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Pushtoonistan and the Pushtoon National Question Feroz Ahmed Pakistan Forum, Vol. 3, No. 12. (Sep.

, 1973), pp. 8-19+22.


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P a k i s t a n Forum

September 1973

FEROZ AHMED

"If the it a s i t s -. . . . q u e s t i o n i s r e q u i r e d anywhere i t i s d u t y t o support t h e s e c e s s i o n of Pushtoons reauired here, i n the national a u e ~ t i o n . ~ ~ from P a k i s t a n and t o a l l o w them t o form a n i n (J.-V. S t a l i n , 'Marxism and t h e N a t i o n a l dependent Pathan s t a t e by t h e name of PushQ u e s t i o n .) t o o n i s t a n o r Pukhtoonistan.
A
~ ~

PUSHTOONISTAN AND T H E PUSHTOON


NATIONAL QUESTION
dialectical amroach t o a Pakistan. It therefore considers

The P u s h t o o n i s t a n ( o r ~ u k h t o o n i s t a n ) quest i o n h a s once a g a i n come i n t o s h a r p f o c u s a s a r e s u l t of some r e c e n t developments i n t h e r e g i o n , i n c l u d i n g t h e Army i n t e r v e n t i o n i n Baluchis t a n and t h e overthrow of t h e Afghan monarchy by t h e p r o - P u s h t o o n i s t a n elements l e d by S a r d a r Daud Khan. The former development u n d e r s c o r e s t h e u n w i l l i n g n e s s of t h e l a r g e l y Punjab-based and p r o - I r a n i c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n P a k i s t a n t o a l l o w even a modicum of s e l f - g o v e r n a n c e t o t h e s m a l l e r n a t i o n a l i t i e s . The l a t t e r development comes a s a t i m e l y a n t i d o t e t o t h e c e n t r a l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e s i n t h e r e g i o n , and r e k i n d l e s t h e hopes of t h e Pushtoon n a t i o n a l i s t s . Sardar Daud a l l u d e d t o t h e P u s h t o o n i s t a n q u e s t i o n when he s i n g l e d out P a k i s t a n i n h i s f i r s t speeck a s t h e only c o u n t r y w i t h which Afghanistan had unresolved problems. I n a recent interview w i t h Al-Fatah ( ~ e p t 27) , A jmal Khatak, t h e N a t i o n a l Awami P a r t y ' s ( N A P ) s e l f - e x i l e d S e c r e t a r y - g e n e r a l i n Kabul, c l e a r l y s t a t e d t h a t h i s aim was t o c r e a t e a n independent P u s h t o o n i s t a n on t h e model of Bangladesh.

The concept of t h a t Pukhtoonistan i s q u i t e c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d i n a p o s t a g e stamp i s s u e d by A f g h a n i s t a n i n 1969 and s t i l l d i s p l a y e d a t t h e I t shows Sarhad ( w i t h i t s Kabul a i r p o r t . t r i b a l b e l t ) and t h e whole of P a k i s t a n i Baluchistan a s t h e t e r r i t o r y of t h e proposed Pushtoonistan. P u s h t o o n i s t a n f o r t h e non-Pushtoon people of P a k i s t a n , b u t not f o r t h e Pushtoons of Afghanistan! So much f o r t h e n a t i o n a l b a s i s of A f g h a n i s t a n ' s P u k h t o o n i s t a n . Although i t i s t r u e t h a t backwardness of p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s g i v e s r i s e t o backward and c r u d e i d e o l o g i e s which i n t u r n r e s u l t i n t h e a b s u r d i t i e s l i k e t h e above, i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case t h e absurdity i s q u i t e self-serving. The Afghani e l i t e c o n s i s t s of P e r s i a n s who occupy i m p o r t a n t p o s i t i o n s i n t h e Government. The o f f i c i a l language of A f g h a n i s t a n i s P e r s i a n r a t h e r t h a n Pushto. The name of t h e i r a i r l i n e s i s Aryana. Having a Pathan monarch and Pathan Prime M i n i s t e r s d i d not change a l l t h i s .

Because of t h e a s s o c i a t i o n of t h e Afghan Government and t h e N A P with t h e Pushtoonistan s l o g a n t h e Pushtoon n a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n i s o f t e n confused w i t h t h a t s l o g a n and i s d i s m i s s e d by proving t h e ill i n t e n t i o n s of t h e s e p a r t i e s . Below we s h a l l t r y t o d i s c u s s t h e concept of P u s h t o o n i s t a n a s advocated by t h e Afghan Government and t h e N A P , and t h e Pushtoon n a t i o n a l question per se. INDEPENDENT PUKHTOONI S T A N The Afghan Claim The Government of A f g h a n i s t a n , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Daud Khan, h a s been p a r t i c u l a r l y a c t i v e i n r a i s i n g t h e Pushtoonistan i s s u e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l f o r ms, i n c l u d i n g t h e United N a t i o n s , and i n encouraging t h e Pusht oon n a t i o n a l i s t s i n Pakis t a n . Giving a i d and comfort t o s e l f - e x i l e d n a t i o n a l i s t s l i k e Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (~acha Khan), Ghaffar Khan Achakzai and A jmal Khatak h a s been a p a r t of t h e Afghan p o l i c y t o demonstrate i t s s o l i d a r i t y w i t h t h e Pusht o o n i s t a n movement e a s t of t h e Durand l i n e . On t h e f a c e of i t t h e Afghan Government's
i n t e r e s t i n P u s h t o o n i s t a n i s prompted by i t s
concern f o r t h e oppressed Pushtoon people i n

It i s q u i t e c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t under Daud Khan Pushtoon n a t i o n a l i s m may be i n t e n s i f i e d and t h a t t h e P e r s i a n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n may be d i s c a r d e d i n f a v o u r of a Pushtoon i d e n t i t y . But t h a t w i l l i n t e n s i f y t h e n a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n i n Afghanistan i t s e l f , f o r t h e Pushtoons, a c c o r d i n g t o most e s t i m a t e s , comprise no more t h a n one-half of A f g h a n i s t a n ' s p o p u l a t i o n . A Pushtoon A f g h a n i s t a n w i l l t h e n r a i s e t h e quest i o n of n a t i o n a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n f o r t h e Tad j i k s , t h e Turlanenians, t h e Uzbeks and t h e Hazaras.
The dilemma t h e Afghan r u l e r s f i n d them-
s e l v e s i n c o n s i s t s of t h e f a c t t h a t i f t h e y do
not e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own Pushtoon bona f i d e s
t h e y cannot convince o t h e r s of t h e i r s i n c e r i t y
about P u k h t o o n i s t a n , b u t i f t h e y do, c e n t r i f u -
g a l f o r c e s a r e s e t i n motion i n t h e i r own
country.
None t h e l e s s , t h e veneer of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n f o r t h e Pushtoons cannot h i d e t h e o l d t e r r i t o r i a l q u e s t i o n : t h e Afghans c o n s i d e r t h e Gandamak t r e a t y of 1878 and t h e Durand agreement of 1893 a s u n j u s t arrangements i m posed upon them by t h e B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l i s t s . There can be no doubt t h a t t h e s e and subsequent agreements between A f g h a n i s t a n and t h e B r i t i s h r u l e r s of I n d i a were s i g n e d under f o r c e o r under t h e t h r e a t of f o r c e . The B r i t i s h were,

September 1973

Pakistan F o r m

Page 9

n a t u r a l l y , aware of i t , and t h e i r p o l i c y t o ward t h e T r i b a l a r e a s and A r t i c l e 1 1 of t h e Anglo-Afghan T r e a t y of 1 9 2 l w e r e b a s e d on t h e r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e Afghan government?^ i n t e r e s t i n t h e t r i b e s e a s t of t h e Durand l i n e . From t h e t i m e of Dost Mohammad every Afghan Government h a s hoped t o re-annex t h e t e r r i t o r i e s e a s t of t h e b o r d e r , e x t e n d i n g up t o t h e r i v e r I n d u s . A t t h e t i m e of I n d i a c s p a r t i t i o n i n 1947 t h e A f g h a n i s t a n Government urged t h e B r i t i s h t o a l l o w t h e Pathans two a d d i t i o n a l c h o i c e s , a n n e x a t i o n w i t h A f g h a n i s t a n and i n d e pendent P u s h t o o n i s t a n , i n t h e referendum h e l d i n Sarhad. I n t h e post-war e r a , when s e l f d e t e r m i n a t i o n makes b e t t e r diplomacy t h a n o u t r i g h t c l a i m s of a n n e x a t i o n , i t was not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t independent P u s h t o o n i s t a n became t h e format of A f g h a n i s t a n ' s i r r e d e n t i s t c l a i m s . d e t a i l s on t h i s s u b j e c t , s e e Olaf C a r o e ' s The Pathans and Arnold F l e t c h e r c s Afghanistan: Highway of Conquest. )

o or

Thus a n Afghan-supported P u k h t o o n i s t a n can only be t h e f i r s t s t e p towards a n n e x a t i o n o r , a t b e s t , a semi-autonomous s a t e l l i t e . I n e i t h e r c a s e it does not o f f e r good p r o s p e c t s t o t h e Pushtoons of t h e more advanced r e g i o n s e a s t of t h e Durand l i n e . The l o n g i n g f o r such a r e u n i o n on t h i s s i d e of t h e b o r d e r does not r e f l e c t progressive nationalism, but r a t h e r medieval p a r t i c u l a r i s m . It d o e s not even f a l l w i t h i n t h e purview of t h e n a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n a s e n u n c i a t e d by Lenin. The d i v i s i o n of t h e Pushtoon n a t i o n a l i t y i n two s o v e r e i g n c o u n t r i e s may be u n f o r t u n a t e , b u t not unique by any means. Such q u e s t i o n s have been and can be r e s o l v e d by economic i n t e g r a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n by l i b e r a l s e n t i m e n t a l ism. I f t h e l a t t e r c r i t e r i o n were a p p l i e d t o A f g h a n i s t a n i t s e l f i t would have t o cede i t s n o r t h e r n t e r r i t o r i e s t o t h e S o v i e t Union. Repeating t h i s t h e world over we s h a l l be engaged i n drawing a p e r f e c t e t h n o g e o g r a p h i c a l map, b u t not n e c e s s a r i l y i n advancing h i s t o r y . P u s h t o o n i s t a n and t h e N A P The Khudaee Khidrnatgar (Red S h i r t ) movement i n t h e s e t t l e d d i s t r i c t s of Sarhad, l e d by Ghaffar Khan, and t h e Wrore Pushtoon movement i n t h e Pushtoon-speaking a r e a s of Baluchis t a n , l e d by Abdul Samad Achakzai, emerged a s t h e most a r t i c u l a t e e x p r e s s i o n s of Pushtoon n a t i o n a l s e n t i m e n t s a g a i n s t t h e B r i t i s h . Havi n g opposed t h e c r e a t i o n of P a k i s t a n and f a i l e d , t h e n a t i o n a l i s t s half-heartedly reconciled with Pakistan. S i n c e t h e n t h e i r a t t i t u d e , and t h a t of t h e i r s u c c e s s o r o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e NAP, h a s been q u i t e ambivalent towards P a k i s t a n . Farigh Bukhari, i n h i s biography of G h a f f a r Khan (Bacha ~ h a n ) ,i n s i s t s t h a t by P u s h t o o n i s t a n Ghaffar Khan simply meant a renamed p r o v i n c e within Pakistan. Obviously, t h e m a t t e r had

