]; J.I0vov [Adv 3] only [Mt 5:47] II 5:37 - allvaKoAoll8ew [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I accompany [Lk 23:49] II 5:38 - 8opll(:\0e;, -Oll, 0 [N 6m] uproar [Mt 26:5]; ciAaAaCw (ciAaAaaw) [V 3, VP 1-3] I wail [1 Cor 13:1] II 5:39 - 80pll(:\ew [V 8; VP 1-3,5-6] I set in an uproar [Mt 9:23] II 5:40 - KaTayeAaw [V 9; VP 1-3, 5-6] I ridicule [with the genitive case] [Mt 9:24] 1/ 5:41TaA(eMa [N 32] little girl [Aramaic] [hapax]; xouu [V 20] get up! [Aramaic] [hapax]; lJe8epIJIJveuw [V 1, VP 1-3] !translate [Mt 1:23]; xopdoiov, -Oll, ro [N 7] little girl [Mt 9:24] II 5:42 - EKaTaale;, -ewe;, ~ [N 28f] amazement [Lk 5:26] II 5:43 - lilaareHolJal [V 6, 22; DV 177; VP 2-3] I command [with dative case] [Mt 16:20]

Exercise for Lesson 72.


Translate into Greek:

LESSON 72

405

And she came to Jesus and she sees the demoniacs---the ones who had had a legion---seated, clothed, and rational, and she was afraid. (cf. Mk 5:15)

406

LESSON 73

n with the Meaning Why?


Lesson 73
ri with the Meaning Why?

Mark 6:1-56.

The interrogative pronoun Tl has two meanings when used to introduce a question: 1) what?; 2) why? The two meanings are distinguished by the context. ri in the sense of what? is the ordinary use of the interrogative pronoun in the neuter gender. It is found with this .meaning in both the nominative (ri EYEvSro; What happened?) and accusative cases (ri I3AE1Tsl~; What do you see?). ri in the sense of why? is explained grammatically as an accusative of specification (in regard to what? ), although the average person was probably not aware of this in his or her speech. For ri in the sense of what? cf. Mk 2:9,6:24, and 10:17. For ri in the sense of why? cf. Mk 2:7, 2:8, and 5:35. The expression liu1. Tl is also used to express the meaning why? Cf. Mk 2:18, 7:5, and 11:31.

Mark 6:156
6:3 - TEKTWV, -ovoc, 6 [N 20m] carpenter [Mt 13:55]; Mcpin, -a~, ~ [N 2] [also Moprdu, ~ (N 32)] Mary [Mt 1:16]; 'Iwor1~, -r1TO~, 6 [N 33] Joses [Mk 15:40] II 6:4 - aTl/lo~, -o~, -ov [Adj 5] unhonored [Mt 13:57] II 6:5 - appwoTo~, -o~, -ov [Adj 5] sick [Mt 14:14] II 6:6alTloTla, -a~, ~ [N 2] unbelief [Mt 13:58]; 1TSPUXYW [V 2, DV 4, VP 1-4] [go around [Mt 4:23] II 6:8 -mipa, -a~, ~ [N 2] bag [Mt 10:10]xaAKo~, -oil, 6 [N 6m] money [literally, copper] [Mt 10:9] II 6:9'u1ToMo/lm [V 8,22; DV 33; VP 2-3,6] [put on [used for shoes, sandals] [Acts 12:8]; oavliaAlOv, -to u, TO [N 7] sandal [Acts 12:8] II 6:11 EKTlVaOOW [V 3, VP 1-3][ shake off[Mt 10:14]; u1ToKaTw [Prep 1] under [with genitive case] [Mt 22:44] II 6:13 - aAsl<j>w [V 4, VP 1-3] [anoint [Mt 6:17]; EAalOv, -Oil, TO [N 7] olive oil [Mt 25:3]

LESSON 73

407

6:14 - 'HP<iiIiTJ~, -Oil, 6 [N 4] Herod [Mt 14:1] II 6:15 - 'HA(s)la~, -00,6 [N 5] Elijah [Mt 11:14] II 6:6 - a1ToKs<j>aAI~w (a1ToKs<j>aAlow) [V 5, VP 1-3] [behead [Mt 14:10] II 6:17 -' Hpllllita<;, -alio~, ~ [N 14f] Herodias [Mt 14:6] II 6:20 - OOVTTJPEW [V 8; VP 1'3, 5-6] [protect [Mt 9:17]; a1TopEw [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] [am puzzled [Lk 24:4]; ~Mw~ [Adv 3] gladly [Mk 12:37] 1/ 6:21 siJKalpo~, -o~, -ov [Adj 5] opportune [Reb 4:16]; ysvEOIa, -WV, Ta [N 7] birthday [Mt 14:6]; . usviordv, -dvo~, 6 [N 33] nobleman [Apoc 6:15] I 6:22 - opxiO/lal [V 8,22; VP 2-3] [dance [Mt 11:17] II 6:23 - fi/lIOIl~, -Sla, -Il [Adj 14] half [as noun, N 31] [Lk 19:8] II 6:25 - 01TOIlIi,,, -r1~, ~ [N 1] haste [Lk 1:39]; E~aIlTr1~ [Adv 3] at once [Acts 10:33]; 1Tlva~, -aKO~, ~ [N 8f] dish [Mt 14:8] II 6:26 -1TsPIAo1To~,-o~, -ov [Adj 5] deeply distressed [Mt 26:38]; OPKO~, -00,6 [N 6m] oath [Mt 5:33] II 6:27 01TsKoIlAaTwp, -opo~, 6 [N 26] executioner [hapax] II 6:29 - 1TTW/la, - roc, TO [N 16] corpse [Mt 14:12] 6:31- sUKmpEw [V 8; VP 1-3,5-6] [have an opportunity [Acts 17:21] II 6:33 - 1TE~1J [Adv 3] on foot [Mt 14:13]; OOVTPEXW [V 2; DV 192; VP 1-4] [run together with [Acts 3:11] II 6:37 - IilaKoOlol, , -m, -a [Adj 6] two hundred [In 6:7] II 6:39 - avaKAlvw [V 7, DV 103, VP 1-3] [ make one recline [Mt 8:11]; OO/l1TOOIOV, -Oil, TO [N 7] group [hapax]; XAWPO~, -a, -ov [Adj 2] green [Apoc 6:8] II 6:40 - 1TpaOla, -d~, ~ [N 2] block (of persons) [hapax]; nsvrrixovru [Adj 21] fifty [Lk 7:41] II 6:41 - KaraKAaw [V 9; DV 100; VP 1-3,5-6] [break into pieces [Lk 9:16] II 6:43 - KAaa/la, -aTo~, TO [N 16] fragment [Mt 14:20]; KO<j>IVO~, -Oil, 6 [N 6m] basket [Mt 16:9] II 6:44 -1TsvraKIOXIAlol, -ai, -a [Adj 6] five thousand [Mt 16:9] 6:45 - avaYKa~w (avaYKaaw) [V 5, VP 1-3] [compel [Mt 14:22]; BTJGodiM, -d~, ~ (N 2] Bethsaida (Mt 11:21] II 6:46 - a1TOraaOOO/lm [V 3, 22; DV 183; VP 1-3] [leave; [say good-bye [Lk 9:61] II 6:48EAexUVW [V 7,DV 54, VP 1-3] [drive [Lk 8:29]; svcvrtoc, -ex, -ov [Adj 2] contrary [Mt 14:24; rsruproc, -TJ, -ov (Adj 1] fourth [Mt 14:25] II 6:49 - <j>avrao/lex, -exro~, TO [N 16] apparition [Mt 14:26] II 6:50 - GexPOEW [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I have courage [Mt 9:22] II 6:52 - 1TWPOW [V 10; VP 1-3,5-6] I harden [In 12:40] 6:53 - [sVVTJOexPET, ~ [N 32] Gennasaret [Mt 14:34]; 1TPOOOP/lI~o/lm (npooopuiooum) [V 5, 23; VP 3] I come into harbor [hapax] II 6:55 - 1TSPITPEXW [V 2; DV 192; VP 1-4] [run about [hapax]; 1TSpl<j>EPW [V 6, DV 197, VP 1-4] [bring around [2 Cor 4:10] II 6:56 - Kpao1Tsliov, -r-O'u, TO [N 7] edge [Mt 9:20]

408

LESSON 73

Exercise for Lesson 73.

Translate into Greek: And, coming out of the boat, they saw a large crowd, and they had pity on them, because they were like sheep not having a good shepherd, and they began to teach them many things.

LESSON 74

409

Deliberative Questions. Mark 7:1-37.

Lesson 74
Deliberative Questions. A deliberative question is a question placed in doubt or wonder about a course of action. In Greek the deliberative question is expressed by the subjunctive mood: ri ahriaw/lat; What am I to request? (Cf. Mk 6:24.) The question can be addressed to another person, as in the example from Mark, or it can be an expression of the person, as if he or she were deliberating out loud. When the subjunctive mood is found in an indirect question, it is usually a sign that the original question was deliberative: OUK otlia Tl cdrriocouco. I do not know what I am to request. The subjunctive is used here not because the question is indirect but because the question would take the subjunctive were it to be expressed directly, i.e., it is deliberative in nature: the speaker is in doubt about a course of action. For examples of direct deliberative questions cf. Mk 10:17, 12:14, and 13:11. For examples of indirect deliberative questions cf. above, Lesson 69, and the discussion there of indirect questions.
Mark 7:1-37.

