Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 79

Fujii

Appendix Collected Paul Auster: An Annotated Bibliography

Introduction My aim in this project is to collect all materials available, so that the study of Paul Auster from every perspective would be possible. The resources for this project are MLAIB, bibliographies by Carsten Springer and Wi l l i a m D r e n t t e l , a n d o t h e r r e s o u r c e s . S i n c e t h e r e h a s b e e n n o s a t i s f a c t o r y a n n o t a t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y o f t h e A u s t e r s t u d y, m y p r o j e c t w o u l d b e n e f i t a n y o n e who is going to study his work. What follows consists of ten parts: p o e t r y, plays, novels,

autobiographical writings, film scripts, essays and other contributions to periodicals, and interviews as primary sources, bibliographies, academic a r t i c l e s a n d r e v i e w s a s s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s . B e c a u s e o f m y l i n g u i s t i c i n a b i l i t y, I could offer annotations only to English materials. Materials in other languages, mostly in French, are given only bibliographical information. Since there are considerable number of essays in French, to read them would b e e s s e n t i a l t a s k f o r t h e s t u d y o f P a u l A u s t e r. I a l s o o m i t t e d a r t i c l e s t h a t m e r e l y o f f e r g e n e r a l b i o g r a p h y o f A u s t e r, a n d r e v i e w s o f c o m m e r c i a l purpose. T h e F i r s t i m p o r t a n t e s s a y o n P a u l A u s t e r s f i c t i o n i s A l i s o n R u s s e l l s Deconstructing The New Yo r k Tr i l o g y : Paul A u s t e r s Anti-Detective

Fiction, which appeared in 1990. It oriented the major trend of Auster criticism in the 1990s: The New Yo r k Tr i l o g y , deconstruction, and

a n t i - d e t e c t i v e f i c t i o n . A s w e c a n s e e i n t h i s b i b l i o g r a p h y, t h e s t u d y o f P a u l

Fujii

A u s t e r h a s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n h i s Tr i l o g y , e s p e c i a l l y i n C i t y o f G l a s s . M o s t o f the essays on the Tr i l o g y discuss it as an example of postmodern

anti-detective novel, which deconstructs the conventions of traditional detective fiction, and places Auster among other postmodern writer such as Thomas Pynchon and Don DeLillo. Other essays also discuss his work from p o s t m o d e r n p e r s p e c t i v e s : i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y, q u e s t i o n o f a u t h o r s h i p , l i n g u i s t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a n d q u e s t i o n o f i d e n t i t y. O t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e s , s u c h a s h i s relationship with Jewish writing or the influence of French writers, have not been fully unexplored. Unlike The New Yo r k Tr i l o g y , his recent novels, films, and

autobiographical writings as well as his poetry in the 1970s are yet to be analyzed. It would be the next task for the Auster study to place those works, w h i c h a r e a s i m p o r t a n t a s t h e Tr i l o g y , i n t h e f a s c i n a t i n g w o r l d o f P a u l A u s t e r. There are many possibilities to be explored in the study of his work. all, the study of Paul Auster has just begun. After

Fujii

List of Abbreviations

Amst ConL EJES JMMLA LIT MagLitt MFS RCF REAL L i t e r a t u re RFEA

A m e r i k a s t u d i e n : A m e r i c a n St u d i e s C o n t e m p o r a r y L i t e r a t u re E u ro p e a n J o u r n a l o f E n g l i s h St u d i e s Journal of Midwest Modern Language Association L i t e r a t u re I n t e r p re t a t i o n T h e o r y M a g a z i n e L i t t e r a i re M o d e rn F i c t i o n St u d i e s Review of Contemporary Fiction T h e Ye a r b o o k o f re s e a rc h i n E n g l i s h a n d A m e r i c a n

Revue Francaise dEtudes Americaines

Fujii

Primary Sources a) Poetry [ 1 ] S e l e c t e d P o e m s . L o n d o n : F a b e r, 1 9 8 8 . Reproduces the contents of Disappearances: Selected Poems