never been a s simple a s t h e renaming of a n area. Ghaffar Khan h a s continued t o c o n t r a d i c t himself throughout t h e h i s t o r y of Pakistan. N o w he and h i s son, t h e NAP c h i e f Wali Khan, l o u d l y p r o c l a i m t h a t t h e y a r e not s e c e s s i o n i s t s . Obviously, t h e y a r e i n P a k i s t a n where it i s considered a t r e a s o n t o advocate separat i s m . Ajmal Khatak, who now occupies G h a f f a r Khancs s e a t i n t h e s a f e haven of Kabul, t h r e w some l i g h t on t h e dilemma of h i s c o l l e a g u e s when he t o l d t h e r e p o r t e r of Al-Fatah t h a t t h e s e c e s s i o n i s t s seldom openly a d v o c a t e s e p a r a t i s m and t h a t t h e i r o b j e c t i v e was no l e s s t h a n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a n independent P u s h t o o n i s t a n . That t h e Pushtoon n a t i o n a l i s t s always had s e c e s s i o n i n t h e back of t h e i r minds and t h a t t h i s u r g e was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e n s i f i e d a f t e r Bangladesh was a l s o i n d i c a t e d i n t h e conversat i o n s t h i s w r i t e r had w i t h P r o f . Muzaffar A h e d of t h e Bangladesh NAP i n October 1971. I n t h e i n t e r v i e w p u b l i s h e d i n P a k i s t a n Forum of t h e same month he defended t h e nomenclature N A P ( W a l i - ~ u z a f f a r ) on t h e grounds t h a t t h e y were s t i l l one p a r t y and t h a t t h e s e p a r a t i o n of West P a k i s t a n ' s s m a l l e r p r o v i n c e s was a s much a n o b j e c t i v e of t h e p a r t y a s t h e c r e a t i o n of a n independent Bangladesh. After t h e interview he t o l d t h i s w r i t e r t h a t he had met w i t h IVJali Khan i n London and had t e a s e d him f o r h i s " i n tegrationistlt r o l e during t h e constitutional t a l k s i n Dacca. Wali, a c c o r d i n g t o Muzaffar, was d i s t u r b e d a t E a s t P a k i s t a n ' s s e p a r a t i o n a t t h a t s t a g e and s a i d t h a t e i t h e r t h e r e should be one P a k i s t a n o r no P a k i s t a n because w i t h o u t t h e B e n g a l i s t h e Pathans and B a l u c h i s would f i n d i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o cope w i t h t h e P u n j a b i s . Our purpose i n i n i t i a t i n g t h e above d i s c u s s i o n i s not t o r a i s e t h e s e c e s s i o n i s t a l a r m about t h e NAP, but r a t h e r t o e s t a b l i s h t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e p a r a t i s t o p t i o n h a s been under cons i d e r a t i o n by t h e N A P a s i t should be by any n a t i o n a l i s t movement. However, i n s t e a d of b a s i n g our judgement of t h e N A P on whether o r n o t i t i s s e c e s s i o n i s t , we s h a l l t r y t o a n a l y s e i t s c h a r a c t e r and s e e i f i t can advance t h e s t r u g g l e of t h e Pushtoon masses. Therefore, it w i l l f i r s t be n e c e s s a r y t o develop a framework f o r such a n a l y s i s .
N A T I O N A L QUESTION AND THE PAKISTANI LEFT

No question--not even t h e Sino-Soviet conf l i c t - - h a s c r e a t e d more c o n f u s i o n i n t h e Pakis t a n i l e f t than t h e national question. Partly t h e problem could be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a i l u r e t o comprehend L e n i n t s d i a l e c t i c a l p o s t u l a t e s on t h e q u e s t i o n , and p a r t l y t o t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n applying t h e o r e t i c a l g e n e r a l i t i e s t o t h e c o n c r e t e s i t u a t i o n of P a k i s t a n . But it i s t h e c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s of t h e p e t t y b o u r g e o i s i e of t h e s m a l l e r n a t i o n a l i t i e s and of Punjab and t h e Urdu-speaking group which h a s l e d t o t h e p r e s e n t c o n f u s i o n i n which one s e c t i o n h a s c l u n g

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P a k i s t a n Forum

September 1973

e x c l u s i v e l y t o t h e f l s e c e s s i o n i s t f la s p e c t of Lenin and t h e o t h e r e x c l u s i v e l y t o h i s l T i n t e g r a t i o n i s t T fa s p e c t .

D i s t r i b u t i o n of Pusht oons, 1961 Number

To t h e s e f ~ s o c i a l i s t s f t l h e h a l l m a r k of a l e f t i s t i n P a k i s t a n i s t o s u p p o r t any r e g i o n a l movement which c a l l s i t s e l f o p p r e s s e d and demands t h e r i g h t t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . In t h e i r view any c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e , r e g a r d l e s s of i t s c l a s s c h a r a c t e r and i d e o l o g i c a l c o n t e n t , i s a p r o g r e s s i v e f o r c e ; t o oppose i t i s t o s i d e w i t h t h e r u l i n g c l a s s e s of t h e o p p r e s s o r n a t i o n a l i t y . T h i s p o s i t i o n of t h e i r s i s b a s e d l e s s on t h e a n a l y s i s of t h e n a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n i n P a k i s t a n t h a n upon a d e e p l y - s e a t e d b e l i e f t h a t P a k i s t a n i s a n l l a r t i f i c i a l l f s t a t e which must be done away w i t h a s soon a s p o s s i b l e . The o n l y t h i n g t h a t c a n be s a i d i n t h e i r d e f e n c e i s t h a t t h e y a r e n o t P a k i s t a n i chauvi n i s t s ; b u t many of them a r e I n d i a n c h a u v i n i s t s , who do not a p p l y t h e same p r i n c i p l e of c e n t r i f u g a l i s m t o I n d i a which i s much more h e t e r o g e n e o u s and whose u n i o n i s much more f f u n n a t u r a l f ft h a n P a k i s t a n ' s . But t h a t i s beside t h e point. The main problem w i t h t h e i r thesis is that i n actuality a l l s t a t e s a r e a r t i f i c i a l - - m a n was n o t b o r n w i t h a s t a t e ; it evolved. And t h e r e i s no u n i f o r m b a s i s f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n of s t a t e s i n t h i s w o r l d . The t h e o r e t i c a l c o n f u s i o n of t h e s e e l e ments l e a d s t o p o l i t i c a l p r a c t i c e s which a r e s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t o r y and o f t e n a g a i n s t t h e i n t e r e s t s of t h e p e o p l e . For example, t h e y a c c u s e a s c h a u v i n i s t anyone who d o e s not s u p p o r t t h e independence o f Bangladesh, b u t t h e y would not s u p p o r t independence f o r t h e K a s h n i r i s . Worse t h a n t h a t , t h e i r s u p p o r t f o r t h e N A P has gone t o t h e e x t e n t of opposing t h e movement of Pushtoon p e a s a n t s . When g i v e n a c h o i c e between t h e Pushtoon p e a s a n t s and t h e Pushtoon l a n d l o r d s , t h e y have chosen t h e l a t t e r . This i s t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e n a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n . I n f a c t , i t h a s become d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h between them and t h e f e u d a l n a t i o n a l i s t s t h e y s u p p o r t . T h e r e f o r e , most of t h e c r i t i c i s m against the N A P would a l s o a p p l y t o them. "The I n t e g r a t i o n i s t s f 1 There a r e many P a k i s t a n i d e o l o g y chauvin-

Pakistan ( e s t ) Sarhad ( e s t ) Peshawer G Mardan divs States, tribal areas ( est ) Baluchistan Zhob d i s t . Loralai d i s t Quetta d i s t . Pun j a b Sindh Karachi d i s t

.. .

6,439,807 5,786,049 2,686,049 3,100,000 351,041 83,994 67,626 164,042 152,820 149,946 105,482

. .

t o o n s c a n be a n a t i o n i n t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e development of c a p i t a l i s t r e l a t i o n s of production. The c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h e v e s t i g e s of t r i b a l o r c l a n t y p e of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n among t h e Pushtoons i s c i t e d a s t h e f i n a l p r o o f i n s u p p o r t of t h e i r argument t h a t t h e Pushtoons a r e n o t even a f e u d a l n a t i o n a l i t y . Although it i s t r u e t h a t t h e predominant mode of p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e Pushtoon a r e a s - - o r f o r t h a t m a t t e r i n t h e whole of P a k i s t a n - - i s not c a p i t a l i s t , i t i s not c o r r e c t t o say t h a t i t i s dominated by t h e s o - c a l l e d t r i b a l r e l a tions. T r i b a l communal ownership of p r o p e r t y was a l r e a d y on i t s way o u t when t h e B r i t i s h i n t e r v e n e d and f a c i l i t a t e d t h e u s u r p a t i o n of communal l a n d s by t h e t r i b a l l e a d e r s and budding feudal lords. C o n s o l i d a t i o n of f e u d a l n a t i o n a l i t y was a l s o a c c e l e r a t e d i n t h e p r o cess. I n t e r a c t i o n between t h e s o - c a l l e d t r i b a l and " s e t t l e d f 1 c u l t i v a t e d a r e a s was a l s o enhanced, and t h e movement of p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n t h e l f s e t t l e d " a r e a s t o o k p l a c e on a l a r g e s c a l e . It i s b e c a u s e of t h i s t h a t t o d a y t h e r e a r e few p l a c e s i n t h e r e g i o n where t h e p e a s a n t s a r e e x c l u s i v e l y of a n y one t r i b a l o r i g i n . I f we t a k e t h e Mohmands a s a n example, we n o t i c e t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e YohrLand Agency i s c o n s i d e r e d a s t h e i r home, t h e r e a r e p r o b a b l y more Mohmands i n Charsadah and o t h e r a r e a s of Peshawer and Mardan d i s t r i c t s t h a n i n t h e Agency. These Mohmand p e a s a n t s work a l o n g w i t h p e a s a n t s of o t h e r t r i b a l o r i g i n s on t h e l a n d s owned by l a n d l o r d s belonging t o various t r i b e s . Today when t h e p e a s a n t s of v a r i o u s Pusht o o n t r i b e s have o r g a n i z e d t h e m s e l v e s on c l a s s l i n e s i n a s i n g l e movement and when t h e l a n d l o r d s o f d i f f e r e n t t r i b e s have been compelled t o f o r g e t h e i r c l a s s u n i t y i n t h e form of t h e A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e P r o t e c t i o n of t h e R i g h t s of t h e L a n d l o r d s , i t i s o n l y a n a n t i - P u s h t o o n b i g o t who c a n v e n t u r e t o s a y t h a t t h e Pushtoons

i s t s who a r e masquerading a s l e f t i s t s and s o c ialists. Some of them, by a s t r a n g e t w i s t of l o g i c , t r y t o prove t h a t t h e Pushtoons ( a n d f o r t h a t m a t t e r S i n d h i s and ~ a l u c h i s )a r e n o t even a n a t i o n a l i t y ( s e e , f o r example, Shawkat S i d d i q u i f s a r t i c l e i n Al-Fatah of Feb. 1 7 , 1972. ) Pointing out t h e f a c t t h a t n a t i o n i s a b o u r g e o i s phenomenon, t h e y deny t h a t t h e Push-

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a r e n o t a nationality. The Pushtoons have i n f a c t gone beyond t h e s t a g e of f e u d a l n a t i o n a l i t y . The d e v e l o p ment of commerce and i n d u s t r y h a s r e s u l t e d i n t h e c r e a t i o n of Pushtoon p r o l e t a r i a t and Pusht o o n b o u r g e o i s i e , a l b e i t a s m a l l one. Capitali s t r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n have b e e n s u p e r imposed upon t h e s e m i - f e u d a l r e l a t i o n s i n a g r i culture. C o l o n i a l and n e o c o l o n i a l i n t e r f e r e n c e s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , do n o t a l l o w f o r t h e smooth t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of mode of p r o d u c t i o n and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a s some of o u r f f s t r a i g h t " i n t e l l e c t u a l s would want t o have. Thus, we o b t a i n s i m u l t a n e o u s e x i s t e n c e of t r i b a l , f e u d a l and b o u r g e o i s r e l a t i o n s i n t h e same n a t i o n a l t e r r i tory. The i n t e g r a t i o n i s t s have a l s o l e a r n e d t o juggle with t h e s t a t i s t i c s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e p r e s e n t p r o v i n c i a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l bounda r i e s . They would, f o r example, p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e r e a r e more Pushtoons l i v i n g o u t s i d e t h e Sarhad p r o v i n c e t h a n i n s i d e i t , and t h a t t h e r e a r e o t h e r e t h n i c groups r e s i d i n g i n Sarhad.