7:2 - avmTo~, -o~, -ov [Adj 5] unwashed [Mt 15:20] II 7:3 -nuY/lri, -ij~, 1\ [N 1] fist [hapax] II 7:4 - cXyoP<X, -d~, 1\ [N 2] market-place [Mt 11:16]; ~iaT11~, -OU, (; [N 4] jug [hapax]; XaAK(s)lov, -OU, TO [N 7] copper utensil [hapax] II 7:6 - XciAO~, -OU~, TO [N 31] lip [Mt 15:8]; noppw [Adv 1] far [Mt 15:8] II 7:7 - /l<XTIlV [Adv 3] in vain [Mt 15:9]; ai~o/lat [V 4, 22; VP 2] [used only in present system] I reverence [Mt 15:9]; eVTCXA/la, -aTO~, TO [N 16] commandment [Mt 15:9] II 7:10 - KaKoAoyiw [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I speak ill of [Mt 15:4]; TSASUT<XW [V 9; VP 1-3,5-6] I die [literally, I complete] [Mt 2:19] II 7:11 - Kop~dv [N 32] [Aramaic word for gift] korban [hapax] II 7:13 - cXKUPOW [V 10;

410

LESSON 74

VP 1-3, 5-6] I invalidate [Mt 15:6]; JrapO/lOlO<;, -a, -ov [Adj 2] like [hapax] 7:18 - a0l5veTo<;, -0<;, -ov [Adj 5] lacking in understanding [Mt 15:16] II 7:19 - a<lJe;1)pwv, -oovo<;, (, [N 21m] latrine [Mt 15:17] II 7:21- KAoml, -ij<;, tl [N 1] theft [Mt 15:19]; 4>Ovo<;, -ov, (, [N 6m] murder [Mt 15:19] II 7:22 - /lOtXe1a, -a<;, tl [N 2] adultery [Mt 15:19]; JrAe;oveeia, -a<;, tl [N 2] greed [Lk 12:15]; novnpin, -a<;, t1 [N 2] malice [Mt 22:18]; MAo<;, -ov, (, [N 6m] deceit [Mt 26:4]; aOEAyew, -a<;, tl [N 2] indecency [Rom 13:13]; imepl14>avla, -a<;, tl [N 2] arrogance [hapax]; a<j>poouvl1, -11<;, tl [N 1] foolishness [2 Cor 11:1] 7:24 - Aav6Uvw [V 7; DV 115; VP 1-4] I escape notice [Lk 8:47] II 7:26 - 'EAAl1vi<;, -(1)0<;', tl [N 14f] Greek woman [Acts 17:12]; Lvpo<j>OtvlKlOoa, -11<;, tl [N 3] Syrophoenician woman [hapax] II 7:27 - KtJVa.ptOV, -ov, TO [N 7] puppy [Mt 15:26] II 7:28 - l/ItXiov, -OU, TO [N 7] crumb [Mt 15:27] 7:32 - /lOytAa.AO<;, -0<;, -ov [Adj 5] speaking with difficulty [hapax] II 7:33 - MKTtJAO<;, -ov, (, [N 6m] finger [In 8:6]; JrTl5w [V 1, DV 165, VP 1-3] I spit [In 9:6] II 7:34 - oTeva.~w (oTeva.eW) [V 3, VP 1-3] I groan [Rom 8:23]; e#a8a [V 20] [Aramaic word]. be opened! [hapax]; 1)wvoiyw [V 2, DV 13, VP 1-4] Iopen [Lk 2:23] II 7:35 - op8oo<; [Adv 3] properly [Lk 7:43] 117:37 - uJrepJreptoooo<; [Adv 3] beyond all measure [hapax]; aAaAo<;, -0<;, -ov [Adj 5] dumb [Mk 9:17]

Exercise for Lesson 74.


Translate into Greek: And, summoning him again, they kept saying to him: "Listen to us and understand". (cf. Mk 7:14)

1
LESSON 75

. . (LM

411

The Complementary Infinitive. tva Introducing a Noun Clause. Mark 8:1 9:29.

Lesson 75
The Complementary Infinitive. '{va Introducing a Noun Clause.
The infinitive is used in New Testament Greek after a variety of verbs to "complete" their meaning. Hence, the designation "complementary infinitive". Among such verbs are 8EAW (cf. Mk 6:19, 6:26, 6:48), 1)uva/lCtt (ef Mk 1:40, 2:4, 2:7}, apxo/lat (cf. Mk 1:45, 2:23,4:1) and /lEAAW (cf Mk 10:32, Mk 13:4, In 4:47). Also to be noted are the expressions tKavo<; d/li and aeto<; elui, each of which can govern a complementary infinitive (cf. Mk 1:7, 1 Cor 15:9, Lk 15:19.21, Acts 13:25, Apoc 4:11). In addition to its use to express purpose, a clause consisting of 'ivc: and the subjunctive can be used as a "noun clause" following certain verbs. That is to say, it is a clause which takes the place of a noun, just as does the complementary infinitive. (A '{va purpose clause is an "adverbial clause" because it functions like an adverb.) The 'iva noun clause also shows a certain analogy to the complementary infinitive inasmuch as it completes the meaning of the verb on which it depends: These verbs which can take a 'iva noun clause must be learned from the text. For example, 8EAW can be followed by a'iv noun clause (cf. Mk 6:25, 9:30, 10:35), but 1lt5va/lCtt, apxo/lCtt, and /lEAAW cannot. The expressions tKavo<; d/l{ and aeto<; et/li can also govern a 'iva noun clause (cf Mt 8:8 and In 1:27).

Mark 8:1 9:29.


8:2 - JrPOO/lEVW [V 7, DV 125, VP 1-3] I stay with [Mt 15:32] II 8:3vficric, -t1)o<;, O/tl [Adj 22] hungry; fasting [Mt 15:32]; KAUO/lCtt [V 1,23; VP 3]] I am weak [Mt 15:32] II 8:4 - PI1/lia, -a<;, tl.[N 2] desert [Mt 15:33] II 8:7 - lX8U1)lOv, -tou, TO [N 7] small fish [Mt 15:34] II 8:8

412

LESSON 75

-Jrf;ptOOf;IJJ.1a, -aTOe;;, TO [N 16] surplus [Mt 12:34]; onuoic, -t50e;;, ~ [N 14f] basket [Mt 15:37] II 8:9 - Tf;TpaKlOXtAl0l, -al, -a [Adj 6] four thousand [Mt 15:38] II 8:10 - AaAJ.1aVoIJBa, ~ [N 32] Dalmanutha [hapax] 8:12 - avaoTf;va~Ul (avaorf;vaeUl) [V 3, VP 1-3] I groan deeply [hapax] 8:14 - emAav8avoJ.1al [V 7, 22; DV 115; VP 2-3] I forget [Mt 16:5] 8:23 - i:K<jltpUl [V 6, DV 197, VP 1-4] I take out [Lk 15:22]; oJ.1J.1a, -aTOe;;, TO [N 16] eye [Mt 20:34] II 8:25 - 5WPAEJrUl [V 4, DV 25, VP 1-3] I see clearly [Mt 7:5]; Tl]Aauywe;; [Adv 3] distinctly [hapax] 8:27 - Kuurdpsru, -ae;;, ti [N 2] Caesarea [Mt 16:13J 8:31 - aJr050K1J.1a~W (aJr050K1J.1aow) [V 5, VP 1-3] I reject [Mt 21:42] II 8:36 - ~l]J.110Ul [V 10; VP 1-3, 5-6] I lose [Mt 16:26] II 8:37avraAAaYJ.1a, -aroe;;, TO [N 16] exchange [Mt 16:26] II 8:38eJralOxOVOJ.1al [V 7, 23; VP 3] I am ashamed [Lk 9:26]; J.101xaAie;;, -i50e;;, ti [N 14f] adulteress [Mt 12:39] 9:2 - uljIl]A6e;;, -T], -ov [Adj 1J high [Mt 4:8]; J.1f;TaJ.10P<!>OUl [V 10; VP 1-3, 5-6] I transform [Mt 17:2] //9:3 - orlApUl [V 4, VP 1-3] I glisten [hapax]; yva<J>E;t5e;;, -EWe;;, 0 [N 29] bleacher [hapax]; Af;UKatVUl [V 7, VP 1-3] I bleach [Apoc 7:14] II 9:4 - oUAAaAEUl [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I talk with [Mt 17:3] II 9:6 - SK<j>OPOe;;, -oe;;, -ov [Adj 5] terrified [Reb 12:21J II 9:7 - emoKla~Ul (eJrlOKlaow) [V 5, VP 1-3] I cast a shadow over [Mt 17:5] II 9:8 - eeaJrlva [Adv 3] suddenly [hapax] 9:12 - aJroKa81OTavUl [V 7, VP 1] I restore [Acts 1:6]; eeOU56V6W [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I despise [Lk 18:9] 9:15 - eK8aJ.1P60J.1al [V 8, 23; VP 3, 6] I am utterly amazed [Mk 14:33]; JrPOOTP6XUl [V 2, DV 192, VP 1-4] I run up to [Mk 10:17] II 9:18 - a<!>Pt~w (a<!>ptow) [V 5, VP 1-3J I foam [Mk 9:20]; 6500e;;, -OVTOe;;, [N 33] tooth [Mt 5:38J; Tpi~Ul (Tpiew) [V 3, VP 1-3] I grind [hapax] II 9:20 - ou(v)oJrapaooUl [V 3, VP 1-3J I convulse [Lk 9:42J; KUAiw [V 1, VP 1-3J I roll [hapax] II 9:21 - Jral5,0Bf;V [Adv 2J from childhood [hapax] II 9:22 - POT]BEW [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] [with dative case] I help [Mt 15:25] II 9:25 - emouvTpEXW [V 2, DV 192, VP 1-4] I run together with [hapax]

LESSON 75

413

Exercise for Lesson 75.

Translate into Greek: And, coming to the disciple, he saw a great crowd around him, and a scribe disputing with him. (cf Mk 9:14 and Acts 6:9)

414

LESSON 76

The Infinitive as an Expression of Purpose. Mark 9:30 10:34.

Lesson 76.
The Infinitive as an Expression of Purpose.
One of the uses of the infinitive in the New Testament is to express purpose. This parallels the English usage: I came to see you. In the New Testament ~s use of the infi~tive to ~xpress purpose is frequently fo~~ With a ve,rb ~xpressmg m~tlOn ~f SO,me kind, especially the verb EPXOIHn: OIJK 'lA8ov Ko.To.AIJOo.l o.AAo. 1fA'lpwoo.l---I came not to destroy but to fulfil (Mt 5:17). Cf. also Mk 2:17, 3:14, and 5:43. Two other ways of expressing purpose have already been seen: l)'tvo. or 01f(Jl~ with the subjunctive, in Lesson 5; 2) the future participle, in Lesson 17. Mark 9:30 10:34. 9:36 _ svaYKaAt1;ol1Ul (/;vaYKaAtOOI1Ul) [V 5, 22; VP 2-3] I embrace [MIt. 10:16] 9:42 _ lIEptKEll1o.l [V 17, DV 95] I am placed around [Lk 17:2], I1UAO~, -OIJ 6 [N 6m] millstone [Mt 18:6]; 6VlKO~, -ti, -ov [Adj 1] ofa donkey [Mt'18:6J' TpaX'lAO~, -OIJ, 6 [N 6m] neck [Mt 18:6] II 9:43 - U1fOK01fTW [V 4,5; 105; VP 1-3] I cut away [In 18:10]; KIJAAO~, -ti, -ov [Adj 1] disabled [Mt 15:30]; YEvva, -'l~, ,; [N 3] Gehenna [Mt 5:22]; aO~EOTO~, -o~, -ov [Adj 5] uTU]uenchable [Mt 3:12] II 9:47 , l1ovo<l>6aAI10~, -o~, -ov [Adj 5] with,one eye [Mt 18:9] 119:48 - OKWA'1~, -'lKO~, 6 [N 8m] worm [hapax]; O~EVVIl111 [V 14; DV 173; VP 1-3,9, 12] I quench [Mt 12:20] II 9:49 - aA(1;w (aAiow) [V 5, VP 1-3] [salt [Mt 5:13] II 9:50 - aVo.AO~, -o~, -ov [Adj 5] insipid [hapax]; upT15w [V 1, VP 1-3] I season [Lk 14:34]; dP'lVEUW [V 1, VP 1-3] I live in peace [Rom 12:18]

