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Part A According to an article extracted from a website http://www.livestrong.

com/fast food can be defined as, quick, easily accessible and cheap alternatives to home-cooked meals, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). They also tend to be high in saturated fat, sugar, salt and calories. Karen Hellesvig-Gaskell (2009) Nowadays, junk food has become popular in the whole world. It has become the most beneficial business for those who anticipating for turnover rather than providing healthy meal.It is a phenomenon of branding unhealthy food as instant and ready to be consumed meal for those who are busy and have no time to prepare for healthy food. Some of the example of junk food are crackers, sweets, instant noodles and others that contain high level of artificial taste and colours. A study by Zhi Yi Young, a post-graduate student (2007) of University of South Australia indicated that junk food is addictive. In her study towards the impact of fast food specified that her test subjects would also opt to go hungry rather that eat a healthier food. It seems like the desire for junk food has overridden their hunger signals; they would rather eat nothing than consume the chows as their energy source. The reason why people eat more fast food is because of increasing work hours and not finding time for a home cooked meal. Another reason people eat more fast food is because there are so many tasty choices to choose from. Most of the reasons people eat fast food is because it does not take long to get fast food when they are in a hurry. If they could find more time to spend at home with their families making homemade meals instead of ordering out, they might be able to take a step in cutting the fat out. There are a couple ideas that could be applied to avoid fast food. Firstly, make food to cook before going to work, roast for example. Prepare food the night before and reheat, or make an effort to be creative and find some other ways to find time to make that home cooked meal. In this task the, there major problems of junk food that would arise will be discussed and to determine the impacts that will lead into unhealthy lifestyle in terms of physical health, psychological and social effects.

In term of physical health, Junk food will damage arteries immediately. Experts have known for years that long-term consumption of junk food clogs arteries, but recently they have recognised that this damage begins the same day. A study published in the Canadian Journal of Cardiology (2011) indicates that damage to the arteries occurs almost immediately after just one thats right, one junk food meal. Based on this statement, it is clear as crystal that, one attempt to consume junk food will instantly harm our arteries which are part of our respiratory body system. This will widen the probabilities in suffering heart problems. Other than that, junk food will encourage us to eat more. The fats, sugar and salt in fast food draw us like a magnet, largely because they appeal to our primordial tastes. From an evolutionary point of view, humans are hard-wired to crave high-calorie food as a survival mechanism, so each time we see, smell or eat junk food, many chemicals and neurotransmitters are released in our body, explains Rashi Chowdhary (2013), a nutritionist based in Dubai. In short, on days when we ate fast food, compared with days when we ate at home, we consumed an additional 309 and 126 calories, respectively. Apart from that, junk food causes negative psychological impact to human such as depression and anxiety. A fast food diet can cause depression for a number of reasons. The fats found in many fast foods are one culprit. Fast food often contains trans-fatty acids, which, besides clogging arteries, have been shown to cause depression, according to Dr.Almudena Snchez-Villegas (2012), who studied the diets of 12,000 people for six years. An imbalance of fatty acids may be another reason why people who eat fast food are more likely to become depressed. Ideally, people should consume a ratio of no greater than nine parts omega 6 fatty acids to one part omega 3 fatty acids. Other than that, a typical order of French fries has a fatty acid ratio of 16 to 1, setting the stage for poor physical and mental health. The lack of omega 3 fatty acids in fast foods can create a mental state that includes anxiety along with depression. This doublewhammy is cause to re-evaluate your diet if you eat many fried foods. It's not just what fast food lacks that can cause anxiety, however. Fast food is high in refined carbohydrates, which can lead to blood sugar fluctuations. If your blood sugar dips into hypoglycaemic levels, you can experience anxiety, trembling, confusion and fatigue. The other effect of junk food is in term of social disability. Fast food chains such as McDonalds and Kentucky Fried Chicken are the main cause of obesity in children and in adults. Obesity can lead to high blood pressure, diabetes, joint problems and heart disease. Also obesity is hereditary and may be passed on to affect younger ones, even if they eat a healthy diet. With obesity on the up rise, many teenagers are being either prevented or distracted from doing things helpful towards them. Not only does fast food degrade these