i n t e r c h a n g e w i t h t h e Pushtoon p e o p l e t h e y would want t o s t a y i n a Pushtoon e n t i t y w i t h a n autonomous s t a t u s . The same r i g h t s h o u l d be a c c o r d e d t o t h e p e o p l e of Zhob, L o r a l a i and Q u e t t a d i s t r i c t s i n B a l u c h i s t a n , where t h e mother t o n g u e of t h e m a j o r i t y i s P u s h t o , t o dec i d e which e n t i t y t h e y would l i k e t o b e a p a r t of. Behind t h e e x e r c i s e t o p r o v e t h e P a t h a n s (and o t h e r s ) a s a non-nationality l i e s t h e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t t h e s o c i a l i s t s must s u p p o r t t h e right t o self-determination. Therefore, i f a group i s d e f i n e d a s a n o n - n a t i o n a l i t y t h e q u e s t i o n of i t s s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n d o e s n o t arise. The same paradox of c a l l i n g o n e s e l f a s o c i a l i s t and a t t h e same t i m e opposing n a t i o n a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i s r e s o l v e d by a n o t h e r a c r o b a t i c f e a t , i . e . by a s s i g n i n g primacy t o t h e e x t e r n a l f o r c e s i n t h e development of motion. The c r u d e s t example of such a d h e r e n t s of t h e t h e o r y of e x t e r n a l c a u s a t i o n i s t o b e found among t h e l e f t i s t s of t h e Outlook v a r i e t y who think t h a t t h e national question i n Pakistan d i d n o t e x i s t u n t i l Gankovsky w r o t e t h e P e o p l e s of P a k i s t a n . One c a n l a u g h a t s u c h p e o p l e and n o t worry t o o much. But t h e t h e o r y of e x t e r n a l causation i s quite pervasive i n Pakistan--reinf o r c e d , no d o u b t , by t h e p a r a n o i d p s y c h i c s t a t e p e r p e t u a t e d by T a k i s t a n f s r u l i n g c l a s s e s . How d e e p l y t h i s t h e o r y i s permeated i n t h e P a k i s t a n i l e f t c a n b e gauged from t h e f a c t t h a t t h e Mazdoor-Kisan P a r t y , whose pronouncements on t h e n a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n i n g e n e r a l and whose a n a l y s i s of t h e q u e s t i o n i n Sindh i n p a r t i c u l a r r e p r e s e n t s o b e r r e f l e c t i o n , a l l o w e d t h e p u b l i c a t i o n of a n a t r o c i o - s l y - n d i a l e c t i c a l a n a l y s i s of t h e Banglad e s h i s s u e i n i t s o f f i c i a l n e w s l e t t e r (No. 34.) I n t h a t a r t i c l e Sohrab Aslam made t h i s emphatic s t a t e m e n t : " t h e s o - c a l l e d Bangladesh q u e s t i o n was n o t a n a t i o n a l i t y q u e s t i o n . R a t h e r , i t was a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n s p i r a c y i n which America, R u s s i a and I n d i a were i n v ~ l v e d . ~ The M a r x i s t a s s e r t i o n t h a t t h e n a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n c a n b e s o l v e d o n l y i n a s o c i a l i s t cont e x t i s i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e i n t e g r a t i o n i s t s a s c h o o s i n g f f c l a s s s t r u g g l e " i n s t e a d of t h e "nat i o n a l movement." T h i s l e a d s them t o r e p e a t t h e c l i c h e s s u c h a s , socialism w i l l a u t o m a t i c a l l y s o l v e a l l t h e problems of t h e p e o p l e . " A s we s h a l l s e e l a t e r t h a t n e i t h e r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between c l a s s s t r u g g l e and t h e n a t i o n a l movement i s a s i m p l e f l e i t h e r / o r " p r o p o s i t i o n n o r d o e s s o c i a l i s m ~ f a u t o m a t i c a l l y "s o l v e t h e national question. Lenin on t h e N a t i o n a l Q u e s t i o n The p e t t y b o u r g e o i s - f e u d a l n a t i o n a l i s t s of
t h e s m a l l e r n a t i o n a l i t i e s and t h e i r s e c e s s i o n -
i s t s o c i a l i s t f r i e n d s invoke t h e a u t h o r i t y of
Lenin t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r arguments. They i n -
t e r p r e t Leninr s pronouncement s i n s u p p o r t of

I t i s p r o b a b l y t r u e t h a t t h e r e a r e more Pushtoons l i v i n g i n A f g h a n i s t a n ( a b o u t 9-10 m i l l i o n ) t h a n i n Pakistan (about 8.5 m i l l i o n ) and t h a t a l a r g e number of Pushtoons l i v e i n Punjab and S i n d h . I t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t p e o p l e s l i k e G u j a r , K o h i s t a n i s , K a l a s h and t h e Khowar-speaking C h i t r a l i s form compact m i n o r i t i e s a m i d s t t h e P u s h t o o n s , and t h a t t h e d i s t r i c t s of Hazara and Dera I s r n a i l Khan speak n a i n l y Hindko, which i s c o n s i d e r e d a d i a l e c t of P u n j a b i . But what d o e s t h a t have t o do w i t h d e f i n i n g a n a t i o n o r a n a t i o n a l i t y ? The community of t e r r i t o r y which S t a l i n c o n s i d e r ed a s a n e s s e n t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t f o r a g r o u p t o b e q u a l i f i e d a s a n a t i o n c a n n o t b e tampered w i t h by a r b i t r a r y l i n e s drawn i n t h e m i d d l e of a n a t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y . I f t h a t were s o t h e p e o p l e of t h e I r i s h R e p u b l i c would n o t b e considered a s a n a t i o n because t h e r e a r e s t i l l I r i s h living i n Ulster. S i m i l a r l y , we would b e d e n y i n g t h e n a t i o n a l i t y s t a t u s t o t h e Kurds b e c a u s e t h e i r n a t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y i s s p l i t up between t h e s t a t e s of I r a n , I r a q , Turkey and S y r i a . L i k e w i s e , t h e e x i s t e n c e of U i g u r s and T a t a r s i n K a z a k h i s t a n , and of Kara-Kalpaks and T a t a r s i n U z b e k i s t a n would make t h e Kaza k h s and Uzbeks n o n - n a t i o n a l i t i e s .
A s f a r a s t h e q u e s t i o n of non-Pushto border a r e a s i s concerned, t h e i r s t a t u s can b e d e c i d e d on t h e b a s i s of l i n g u a l and c u l t u r a l r e a l i t i e s , and a c c o r d i n g t o t h e w i s h e s o l t h e people i n h a b i t i n g t h o s e regions. Concretel y , t h e p e o p l e of Hazara and D.I. Khan s h o u l d d e c i d e w h e t h e r on t h e b a s i s of l i n g u a l a f f i n i t y t h e y would want t o be a p a r t of Punjab o r on t h e b a s i s of t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l and economic

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n a t i o n s ' r i g h t t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n a s a n unq u a l i f i e d j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r s e p a r a t i s m , and quote from h i s works paragraphs such a s t h e following : " I f , i n our p o l i t i c a l a g i t a t i o n , we f a i l t o advance and advocate t h e s l o g a n of t h e r i g h t t o s e c e s s i o n , we s h a l l p l a y i n t o t h e hands, not o n l y of t h e bourgeo i s i e , but a l s o of t h e f e u d a l l a n d l o r d s and t h e a b s o l u t i s m of t h e o p p r e s s o r nation." (The Right of Nations t o S e l f - d e t e r m i n a L 2 -.- 1

i t i s not only t o b r i n g t h e n a t i o n s c l o s e r t o g e t h e r b u t t o i n t e g r a t e them."


b bid.)
Furthermore, "The p r o l e t a r i a t cannot s u p p o r t any c o n s e c r a t i o n of n a t i o n a l i s m ; on t h e contrary, it supports everything t h a t helps t o o b l i t e r a t e national d i s t i n c t i o n s and remove n a t i o n a l b a r r i e r s . " ( C r i t i c a l Remarks on t h e N a t i o n a l Question. ) F i n a l l y , l e t u s quote a paragraph which immediately p r e c e d e s t h e one i n f a v o u r of a g i t a t i o n f o r t h e r i g h t of s e c e s s i o n quoted i n t h e beginning of t h i s s e c t i o n . I n s o f a r a s t h e b o u r g e o i s i e of t h e oppressed n a t i o n f i g h t s t h e o p p r e s s o r , we a r e always, i n every c a s e , and more s t r o n g l y t h a n anyone e l s e , i n f a v o u r , f o r we a r e t h e s t a u n c h e s t and t h e most c o n s i s t e n t enemies of oppression. But i n s o f a r a s t h e b o u r g e o i s i e of t h e oppressed n a t i o n s t a n d s f o r i t s own b o u r g e o i s n a t i o n a l i s m , we s t a n d a g a i n s t . W e f i g h t a g a i n s t t h e p r i v i l e g e s and v i o l ence of t h e o p p r e s s o r n a t i o n , and do not i n any way condone s t r i v i n g s f o r p r i v i l eges on t h e p a r t of t h e oppressed n a t i o n . " (The Right of Nations t o S e l f - d e t e r m i n a tion. ) Many o b s e r v e r s f i n d t h e s e f o r m u l a t i o n s t o be s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t o r y . According t o t h e s t a t i c But h i s t o r y advanformal l o g i c i t may be s o . c e s a c c o r d i n g t o d i a l e c t i c a l laws of motion, and t h e s o c i e t y cannot be viewed o b j e c t i v e l y without r e s o r t t o d i a l e c t i c a l l o g i c . Integrat i o n of n a t i o n s i s h i s t o r i c a l l y a p r o g r e s s i v e s t e p , b u t i t c o n t a i n s t h e element of o p p r e s s i o n of s m a l l e r n a t i o n s and n a t i o n a l i t i e s . Insofar a s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o end t h e v e r y b a s i s of n a t i o n a l oppression, t h e progressive f o r c e s must work towards v o l u n t a r y i n t e g r a t i o n , w h i l e r e s o l u t e l y opposing n a t i o n a l o p p r e s s i o n and national privilege. Agitation f o r t h e r i g h t t o s e c e s s i o n i s one form of such o p p o s i t i o n t o n a t i o n a l oppression. H o w d o e s , t h e n , n a t i o n a l o p p r e s s i o n end?