DV

LESSON 76

415

10:1 - ouunopsiioum [V 1, 23; DV 163; VP 3] [come together [of a crowd] ,[Lk 7:11]; E'tlf8a [V 18] [am accustomed [Mt 27:15] 1110:4a1fOOTaOlOV',-OIJ, TO [N 7] bill ofdivorce [Mt 5:31] II 10:5~,KA'1PoKaplila,-a~, ,; [N 2] hardness of heart [Mt 19:8] II 10:6oponv, -'lV, -ev ~~dj 16] male [Mt 19:4] II 10:7 1fPOOKOAAaOI1Ul [V 9, ~3; VP 3, 6] [JOin to [EI,>h 5:31] II 10:9 - olJ(v)1;eoyvlJl1l [V 14; DV 70, VP 1-3, 9, 12] I am united to [Mt 19:6] II 10:11 - 1101xa0l1CXl [V 9 , 23; VP 3, 6] I commit adultery [Mt 5:32] 10:14 - uya,vo.KTW [V 8, VP 1-3, 5-6] I am indignant [Mt 20:24] 1110:16 - KaTelJAoyEw [V 8, VP 1-3, 5-6] I bless [hapax] 10:19 - <t>oveuw [V ~' VP 1-3] [murder [Mt 5:21]; ljIellliol1apTllPW [V 8; VP 1-3, 56] Lgioe false witness [Mt 19:18]; u1foonpw [V 8' VP 13,5-6] I defraud [1 Cor 6:7] II 10:20 - VeOT'l~, -'lTO~, ,; [N 13t]' (time of)youth [Lk 18:21] II 1~:22 - oTlJyva1;w (oruvvdce) [V 5, VP 1-3] I am gloomy [Mt 16:3]; xrnun, -aTo~, TO [N 16] possession [Mt 19:22]
1~:23 - liIJOKOAW~ [Adv 3] with difficulty [Mt 19:23] II 10:24liIJOKOAO~, ~o~, -ov [Adj 5] difficult [hapax] II 10:25 - TplJiJaAla -a~

,; [N 2] eye (of a needle) [hapax]; pa<t>k, -tlio~, ,; [N 14m] needl~ [Mt ~9:~4] II 10:26 - 1fEP100W~ [Adv 3] exceedingly [Mt 27:23] II 10:27 ~liIJVaTO~, -oc, -ov [Adj 5] impossible [Mt 19:26] II 10:30eKarOVTa1fAaOtWv, -wv, -ov [Adj 11] hundred-fold [Mt 19:29]
~0:32. - olJl1~atvw [V 7; DV 21; VP 1-3] [happen [Lk 24:14] II 10:34el11fTIJW [V 1; DV 165; VP 1-3] [spit on [Mt 26:67]; l1aonyow [V 10' VP 1-3, 5-6] [scourge [Mt 10:17] ,

Exercise for Lesson 76.


Translate into Greek: Now Jesus, looking at them, loved them and said to them "One thing is lacking to you; go, sell all that you have and give to the poor, and you shall have treasure in heaven, and come follow me". (cf. Mk 10:21)

416

LESSON 77

Emphatic Negation. Mark 10-.35 11:33.

Lesson 77.
Emphatic Negation.
Emphatic negation in the New Testament can be expressed through use of a repeated negative, as was explained above in Lesson 70. Another frequently used method for emphatic negation is the use of ou J.I ~ together as a unit, followed by the aorist subjunctive: OOTl~ gK TOU Xptorof gOTlV OU J.I~ an06avlJ--Whoever is of Christ will not die. Cf. Mk 9:1, 9:41, 10:15, and 13:19. At times the future indicative is found in place of the aorist subjunctive. Cf. Mk 15:6, Mt 16:22, and Lk 21:33. This use of the future indicative instead of the aorist subjunctive is relatively infrequent. Mark 10:35 11:33. 10:35 - npoorropetiount [V 1, 22, 23; DV 163; VP 3] I come to [hapax] -ov [Adj 2] left [as opposed to right] [Mt 6:3] II 10:37 - dptorepoc, II 10:40 - euwvuJ.lo~, -o~, -ov [Adj 5] left [as opposed to right] [Mt 20:21] II 10:42 - KaraKUpteUW [V 1, VP 1-3) I lord it over [with the genitive case] [Mt 20:25)1; KaTe~OUOta~w (KaTe~OUotaow) [V 5, VP 13] I exercise authority over [with the genitive case] [Mt 20:25) II 10:45 AOTPOV, -au, TO [N 7] ransom [Mt 20:28]

-a,

10:46 - 'Iep(e)tXw, ti [N 32] Jericho [Mt 20:29]; Tiuuioc, -OU, 6 [N 6m] Timaeus [hapax]; Bupriucdcc, -ou, 0 [N 6m] Bartimaeus [hapax]; npOOaiT%, -au, 0 [N 4] beggar [In 9:8] II 10:50 - o.no~aAAw [V 6, DV 22, VP 1-4J I throw off [Reb 10:35J; o.vanT]Mw [V 9; VP 1-3, 5-6] I spring up [hapax] II 10:51 - pa~~ouv(e)t [N 32] my master [Aramaic word] [In 20:16] 11:1 - BT]ll<I>ay~, ti [N 32) Bethpage [Mt 21:1]; BT]6avia, -a~, ti [N 2] [Mt 21:17) II 11:2 - xnrsvnvri [Prep 1) opposite [Mt 21:2); rrwAo~,

LESSON 77

417

-ou, 6 [N 6m] colt [Mt 21:2] II 11:4 <lJ.l<t>o1iov, -au, TO [N 7) street [hapax) II 11:8 - OTpWVVUJ.lt [V 14; DV 180; VP 1-2,9, 12] I spread [Mt 21:8]; oTl~a~, -a1io~, ti [N 14f] leafy branch [hapax] II 11:9woavva [Inter] hosanna [Hebrew for save now, we pray] [Mt 21:9) 11:13 - <t>OAAOV, -ou, TO [N 7] leaf [Mt 21:19]; OUKOV, -ou, TO [N 7) fig [Mt 7:16] 11:15 - KOAAUJ.l~tOT~.~, -ou, 6 [N 4] money changer [Mt 21:12]; K(X6i1ipa, -a~, ti [N 2) chair [Mt21:12]; KaTaOTpEqxu [V 4, DV 179, VP 1-4] Ioverturn [Mt 21:12] II 11:17 - orr~AatOV, --OU, TO [N 7] cave [Mt 21:13] II 11:19 - oljli[Adv 2] late [Mt 28:1] 11:21
-,o.vaJ.ltJlV~OKW [V 2, DV 127, VP 1-3] I remind [1 Cor 4:17]; xurcpuourn [V 9, 22; VP 2-3] I curse [Mt 25:41] II 11:32 - OVTW~

[Adv 3] truly, really [In 8:36]

Exercise for Lesson 77.


Translate into Greek: And they entered Jerusalem and went into the temple, and after looking around at everything, when it was already late, they left for Bethania in order to sleep there and take their rest. (cf. Mk 11:11 and 14:41)

418

LESSON 78

Attraction of the Relative. Mark12: 1-

13:13.

Lesson 78
Attraction of the Relative.
A relative pronoun usually takes its gender and number from its antecedent, but its case from its use in its own clause: aKovoaTe rof AOYOU Bv AEyw---Listen to the word which I speak. The relative pronoun Bv is masculine and singular because its antecedent, Aoyoe;, is masculine and singular. It is accusative because it is used in its own clause as the direct object of AEYW, a verb which governs the accusative case when it has a direct object. But, at times, the relative pronoun takes not only its gender and number but its case as well from its antecedent: aKovoaTe ref AOYOU 00 AEyw---Listen to the word which I speak. The relative pronoun 00 is not only masculine and singular because AOYOU is masculine and singular, but genitive as well, because AOYOU is genitive, even though it is grammatically the direct object of AEyW. It has been "attracted" into the case of its antecedent. Cf. Mk 7:13 and In 15:20. At times an antecedent is attracted into the case of a relative pronoun which follows it. Thus the word Ai60v in Mt 21:42 is accusative because the following relative pronoun, Bv, is accusative.
Mark 12:1 13:13.

12:1 - <!>uTevw [V 1, VP 1-3) I plant [Mt 15:13); Jrsp1Ti6lJ]Jl [V 12, 21; DV 188; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11) I put around [Mt 21:33); <jlpaYIlOe;, -oli, 0 [N 6m) fence [Mt 21:33); optSoow [V 3, DV 141, VP 1-3) I dig [Mt 21:33); \mOAtlVIOV, -OU, TO [N 7) [part of a] winepress [hapax]; mJpyoe;, -OU, [N 6m] tower [Mt21:33]; eKl>i6w]Jl [V 13; DV 39; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11] I lease [Mt 21:33]; aJr06lJIlEW [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I am away on a journey [Mt 21:33] II 12:4 - Kc<jlaAlow [V 10; VP 1-3, 5-6] I hit over the head [hapax]; anlla~w (driudoto) [V 5, VP 1-3] I insult [Lk

LESSON 78

419

20:11) II 12:6 - eVTpEJrw [V 4, DV 190, VP 1-4] I put to shame [passive: I am ashamed; I respect] [Mt 21:37] // 12:10 - ywvia, -ae;, ti [N 2) corner [Mt 6:5) // 12:11 . 6au]JaoTOe;, -tl, -ov [Adj 1) wonderful [Mt21:42]

12:13 - aypeuw [V 1, VP 1-3) I catch [hapax] 1/ 12:14 - Kijvooe;, -OU, 0 [N 6m) tax [Mt 17:25] 1/ 12:15 - uJroKll1ate;, -ewe;, Ii [N 28f) hypocrisy [Mt 23:28) // 12:16 - emypa<jltl, -fie;, ti [N 1) inscription [Mt 22:20); Kaluap, -apoe;, 0 [N 33) Caesar, emperor [Mt 22:17) // 12:17eK6aulla~w (eK6aullaow) [V 5, DV 76, VP 1-3] I marvel [hapax]
e~ayiOT'1lll [V 11; DV 86; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11] I raise up [Lk 20:28) /1 12:22 - ~axaTov [Adv 2] last [1 Cor 15:8] // 12:25 - yalli~w (ya]Jiuw)

