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UNIVERSIDAD DE CARABOBO FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS DE EDUCACIÓN ESCUELA DE EDUCACIÓN DEPARTAMENTO DE IDIOMAS MODERNOS CÁTEDRA: GRAMATICA Y LINGÜÍSTICA INGLESA ASIGNATURA: LINGÜÍSTICA APLICADA

Y LINGÜÍSTICA INGLESA ASIGNATURA: LINGÜÍSTICA APLICADA PHONETICS REVIEW Phonetics studies sounds produced in human

PHONETICS REVIEW

INGLESA ASIGNATURA: LINGÜÍSTICA APLICADA PHONETICS REVIEW Phonetics studies sounds produced in human languages. 

Phonetics studies sounds produced in human languages.

Articulatory studies how sounds are produced.

Acoustic studies how sounds travel in the air and how they are perceived by human ear.

Phonemes: Minimal units of sound that have meaning.

Consonant phonemes: consonants are sounds with some obstruction in the airstream.

CRITERIA TO DESCRIBE CONSONANTS

1. Place of articulation classifies speech sounds in terms of where in the vocal tract the air stream is obstructed.

Bilabial Made with the two lips.

Labiodental The lower lip articulates with the upper teeth.

Dental The tip or blade of the tongue, articulates with the upper teeth.

Alveolar The blade, or the tip and blade of the tongue, articulate with the alveolar ridge.

Retroflex The tip of the tongue is curled back to articulate with the part of the palate immediately behind the alveolar ridge, but there is no contact between the organs.

Alveo-palatal The blade, or tip and blade of the tongue, articulate with the back part of the alveolar ridge, and there is at the same time a raising of the front of the tongue towards the hard palate.

Palatal The front of the tongue articulates with the palate.

Velar The back of the tongue articulates with the soft palate or velum.

Uvular The back of the tongue articulates with the uvula.

Pharyngeal The root of the tongue articulates with the back of the pharynx.

Glottal The vocal cords narrow the glottis causing friction, but not vibration.

2. Manner of articulation refers to how the airflow is regulated by the tongue or lips.

Plosives A plosive is formed by the complete obstruction of the vocal tract by the articulators. This obstruction is then released, allowing the air to explode out of the mouth.

Fricatives They are produced by forcing the air stream through a passage which has been so narrowed that audible friction results.

Affricates An affricate is produced with a complete closure at some point in the mouth behind which the air pressure builds up; the separation of the organs is sufficiently slow to produce audible friction.

Laterals They are formed by an obstruction at a point along the center of the vocal tract, the air being allowed to escape on one or both sides of the contact.

Nasals Speech segments during whose production the velum is lowered closing the entrance to oral cavity, the air being allowed to escape through the nose.

Flaps They are produced by a single rapid contact of the tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge.

Approximants Speech segments where there is an approach of one articulator toward another, but without the tract being narrowed to such an extent that audible friction is produced.

3. Voicing. These states are determined by the action of the vocal folds in the larynx.

Voiceless

Voiced

BILABIAL LABIO- DENTAL ALVEOLAR RETROFLEX ALVEO- PALATAL VELAR GLOTTAL DENTAL PALATAL /p/- /t/- /k/- STOP
BILABIAL
LABIO-
DENTAL
ALVEOLAR
RETROFLEX
ALVEO-
PALATAL
VELAR
GLOTTAL
DENTAL
PALATAL
/p/-
/t/-
/k/-
STOP
/b/+
/d/+
/g/+
/f/-
/S/-
/∫/-
/h/-
/θ/-
FRICATIVE
/v/+
/Z/+
/
/+
/3/+
/t∫/-
AFFRICATE
/d3/+
LATERAL
/l/+
NASAL
/m/+
/n/+
/η/+
APPROXI-
MANTS
/w/*+
/r/+
/j/+

*NOTE: labio-velar

*Voicing: voiced (+) and voiceless (-)

Vowel phonemes are produced with no obstruction of the airstream. They are all voiced and form the nucleus of the syllable.