The emphasis i n such p a r a g r a p h s a r e conv e n i e n t l y obscured, and t h e r e a d e r s a r e not t o l d what kind of n a t i o n a l i s m Lenin was r e f e r r i n g t o , what d i d he mean by t h e r i g h t t o s e c e s s i o n , and, above a l l , what i s t h e o t h e r i n s e p a r a b l e a s p e c t of Leninvs d i a l e c t i c a l formulation. Nationalism: It i s v e r y c l e a r t h a t i n h i s d i s c o u r s e on t h e n a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n Lenin r e f e r r e d t o b o u r g e o i s n a t i o n a l i s m , and t o nat i o n a l movements a s e x p r e s s i o n s of t h e growth of n a t i o n a l b o u r g e o i s i e : " t h e p r i n c i p l e of nationality i s historically inevitable i n bourgeois s o c i e t y a n d , t a k i n g t h i s s o c i e t y i n t o due a c c o u n t , t h e Marxist f u l l y r e c o g n i z e s t h e h i s t o r i c a l l e g i t i m a c y of n a t i o n a l movements." ( C r i t i c a l Remarks on t h e N a t i o n a l guestion. ) 3 n y n a t i o n a l i s m s - - l i k e t h e one of t h e NAP--when he r e f e r r e d t o them a s "immature n a t i o n a l movements. " ( 1 b i d . ) The Right t o S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n : "The r i g h t of n a t i o n s t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i m p l i e s exc l u s i v e l y t h e r i g h t t o independence i n t h e p o l i t i c a l sense, t h e r i g h t t o f r e e p o l i t i c a l s e p a r a t i o n from t h e o p p r e s s o r n a t i o n . Specifi c a l l y , t h i s demand f o r p o l i t i c a l democracy i m p l i e s complete freedom t o a g i t a t e f o r s e c e s s i o n and f o r a referendum on s e c e s s i o n by t h e seceding n a t i o n . T h i s demand, t h e r e f o r e , i s not t h e e q u i v a l e n t of a demand f o r s e p a r a t i o n , f r a g m e n t a t i o n and t h e f o r m a t i o n of I t i m p l i e s only a c o n s i s t e n t small s t a t e s . e x p r e s s i o n of s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t a l l n a t i o n a l oppres~ion.~ h he S o c i a l i s t R e v o l u t i o n and t h e Right of Nations t o S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . ) Agitation f o r self-determination i s thus designed s o l e l y t o oppose n a t i o n a l o p p r e s s i o n . U n i t y : The r i g h t t o secede i s a n i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h e s o c i a l i s t d e s i r e f o r u n i t y among t h e nations--unity without coercion. "The aim of s o c i a l i s m i s not only t o end t h e d i v i s i o n of mankind i n t o t i n y s t a t e s and t h e i s o l a t i o n of n a t i o n s i n any form,

"It i s i m p o s s i b l e t o a b o l i s h n a t i o n a l ( o r any o t h e r p o l i t i c a l ) o p p r e s s i o n under capitalism, since t h i s requires t h e abolit i o n of c l a s s e s , i . e . , t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of s o c i a l i ~ m . ~ ( D i s c u s s i o n on S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n Summed


I s t h e r e any s i t u a t i o n i n which a c t u a l
s e c e s s i o n of a n a t i o n can be s u p p o r t e d ?

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The masses w i l l " r e s o r t t o s e c e s s i o n o n l y when n a t i o n a l o p p r e s s i o n and n a t i o n a l f r i c t i o n make j o i n t l i f e a b s o l u t e l y i n t o l e r a b l e and h i n d e r any and a l l economic intercourse. I n t h a t case, t h e i n t e r e s t s of c a p i t a l i s t development and of t h e freedom of t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e w i l l be b e s t s e r v e d by s e c e ~ s i o n . ~ ~ (The Right of Nations t o S e l f - d e t e r m i n a -

tion.)

and S t a l i n t o t h e n a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n i n our r e g i o n , m a n y l e f t i s t s seem t o t h i n k t h a t t h e s u b s t a n c e of t h e q u e s t i o n i n our r e g i o n i s a l s o t h e same a s i n t h e c a s e s s t u d i e d by Lenin and S t a l i n . Thus any group which r a i s e s t h e n a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n i s c a l l e d " n a t i o n a l bourgeo i s i e " and i s t r e a t e d a s such. A s Mario O t e r o s a i d , "an e r r o r of language h a s l e d t o a n e r r o r of p o l i c y . " Let u s s e e i f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e p r e s e n t - d a y Pushtoon n a t i o n a l i s m correspond w i t h t h e main f e a t u r e s of n a t i o n a l movement d e s c r i b e d by S t a l i n : "The b o u r g e o i s i e p l a y s t h e l e a d i n g r o l e . "The c h i e f problem f o r t h e young bourgeo i s i e i s t h e problem of t h e market. I t s aim i s t o s e l l i t s goods and t o emerge v i c t o r i o u s from c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h t h e b o u r g e o i s i e of a d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l i t y . Hence i t s d e s i r e t o s e c u r e i t s town?, i t s thomet market. The market i s t h e f i r s t s c h o o l i n which t h e b o u r g e o i s i e learns its n a t i o n a l i ~ m . ~ ~ (~arxism and t h e N a t i o n a l Q u e s t i o n . )
A s f a r a s t h e Pushtoon b o u r g e o i s i e i s concerned, t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t it i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l and underdeveloped. Yet, t h e r e a r e t h r e e Pathan f a m i l i e s which a r e counted among t h e t o p 30 c a p i t a l i s t f a m i l i e s of Pakis t a n : t h e Khatak f a m i l y , t h e H o t i s and t h e Khanzadahs ( ~ h i b l i , The 22 F a m i l i e s . ) The l e a d i n g c a p i t a l i s t s among t h e Pushtoons happen t o be l a n d l o r d s a s w e l l . Their c a p i t a l i s inv e s t e d throughout P a k i s t a n i n e n t e r p r i s e s a s d i v e r s e a s t e x t i l e s , c o n s t r u c t i o n , t r u c k assemb l i n g , mechanical e n g i n e e r i n g , p h a r m a c e u t i c a l s , c h e m i c a l s , tobacco p r o c e s s i n g , canning, i n s u r ance and banking. I n t h e Sarhad province t h e main c o n c e n t r a t i o n of t h e Pushtoon c a p i t a l a p p e a r s t o be i n s u g a r manufacturing--facilitat e d by t h e i r ownership and c o n t r o l of s u g a r f i e l d s i n t h e province. Premier Sugar M i l l s - a l l e g e d t o be t h e l a r g e s t i n A s i a - - i s c o n t r o l l e d by Mian Gul Jehanzeb, M i r A f z a l Khan, Yusuf Khattak, and Col. S h a r i f . The Charsadah Sugar M i l l s a r e l a r g e l y c o n t r o l l e d by t h e H o t i s ( ~ h i b l i ,op. c i t . ) The market f o r t h e i r r e f i n e d s u g a r e x t e n d s a l l over P a k i s t a n , where a s a r e s u l t of c o n t r i v e d c o n d i t i o n s s u g a r f e t c h e s a p r i c e many t i m e s above t h e world mark e t p r i c e ; i n t h e r e c e n t p a s t t h e p r i c e of s u g a r had gone up a s much a s Rs. 7.50 p e r s e e r (i. e . roughly 40 c e n t s a pound.) Tax h o l i d a y s and o t h e r s u b s i d i e s g r a n t e d t o t h e s u g a r i n d u s t r y have helped t h e s u g a r b a r o n s a g r e a t d e a l It i n multiplying t h e i r fortunes so rapidly. i s q u i t e u n d e r s t a n d a b l e , t h e n , why t h e s e c a p i t a l i s t s have always s u p p o r t e d a n i n t e g r a t i o n i s t p a r t y - - t h e Muslim League o r t h e P e o p l e t s Party

W e hope t h a t t h e r e a d e r s w i l l excuse u s f o r t h e s e lengthy quotations. Considering t h e w h o l e s a l e d i s t o r t i o n of L e n i n i s t p r i n c i p l e s t h e s e d a y s , we thought i t would be b e s t t o quote from t h e o r i g i n a l . Obviously, r e a d i n g t h e s e q u o t e s does not s u b s t i t u t e f o r s t u d y i n g i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y t h e s e seminal works on t h e n a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n by Lenin. I n summation we may d e s c r i b e t h e Lenini s t p o s i t i o n on t h e n a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n a s follows:

1. The p r o l e t a r i a t - - a n d a l l p r o g r e s s i v e f o r c e s --must s t r i v e f o r l a r g e r u n i t s , n o t o n l y bec a u s e l a r g e r markets and i n t e g r a t e d economies a r e conducive t o t h e development of c a p i t a l i s m and s o c i a l i s m , b u t t h e y a l s o f a c i l i t a t e t h e promotion of p r o l e t a r i a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m and t h e advancement of t h e working c l a s s movement. Moreover, s o c i a l i s m d e s i r e s a u n i f i e d world r a t h e r t h a n a s p l i n t e r e d one. 2. S i n c e " u n i t y and i n t e g r i t y n a r e a l s o t h e s l o g a n s used by t h e b o u r g e o i s i e and t h e bureauc r a c y of t h e o p p r e s s o r n a t i o n i n o r d e r t o cont i n u e o r i n t e n s i f y t h e o p p r e s s i o n of t h e s m a l l e r n a t i o n s , t h e s o c i a l i s t s cannot a l l o w t h e i r d e s i r e f o r l a r g e r u n i t s t o become a t o o l i n t h e hands of t h e o p p r e s s o r s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e y must emphasise most vehemently t h e o t h e r d i a l e c t i c a l h a l f of t h e p r o p o s i t i o n : t h e r i g h t of n a t i o n s t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . They must uphold t h a t r i g h t and c a r r y out e f f e c t i v e propaganda i n i t s b e h a l f .

3 . The n a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n cannot be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y r e s o l v e d under t h e c a p i t a l i s t system. Only s o c i a l i s m i s c a p a b l e of s o l v i n g i t .

4 . The o n l y c o n d i t i o n under which t h e s o c i a l i s t s should s u p p o r t t h e a c t u a l s e c e s s i o n of a n a t i o n i s when a l l economic i n t e r c o u r s e between i t and t h e dominant n a t i o n becomes u n f e a s i b l e , when t h e o p p r e s s i o n becomes s o i n t e n s e t h a t l i v i n g t o g e t h e r becomes impossi b l e , and when t h e s e c e s s i o n a c t u a l l y h e l p s i n advancing t h e p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s and i n sharpening t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e .
THE CHARACTER O F PUSHTOON NATIONALISM

While a p p l y i n g t h e terminology of Lenin

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Pakistan F o r m

September 1973

Among t h e middle and p e t t y b o u r g e o i s i e of Pushtoons t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e s u p p o r t f o r P a k i s t a n , e i t h e r b e c a u s e t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s ext e n d i n t o t h e r e s t of P a k i s t a n o r t h e y a r e a g e n t s o r c o n t r a c t o r s of t h e o u t s i d e bourgeoisie. Particularly i n t e r e s t i n g i s the case of t h e t r u c k owners: t h e l o n g d i s t a n c e t r u c k i n g between Peshawer and K a r a c h i i s owned and o p e r a t e d mainly by P a t h a n s , and t h e s e t r u c k s s t i l l d i s p l a y t h e photograph of Ayub Khan--a symbol of i n t e g r a t i o n i s t s Type Food Tobacco Textiles Chemical Non-metallic minerals Electrical machinery Transport equipment Miscellaneous Pakistan Assets Sarhad No. A s s e t s

No. 270 46 793 3 23 90 124 125 448

Thus t h e n a t i o n a l i s t s t r u g g l e i s n o t l e d by t h e Pushtoon b o u r g e o i s i e ; i t i s n o t p r i m a r i l y a s t r u g g l e f o r markets. I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e n a t u r e of r e g i o n a l f r i c t i o n and c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f y t h e c l a s s b a s i s of t h e p r e s e n t s t a g e of Pushtoon n a t i o n a l i s m , i t would be n e c e s s a r y t o keep i n mind one g e n e r a l f e a t u r e of c a p i t a l i s t d e v e l o p ment and a p e c u l i a r i t y of n e o c o l o n i a l s o c i e t i e s : (1) uneven development of d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s seems t o b e a g e n e r a l law of c a p i t a l i s t growth; t h e dominant b o u r g e o i s i e i n v e s t s i n t h e a r e a s where i t c a n maximize i t s p r o f i t s and where i t f e e l s i t s c a p i t a l i s s e c u r e ; ( 2 ) i n t h e neoc o l o n i a l s o c i e t i e s t h e s t a t e p l a y s a f a r more i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n development t h a n i t d i d , f o r example, i n Europe when i t was a t a comparat i v e l e v e l of development. The narrow b a s i s o f s t a t e power a l l o w s t h e dominant b o u r g e o i s i e t o e s t a b l i s h monopolies and t o widen r e g i o n a l disparities. I n order t o maintain i t s p r i v i l e g e s it r e s o r t s t o r e p r e s s i v e measures, p a r t i c u l a r l y a g a i n s t t h e l e s s developed r e g i o n s . I n P a k i s t a n t h e e f f e c t s of such d e v e l o p ment a r e m a n i f e s t e d i n t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of i n d u s t r i e s i n Punjab and lower S i n d h , and i n t h e g r e a t e r underdevelopment ( o r " n e g l e c t " ) of Sarhad and B a l u c h i s t a n . The "Neglectt? of Sarhad I n t h e 1961 census t h e present t e r r i t o r y of t h e Sarhad p r o v i n c e and i t s a d j o i n i n g t r i b a l b e l t comprised r o u g h l y 1 7 . 7 % of West P a k i s t a n ' s p o p u l a t i o n , whereas t h e 1967 c e n s u s of m a n u f a c t x - i n g showed t h a t o n l y 7% of t h e f i x e d a s s e t s and s l i g h t l y more t h a n 6% of p r o d u c t i o n i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s were i n t h a t provi n c e . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s fact quite clearly: Number of s e l e c t e d m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s and t h e i r g r o s s f i x e d a s s e t s ( i n m i l l i o n r a p e e s ) , 1967. Type No. Pakistan Assets Sarhad Assets