12:18 - La66ouKaloe;, -OU, 0 [N 6m] Sadducee [Mt 3:7] /1 12:19-

[V 5, VP 1-3] I give in marriage [Mt 22:30J // 12:26 - paTOe;, -ou, o/Ii [N 6m, N 6f) bush [Lk 6:44]; , Appaa]J, 0 [N 32] Abraham [Mt 1:1]; , Ioudx, <I [N 32] Isaac [Mt 1:2]; ,IaKwp, 0 [N 32] Jacob [Mt 1:2J

12:29 - 'IupatlA, 0 [N 32] Israel [Mt 2:6] //12:30 - 61avow, -ae;, Ii [N 2] mind [Mt 22:37) // 12:33 - OUVSU1e;, -ewe;, ti [N 28f] understanding [Lk 2:47J; OAOKaVTCiJ]Ja, -aTDe;, TO [N 16] whole-burnt offering [Reb 10:6] /1 12:34 - VOOVsxwe; [Adv 3] intelligently [hapax); llaKpav[Adv 1J far off [Mt 8:30] . 12:38 - OTOAT], -ije;, ti [N 1) long robe [Lk 15:22]; aOJrauIlOe;, -oli, 0 [N 6mJ greeting [Mt 23:7] // 11:39 - JrPWTOKCt8s6pia, -<XC;, ti [N 2] chief seat [Mt 23:6]; JrPWToKAwia, -ae;, Ii [N 2] place ofhonor [Mt 23:6] /1 12:40 - Jrpo<jlaate;, -ewe;, ti [N 281] pretext [Lk 20:47J; llaKpa [Adv 2] for a long time [Lk 20:47] 12:41- ya~o<jluAaKlOv,-OU, TO [N 7) treasury [Lk 21:1] 1/ 12:42 ASJrTOV, -ali, TO [N 7] lepton [small coin] [Lk 12:59); K06paVTlJe;, -OU, 0 [N 4] quadrans [coin] [Mt 5:26]'// 12:44 - UUTEP'10le;, -SWC;, ti [N 28f] need [Phil 4:11]; Pioe;, -OU, 0 [N 6m] livelihood [Lk 8:14] 13:4 - UUVTSAEW [V 8; DV 185; VP 1-3,5-6] I accomplish [Lk 4:2] 1/ 13:7 Bpoeourn [V 8, 23; VP 3, 6] I am alarmed [Mt 24:6] // 13:8A1/lOC;, -013, 6/ti [N Gm, N 6f] famine [Mt 24:7]; oi6iv, -lvoC;, ti [N 33] birth pang [Mt 24:8] /1 13:11 - JrPO/lSpl/lvaw [V 9; VP 1-3,5-6] I am anxious beforehand [hapax] II 13:12 - bravioT'1lll [V 11, 21; DV 86; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11] I rise against [Mt 10:21]

420

LESSON 78

Exercise for Lesson 78.


Translate into Greek: Why do you (sg.) tempt us? Bring us a denarius so that we may see it and ask you whose is the image and inscription. (cf Mk 12:15-16)

LESSON 79

421

The Simple Genitive, Dative, and Accusative as Indications of Time. Mark 13:1414:31.

Lesson 79
The Simple Genitive, Dative, and Accusative as Indications of Time.
With regard to expressions of time, the simple genitive tends to be used to indicate "time within which"; the simple dative, "time when"; the simple accusative, "time how long". This usage is not rigid and much depends on the meaning of the words used and the context. For the simple genitive indicating "time within which", cf. Mt 24:20: Jrpoaet5xw8e lif. ',va !J ~ yiVIlTaI ~ <l>uy~ u!Jwv xel!Jwvo~ !JIllif. aa~~dT<(l---Pray that your {light not take place during the winter or on a Sabbath. For similar uses of the genitive, cf. Mt 2:14, Lk 18:7, and In 8:2. For the dative to express "time when", cf. Mt 24:42: YPllyopelTe oov, OTt OUK o'iliaTe Jroiq ~!Jipq 6 Kt5plO~ u!JWv epXHat---Watch out, therefore, because you do not know on what day your Lord is coming. For similar uses of the dative, cf. Mt 28:1 and Mk 14:12. For the accusative to express "time how long", cf. J n 2:12: Kat EKe! e!Jelvav ou JroAAa~ ~!Jipa~---And they remained there not many days. For similar uses of the accusative, cf. Mk 4:27, Lk 2:37, and Lk 21:37. As was stated above, this usage is not rigid. For a genitive to express "time when" instead of a dative, cf. Acts 26:13. For a dative to express "time how long" instead of an accusative, cf. Lk 8:29. For an accusative to express "time when" instead of a dative, cf. In 4:52. Mark 13:1414:31. 13:14 - ~1iiAuY!Ja, -aTO~, TO [N 16] abomination [Mt 24:15]; Epri!Jwal~, -ew~, ~ [N 28f] desolation [Mt 24:15] II 13:15 - liw!Ju, -aTo~, TO [N 16] roof [Mt 10:27 II 13:17 8llAd~w (8~Ad~Ul) [V 3, VP 1-3] I suckle [Mt

422

LESSON 79

21:16] II 13:20 - KOA0[30W [V 10; VP 1-3, 5-6] I cut short [Mt 24:22] 13:22 - 1jI611Ii6XPtaTO~, -Oil, 6 [N 6m] false Messiah [Mt 24:24]; 1jI6\l501fPO<!>J]T'1~, -Oil, 6 [N 4] false prophet [Mt 7:15]; a1f01fAaVaW [V 9; VP 1-3,5-6] I mislead [1 Tim 6:10] II 13:23 - 1fPOAEYW [V 2, DV 116, VP 1-4] I tell beforehand [2 Cor 13:2] II 13:24 - OKori~W (oxorioto) [V 5, VP 1-3] I darken [Mt 24:29]; 06AJ]V'1, -'1~, ~ [N 1] moon [Mt 24:29]; <!>EYYO~, -Oll~, TO [N 31] light [Mt 24:29] II 13:27<XKPOV, -Oil, TO [N 7] extremity [Mt 24:31]
13:28 - a1faA6~, -J], -ov [Adj 1] tender [Mt 24:32]; EK<!>UW [V 1, DV 204, VP 1-4] I produce [Mt 24:32]; 8EPO~, -Oll~, TO [N 31] summer [Mt 24:32] 13:33 - aypllrrvEw [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I am alert [Lk 21:36] II 13:34a1fo5'1j.l0~, -o~, -ov [Adj 5] away from home [hapax]; 811PWPO~, -Oil, 6 [N 6m] porter [In 10:3] II 13:35 - j.lWOVUKTlOV, -Oil, TO [N 7] midnight [Lk 11:5]; aA6KTopo</>(o)vla, -a~, ~ [N 2] cockcrow [hapax] II 13:36 - E~al<!>v'1~ [Adv 2] suddenly [Lk 2:13] 14:1 - <X~Ilj.lO~, -o~, -ov [Adj 5] unleavened ITa <X~llj.la (N 7), Feast of Unleavened Bread (Mt 26:17)] 14:3 - aAa[3aoTpov, -Oil, TO [N 7] alabaster (flask) [Mt 26:7]; vap50~, -Oil, ~ [N 6(1 oil of nard [In 12:3]; 1ftOTlKO~, -J], -ov [Adj 1] genuine [This seems to be the most likely of various interpretations.] [In 12:3]; rroAllT6AJ]~, -J]~, -E~ [Adj 15] expensive [1 Tim 2:9] KaraXEw [V 8; DV 207; VP 1-3, 5-6] I pour down over [with genitive case] [Mt 26:7] II 14:5 - mnptioxco [V 2, DV 154, VP 1-3] I sell [Mt 13:46]; rpicocdcioi, -at, -a [Adj 6] three hundred [In 12:5] II 14:81fpOAaj.l[3llvw [V 7, DV 114, VP 1-3] I anticipate [1 Cor 11:21]; j.lllpl~W (uupioto) [V 5, VP 1-3] I anoint [hapax]; Evra<!>taOj.lo~, -00,6 [N 6m] burial [In 12:7] II 14:9 - j.lV'1j.lOOllVOV, -Oil, TO [N 7] memorial [Mt 26:13] 14:11 - 6tiKalPW~ [Adv 2] opportunely [2 Tim 4:2] 14:13 - a1faVTaW [V 9, VP 1-3] I meet [with dative case] [Lk 17:12]; xspduiov, -Oil, TO [N 7] clay jar [Lk 22:10] II 14:14 - OiKo560rrOT'1~, -Oil, 6 [N 4] master ofthe house [Mt 10:25]; KaTaAllj.la, -aTO~, TO [N 16] guest room [Lk 2:7] II 14:15 - avayatov, -Oil, TO [N 7] upstairs room [Lk 22:12] II 14:20 - EIl[3a1fTW [V 4,5; VP 1-3] I dip [Mt 26:23]; TPU[3AtOV, -Oil, TO [N 7] dish [Mt 26:23] II 14:24 - EKXUVVW [V 7, DV 207, VP 1-3] I pour out [Mt 23:35] II 14:25 - YEv'1lla, -aTO~, TO [N 16]

LESSON 79

423

crop [Mt 26:29] II 14:26 - UIlVEW [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I sing a hymn [Mt 26:30]
14:27 - 1faTaOOW [V 3, VP 1-3] I strike [Mt 26:31]; 5taoKop1fl~W (5taoxop1flow) [V 5, VP 1-3] I scatter [Mt 25:24] II 14:30 - 5l~ [Adv 2] twice [Lk 18:12] II 14:31 - EK1f6PtaOW~ [Adv 3] with insistence [hapax]; olJva1f08vljoKw [V 2, DVBO, VP 1-4] I die with [with dative case] [2 Cor 7:3]

Exercise for Lesson 79.


Translate into Greek:

In truth I say to you that when these things are preached, what she has done will be spoken in memory of her. (cf Mk 14:9)

424

LESSON 80

The'Redundant Pronoun" in a Relative Clause. Mark 14:32 - 15:15.

Lesson SO
The ''Redundant Pronomi' in a Relative Clause.
In the Greek of the New Testament there is sometimes found a pronoun in a relative clause which, to a speaker of English, seems to be redundant. The following is a simplified example: aUTo<; sonv <p IiHiwJ.lt TOV apTov aUT0---He is the one to whom I give the bread. The pronoun aUT0 seems superfluous to a speaker of English, and there is no need to try to include it in a translation This phenomenon may be related in the New Testament to the fact that in Hebrew and Aramaic the relative pronoun is indeclinable and thus requires a pronoun or pronomial suffix in the relative clause to specify the antecedent to which the relative pronoun refers. Cf. Mk 1:7, Mk 7:25, and In 13:26.