children physically, but also mentally. These obese children may be targeted at school and be picked on because of their appearance, which may lead to low self-esteem and depression. Apart from that, family values are also comprehended because of fast food. Family issues had increased as much as social consequences. As a tradition in the past, families would all get together at the table for supper to eat and spend quality time with the family members but, ever since fast food chains became a big impact in our society, family dinners reduced a lot compared to before. Fewer family dinners equals less communication and traditions between the family members. Children these days need more family time due to their change in behaviour most of the time. They need their familys support for their mental health and stability. Without proper communication, parents are less aware of their childrens lives outside of their home. Knowing how our society has changed compared to the years before, parents should be able to know what their children are going through especially with school and friends. This tends to create an unhealthy nation because of the lack of communication. Our society should desire the need for having family dinners in order to have a healthy relationship and life. After considering the above points, it clearly shows that fast food consumption has a negative impact on society. It interferes with our lives and at the same time is a hazard to our health. This affects us and our future generation. Insomuch, it is crucially important for parents, school as well as the society to enhance their knowledge of the negativity of fast food. We should take charge of our health and avoid eating too much fast food.

Part B Greenhouse impact is a dangerous that can cause our health. It is important to know what causes the greenhouse as well as its impact to humans health. According to http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/greenhouse-effect, greenhouse effect can be defined as, Steady increase in the Earth's average lower atmosphere (near surface) temperature due to heat retention caused by the accumulation of greenhouse gases (including water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides, and chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs).

The following explanation is based on the above picture. As the Earth warms up, it emits heat in the form of infra-red radiation much like a hot pan emits heat even after it's taken away from the cooker. Some of this heat is trapped by the atmosphere, but the rest escapes into space. The so-called "greenhouse gases" make the atmosphere trap more of this radiation, so it gradually warms up more than it should, like a greenhouse. The greenhouse effect increases the temperature of the earth by trapping heat in our atmosphere. The greenhouse effect keeps the temperature of the Earth higher than it would be if direct heating by the Sun was the only source of warming. When sunlight reaches the surface of the Earth, some of it is absorbed which warms the ground and some bounces back to space as heat. Greenhouse gases that are in the atmosphere absorb and then redirect some of

this heat back towards the Earth.The greenhouse effect is a major factor in keeping our Earth warm because it keeps some of the planet's heat that would otherwise escape from the atmosphere out to space. In fact, without the greenhouse effect the Earth's average global temperature would be much colder. To understand exactly how the greenhouse effect works, imagine the following: a warm, sunny day where the sun shines bright on the Earth. This sunlight passes into the planet's atmosphere and warms the Earth. Part of this energy is absorbed by the Earth's surface and some in turn is transformed into heat and is radiated back towards space. But as this heat passes through the Earth's atmosphere on its way towards space, some of it is trapped by the different greenhouse gases and does not escape into space. This causes more heat to be kept in the atmosphere which in turn warms up the Earth. Just like the windows of a greenhouse that lets light in and keeps the heat within to warm the plants growing inside.The key is that some of this energy remains trapped within the Earth's atmosphere and some of it is released back into space. If the amount of energy from the sun and the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere remain the same, then the average temperature on Earth will also be constant. Greenhouse effect can be avoided if all of us a work hand in hand in preventing more damages to the earth. We have to take extra effort to control the greenhouse effect such as car-poolingand to plant more plants.

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Smallwood. A. (2011) Boston, USA Crowley, J (2004), The Science Teacher: Nutritional Chemistry, University of Maryland Medical Center Chowdary, R (2013).Fast Food Impact extracted from http://www.rashichowdhary.com/ Hellesvig-Gaskell, K. (2009). Definitions of fast food extracted from "The Bottom Line"; Fast Food Causes Depression, Studies Say,

http://www.livestrong.com/article/49366-definition-fast-foods/#ixzz2XmEqPcwO Greenhouse definition extracted on July 2013 from