:::Figures f o r Sarhad were combined w i t h t h o s e of Punjab; t h e f i g u r e s mentioned h e r e a r e t h e ones n o t a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e r e p o r t e d d i s t r i c t s of P u n j a b ; t h i s i s t h e r e f o r e t h e maxim u m f i g u r e f o r Sarhad, t h e a c t u a l f i g u r e could be 0. S o u r c e : Census of M a n u f a c t u r i n g I n d u s t r i e s , 1966-67. S i m i l a r l y , t h e C e n t r a l Government's p o l i c y of a g r i c u l t u r a l development h a s f a v o u r e d t h e P u n j a b i l a n d l o r d s o v e r t h e o t h e r s . According t o t h e P l a n n i n g Commission's s u r v e y of f a m . m e c h a n i z a t i o n i n 1968, o n l y 5.4% of 'Jest P a k i s t a n ' s t r a c t o r s and 3.3% of i t s t u b e w e l l s were i n t h e Sarhad p r o v i n c e , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t it i s d e f i c i e n t i n f o o d . I n 1964-65, i t s s h a r e of West P a k i s t a n ' s food p r o d u c t i o n was a s f o l l o w s : w h e a t , 7 . 0 % ; r i c e , 1 . 1 % ; gram, 7 . 4 % ; b a j r a , 4 . 6 % ; jowar, 6 . 9 % ; and maize, 51%. h he magnitude of t h e l a s t f i g u r e c a n b e q u i t e m i s l e a d i n g b e c a u s e maize p r o d . ~ c t i o nc o n s t i t u t e d o n l y 6 . 6 % of t h e above mentioned food i t e m s plus barley. ) The movement a g a i n s t t h e l o p s i d e d d e v e l o p ment and a g a i n s t t h e p o l i t i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o i t , i s t h e r e f o r e waged n o t by t h e b o u r g e o i s i e which h a s succeeded i n s p i t e of i t , b u t by t h e c l a s s e s whose growth h a s b e e n s t u n t e d by i t . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e s e c l a s s e s a r e t h e p e t t y b o u r g e o i s i e and t h e l a n d l o r d s d e s i r i n g t o become i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s t s . The main i d e o l o g u e of t h i s movement i s u s u a l l y found i n t h e e d u c a t e d segment of t h e r e g i o n a l p e t t y b o u r g e o i s i e which i s d e n i e d i t s due s h a r e i n t h e government j o b s , b e c a u s e of t h e narrow and p a r o c h i a l b a s e of s t a t e power. Their economic d e s i r e s a r e p o l i t i c a l l y t r a n s l a t e d i n t o t h e demands l o r p o l i t i c a l l i b e r t i e s and autonomy o r s e c e s s i o n . I n t h e Sarhad p r o v i n c e , t h e N A P i s composed m a i n l y of such e l e m e n t s r a t h e r t h a n of t h e It r e f l e c t s t h e i n t e r e s t s r i s i n g bourgeoisie. n o t of t h o s e who c o n t r o l t h e c a p i t a l i s t means of p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e , b u t of t h o s e who a s p i r e t o c o n t r o l them. 3ut here again the

No.

September 1973

P a k i s t a n Forum

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e n t i r e l a n d l o r d c l a s s and t h e e n t i r e p e t t y b o u r g e o i s i e a r e not u n i t e d behind i t . S i n c e t h e f o r m a t i o n of t h e N A P government i n Sarhad t h e p a r t y ' s i n f l u e n c e among t h e l a n d l o r d s h a s no doubt i n c r e a s e d (we s h a l l d i s c u s s t h e r e a s o n s l a t e r . ) U n i f i c a t i o n of t h e p e t t y bourgeo i s i e , however, h a s continued t o pose a s e r i ous problem f o r i t . As h a s been observed i n E a s t Bengal and e l s e w h e r e , t h e r e g i o n a l educated p e t t y bourgeo i s i e t s v i r u l e n t n a t i o n a l i s m i s prompted mainly by i t s u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e c i v i l and m i l i t a r y jobs and by t h e s u p p r e s s i o n of i t s n a t i o n a l language and c u l t u r e . I f we examine t h e c a s e of t h e Pushtoons o r of Sarhad i n t h i s r e s p e c t , we w i l l be a b l e t o understand why t h e educated Pushtoon p e t t y bourgeoisie i s so divided. W e do not have d a t a t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e Pushtoons i n t h e c i v i l s e r v i c e . The quota system i n t h e c i v i l s e r v i c e h a s allowed c o n s i d e r a b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r t h e Pushtoons, even though many P u n j a b i s manage t o o b t a i n f a l s e d o m i c i l e c e r t i f i c a t e s and c a p t u r e t h e jobs a l l o t t e d t o t h e Pushtoons i n Sarhad and B a l u c h i s t a n . The u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e Pushtoons cannot be anywhere n e a r t h a t of t h e B e n g a l i s and B a l u c h i s . With r e s p e c t t o t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e m i l i t a r y and t h e a c c e s s t o t h e w i n d f a l l s of m i l i t a r y e x p e n d i t u r e , t h e Pushtoons seem t o be more f a v o u r a b l y p l a c e d t h a n t h e i r prop o r t i o n i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n would w a r r a n t . Being roughly 1 3 . 5 % of P a k i s t a n f s p o p u l a t i o n , t h e Pushtoons, i t i s e s t i m a t e d , comprise 15-20% of i t s armed f o r c e s , i n c l u d i n g highranking p o s i t i o n s . M i l i t a r y establishments i n t h e Sarhad p r o v i n c e i n c l u d e a i r f o r c e b a s e s a t Peshawer, Kohat, R i s a l p u r and C h i t r a l ; t h e P a k i s t a n M i l i t a r y Academy a t Kakul; t h e A i r Force C o l l e g e a t R i s a l p u r ; t h e School of A r t i l l e r y and t h e Armoured Corps School a t Nowshera; t h e School of M i l i t a r y E n g i n e e r i n g a t R i s a l p u r ; t h e School of S i g n a l Communicat i o n s a t Kohat; t h e Army School of Music a t Abbottabad; and a number of army b a s e s . There i s a good chunk of Pushtoon p e t t y bourgeo i s i e which b e n e f i t s from t h e s e a r r a n g e m e n t s . The s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e s u p p r e s s i o n of n a t i o n a l language and n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e u s u a l l y s e r v e s a s t h e l e g i t i m i z i n g cover f o r t h e r e d r e s s i n g of t h e r e a l economic g r i e v a n c e s . But more o f t e n t h a n not such s u p p r e s s i o n i s r e a l , and t h e p e t t y b o u r g e o i s i e d e v e l o p s a s e n t i m e n t a l a t t a c h m e n t t o i t s language w h i l e Such was f i g h t i n g f o r i t s vested i n t e r e s t s . t h e c a s e i n East Bengal and such i s t h e c a s e i n Sindh. But t h e Pushtoon p e t t y b o u r g e o i s i e , having been groomed under t h e shadow of t h e

u n i v e r s i t i e s of A l i g a r h and Punjab, h a s never been a s devoted t o t h e Pushto language a s t h e B e n g a l i s and S i n d h i s have been t o t h e i r s . Because of t h e r e a s o n s enumerated above t h e educated p e t t y b o u r g e o i s i e h a s n e i t h e r p a r t i c i p a t e d whole h e a r t e d l y i n t h e n a t i o n a l movement nor h a s been a b l e t o p r o v i d e a s good a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n f o r t h e Pushtoon n a t i o n a l i s m a s i t s c o u n t e r p a r t s i n Bengal and Sindh have.

I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e N A P h a s had such a l i m i t e d a p p e a l among t h e Pushtoons. I n t h e 1970 e l e c t i o n s , i t c a p t u r e d 1 8 . 8 % of t h e v o t e and 16.7% of t h e s e a t s i n t h e r a c e f o r t h e n a t i o n a l assembly, and 19.4% of t h e v o t e and 32.5% of t h e s e a t s i n t h e prov i n c i a l assembly r a c e . I n Baluchistan it f a i l e d t o e l e c t a s i n g l e c a n d i d a t e i n t h e Pushtoon a r e a s f o r e i t h e r of t h e a s s e m b l i e s .
Given t h e f a c t t h a t Sarhad h a s s u f f e r e d because of t h e d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p o l i c i e s of t h e C e n t r a l Government and t h a t t h e c l a s s i n t e r e s t s of t h e dominant b o u r g e o i s i e would not a l l o w t h e r e l e a s e of p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s i n Sarhad one could a r g u e t h a t s e c e s s i o n under t h e p r e s e n t c h a r a c t e r of t h e n a t i o n a l movement would s t i l l l e a d t o t h e g r e a t e r development of t h e product i v e f o r c e s and t o t h e s h a r p e n i n g of c l a s s struggle

Before r e a c h i n g such a c o n c l u s i o n , however,

i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o examine t h e c h a r a c t e r of t h e
" n a t i o n a l b o u r g e o i s i e v i n t h e n e o c o l o n i a l count r i e s , t h e o p t i o n s open t o i t , and t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s of c l a s s s t r u g g l e f o r t h e workers and peasants

N a t i o n a l Bourgeoisie o r Doubly Comprador Bourgeoisie?