Mark 14:32 15:15.


14:32 - xwpiov, -r-o u, TO [N 7] piece of land [Mt 26:36]; [gfJal1J.Jav(g)i [N 32] Gethsemane [Mt 26:36] II 14:33 - a1i11J.lOv6W [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] t am much distressed [Mt 26:37] II 14:36 - appa, (, [N 32] [Aramaic word] father [Rom 8:15]; ll'apa<!>6pw [V 6, DV 197, VP 1-4] [take away [Lk 22:42] II 14:38 -ll'pOfJllJ.lO<;, -0<;, -ov [Adj 1] eager [Mt 26:41] II 14:40 - Karapapuvw [V 7, VP 13] [weigh down [hapax] 14:44 - oiiocnuov, -Oil, TO [N 7] signal [hapax]; aa<!>w..w<; [Adv 3] securely [Acts 2:36] II 14:45 - Kara<!>IA6w [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] [kiss affectionately [Mt 26:49] II 14;47 - oll'aw [V 9; DV 175; VP 1-3, 5-6] t draw (a sword) [Acts 16:27]; ll'aiw [V 1, VP 1-3] [strike [Mt 26:68]; wTaplOv, -r-c u, TO [N 7] ear [In 18:10] 14:51- vecvioxoc, -Oil, (, [N 6m] young man [Mt 19:20]; olvliwv,

LESSON 80

425

-ovo<;, ~ [N 20f] linen cloth [Mt 27:59] 14:54 - saw [Adv 1] inside [Mt 26:58]; aUA~, -~<;, ~ [N 1] courtyard [Mt 26:3]; allyKafJl1J.lal [V 17, 22; DV 89; VP 23] [sit with [Acts 26:30]; fJgpJ.lalvw [V 7, VP 1-3] [warm [In 18:18] II 14;56 - Icoc, -11, -ov [Adj 1] equal [i.e., standing in agreement] [Mt 20:12] II 14;57xgIP01rotl1TO<;, -0<;, -ov [Ad] 5] made by human hands [Acts 7:48]; axg1pOll'Oll1TO<;, -0<;, -ov [Adj 5] not made by human hands [2 Cor 5:1] II 14;60 - KaraJ.lapTllp6w [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] [testify against [with the genitive case] [Mt 26:62] II 14:61- gUAOYl1TO<;, -~, -ov [Adj 1] blessed [as substantive: The Blessed One, i.e., God] [Lk 1:68] II 14;63 -lilapp~yvllJ.ll[V 14; DV 169; VP 13, 9,12] [tear [Mt 26:65][also found in the present as Iitap(p)~aaw] II 14:65ngplKaAUll'TW [V 4,5; VP 13] [cover up [Lk 22:64]; KOAa<!>l~w (KoAa<!>law) [V 5, VP 1-3] [strike [Mt 26:67]; pall'wJ.la, -aTo<;, TO [N 16] slap [JnI8:22] II 14;68 -ll'pOaUAlOv, -Oil, TO [N 7] forecourt [hapax] II 14;70 - [aA1Aalo<;, -a, -ov [Adj 2] Galilean [Mt 26:69] II 14;71 - avafJgJ.lan~w (avafJgJ.laTlow) [V 5, VP 1-3] [curse [Acts 23:12] 15.1 - Ull'o<Ptpw [V 6, DV 197,VP 1-4] [lead away [Lk 16:22]; TI(g)IAdTO<;, -Oil, (, [N 6m] Pilate [Mt 27:2 . 15:7 - Bapappd<;, -d, (, [N 33] Barabbas [Mt 27:16]; orcoiuorric, -013, (, [N 4] reoolutionary [hapax] II 15:10 - <jl6ovo<;, -r-o u, (, [N 6m] envy [Mt 27:18] II 15;11 - avaaglw [V 1, DV 174, VP 1-3] [stir up [Lk 23:5] II 15:15 - <!>paygAAOW [V 10; VP 1-3, 5-6] [flog [Mt 27:26]

Exercise for Lesson 80.


Translate into Greek: And while the disciples were down below in the courtyard, some maidservants of the high priests enter and, seeing them warm themselves, look at them and say, "You also were with him". (cf. Mk 14:66-67)

426

LESSON 81

Adversative "at Mark 15:16 - 16:20.

Lesson 81
Adversative KaL The word Kal has a variety of possible nuances. One common interpretation is that Kat can have the nuance of however, but, or some other adversative expression. Such an interpretation often seems appropriate when the Kal is found at the beginning of a clause which contains a negative, or which continues discourse which arises from a negative. For example, In 1:10: V r4J KOO~qJ nv, Kal /) KOOIlOt; 81' aurOl) f.yiv~TO. Kat 6 KOOIJO<.; aurov aUK if.yvw---He was in the world, and the world came into being through him, but the world did not know him. Such an interpretation of In 1:10, while plausible, is not the only interpretation possible. For example, the author may be usingxed in the additive sense of and to achieve solemnity through repetition and cumulation of detail. Cf. Mk 6:19, 7:24, and 9:18. Mark 15:16 16:20. 15:16 - rrpatTwptOv, -ou, TO [N 7] praetorium [Mt 27:27]; oUyKaAew [V 8; DV 92; VP 12-3, 5-6] I cal~ together [Lk 9:1]; orrdpa, nc, '" [N 3] cohort [Mt 27:27 II 15:17 - V1it1it50KW [V 2, VP 1-3] I clothe [Lk 16:19]; nopdnip, -a~, '" [N 2] purple cloth [Lk 16:19]; rrAeKw [V 2, VP 1-3] I twist together [Mt 27:29]; aKaVetVO~, -11, -ov [Adj 1] thorny [In 19:5] II 15:19 - KaAa~o<;, -ou, 6 [N 6m] reed [Mt 27:29]; yovu, -aro~, TO [N 33] knee [Lk 5:8] II 15:20 - K1it5W [V 1, DV 43, VP 1-3] I take off(clothes) [Mt 27:28] 15:21 - ayyapeow [V 1, VP 1-3] I press into service [Mt 5:41]; Kupnvedoc, -a, -ov [Adj 2] ofCyrene [Mt 27:32J; 'AAe~av1ipo<;, -OU, 6 [N 6mJ Alexander [Acts 4:6J; Poil<jlo~, -ou, 6 [N 6mJ Rufus [Rom 16:13J II 15:22 - [oAyoed, '" [N 2J Golgotha [Mt 27:33J; xpcviov, -OU, ro [N 7J skull [Mt 27:33J II 15:23 - o~upvl~w (ouupviotc) [V 5, VP 1-

LESSON 81

427

3J I spice with myrrh, i.e., I drug [hapax] II 15:24 - 1iLa~ept~w (1iLa~eptow) [V 5, VP 1-3J I divide among [Mt 27:35J; KAijpO~, -OU, 0 [N 6mJ lot [in the sense of something used to decide a disputed matter by chance, e.g., dice] [Mt 27:35J II 15:26 - IDypa<l>w [V 4, DV 30, VP 1-4)[ inscribe [Acts 17:23J II 15:29 - Klvew [V 8' VP 1-3 5-6J I move [Mt 23:4J; [InterJ hal [hapax] II 15:32 - ou;raupo~ [V 10' VP 1-3, 5-6] I crucify together with [Mt 27:44J; ovel6l~w (ovel6low) , [V 5, VP 1-3J /taunt [Mt 5:11J

ova

15:33 - gvaro~, -11, -ov [Adj 1J ninth [Mt 20:5J; eAWl [N 32J my God [Aramaic] [Mt 27:46J; Ae~a [Adv 1J why? [Aramaic] [Mt 27:46J; oal3axeavl [V 20J you have forsaken me [Aramaic] [Mt 27:46J II 15:36 - orroyyo~, -ou, 0 [N 6mJ sponge [Mt 27:48J; o~o~, -ou~, ro [N 31J sour wine [Mt 27:48]; Kaealpew [V 8, DV 5, VP 1-3, 5-6J I take down [Lk 1:52J II 15:37 - KrrVeW [V 8; DV 160; VP 1-3, 5-6J I expire [Lk 23:46J II 15:38 - Kararrerao~a, -aro~, ro [N 16J curtain [Mt 27:51J II 15:39 - xsvrupitov, -wvo~, 0 [N 21mJ centurion [Mk 15:44] II 15:40May1iaAI1vTj, -ij~, '" [N 1] woman ofMagdala [Mt 27:56J; IaAW~I1, '1<;, '" [N 1J Salome [Mk 16:1J II 15:41 - ouvaval3atvw [V 7, DV 21, VP 1-3J I go up with [Acts 13:31] 15:42,- rrapaOKeOl1, -,~, '" [N 1J day ofpreparation [Mt 27:62J; rrpooal3l3arov, -ou, ro [N 7J the day before the Sabbath [hapax] II 15:43 - IwoTj<jl, 6 [N 32J Joseph [Mt 27:57J;' Apl~aeala, -a~, '" [N 2J Arimathea [Mt 27:57]; etloxTj~wv, -wv, -ov [Adj 11J influential [Acts 13:50J; 130uAeurTj~, -oil, 6 [N 4J councilor [Lk 23:50J II 15:44 - rraAat [Adv 2J some time ago [Mt 11:21J II 15:45 - 1iwpeo~al [V 8, 22' VP 23J I grant [2 Pet 1:3J II 15:46 - VelAeW [V 8; DV 53; VP 1-3, 5-6J I wrap in ,[hapax]; Aaro~ew [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6J I hew [Mt 27:60J', rrpooKUAtW [V 1, VP 1-3J I roll up to [Mt 27:60J 16:1 -1itaYlVO~at [V 7, 21, 22, 23; DV 28; VP 1-3J I pass [temporal] [Acts 25:13J; apw~a, -aro<;, ro [N 16J spice [Lk 23:56] II 16:3arroKuAlW [V 1, VP 1-3J I roll away [Mt28:2] II 16:8 - TPO~O~, -ou, 6 [N 6mJ trembling [1 Cor 2:3J
THE LONGER ENDING OF MARK: 16:10 - rreveew [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6J I mourn [Mt 5:4J II 16:12 - ~op<jlTj, -ij~, '" [N 1J form [PhiI2:6J II 16:17 - rrapaKoAOUeew [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I follow upon [with dative case]

[Lk 1:3J II 16:18 - eavaOl~o~, -11, -ov [Adj 1J deadly [hapax]; I3Aarrrw [V 4,5; VP 1-3J I harm [Lk 4:35J II 16:20 - ouvepyew [V 8; VP 1-3, 56] I cooperate [Rom 8:28]; l3el3atow [V 10; VP 1-3, 5-6] I confirm

428

LESSON 81

[Rom 15:8]; bWKOAooBEW [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I follow upon [with dative case] [1 Tim 5:10]
THE S~ORT~R ENDING OF MARK: OOVTOIlW<; [Adv 2] briefly [Acts 24:4]; e~ayyeAAW [V 6, DV 2, VP 1-4] I tell [1 Pet 2:9]; avaToArj, -ij<;, ~ [N 1] rtstng (of the sun) [Mt 2:1]; Mat<;, -ew<;, ~ [N 28f] west

[hapax]; tepo<;, -a, -OV [Adj 2] holy [1 Cor 9:13] a<j>BapTo<; -0<; -ov [Adj 5] imperishable [Rom 1:23] , "

Exercise for Lesson 81.