1970-1979, which was in turn culled from the following books, p r e v i o u s l y p u b l i s h e d i n U S A : U n e a r t h ( 1 9 7 4 ) , Wa l l Wr i t i n g ( 1 9 7 6 ) , F r a g m e n t s f ro m C o l d ( 1 9 7 7 ) , W h i t e S p a c e s ( 1 9 8 0 ) , F a c i n g t h e M u s i c (1980).

b) Plays [ 1 ] L a u re l a n d H a rd y G o t o H e a v e n . H a n d t o M o u t h . N e w Yo r k : H o l t , 1 9 9 7 : 133-171. Tw o m e n , L a u r e l a n d H a r d y, b u i l d a s t o n e w a l l a s t h e i r d a i l y t a s k , according to the orders handed to them. Their names are taken from the comedian duo in the 1920s. The idea of building a huge stone wall is r e m i n i s c e n t o f K a f k a s T h e G r e a t Wa l l o f C h i n a a n d a l s o a p p e a r s i n subsequent novels, In the Country of Last Things and The Music of Chance.

[ 2 ] B l a c k o u t s . H a n d t o M o u t h . N e w Yo r k : H o l t , 1 9 9 7 . 1 7 2 - 1 9 4 . B l u e , a p r i v a t e e y e , c o m e s t o B l a c k s o f f i c e a n d t e l l s h i m t h e s t o r y o f his tailing and watching a writer for several years. Green, an old man, records the conversation between them. The basic story and the p r o t a g o n i s t s n a m e a r e s a m e a s t h o s e o f G h o s t s .

Fujii

[ 3 ] H i d e a n d S e e k . H a n d t o M o u t h . N e w Yo r k : H o l t , 1 9 9 7 . 1 9 5 - 2 1 4 . A man and a woman, each standing in a box with a glassless window and a pair of curtains, exchange abstract conversations: about the color o f b l u e , t h e i r p a s t , t h e w a l l s t h a t e n c l o s e t h e m . T h e a u t h o r s l i n g u i s t i c concern is prominent. One of the remarks of the woman corresponds to a passage in In the Country of Last Things.

c) Novels [ 1 ] C i t y o f G l a s s . 1 9 8 5 . T h e N e w Yo r k Tr i l o g y . L o n d o n : F a b e r, 1 9 8 7 . 1 - 1 3 2 . T h e f i r s t v o l u m e o f t h e Tr i l o g y . Q u i n n , a d e t e c t i v e w r i t e r, h a p p e n s t o t a k e a r e a l d e t e c t i v e s j o b a s P a u l A u s t e r t o h e l p P e t e r S t i l l m a n J r. , a n d b e g i n s t o t a i l P e t e r S t i l l m a n S r. , w h o c o n d u c t e d a l i n g u i s t i c e x p e r i m e n t o n h i s s o n a n d w a s r e c e n t l y r e l e a s e d . Wa n d e r i n g t h r o u g h t h e s t r e e t s o f N e w Yo r k , S t i l l m a n S r. t r i e s t o r e - c r e a t e t h e p r e l a p s a r i a n language and his daily walks from letters which are presumably parts of the phrase THE TOWER OF BABEL. Abruptly characters vanish, a n d Q u i n n f i n d s t h e r e a l P a u l A u s t e r, a w r i t e r. A f t e r t h a t , Q u i n n l i v e s like a homeless and vanishes, leaving a red notebook. The novel e x p l o r e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f i d e n t i t y, a u t h o r s h i p , a n d t h e p r o b l e m o f l a n g u a g e , e m p l o y i n g t h e f o r m o f t h e d e t e c t i v e s t o r y.

[ 2 ] G h o s t s . 1 9 8 6 . T h e N e w Yo r k Tr i l o g y . L o n d o n : F a b e r, 1 9 8 7 . 1 3 3 - 1 9 6 . T h e s e c o n d v o l u m e o f t h e Tr i l o g y . A l l c h a r a c t e r s a r e n a m e d a f t e r t h e names of colors. Blue, a private eye, is asked by white to shadow Black, a w r i t e r. B l a c k d o e s n o t h i n g r e m a r k a b l e b u t s i t s i n h i s r o o m , w r i t i n g

Fujii

and reading. As the task proceeds, Blue feels that he is not watching Black but himself, and the identities of the two begins to merge. G h o s t s a l s o e x p l o r e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f i d e n t i t y, l a n g u a g e , a n d t h e p r o b l e m o f w r i t i n g a b o u t a n o t h e r p e r s o n . T h o r e a u s Wa l d e n p l a y s a center role in the novel.