A good s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r such a d i s c u s s i o n would be t o examine t h e behaviour of t h e Sarhad N A P and i t s Government i n t h e p r o v i n c e . Although i t was n o t a n autonomous government, i t s conduct i s f a i r l y i n d i c a t i v e of t h e d i r e c t i o n s i n which a n independent P u s h t o o n i s t a n i s l i k e l y t o go under t h e n a t i o n a l i s t l e a d e r s h i p .
C i t i n g t h e d i s p a r i t i e s between t h e Pusht o o n and o t h e r a r e a s i n terms of development, a l l o c a t i o n of revenues and p e r c a p i t a income etc. the N A P h a s t r i e d t o m o b i l i z e t h e masses i n o r d e r t o w r e s t t h e c o n t r o l of Sarhad. A l though i t c l a i m s t o be based on t h e g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d ( ~ a r x i s t ! )p r i n c i p l e s of n a t i o n a l i t y , i t h a s never been a b l e t o d e f i n e i t s n a t i o n a l i s m c l e a r l y . The Sarhad wing of t h e p a r t y , d e s p i t e i t s n a t i o n a l i s t c l a i m s , would not even c o n s i d e r p a r t i n g w i t h t h e non-Pushtoon a r e a s of t h e p r o v i n c e , and, by t h e same t o k e n , could not p r e v a i l upon i t s B a l u c h i s t a n c o u n t e r p a r t

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t o a g r e e t o t h e a n n e x a t i o n of t h e Pushtospeaking a r e a s of B a l u c h i s t a n by Sarhad. The r e s u l t b e i n g t h e a c c e p t a n c e i n 1969 of t h e o l d a r b i t r a r i l y c r e a t e d p r o v i n c e s of B a l u c h i s t a n W F P ( ~ a r h a d ) . The N A P d i d not even p r e s s and N f o r t h e renaming of t h e l a t t e r p r o v i n c e a s Pushtoonistan. So l o n g a s a s e p a r a t e p r o v i n c e was c r e a t e d and t h e r e was a r e a s o n a b l e chance of c o n t r o l l i n g i t , i t d i d not m a t t e r what i t was based on. T h i s kind of pragmatism on t h e p a r t of t h e NAP l e a d e r s h i p l e d t o t h e s p l i t t i n g of A c h a k z a i f s group which c a l l e d i t s e l f N A P (~ukhtoonkhwa) and which i n s i s t e d on drawi n g p r o v i n c i a l b o u n d a r i e s on a l i n g u a l b a s i s . o ow ever, when t h e crunch came t h e same Achakzai was found i n t h e camp of t h e a r c h c e n t r a l i s t Zulf i k a r A l i Bhutto d u r i n g t h e B a l u c h i s t a n c r i s i s of 1972-73. ) The c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of t h i s p a r t y have been exposed a t e v e r y s t e p i n i t s p o l i t i c a l conduct. While i t y e l l e d and w a i l e d about r e g i o n a l d i s p a r i t i e s , i t awarded a n e l e c t i o n t i c k e t t o one of t h e main a r c h i t e c t s of d i s p a r i t y i n i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , Ghulam Farooque, and made him t h e m i n i s t e r f o r i n d u s t r i e s a f t e r wards. While i t p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t t h e P u n j a b i (and Kathiawari) domination, i t i n v i t e d t h e v e r y same c a p i t a l i s t s t o ftdevelopwSarhad. While i t used t h e p r o t e c t i o n of n a t i o n a l l a n guages a s a p r i n c i p a l i s s u e i n i t s s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t One U n i t , i t adopted Urdu a s t h e o f f i c i a l language of t h e province no sooner t h a n i t formed t h e Government. While i t p o r t r a y e d i t s e l f a s t h e well-wisher of t h e workers, one of t h e f i r s t a c t s of i t s Government was t o ban s t r i k e s . While i t s g r e a t e s t c l a i m has been t o r e p r e s e n t t h e Pushtoon p e a s a n t s , a t no time i n P a k i s t a n ' s h i s t o r y t h e r e p r e s s i o n a g a i n s t t h e p e a s a n t s had been g r e a t e r t h a n d u r i n g t h e NAPTs t e n u r e of o f f i c e . While i t bragged about democracy and s e c u l a r i s m , i t consented t o t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n of emergency powers and made Mufti Mahmood t h e Chief Minis t e r of Sarhad. While it c o n s i d e r e d i t s name t o be synonymous w i t h maximum autonomy, i t a g r e e d t o a c o n s t i t u t i o n which g r a n t e d t o t h e p r o v i n c e s fewer powers t h a n t h e 1935 Act of B r i t i s h I n d i a . This, then, i s a b r i e f l i s t of t h e s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of t h e NAP, t h e s e l f - s t y l e d champion of t h e Pushtoon masses. N o wonder, t h e n , t h a t when t h e f e d e r a l Government f o r c e d i t s m i n i s t r y t o r e s i g n , t h e Pushtoon people showed no sympathy f o r i t . According t o t h e Mazdoor-Kisan l e a d e r A f z a l Bangash id-o- aha ad, Sept - 0 c t . 1973) , A jmal Khatak t o l d him t h a t he f e a r e d t h a t t h e Pusht o o n n a s s e s might l y n c h t h e N A P l e a d e r s . The C e n t r a l Government was so c e r t a i n of i t s unp o p u l a r i t y t h a t it d i d not even b o t h e r t o impose s e c t i o n 144 ( b a n on assembly) i n Sarhad d u r i n g t h e o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s ? non-cooperation

a g i t a t i o n , a l t h o u g h i n Punjab and Sindh i t had done s o . And indeed t h e Government was r i g h t - Wali Khan? s campaign f i z z l e d o u t . The Pushtoon " n a t i o n a l b o u r g e o i s i e " i s not unique i n t h i s r e s p e c t . The post-world War I1 p e r i o d o f f e r s u s numerous examples of c o u n t r i e s which won independence from t h e i r c o l o n i a l r u l e r s under t h e l e a d e r s h i p of t h e c l a s s e s which were p e t t y b o u r g e o i s r a t h e r t h a n f e u d a l o r b o u r g e o i s , and which were r a d i c a l l y n a t i o n a l i s t i n t h e i r i d e o l o g y . Yet, a l l of them succumbed t o i m p e r i a l i s m . Prominent among t h e s e were t h e avowedly a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t regimes of Sukarno i n I n d o n e s i a and of Nkrumah i n Ghana. F a i l i n g t o e x t r i c a t e themselves from t h e imperi a l i s t s t r a n g l e h o l d i n a n a t i o n a l i s t framework, t h e y paved t h e way f o r m i l i t a r y t a k e - o v e r s and f o r more r e p a c i o u s e x p l o i t a t i o n by i m p e r i a l i s m . O t h e r s remained i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n s a s t h e y dropped even t h e p r e t e n s e of a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s m . Amilcar C a b r a l g i v e s t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s f a i l u r e of t h e n a t i o n a l i s t w b o u r g e o i s i e w : "The submission of t h e l o c a l ? r u l i n g ? c l a s s t o t h e r u l i n g c l a s s of t h e dominat i n g c o u n t r y l i m i t s o r p r e v e n t s t h e development of t h e n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s . But i n t h e c o n c r e t e c o n d i t i o n s of t h e present-day world economy t h i s dependence i s f a t a l and t h u s t h e l o c a l pseudobourgeoisie, however s t r o n g l y n a t i o n a l i s t i t may b e , cannot e f f e c t i v e l y f u l l f i l i t s h i s t o r i c a l f u n c t i o n ; i t cannot f r e e l y d i r e c t t h e development of t h e p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s ; i n b r i e f i t cannot be a national b o ~ r g e o i s i e . ~ ~ ( R e v o l u t i o n i n Guinea. ) C a b r a l ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of ttpseudobourgeoi-
s i e " i s v e r y a p t f o r t h e f o r c e s r e p r e s e n t e d by
t h e NAP--forces which have l i t t l e t o do w i t h
t h e c a p i t a l i s t mode of p r o d u c t i o n .
Even when t h e c a p i t a l i s t mode i s f a i r l y well-developed and t h e l o c a l " b o u r g e o i s i e " h a s some s h a r e i n o r c o n t r o l over i t , i t s s t r u c t u r a l t i e s w i t h i m p e r i a l i s m r e l e g a t e t h e economy t o p e r p e t u a l underdevelopment. For, t h e n , t h e l o c a l development i s p e r m i s s i b l e only t o t h e e x t e n t and only i n t h e s e c t o r s where i t compliments i m p e r i a l i s t i n t e r e s t s . Andre Gunder Frank, t h e l e a d i n g a u t h o r i t y on L a t i n American underdevelopment, r e f e r s t o such development a s lflumpendevelopment'f and such b o u r g e o i s i e a s "lumpen b o u r g e o i s i e . " C o n t r a r y t o t h e popu l a r n o t i o n s , such l o c a l b o u r g e o i s i e , i n s t e a d of having a n t a g o n i s t i c c o n f l i c t s w i t h t h e i m p e r i a l i s t s , a c t u a l l y p r o f i t s from t h e n a t i o n a l underdevelopment. As Frank h a s remarked: " I f dependence were p u r e l y ' e x t e r n a l ? , i t could be argued t h a t o b j e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t which would permit t h e ? n a t i o n a l i s t '

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o r lautonomous? s o l u t i o n t o t h e problem of underdevelopment. But i n our view, such a s o l u t i o n d o e s not e x i s t - - p r e c i s e l y because dependence i s i n d i v i s i b l e and makes t h e b o u r g e o i s i e i t s e l f dependent." (Lumpenbourgeoisie and Lumpendevelopment.) The l o o s e usage of t h e t e r m b o u r g e o i s i e has l e d t o a sequence of t r a g e d i e s of e r r o r A non-bourgeoisie of t h e Pushi n Pakistan. t o o n s i s c a l l e d a " n a t i o n a l b o u r g e o i s i e w and i s p i t t e d a g a i n s t a Punjabi ( o r Kathiawari) " i m p e r i a l i s t b o u r g e o i s i e u when t h e l a t t e r i s no more t h a n a comprador oi7 "lumpentt bourgeo i s i e . It i s a b o u r g e o i s i e which, i n s t e a d of playing i t s h i s t o r i c a l progressive r o l e , has g o t t h e c o u n t r y t a n g l e d i n t h e web of imperi a l i s t a i d and t r a d e , mortgaging t h e c o u n t r y f o r $5 b i l l i o n d e b t and spending 20% of t h e f o r e i g n exchange e a r n i n g s on s e r v i c i n g t h e s e I t s much h e r a l d e d "economic m i r a c l e " loans. i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e f a c t t h a t n e a r l y oneh a l f of P a k i s t a n ' s Gross Domestic Product c o n s i s t s of t h e s o - c a l l e d s e r v i c e s , whereas o n l y 13% i s c o n t r i b u t e d by manufacturing-t h a t t o o n o t of t h e kind which would l a y a sound f o u n d a t i o n f o r economic growth. Its i n t e r e s t l i e s i n keeping P a k i s t a n a s a n underdeveloped appendage i n t h e i m p e r i a l i s t imposed world d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r .
A p s e u d o b o u r g e o i s i e , l i k e t h e one r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e NAP, i s even more v u l n e r a b l e t o collaborating with t h e imperialists. Beset w i t h p o o r l y developed i n d u s t r i a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and s o c i a l overhead c a p i t a l , and b e i n g devoid of t e c h n i c a l and m a n a g e r i a l know-how, i t t e n d s t o l o o k outwards f o r i t s r e q u i r e d needs. I m p o r t a t i o n of o u t s i d e c a p i t a l becomes i t s d i r e n e c e s s i t y . Then, u s i n g i t s p o l i t i c a l power, based on n a t i o n a l i s m , i t can a s s u r e i t s e l f of t h e crumbs of t h a t development, such a s c o n s t r u c t i o n and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o n t r a c t s , a g e n c i e s , p r o f e s s i o n a l and manageri a l j o b s , and s e r v i c e w i n d f a l l s , and can i n v e s t i t s s u r p l u s a s a j u n i o r p a r t n e r of t h e outside bourgeoisie.