Translate into Greek: And ?n entering the tomb he saw young men, some seated on the right and some on the left, clothed in white garments and he was amazed. (cf. Mk 16:5 and 15:27) ,

LESSON 82

429

John 1:134

Lesson 82
John 1:1-34
1:9 - <!>wTl~w (<!>wTlow) [V 5, VP 1-3] I shed light on [Lk 11:36] 1:14 - OKIlVOW [V 10; VP 1-3, 5-6] I dwell [Apoc 7:15] II 1:18KOA1fO<;, -00, 6 [N 6m] bosom [Lk 6:38]; e~IlYEollat [V 8, 22; DV 72; VP 2-3] I explain [Lk 24:35] 1:19 - Aeu(e)ITIl<;, -00, 6 [N 4] Levite [Lk 10:32] II 1:32 - a1fOKpWt<; -ew<;, ~ [N 28f] answer [Lk 2:47] II 1:23 - euBuvw [V 7, VP 1-3] I ' straighten [Jas 3:4] 1:29 - allvo<;, -oil, 6 [N 6m] lamb [Acts 8:32]

Exercise for Lesson 82.


Translate into Greek: On whom you (pl.) see the angels descending and remaining, these are the ones baptizing. (cf In 1:32)

430

LESSON 83

John 1:35 2:12.

Lesson 83
John 1:35 2:12.
1:42 KTl<jlii<;, -ii, 6 [N 33] Cephas [1 Cor 1:12]; ~PllTlVe;UW [V 1, VP 1-3]

I interpret [Reb 7:2]


1:44 Kava, iJ [N 32] Cana [In 21:2] II 2:6 - Ai61VO<;, -Tl, -ov [Adj 1] made of stone [2 Cor 3:3]; ulipia, -a<;, iJ [N 2] water jar [In 4:28]; /le;TPTlTJ)<;, -oil, 6 [N 4] measure [hapax] II 2:7 - avw [Adv 1] up [Acts 2:19] II 2:8 - aVTAiw [V 8; VP 13, 5-6] I draw (water) [In 4:7]; apXtTpiKA1VO<;, -OD, 6 [N 6m] head waiter [In 2:9] II 2:10 - /le;6UOKW [V 2, VP 1-3] I make drunk [Lk 12:45] [The word lle;6uw (V 1, VP 1-3), I am drunk, is also found (Mt 24:49).]

Exercise for Lesson 83.


Translate into Greek: On the next day, again the disciples of John and a hundred of their friends were standing there, and, gazing at the crowd following, they say, "Look at the people without a shepherd". (cf. In 12:35,36)

LESSON 84

431

John 2:13 - 3:21.

Lesson 84
John 2:133:21.
2:14 - xspuurrorric, -oil, 6 [N 4] money changer [hapax] II 2:15<jlpayiAAlOv, -OD, Tel [N 7] whip [hapax]; ax01V10V, -OD, TO [N 7] cord [Acts 27:32]; Kiplla, -aTo<;, TO [~ 16] coin [hapax]; avcxTpirrw [V 4, DV 190, VP 1-4] Looerturti [2 Tim 2:18] II 2:16 - eVTe;il6e;v [Adv 1] from here [Lk 4:9]; ellrroplOv, -OD, TO [N 7] market [hapax] 3:1 - N1KOliTlllO<;, -OD, 6 [N 6m] Nicodemus [In 7:50] II 3:4 - yipwv, -OVTO<;, 6 [N 22] old man [hapax] II 3:12 - emye;lO<;, -0<;. -ov [Adj 5] earthly [1 Cor 15:40] II 3:20 - <jlailAo<;, -'1, -ov [Adj 1] worthless [Rom
9:11]

Exercise for Lesson 84.


Translate into Greek: Now the disciples themselves were not entrusting themselves to him on account of their knowing everyone, and because they did not have need that anyone should witness to the human person. (cf, In 2:24-25)

432

LESSON 85

John 3:22- 4:42.

Lesson85
John 3:22 4:42.
3:22 - lit<XTpt~oo [V 4, DV 193, VP 1-3] I stay [intransitive] [Acts 12:19] II 3:23- Aivoiv, ~ [N 32] Aenon [hapax]; :EaAdll, TO [N 32] Salim [hapax] II 3:25 - ~ rI TI] oic, -goo<;, ~ [N 28f] discussion [Acts 15:2] II 3:29 - VUlI<!>l], -I]<;, ~ [N 1] bride [Mt 1):35] II 3:30 - EA<XTTOoo [V 10; VP 1-3, 5-6] I make smaller [Reb 2:7] 4:2 - Kat rorvs [Conj] and yet [hapax] II 4:4 - :Eallap(g)w, -a<;, ~ [N 2] Samaria [Lk 17:11] II 4:5 - :EoXap, ~ [N 32] Sychar [hapax] II 4:66/iomopta, -a<;, ~ [N 2] journey [2 Cor 11:26] 4:9 - :Eallapin<;, -tlio<;, ~ [N 14f] Samaritan woman [hapax]; ooyxpaollal [V 9, 22; DV 208; VP 2-3, 6] I associate with [hapax]; :Eallap(g)tTI]<;, -00,6 [N 4] Samaritan man [Mt 10:5] II 4:10 - lioopga, -6.<;, ~ [N 2] gift [Acts 2:38] II 4:11 - aVTAl]lIa, -aTo<;, TO [N 16] bucket [hapax]; <!>pap, -aTO<;, TO [N 16] well [Lk 14:5]; ~a6u<;, -cia, -u [Adj 14] deep [Lk 24:1] II 4:12 - 6p1I11a, -aTO<;, TO [N 16] domesticated animals [hapax] II 4:14 - aAAOll<X1 [V 6, 22; DV 9; VP 2-4] I spring up [Acts 3:8] II 4:15 - Ev6alig [Adv 2] to this place [Lk 24:41] 4:23 - npooxuvnrric, -ali, 6 [N 4] worshipper [hapax] 4:27 - lIVTOt [Conj] however [2 Tim 2:19] 4:31 - Ilgra~U [Adv 2] meanwhile [Acts 13:42] [This word is also a preposition with the genitive (Prep 1), between (Mt 18:15).] II 4:32~PWOl<;, -goo<;, ~ [N 28f] food [Mt 6:19] II 4:35 - rsrpdunvoc, -au, 6 [N 6f] period of four months [hapax] 4:42 - AaAla, -6.<;, ~ [N 2] speech [Mt 26:73]

LESSON 85

433

Exercise for Lesson 85.


Translate into Greek:
If you (pl.) knew the gifts of God and who are the ones saying to you, "Give us to drink", you would have asked them and they would have given you living water. (cf In 4:10)

434

LESSON 86

John 4:43 5:30.

Lesson86
John 4:43 5:30. 4;46 - ~aOtAtKO~, -~, OV [Adj 1] royal. [Acts 12:20] II 4:52 lfOVeaVOfJat [V 7, 22; DV 166; VP 1-4] I inquire [Mt 2:4]; KOfJljIOTPOV [Adv 3] better [hapax]; E~1iOfJO~, -11, -ov [Adj 1] seuenth [Heb 4:4] 5:2 - KOAOfJ~~epa, -a~, ~ [N 2] pool [In 5:7]; ~1ftASYW [V 2, DV 116, VP 1-4] I call [Heb 11:31]; 'E~pa'ioT( [Adv 3] inHebrewlAramaic [Apoc 9:11];B11e~aeU, ~ [N 32] Bethzatha [cf. Mt 11:21]; OTOU, -d~, ~ [N 2] colonnade ref. Acts 3:11] II [5:4 - Tapax~, -ij~, ~ [N 1] disturbance [hapax]; 1i~lfoTe [Adv 2] at any time [hapax]; V0011fJa, aTO~, TO [NI6] disease [hapax]] II 5:5 - OKTW [Adj 21] eight [Lk 2:21] 5:13 - ~Kveuw [VI, VP 1-3] I moue off [hapax] 5:21 - ~<{JOlfOtSW [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I make aliue [Rom 4:17]

Exercise for Lesson 86.


Translate into Greek: The weak answered them, "Sirs, we have no one so that, when the water has been stirred, they may put us into the pool; for while we are going there, others go down before us". (cf. In 5:7)

LESSON 87

435

John 5:31 6:21.

Lesson 87
John 5:31 6:21. 5:35 - aYlXAAluW [V 9; DV 1; VP 1-3, 5-6] [also found as a middle and passive deponent, aYlXAAtUOfJ<Xl [V 22, 23] I am glad [Mt 5:12; Lk 1:47; Lk 10:21] II 5:37 - lfWirOT [Adv 2] euer [Lk 19:30]; ellio~, -OO~, TO [N 31] appearance; shape [Lk 3:22] II 5:39 - ~paovuw [V 9; DV 61; VP 1-3, 5-6] I search, I examine [Rom 8:27] 6:1 - T1J3eptU~, -u1io~, ~ [N 14f] Tiberias [In 21:1] II 6:3 - avsPxofJ<Xl [V 2,22; DV 63; VP 2-3] I go up [Gal 1:17] II 6:7 - apKsw [V 8; VP 13,5-6] I suffice [Mt 25:9] II 6:9 - lfatMplOv, -00, TO [N 7] youth [hapax]; KpielVO~, -11, -ov [Adj 1] made of barley [In 6:13]; OljIUP10V, -00, TO [N 7] fish [In 21:9] II 6:12 - ~fJlf((fJ)1fA11fJt [V 12; DV 151; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11] [also ~fJlfl1fAUW (V 9; VP 1-3, 5-6)] I fill [Lk 1:53] II 6:13 ~IJ3PWOKW [V 1, 21; VP 1-3] I eat [hapax] 6:19 - elKOCJl [Adj 21] twenty [Lk 14:31]

Exercise for Lesson 87.