[ 3 ] T h e L o c k e d R o o m . 1 9 8 7 . T h e N e w Yo r k Tr i l o g y . L o n d o n : F a b e r, 1 9 8 7 . 197-314. T h e t h i r d v o l u m e o f t h e Tr i l o g y . T h e n a m e l e s s n a r r a t o r l e a r n s t h a t h i s boyhood friend Fanshawe has been missing, presumably dead, leaving h i s m a n u s c r i p t s f o r h i s w i f e , S o p h i e . T h e n a r r a t o r, n a m e d a s t h e e x e c u t o r o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t s , h a s t h e m p u b l i s h e d s u c c e s s f u l l y, a n d m a r r i e s S o p h i e , r e p l a c i n g F a n s h a w e s p o s i t i o n . L e a r n i n g F a n s h a w e i s alive, the narrator takes the job of writing his biography and starts to track him down, which he fails. At last he meets Fanshawe in Boston, and Fanshawe, refusing to face him, gives him a red notebook which e x p l a i n s a l l h i s b e h a v i o r. The influence of Hawthorne is prominent:

Fanshawe is the title of his first novel, and the novel enacts the Wa k e f i e l d m o t i f o f a m a n s s t e p p i n g o u t o f h i s l i f e . A s i n t h e o t h e r t w o v o l u m e s o f t h e Tr i l o g y , t h e n a r r a t o r a n d F a n s h a w e a r e a n o t h e r p a i r of doubles, and the n a r r a t o r, a b i o g r a p h e r, becomes a literary

detective.

[ 4 ] I n t h e C o u n t r y o f L a s t T h i n g s . L o n d o n : F a b e r, 1 9 8 7 . A u s t e r s f o u r t h n o v e l , w h i c h t a k e s t h e f o r m o f a l o n g l e t t e r w r i t t e n b y

Fujii

the female protagonist Anna Blume. She, in search for her missing b r o t h e r, h a s c o m e t o a c i t y w h e r e t h i n g s c o l l a p s e a n d v a n i s h , a n d nothing new is produced. Her letter records her struggle to survive in the city: she starts as a scavenger and one day meets an old woman Isabel, and begins to live with her and her husband Ferdinand. After t h e c o u p l e d i e , s h e f i n d s S a m F a r r, h e r b r o t h e r s s u c c e s s o r i n t h e l i b r a r y. T h e n s h e h a s a n a c c i d e n t a n d s t a y s i n a c h a r i t y i n s t i t u t i o n Wo b u r n H o u s e , p l a n n i n g t o e s c a p e o u t o f t h e c i t y. G e n e r a l l y t h e n o v e l i s r e g a r d e d a s a d y s t o p i a s c i e n c e f i c t i o n , s u c h a s O r w e l l s 1 9 8 4 a n d H u x l e y s B r a v e N e w Wo r l d .

[ 5 ] M o o n P a l a c e . L o n d o n : F a b e r, 1 9 8 9 . T h e p r o t a g o n i s t M . S . F o g g , a n o r p h a n w h o c o m e s t o N e w Yo r k i n t h e l a t e 6 0 s t o s t u d y a t C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y, l e a r n s t h e d e a t h o f U n c l e Vi c t o r, t h e s o l e r e l a t i v e h e k n o w s . F o g g b e g i n s t o a b a n d o n h i s l i f e a n d winds up homeless in Central Park, until a friend Zimmer and a C h i n e s e w o m a n K i t t y Wu s a v e h i m . F o g g a n d Wu b e c o m e l o v e r s , a n d h e finds a job of taking care of an eccentric, blind old man Effing, who w a s o n c e a p r o m i s e d p a i n t e r. E f f i n g t e l l s v a r i o u s t a l e s t o F o g g , a n d a f t e r h e d i e s , F o g g m e e t s h i s s o n S o l o m o n B a r b e r. Wu s p r e g n a n c y a n d abortion lead them to break up, and Fogg finds out the fact that Barber i s h i s f a t h e r. A f t e r B a r b e r d i e s f r o m t h e a c c i d e n t i n t h e g r a v e y a r d o f F o g g s m o t h e r, F o g g s t a r t s t r a v e l i n g w e s t w a r d b y h i m s e l f , a n d f i n a l l y arrives at the Pacific coast. Fogg is the narrator-protagonist, and he s h a r e s s o m e b i o g r a p h i c a l f a c t s w i t h A u s t e r, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e b e g i n n i n g