However, i n t h e underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s t h e dominant b o u r g e o i s i e , b e i n g a mere comprad o r and b e i n g p o l i t i c a l l y immature, f a i l s t o r e s o l v e t h e n a t i o n a l o r r e g i o n a l q u e s t i o n even t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n of t h e p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s e s of t h e r e g i o n . S e c e s s i o n t h e n becomes t h e r a l l y i n g c r y of t h e a s p i r i n g b o u r g e o i s i e of t h e l e s s developed r e g i o n s . I f i t succeeds i n g a i n i n g p o l i t i c a l independence, it t u r n s t o i m p e r i a l i s t c o u n t r i e s t o f u l l f il t h e same obj e c t i v e s i n a more shameless manner t h a n t h e comprador b o u r g e o i s i e which had p r e v i o u s l y domi n a t ed i t . The c y c l e of i m p e r i a l i s m and underdevelopment b e g i n s once a g a i n . N e i t h e r a r e t h e productive f o r c e s released nor a r e t h e democratic r i g h t s r e s t o r e d . On t h e c o n t r a r y t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n by t h e nouveau b o u r g e o i s i e and i m p e r i a l i s m becomes more b r u t a l , and t h e r e p r e s s i v e machinThe r e s t r a i n e r y i s b u i l t up a s never b e f o r e . i n g i n f l u e n c e which t h e t h r e a t of s e c e s s i o n had on t h e f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s i s now removed. The p u b l i c o p i n i o n beyond t h e new b o r d e r s which used t o g e t a r o u s e d about n a t i o n a l p e r s e c u t i o n now becones dormant and t r e a t s t h e m a t t e r a s a n i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t w i t h i n t h e new n a t i o n . While t h e f r i e n d s h i p c i r c l e of t h e "bourgeois i e " widens, t h e masses a r e c u t o f f from t h e h e l p which t h e y used t o g e t d i r e c t l y and l e g a l l y from t h e i r former countrymen. The above s c e n a r i o i s o b t a i n e d even i n Bangladesh, where t h e n a t i o n a l movement was s i g n i f i c a n t l y more advanced t h a n t h e Pushtoon n a t i o n a l movement and where independence was made i n e v i t a b l e by t h e immature p o l i t i c a l beh a v i o u r of t h e dominant b o u r g e o i s i e . But not h i n g r e a l l y changed i n t h e new S t a t e . The n a t i o n a l middle c l a s s , t o p a r a p h r a s e Fanon, simply d i s c o v e r e d i t s h i s t o r i c m i s s i o n of being an intermediary. Without a fundamental b r e a k w i t h t h e i m p e r i a l i s t -dominat ed s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h e r e can be no q u e s t i o n of independent n a t i o n a l development. Obviously t h e c l a s s e s which b e n e f i t from and p e r p e t u a t e t h i s dependence cannot be t h e a g e n t s of n a t i o n a l l i b e r a t i o n . Underscoring t h i s p o i n t Le Duan, F i r s t S e c r e t a r y of t h e V i e t N a m Workers? P a r t y , s t a t e d , " i n t h e p r e s e n t e r a , n a t i o n a l independence, democracy and s o c i a l i s m a r e inseparable.!! (TJg Viet-Namese R e v o l u t i o n . ) The P o s i t i o n of P e a s a n t s and Workers So f a r we have c o n s i d e r e d t h e Pushtoon
n a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n mainly i n b o u r g e o i s t e r m s ,
i . e . t o examine t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s of independe n t c a p i t a l i s t development, b o u r g e o i s democracy and l e s s r e s t r i c t e d c l a s s s t r u g g l e . Our a n a l y s i s

Within a m u l t i n a t i o n a l union i t may comb i n e t h e t h r e a t of s e c e s s i o n w i t h i n c e n t i v e s such a s reduced t a x e s , a n t i - l a b o u r laws and freedom t o r e p a t r i a t e p r o f i t s i n o r d e r t o l u r e t h e b i g b o u r g e o i s i e of t h e dominant r e g i o n . (1n Pakistan t h e N A P t r i e d t o exploit the big b o u r g e o i s i e l s nervousness about t h e P e o p l e t s P a r t y t o a t t r a c t it t o Sarhad and B a l u c h i s t a n . ) Such behaviour on t h e p a r t of t h e b o u r g e o i s i e of l e s s developed r e g i o n s h a s been n o t i c e d even i n t h e c o u n t r i e s a s advanced a s t h e Unit e d S t a t e s , where t h e s o u t h e r n s t a t e s bend over backwards t o a t t r a c t c a p i t a l from t h e N o r t h e a s t , w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e waving t h e f l a g of confederacy and s i n g i n g D i x i e .

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shows t h a t under t h e g i v e n m a t r i x of world i m p e r i a l i s t r e l a t i o n s and t h e l o c u s of t h e "national bourgeoisiev i n t h a t matrix these p o s s i b i l i t i e s do n o t e x i s t . However, had o u r c o n c l u s i o n been d i f f e r e n t it would n o t have ended t h e m a t t e r , f o r we a r e n o t m e r e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e e v o l u t i o n of t h e p r o d u c t i v e f o r ces. W e a r e interested i n the revolution which would d e s t r o y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s of p r o d u c t i o n based on t h e d i v i s i o n of s o c i e t y i n t o e x p l o i t i n g and e x p l o i t e d c l a s s e s . Therefore, it i s necessary f o r us t o examine t h e p o s i t i o n and a t t i t u d e s of t h e Pushtoon p e a s a n t s and workers i n a u n i f i e d multinational Pakistan. The immediate enemy of t h e p e a s a n t r y , t h e l a r g e s t segment of t h e Pushtoon p o p u l a t i o n , i s t h e Pushtoon l a n d l o r d a g a i n s t whom i t i s engaged i n a f i e r c e s t r u g g l e . I n t h e p a s t few y e a r s n e a r l y one hundred p e a s a n t s s a c r i f i c e d t h e i r l i v e s i n t h e s c o r e s of b a t t l e s t h e y f o u g h t against the police, the militia, the levy, the Pukhtoon Zalme and t h e p r i v a t e a r m i e s of t h e l a n d l o r d s . T h e i r k i l l e r i n e a c h i n s t a n c e was a Pushtoon, and most of t h e c l a s h e s t o o k p l a c e d u r i n g t h e Government of t h e NAP. The p e a s a n t s know from t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e t h a t t h e format i o n of a lfPushtoon Governmentn o n l y i n t e n s i f i e d t h e i r oppression. They know b e t t e r t h a n anyone e l s e t h a t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a n i n dependent P u s h t o o n i s t a n under t h e p r e s e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s would s i m p l y amount t o g r a n t i n g a b l a n k cheque t o t h e s e l a n d l o r d s t o e s c a l a t e t h e i r murderous o n s l a u g h t and t o c u t o f f t h e s u p p o r t which t h e p e a s a n t s have b e e n r e c e i v i n g from t h e t o i l i n g p e o p l e i n o t h e r p a r t s of Pakistan. Living i n P a k i s t a n not only broadens t h e support base f o r t h e i r s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e l a n d l o r d s , b u t a l s o p r o v i d e s them w i t h a n e s cape i n c a s e of t h e i r f a i l u r e t o s t o p e v i c t i o n . Thousands of Pushtoon p e a s a n t s , e j e c t e d from l a n d , a r e working a s f a c t o r y w o r k e r s and l a b o u r e r s throughout P a k i s t a n , e s p e c i a l l y i n Karachi, t h e p r i m a t e c i t y of P a k i s t a n . According t o some e s t i m a t e s o v e r 80% o f a l l t h e f a c t o r y workers i n K a r a c h i a r e P u s h t o o n s , and a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of Pushtoons a r e t o be found among t h e dock w o r k e r s , cab d r i v e r s , r o a d d i g g e r s and o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s i n t h a t c i t y . The 1972 P o p u l a t i o n Census d i d n o t a s k t h e q u e s t i o n on mother t o n g u e , b u t c o n s i d e r i n g t h e massive m i g r a t i o n ( n e a r l y one m i l l i o n between 1 9 6 1 and 1972) t h a t h a s t a k e n p l a c e i n K a r a c h i and t h e preponderance of Pushtoons among t h e s e i n - m i g r a n t s , we c a n s a f e l y e s t i m a t e t h a t now t h e r e a r e no f e w e r t h a n 600,000 Pushtoons i n K a r a c h i . These and o t h e r Pushtoons working i n Sindh and Punjab must b e t a k e n i n t o cons i d e r a t i o n when we t a l k a b o u t t h e Pushtoons o r

a b o u t t h e Pushtoon n a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n . They c a n n o t b e d i s m i s s e d s i m p l y a s p o p u l a t i o n s of o t h e r provinces. I n the f i r s t place t h e i r m i g r a t i o n was prompted by t h e developments i n t h e Pushtoon a r e a s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e m a s s i v e e v i c t i o n of p e a s a n t s f a c i l i t a t e d by Ayub Khants l a n d r e f o r m s and i t s c o r o l l a r y t h e "Green Revolution." Secondly, t h e y c o n t i n u e t o m a i n t a i n t i e s w i t h t h e i r k i n f o l k b a c k horne, whom t h e y s u p p o r t f i n a n c i a l l y and t o whom t h e y c a n r e t u r n when l a i d o f f from work, a s happened i n O c t o b e r 1972. The i n t e g r a t i o n of P a k i s t a n , t h e r e f o r e , h a s d e f i n i t e a d v a n t a g e s t o t h e Pushtoon worki n g c l a s s which d e r i v e s i t s s u s t e n a n c e i n o t h e r provinces. Since t h e i r peasant r e l a t i v e s i n t h e Pushtoon a r e a s depend upon t h i s income, t h e y can a l s o be considered t o be d i r e c t l y eco n o m i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t h e r e s t of P a k i s t a n . Beyond t h e narrow c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of j o b s and income, t h i s s i t u a t i o n h a s f a r d e e p e r s o c i a l implications. The Pushtoon p r o l e t a r i a t i n K a r a c h i , b e s i d e s b e i n g t h e most numerous, i s a l s o t h e most m i l i t a n t . He h a s a c t i v e l y and s e l f l e s s l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t r u g g l e of t h e working c l a s s . H i s c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s has been demonstrated c o n s i s t e n t l y , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g t h e l a n g u a g e r i o t s i n S i n d h i n 1972 when he r e f u s e d t o b e m i s l e d by t h e Urdu b i g o t s . He h a s u n d o u b t e d l y been a g r e a t a s s e t t o t h e w o r k e r s of a l l e t h n i c g r o u p s i n S i n d h , and e v e n H i s p r o l e t a r i a n i z a t i o n and d e v e l o p i n Punjab. ment of new c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s h a s had a s a l u t a r y e f f e c t on t h e p e a s a n t movement i n Sarhad. Through h i s t i e s w i t h h i s v i l l a g e he h a s become a c a r r i e r of p r o l e t a r i a n i d e o l o g y t o t h e countryside. E x p r e s s i o n s of Pushtoon p e a s a n t s , s o l i d a r i t y w i t h t h e workers throughout P a k i s t a n can be d e m o n s t r a t e d by numerous examples. W e shall c i t e o n l y two h e r e : (1) i n t h e wake of t h e m a s s a c r e of w o r k e r s i n K a r a c h i i n O c t o b e r 1972, t h e p e a s a n t s of Sarhad t o o k o u t a two m i l e - l o n g p r o c e s s i o n i n t h e Peshawer c i t y and h e l d a g i gantic r a l l y i n order t o express t h e i r solidari t y w i t h t h e w o r k e r s of K a r a c h i ; ( 2 ) a b o u t a month p r i o r t o t h a t 1 4 p e a s a n t s of Mardan d i s t r i c t were a r r e s t e d w h i l e on t h e i r way t o h e l p t h e p e a s a n t s o f Malakand, who were engaged i n a b a t t l e w i t h t h e l a n d l o r d s ; t h e y were s e n t e n ced t o 1 0 y e a r s , imprisonment b e c a u s e t h e y gave a s t a t e m e n t t o t h e P o l i t i c a l Agent t h a t f o r t h e s a k e of t h e s o l i d a r i t y o f t h e t o i l i n g p e o p l e t h e y would n o t have h e s i t a t e d even from going t o Karachi. S i m i l a r s e n t i m e n t s c a n b e d i s c e r n e d among Last year, t h e Pushtoon w o r k e r s i n Sarhad. t h i s w r i t e r happened t o a t t e n d a r a l l y of t h e s t r i k i n g w o r k e r s of t h e Y u s u f z a i T e x t i l e M i l l s i n T a k h t b h a i , n e a r Mardan. The s u b j e c t m a t t e r