Translate into Greek; Then the disciples, lifting their eyes and seeing that many people were coming to them, say to their friends, "Where are we to purchase bread so that these persons may eat?" (cf In
6:5)

436

LESSON 88

John 6:227:9.

Lesson88
John 6:22 7:9.

6:22 - oov~taipxoJ.lCU [V 2, 22; DV 63; VP 1-4] I go in with [In 18:15] II 6:31 - J.lavva, TO [N 32] manna [Reb 9:4] 6:41- yoyyu~w (yoyyuow) [V 5, VP 1-3] I grumble [Mt 20:11] II 6:44eAKw [V 2, VP 1-3] I drag [Acts 16:19] II 6:45 -1it1iaKToe;, -rj,-ov [Adj 1] taught [1 Cor 2:13] 6:52 - J.laxoJ.lcu [V 2, 22; VP 2-3] I fight [Acts 7:26] /1 6:54 - TPWYW [V 2,.VP 1-3] I eat [Mt 24:38] II 6:55 - rroOle;, -~we;, [N 28(1 drinking; a drink [Rom 14:17]

6:60 - OKA1') poe;, -a, -ov [Adj 2] hard [Mt 25:24] II 6:62 - rrpoT~pOe;, -a, -ov [Adj 2] earlier; past [Eph 4:22] [(TO) rrpOT~poV (Adv 2) earlier; before (In 9:8)] 7:2 - oxnvonnvi, -ae;,

n[N 2]

Feast of Tabernacles [hapax]

Exercise for Lesson 88.


Translate into Greek:

After this, one of his disciples went away and walked with him no more. (cf. In 6:66)

LESSON 89

437

John 7:10 8:11.

Lesson 89
John 7:10 8:11.

7:12 - YOYYOOJ.lOe;, -013,6 [N 6m] murmuring [Acts 6:1] 7:14 - J.lEOOW [V 10; VP 1-3, 56] I am in the middle [hapax] II 7:173] whether [hapax] II 7:22 - rr~plTiJ.lvw [V 7; DV 187; VP 1-3] I circumcise [Lk 1:59] II 7:23 - XOAaw [V 9] I am angry with [with the dative case] [hapax] II 7:24 - aline;; -~we;, [N 28(1 external appearance; face [In 11:44]
rroT~pov [Adv

7:30 - rrla~w (rrlaaw) [V 5] I seize [Acts 3:7] II 7:35 - litaorropa, -<ie;, [N 2] diaspora [Jas 1:1]

7:38 - piw [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I flow [hapax] 7:42 - B1')6A~iJ.l,

n[N 32]

Bethlehem [Mt 2:1]

7:49 - srrapaToe;, -1'), -ov [Adj 1] accursed [hapax] 8:2 - op6poe;, -00,6 [N 6m] early morning [Lk 24:1] II 8:4aUTo<!>WpOe;, -oe;, -ov [Adj 5] in the act [hapax] II 8:5 - Al6a~w (AleaOW) [V 5, VP 1-3] I stone; I kill by stoning [In 10:31] II 8:6Karaypa<!>w [V 4, DV 30,VP 1-4] I write [hapax] /I 8:7 - avaKurrrw [V 4,5; VP 1-3] I straighten up (in the sense of "unbend") [Lk 13:11]; aVaJ.lapT1')TOe;, -oe;, -ov [Adj 5] without sin [hapax] 1/ 8:8KaraKurrTw [V 4,5; VP 1-3] I bend down [hapax]

Exercise for Lesson 89.


Translate into Greek:

438

LESSON 89

Now when the month was already half over, the disciples went up into the temple and were teaching. The Jews thereupon were amazed, saying, "How do these men know Scripture when they have never studied?" (cf. In 7:14-15)

LESSON 90

439

John 8:12 - 9:12.

Lesson 90
John 8:12 - 9:12
8:29 - a.pwroc;, -rj, -ov [Adj 1] pleasing [Acts 6:2] 8:32 - EAell6epow [V 10, VP 1-3,56] I set free [Rom 6:18] 8:44 - a.V8pw1roKrovoc;, -oc;, -ov [Adj 5] murderer [1 In 3:15] 9:1- vsverri, -~c;, ~ [N 1] birth [hapax] II 9:6 - XCX!lcx[ [Adv 1] on the ground [In 18:6]; 1rllAOC;, -oil, 6 [N 6m] mud [Rom 9:21]; 1rnJO!lCX, -cxroc;, ro [N 16] spittle [hapax]; EmxptW [V 1, VP 1-3] I spread on, I smear [In 9:11] II 9:7 - LIAWa!l, 6 [N 32] Siloam [Lk 13:4] II 9:8npocmrew [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I beg [hapax]

Exercise for Lesson 90.


Translate into Greek; If God were your (sg.) father, you would love me. (cf. In 8:42)

440

LESSON 91

John 9:13 - 10-.21

Lesson 91
John 9:13 10:21. 9:21- ~AtKta, -a<;, ~ [N 2] age [Mt 6:27] II 9:22 - aovTte'1/.lt [V 12, 21; DV 188;VP 1-3, 7-8, 11] active: I put together; middle: I make an agreement [Lk 22:5]; u1foauvaywyo~, -o~, -ov [Adj 5] expelled from the synagogue [In 12:42] 9:28 - Aotliopiw [V 8; VP 1-3, 5c6] I insult [Acts 23:4] II 9:31 8eoae~tl~, -tl~, -E~ [Adj 15] God-fearing [hapax] 10:1 - uAAaxo8ev [Adv 1] from elsewhere [hapax] II 10:61fapot/.lta, -a~, ~ [N 2] simile [2 Pet 2:22] 10:9 - vouri, -ii~, ~ [N 1] pasture [2 Tim 2:17] II 10:12 - AUKO~, -00,6 [N 6m] wolf [Mt 7:15]; aKOp1ft~W (oxopnioto) [V 5, VP 1-3] I scatter [Mt 12:30] /I 10:16 - noiuvn, -'1~, ~ [N 1] flock [Mt 26:31] 10:20 - uuivoum [V 7, 22, 23; VP 2-3] I rave [Acts 12:15]

Exercise for Lesson 91.


Translate into Greek: The men answered and said to him, "In this there is certainly something remarkable, that you (sg.) do not know where they are from, and they opened our eyes". (cf. In 9:30)

LESSON 92

441

John 10-.22- 11:44.

Lesson 92
John 10-.22 11:44. 10:22 - eYKatVta, -WV, Tet [N 7] Feast ofthe Dedication [hapax] II 10:23 - LOAO/.lulV, -wvo~, 6 [N 21m] Solomon [Mt 1:6] II 10:24KUKAOW [V 10; VP 1-3,5-6] I surround [Lk 21:20] 11:1 - Aa~apo~, -OU, 6 [N 6m] Lazarus [Lk 16:20]; Map8a, -a~, ~ [N 2] Martha [Lk 10:38] II 11:2 - eK/.laaaw [V 3] I wipe [Lk 7:38] II 11:9 -1fpOaK01fTW [V 4, 5; DV 105; VP 1-3] intransitive: I stumble IMt 4:6] II 11:11 - el;U1fVt~W (el;U1fVtaw) [V 5, VP 1-3] I wake (someone) from sleep [hapax] /I 11:13 - KOt/.l'1at~, -ew~, ~ [N 28(1 sleep [hapax]; i51fV0~, -OU, 6 [N 6m] sleep [Mt 1:24] II 11:16 - Atliu/.lo~, -OU, 6 [N 6m] Twin [In 20:24]; aU/.l/.la8'1Ttl~, -013,6 [N 4] fellow-disciple [hapax] 11:18 - lieKa1fEVTe [Adj 21] fifteen [Acts 27:28] II 11:191fapa/.lu8io/.lat [V 8, 23; VP 3] I console [1 Th 2:12] II 11:20Ka8E~0/.lat (Ka8ea8tloo/.lat) [V 5,23; VP 3] I remain [literally: I sit] [Mt 26:55] 11:28 Aa8p~

[Adv 3] secretly [Mt 1:19] II 11:35 -liaKpuw [V 1, VP

1-3] I weep [hapax]


11:38 - e1ftKet/.lat [V 17, DV 95] I am placed at [Lk 5:1] II 11:39 - o~w (oow) [V 5, VP 1-3] I stink [hapax]; rsruprcdoc, -a, -ov [Adj 2] ofthe fourth day [hapax] II 11:42 -1fepttOTI]/.lt [V 11; DV 86; VP 1-3, 7-8, 11] transitive; I place around; intransitive: I stand around [Acts 25:7] II 11:43 - Kpauya~w (Kpauyaow) [V 5, VP 1-3] I shout; I cry out [Mt 12:19] II 11:44 - mpta, -a~, ~ [N 2] strip ofcloth [hapax]; oooMptOv, -00, TO [N 7] face-cloth [Lk 19:20]; 1feptMw [V 8; DV 36; VP 1-3,5-6] I wrap around [hapax]

442

LESSON 92

Exercise for Lesson 92.


Translate into Greek: When, then, the disciples heard that their friends were ill, they waited in the places where they were for three days. (cf In 11:6)

LESSON 93

443

John 11:45 12:43.

Lesson 93
John 11:45 12:43.
Kaia<!>a~, -

11:48 .: Ptounioc, -a, -ov [Adj 2] Roman [Acts 2:10] II 11:49a, 6 [N 33] Caiaphas [Mt 26:3]

11:54 - ' E<!>pal/l, 6 [N 32] Ephraim [hapax] 11:55 - ayvl~w (ayvlow) [V 5, VP 1-3] I sanctify [Acts 21:24] II 11:57/It]vuw [V 1, VP 1-3] I make known [Lk 20:37] 12:3 - AlTpa, -a~, ~ [N 2] (Roman) pound [In 19:39]; 1fOAUn/lO~, -o~, -ov [Adj 5] expensive [Mt 13:46]; OO/l rj, -ii~, ~ [N 1] smell [2 Cor 2:14] II 12:6 - YAWOOOKO/lOV, -OU, TO [N 7] money-box [In 13:29] 12:13 - (lafov, -OU, TO [N 7] palm branch [hapax]; <!>OlVl~, -lKO~, 6 [N 8m] [also <!>OlVl~] palm tree, palm branch [Apoc 7:9] II 12:14ovdpiov, -OU, TO [N 7] young donkey [hapax] II 12:15 - OVO~, -OU, 6/~ [N 6m, 6f] donkey [Mt 21:2] 12:33 - onurxivco [V 7, VP 1-3] I give a sign; I make known [Apoc 1:1] 12:40 - TU<!>AOW [V 10; VP 1-3, 5-6] I blind [2 Cor 4:4] 12:42 - O/lW~ [Adv 3] nevertheless [1 Cor 14:7] II 12:43 - i[1fEP [Conj] than [strengthened form of if] [hapax]

Exercise for Lesson 93.