CRITERIA TO DESCRIBE VOWELS

Height of tongue: high, mid, and low. Part of the tongue involved: front, central, and back. Position of the lips: rounded and unrounded.

and back. Position of the lips: rounded and unrounded. EXERCISES 1. Write the phonetic symbol for

EXERCISES

1. Write the phonetic symbol for the first sound in each word.

a. knife

b. justice

c. though

d. chemistry

a. knife b. justice c. though d. chemistry
a. knife b. justice c. though d. chemistry
a. knife b. justice c. though d. chemistry
a. knife b. justice c. though d. chemistry

f. unit

g. chaos

h. puppies

i. sugar

f. unit g. chaos h. puppies i. sugar
f. unit g. chaos h. puppies i. sugar
f. unit g. chaos h. puppies i. sugar
f. unit g. chaos h. puppies i. sugar

e. giant

e. giant

j. rhythm

j. rhythm

2. Write the phonetic symbol for the last sound of each word.

a. lamp

b. bath

c. ache

a. lamp b. bath c. ache
a. lamp b. bath c. ache
a. lamp b. bath c. ache

f. catch

g. robbed

h. cash

f. catch g. robbed h. cash
f. catch g. robbed h. cash
f. catch g. robbed h. cash

d. baked

e. pens

d. baked e. pens
d. baked e. pens

i. cats

j. little

i. cats j. little
i. cats j. little

3. Write the phonetic symbol for the medial consonant sound.

a. reason

b. either

a. reason b. either
a. reason b. either

f. future

g. feature

f. future g. feature
f. future g. feature

c. author

c. author

h. water

h. water

d. vision

e. soften

d. vision e. soften
d. vision e. soften

i. fishing

j. receipt

i. fishing j. receipt
i. fishing j. receipt

4. Write the symbol that corresponds to each of the following phonetic descriptions: Then give an English word that contains this sound.

a. Voiceless bilabial stop

b. Voiced alveolar stop

c. Voiceless velar stop

a. Voiceless bilabial stop b. Voiced alveolar stop c. Voiceless velar stop
a. Voiceless bilabial stop b. Voiced alveolar stop c. Voiceless velar stop
a. Voiceless bilabial stop b. Voiced alveolar stop c. Voiceless velar stop

f. Voiced alveolar lateral

g. High front tense vowel

h. High back lax vowel

f. Voiced alveolar lateral g. High front tense vowel h. High back lax vowel
f. Voiced alveolar lateral g. High front tense vowel h. High back lax vowel
f. Voiced alveolar lateral g. High front tense vowel h. High back lax vowel

d. Voiced labiodental fricative

d. Voiced labiodental fricative

i. Voiced alveolar fricative

i. Voiced alveolar fricative

e. Voiced bilabial nasal

e. Voiced bilabial nasal

j. Voiced velar nasal

j. Voiced velar nasal

5. For each group of sounds listed below, state the phonetic feature or features that they all share.

a.

b.

c.

/b,d,g/

/p,b,d/

/f,s,z/

the phonetic feature or features that they all share. a. b. c. /b,d,g/ /p,b,d/ /f,s,z/ d.
the phonetic feature or features that they all share. a. b. c. /b,d,g/ /p,b,d/ /f,s,z/ d.
the phonetic feature or features that they all share. a. b. c. /b,d,g/ /p,b,d/ /f,s,z/ d.

d.

e.

f.

/p,t,k/

/k,g,ŋ/

/l,t,d/

the phonetic feature or features that they all share. a. b. c. /b,d,g/ /p,b,d/ /f,s,z/ d.
the phonetic feature or features that they all share. a. b. c. /b,d,g/ /p,b,d/ /f,s,z/ d.
the phonetic feature or features that they all share. a. b. c. /b,d,g/ /p,b,d/ /f,s,z/ d.