September 1973

P a k i s t a n Forum

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of t h e speeches of t h e l e a d e r s was not c o n f i n ed t o economic demands, l a b o u r u n i t y o r even t h e a b o l i t i o n of c a p i t a l i s m . There was a conscious attempt t o l i n k separatism with t h e enemies of t h e people. One l e a d e r , f o r example, asked t h e workers, "do you want t o s e e P a k i s t a n s p l i t i n t o p i e c e s ? " The workers unanimously answered n e g a t i v e l y . Thus, from t h e vantage p o i n t of t h e worke r s and p e a s a n t s economic i n t e g r a t i o n between t h e Pushtoon a r e a s and t h e r e s t of P a k i s t a n e x i s t s i n a very d i r e c t s e n s e , and t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n h e l p s them not only i n t h e immediate terms by p r o v i d i n g jobs and income s u p p o r t but a l s o i n t h e long r u n by advancing t h e i r s t r u g g l e and broadening t h e s u p p o r t b a s e f o r t h a t struggle. The p r e s e n t economic and p o l i t i c a l i n t e r c o u r s e between t h e Pushtoon a r e a s and t h e r e s t of P a k i s t a n , i n v o l v i n g a l l t h e c l a s s e s , r e i n f o r c e s t h e h i s t o r i c a l economic and c u l t u r a l l i n k s between t h e d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s of West Pakistan. This i s q u i t e i n c o n t r a s t with East Bengal which was p h y s i c a l l y s e p a r a t e d from West P a k i s t a n by 1000 m i l e s and which had l i t t l e i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h i t p r i o r t o 1947, A f t e r 1947 t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two p a r t s t o o k t h e shape of a l i e n domination-much l i k e a c o l o n i a l r e l a t i o n - - o f E a s t Bengal whereby p r a c t i c a l l y a l l t h e c l a s s e s of E a s t Bengal were s u b j u g a t e d by t h e dominant bourgeo i s i e of West P a k i s t a n . T h e r e f o r e , i n view of t h e s e o b j e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s , i t seems v e r y u n l i k e l y t h a t a s i t u a t i o n w i l l be c r e a t e d i n which s e c e s s i o n w i l l become a n e c e s s i t y . But c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s u b j e c t i v e f a c t o r s of t h e r u l i n g b o u r g e o i s i e , such a s i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n , i d e o l o g y and t h e a b i l i t y t o c o o p t , one cannot be t o o s u r e about i t s f u t u r e conduct. SOCIALISM AND THE NATIONAL QUESTION Having concluded t h a t t h e development of t h e underdeveloped r e g i o n s and t h e r e s o l u t i o n of t h e n a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n i n t h e s e r e g i o n s a r e not p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t s o c i a l i s m , one needs t o be c a u t i o u s about t h e tendency t o o v e r s i m p l i f y . The a s s e r t i o n s about t h e s o c i a l i s t s o l u t i o n should not be t a k e n t o o m e c h a n i c a l l y , and one should not l i v e under t h e i l l u s i o n t h a t n a t i o n a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n w i l l e v a p o r a t e a s soon a s t h e r u l e of t h e l a n d l o r d s and c a p i t a l i s t s i s overthrown. "By t r a n s f o r m i n g c a p i t a l i s m i n t o s o c i a l i s m , " s a i d Lenin, " t h e p r o l e t a r i a t c r e a t e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of a b o l i s h i n g n a t i o n a l o p p r e s s i o n ; t h e p o s s i b i l i t y becomes r e a l i t y ! o n l y ? - - ! o n l y ? f - - w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of f u l l democracy i n a l l s p h e r e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e

d e l i n e a t i o n of s t a t e f r o n t i e r s i n accordance w i t h t h e ? s y m p a t h i e s ? of t h e p o p u l a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g complete freedom t o secede." (The D i s c u s s i o n on S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n Summed Lenin s a i d t h i s i n r e f e r e n c e t o a r e a s where c a p i t a l i s m was advancing and where t h e r e was a of i n t r o d u c i n g s o c i a l i s m a f t e r t h e revolution. W e a r e l i v i n g i n t h e regions whose development h a s been d i s t o r t e d by coloni a l i s m and whose underdevelopment i s b e i n g p e r p e t u a t e d by neocolonialism; a r e a s where t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y of t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s t i e d up i n p r e - c a p i t a l i s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The underdevelopment of our p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e underdevelopment of our s u p e r s t r u c t u r e s , i n c l u d i n g i d e o l o g y . I n our c a s e t h e t r a n s l a t i o n of t h e possibility i n t o r e a l i t y i s f r a u g h t w i t h even g r e a t e r problems. P r o l o n g a t i o n of t h e s t r u g g l e , a s i n V i e t Nam, a l l o w s f o r t h e development of a n i d e o l o g i c a l m a t u r i t y f a r beyond t h e expected l e v e l corresponding t o t h e development of p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s . Yet t h e s t r u g g l e needs t o be i n t e n s i f i e d a f t e r c a p t u r i n g s t a t e power, a s i n China. The need f o r t h e c u l t u r a l r e v o l u t i o n and t h e p r e s e n t emphasis on t h e r e v o l u t i o n i n t h e s u p e r s t r u c t u r e i n China r e f l e c t t h e problems f a c e d by a s o c i e t y t r y i n g t o s k i p t h e c a p i t a l i s t phase i n i t s march towards s o c i a l i s m . The simultaneous e x i s t e n c e of c a p i t a l i s t r e l a t i o n s i n c e r t a i n s e c t o r s with t h e superstructural c a r r y - o v e r from t h e p a s t magnify t h e danger of count e r - r e v o l u t i o n . When a m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o l o n i a l / s e m i c o l o n i a l / n e o c o l o n i a l c o u n t r y succeeds i n b r i n g i n g about a P e o p l e t s Democratic R e v o l u t i o n , one of t h e main d a n g e r s it f a c e s i s t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n of t h e n a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n i n i t s o l d form. T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y must be curbed a t e v e r y s t e p i n t h e revolutionary struggle i t s e l f . The embryo of t h e f u t u r e r e l a t i o n s between t h e n a t i o n a l i t i e s must be formed d u r i n g t h e s t r u g g l e f o r s t a t e power. S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e manif e s t o of t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y p a r t y must be based on t h e v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n of t h e d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l i t i e s , including t h e r i g h t t o secessi o n . The c o n s t i t u t i o n and t h e a c t u a l p r a c t i c e of t h e p a r t y must r e f l e c t t h e p r i n c i p l e s of autonomy, e q u a l i t y and democracy f o r i t s n a t i o n a l branches. I t s l i t e r a t u r e should be publ i s h e d i n d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l languages, and i t s members should have t h e freedom t o speak i n t h e i r mother tongues i n t h e meetings.

U T

I n P a k i s t a n i t i s t h e d u t y of a l l pro-
g r e s s i v e elements i n Punjab and i n t h e Urdu-
speaking group t o r e s o l u t e l y oppose a l l n a t i o n -
a l p r i v i l e g e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e hegemony of Urdu
which symbolizes t h e s e p r i v i l e g e s , and t o sup-
p o r t t h e r i g h t of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n f o r t h e
Pushtoons and o t h e r n a t i o n a l i t i e s . While t h e
( c o n t i n u e d on page 2 2 )

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P a k i s t a n Forum

September 1973

e l s e w h e r e i n t h e book, one d o e s s e n s e a c e r t a i n pessimism r e g a r d i n g r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o t e n tial. Reading of t h e i n t e r n e c i n e l e f t s t r u g g l e s , t h e c o n f l i c t s over e l e c t o r a l p o l i t i c s , and t h e s u b s e r v i e n c e t o l i n e s developed e l s e where f o r o t h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s , one cannot r e p r e s s a c e r t a i n f e e l i n g of d e s p a i r . Nonetheless, i n i t s e n t i r e t y , Imperialism and R e v o l u t i o n i n S o u t h A s i a d o e s p r o v i d e a f o u n d a t i o n f o r optimism. The e v e n t s of 1 9 7 1 marked a w a t e r s h e d i n S o u t h A s i a . The b r e a k up of P a k i s t a n and t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s c r i s i s i n Ceylon have d r a s t i c a l l y a l t e r e d t h e s i t u a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e a r e a . It seems c l e a r t h a t t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s between t h e r u l i n g f o r c e s and t h e e x p l o i t e d masses i s i n t e n s i f y i n g and new opportunities f o r the revolutionary l e f t a r e developing. The s i t u a t i o n h o l d s o u t even more p o s s i b i l i t i e s b e c a u s e o f t h e c u r r e n t p o l i t i c a l and economic c r i s i s of world c a p i t a l i s m brought on by t h e f a i l u r e of t h e U.S. i n Vietnam. The Gough-Sharma c o l l e c t i o n makes u s u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e f a c t o r s and l e a d s u s t o understand t h a t , while t h e r e i s nothing a u t o m a t i c which i n s u r e s t h e r i s e of t h e l e f t , there a r e opportunities. And a f i n a l n o t e of optimism i s c r e a t e d by t h e e x i s t e n c e of t h e book i t s e l f : f i r s t r a t e a n a l y s i s may n o t make t h e r e v o l u t i o n , b u t it h e l p s !
Arthur MacEwan

E s s a y s On t h e P o l i t i c a l Economy Of I n d i a E d i t e d by :

S. A. SHAH

INTRODUCTION: "Development and N a t i o n a l L i b eration. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES: Habib, I . "Problems of M a r x i s t H i s t o r i c a l Analysis i n India." Chattopadhyay,D. " M a t e r i a l i s t and S p i r i t u a l i s t Traditions i n India. " Kosambi,D. D . "Caste and C l a s s i n I n d i a . I f "The P a s t i n I n d i a ' s P r e s e n t . lt THE POVERTY OF MODERNISATION: Bagchi,A. "The Theory of E f f i c i e n t NeoColonialism.fl Chattopadhyay, P. " S t a t e C a p i t a l i s m i n India. Chandra, N . K . t l F o r e i g n Aid : I l l u s i o n and R e a l i t y Madhavan,R.K. " A . D . B . : A Case-study i n Bootlicking. " Sau, R a n j i t IfThe New Economics. T O W A R D S AGRARIAN REVOLUTION Das Gupta , R . "Land R e l a t i o n s and Land Ref o m s .

National Quest ion c c o n t i n u e d

from page 1 9

Pushtoon, S i n d h i and B a l u c h i s o c i a l i s t s must f i g h t a g a i n s t t h e P u n j a b i b i g n a t i o n chauvini s m and t h e Urdu P a k i s t a n i d e o l o g y chauvinism, i t i s incumbent upon them t o f i g h t even more vigorously t h e feudal-petty bourgeois nationa l i s m among t h e i r c o m p a t r i o t s .

Index

(Continued from page 24)

D i s t r i c t P r o f i l e of B a l u c h i s t a n , Nos. 8-9 G e o l o g i c a l Resources of B a l u c h i s t a n , Nos. 8-9 I m p e r i a l i s t Bases i n t h e I n d i a n Ocean, Nos. 10-11 Some M i l i t a r y F a c t s on P a k i s t a n , Nos. 10-11 More F a c t s on I r a n , Nos. 10-11 S m a l l e r S t a t e s o f t h e A r a b i a n G u l f , Nos.10-11 B i b l i o g r a p h y on I m p e r i a l i s m , Nos. 10-11

S a i t h , A . and A . Tankha " A g r a r i a n Trans i t i o n and t h e D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of t h e P e a s a n t r y . l! Manda1,B. " C l a s s A n a l y s i s of Three V i l l a g e s i n t h e S o u t h of 24-Parganas. fl A P e a s a n t O r g a n i s e r "An I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e N a t u r e and Forms of E x p l o i t a t i o n . " Mukhopadhyay ,.A. "The P e a s a n t s of t h e Parganas Roy, N . "The U s u r i o u s E x p l o i t a t i o n . " Bardhan, P. "Green R e v o l u t i o n and A g r i c u l t u r a l Labourers." Sengupta, R . "An Aspect of a n Agrar i a n Programme." Naidu, N . Y . " T r i b a l R e v o l t i n P a r v a t i p u r a m Agency." Anonymous "Armed P e a s a n t S t r u g g l e i n t h e P a l i a Area of Lakhimpur."

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