Translate into Greek:

444

LESSON 93

The ones loving themselves will lose themselves, and the ones hating themselves in this world will guard themselves for everlasting life. (cf. In 12:25)

LESSON 94

445

John 12:44 13:38.

Lesson 94
John 12:44 13:38.

13:4 - AEvnov, -OU, ,0 [N 7] towel [In 13:5]; llux'uSvvUlll [V 14; DV 71; VP 13, 9, 12] I gird [In 21:7] II 13:10 - AOuw [V 1, VP 1-3] I wash [Acts 9:37] 13:18 - 1rTepVa, -TJ~,
~

[N 3] heel [hapax]

13:24 - VgUW [V 1, VP 1-3] I nod [with the dative case] [Acts 24:10] II 13:25 - (JTfieo~, -OU~, TO [N 31] breast [Lk 18:13 II 13:26 - j3a1rTW [V 4, 5; VP 1-3] I dip [Lk 16:24]; I/lWlllOV, -OU, TO [N 7] piece of bread [In 13:27] 13:33 - TgKV10V, -OU, TO [N 7] little child [1 In 2:1]

Exercise for Lesson 94.


Translate into Greek: Amen, amen I say to you (pl.), slaves are not greater than their masters, nor apostles greater than those sending them. (cf. In 13:16)

446

LESSON 95

John 14:1 15:27.

Lesson 95
John 14:1 15:27.
14:1- llOVI], -ll~,
~ [N

1] room [In 14:23] 14:21-

14:18 - 6pcjlavo~, -I], -ov [Adj 1] alone; orphaned [Jas 1:27] II 1;1l>aVt~W (f;ll>aVtOw) [V 5, VP 1-3] [make krwwn [Mt 27:53]

14:26 - u1rolltllVMKW [V 2, DV 127,VP 1-3] [remind [Lk 22:61] II 14:27 - BetAtaW [V 9; VP 1-3, 5-6] I am cowardly [hapax] 15:2 - KA lllla, -aTO~, TO [N 16] branch [In 15:4] 15:25 - Bwpeav [Adv 3] gratuitously [Mt 10:8] 15:26 - 1TapaKATJTO~, -00,
<> [N

6m] intercessor [1 In 2:1]

Exercise for Lesson 95. Translate into Greek: If you (sg.) remain in me and my word remains in you, whatever you wish, ask for it, and it will happen for you. (cf, In 15:7)

LESSON 96

447

John 16:1 . 17:26.

Lesson 96
John 16:1 17:26.
16:2 - AaTpeta,
-a~, ~ [N

2] worship [Rom 9:4]

16:13 - 6BTlY6W [V 8; VP 1-3,5-6] [guide [Mt 15:14] 16:20 - 8PTJV6W [V 8; VP 1-3,5-6] [lament [Mt 11:17]

Exercise for Lesson 96. Translate into Greek: And you (sg.), then, it is true, now have grief; but then I shall see you again, and your heart will be glad, and no one will take your joy from you. (cf. John 16:22)

448

LESSON 97

John 18:1-40.

Lesson 97.
John 18:1-40. 18:1 - xe(!1appOe;, -a, -ov [Adj 2] [also found as xet!1appOIJe;, -a, -OIJV (Ad] 4)] flowing (stream); as substantive, the place of a flowing stream or wadi [N 6m] [hapax]; Ke1ipuSv, /) [N 32] Kidron [hapax]; K~rrOe;, -OIJ, /) [N 6m] garden [Lk 13:19 1118:3 - cj>avoe;, -ou, /) [N 6m] lantern [hapax]; orrAov, -OIJ, TO [N 7] weapon [Rom 6:13] II 18:5Na~<ilpaloe;, -OIJ, /) [N 6m] Nazarene [Mt 2:23] II 18:10 - MaAXOe;,OIJ, /) [N 6m] Malchus [hapax] II 18:11- 6riKll, -lle;, ~ [N 1] sheath (of a sword) [hapax] 18:13"Awae;, ~a, /) [also found as "Avvnc] [N 33] Annas [Lk 3:2]; rrev6epoe;, -ou, /) [N 6m] father-in-law [hapax] II 18:14 - OIJ!1~OIJAet5<il [V 1, VP 1-3] I advise [with dative case] [Mt 26:4] 18:18 av6paKta, -lie;,
[N 31] cold [Acts 28:2]
~ [N

2] charcoal fire [In 21:9]; tjlUXOe;, -01Je;, TO

18:28 - !1ta(v<il [V 7, VP 1-3] I defile [Tit 1:15] II 18:29 - xurnyopin, -ae;, ~ [N 2] accusation [1 Tim 5:19] II 18:36 - aY<ilvl~o!1at (aY<ilvloo!1at) [V 5,22; VP 2-3] I struggle [Lk 13:24] II 18:37OOKOUV [Adv 3] so; then [hapax] 18:39 - olJvri6ew, -ae;, ~ [N 2] custom [1 Cor 8:7]

Exercise for Lesson 97.


Translate into Greek:

LESSON 97

449

We have spoken openly to the world: we taught at all times in the synagogue and in the temple, where our enemies gather and in secret we said nothing. (cf, In 18:20) ,

450

LESSON 98

John 19:1-42.

Lesson98
John 19:1-42.

19:5 - 4>OPEW [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I wear [Mt 11:8] 19:12 - <XVTlAEYW [V 2, DV 116, VP 1-4] I contradict [with dative case] [Lk2:34] 19:13 - ~ij~a, -aTO~, TO [N 16] tribunal [Mt 27:19]; AteoOTpWTOV, -ou, TO [N 7] Stone Pavement [hapax]; ra~~aea [Aramaic word] [N 32] Gabbatha [hapax] 19:19 - rirxoc, -ou, [N 6m] notice [In 19:20] II 19:20 .: PW~a:iOTi [Adv 3] in Latin [hapax];' EAAllvtari [Adv 3] in Greek [Acts 21:37] 19:23 - apa<jlo~, -o~, -ov [Adj 5] seamless [hapax]; u4>avTo~, -I], -ov [Adj 1] woven [hapax] II 19:24 - Aayxavw [V 7, DV 113, VP 1-4) I cast lots [Lk 1:9]; i~aTlo~o~, -00, a [N 6m] clothing [Lk 7:25] II 19:25 - KAW1rd~, -d, a [N 33] Clopas [hapax] 19:29 - usordc, -I], -ov [Adj 1] full [Mt 23:28); vaaw1ro~, -ou, o/~ [N 6m, N 6f] [also found as VOOW1rOV, -au, TO (N 7)) hyssop [Heb 9:19] II 19:30 - KAtVW [V 7, DV 103, VP 1-3) I bow [Mt 8:20]
KaTayvu~l [V 14; DV 3; VP 1-4, 9, 12] I break [Mt 12:20]; aKEAo~, -OU~, TO [N 31] leg [In 19:32J II 19:34 - AOYXIl, -Il~, ~ [N 1] spear [hapax]; 1rAeupa, -d~, ~ [N 2] side [Acts 12:7]; viiocco [V 3, DV

19:31-

130, VP 1-4) I stab [hapax) II 19:36 - OOTOOV, -00, TO [N 33] [also found as OOTEOV, -au, TO (N 7)] bone [Mt 23:27] II 19:37 - tKK~vTEW [V 8; VP 1-3, 5-6] I pierce [Apoc 1:7] 19:39 - ~twa, -aTO~, TO [N 16] mixture [hapax]; o~opva, -Il~, ~ [N 3] myrrh [Mt 2:11]; <XAoll, -Il~, ~ [N 1] aloes [hapax] II 19:40 - OeOV1OV, -OU, TO [N 7) linen cloth [Lk 24:12)

LESSON 98

451

Exercise for Lesson 98.


Translate into Greek: Therefore the Jew, since it was preparation day, lest the body remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for the day of that Sabbath was great), asked Pilate that its legs might be broken and that it be taken away. (cf. In 19:31)

452

LESSON 99

John 20:1-31.

Lesson 99
John 20:1-3120:4 -1rpOTpexw [V 2, DV 192, VP 1-4] I run ahead [Lk 19:4] II 20:51l"(XpaKtl1rTW [V 4,5; VP 1-3] I stoop [Lk 24:12] II 20:7 - svruxiooco [V 3] I roll up [Mt 27:59] 20:15 - xrprouocc, -ou, 6 [N 6m] gardener [hapax] 20:22 - /l<!>U craw [V 9; VP 1-3, 5-6] I breathe on [hapax] 20:25 - ~AOe;, -ou, 6 [N 6m] nail [In 20:25]

Exereise for Lesson 99.


Translate into Greek: And the angels say to them, "Woman, why are you weeping?" And they say to them, "They have taken away our Lord, and we do not know where they have placed him". (cf, In 20:13)

LESSON 100

453

John 21:1-25.

Lesson 100
John 21:1-25.

21":8 - aAtEVW [V 1, VP 1-3] I fish [hapax] II 21:4 - 1rpwla, -ae;, iI [N 2] morning [Mt 27:1]; aiytaAoe;, -au, 6 [N 6m] shore [Mt 13:2] II 21:51rpocr<!>aytOv, -OU, TO [N 7] something to eat [hapax] II 21;7 1rEvE>OT'1e;, -au, 6 [N 4] outer garment [hapax] II 21:8 - 1r'1xue;, -EWe;, 0 [N 33] cubit [Mt 6:27]; mipco [V 6, VP 1-3] I drag [Acts 8:3] II 21:9a1rof3alvw [V 7 DV 21 VP 1-3] I disembark [Lk 5:2] II 21:12aptcrTaw [V 9; 1-3,5-6] I breakfast [Lk 11:37]; eETa~W (eETacrw) [V 5, VP 1-5] I question [Mt 2:8]

VI>

21:16 -1rot/latvw [V 7, VP 1-3] I shepherd [Mt ~:6] II 21:18 - ~u5vvu/lt [V 14; DV 71; VP 1-3, 9, 12] [also found as ~wvvuw (V 1, DV 71, VP 1-3)] I gird [Acts 12:8]; Y'1pacrKw [V 2, VP 1-3] I grow old [Reb 8:13] 21:25 - olurn [shortened form of 010/lat] [V 1, 22; DV 134; VP 2-3] I think [phil 1:17]

Exercise for Lesson 100.


Translate into Greek:

Amen amen I say to you (pl.), when you were younger you girded yourselves and you were walkit,'g wherever you wished' but when you grow old, you will stretch out your hands, 'and another will gird you, and will bring you where you do not wish. (cf In 21:18)