Fujii

parts of the novel. The major subject is the father son relationships.

[ 6 ] T h e M u s i c o f C h a n c e . L o n d o n : F a b e r, 1 9 9 0 . The subjects of the novel are chance, the questions of freedom and confinement and of obligation and redemption, and of money and gambling. The protagonist Nashe accidentally inherited a large sum of m o n e y b y t h e d e a t h o f h i s l o n g - a b s e n t f a t h e r. N a s h e q u i t s h i s j o b , l e a v e s f a m i l y, a n d d r i v e s t h r o u g h A m e r i c a a i m l e s s l y. W h e n t h e m o n e y becomes scarce, he picks up Pozzi, a gambler on his way to a poker game with two eccentric millionaires, Flower and Stone. Nashe joins him and offers his remaining money as the initial sum for the game. At the end of the game in the mansion of the millionaires, Nashe and Pozzi l o s e a l l t h e m o n e y, a s w e l l a s N a s h e s c a r, a n d a r e l e f t w i t h a t e n thousand dollar debt. In order to pay the debt they take the task of building of a wall from ten thousand stones by hand. Pozzi tries to e s c a p e a n d b a t t e r e d , t a k e n a w a y, n e v e r t o b e h e a r d f r o m . A f e w w e e k s later Nashe completes the task by himself and goes out with the w a t c h m a n M u r k s . N a s h e d r i v e s b a c k h i s c a r, n o w o w n e d b y M u r k s , s p e e d s , a n d , u n a b l e t o a v o i d t h e c r a s h a g a i n s t a n a p p r o a c h i n g c a r, shuts his eyes.

[ 7 ] L e v i a t h a n . L o n d o n : F a b e r, 1 9 9 2 . The story is set in the late 80s. A writer-narrator Peter Aaron writes a b o u t h i s l a t e f r i e n d B e n j a m i n S a c h s , a l s o a w r i t e r. A a r o n a t t e m p t s t o a c c o u n t t h e i r f i r s t m e e t i n g , t h e f r i e n d s h i p t h a t f o l l o w s , S a c h s s

Fujii

political awareness, his entangled relationships with women, and the series of chance events that lead Sachs to his death. One night Sachs falls from the fire escape, and he stops writing to seek to do something in the real world instead. He leaves his wife, and happens to kill an ecology terrorist, and comes to live with his wife and son. After they break up, Sachs turns into a bomber who blows up replicas o f t h e S t a t u e o f L i b e r t y, u n t i l o n e d a y h e a c c i d e n t a l l y b l o w s h i m s e l f u p into smithereens. As in the first part of The Invention of Solitude and in The Locked Room, the problem of writing about another person is one of the themes. The novel is dedicated to Don DeLillo, and it e x p l o r e s w r i t e r s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e w o r l d .

[ 8 ] M r. Ve r t i g o . L o n d o n : F a b e r, 1 9 9 4 Ta k e s t h e f o r m o f a m e m o i r w r i t t e n b y t h e p r o t a g o n i s t . T h e s t o r y i s s e t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t h e 1 9 2 0 s . Wa l t , a n o r p h a n , i s b o u g h t f r o m h i s u n c l e a n d a u n t b y a H u n g a r i a n J e w, M a s t e r Ye h u d i . M a s t e r t a k e s Wa l t t o h i s h o u s e i n K a n s a s w h e r e h e l i v e s w i t h A e s o p , a b l a c k b o y, a n d M o t h e r S i o u x , a N a t i v e A m e r i c a n w o m a n . M a s t e r t r a i n s Wa l t t o f l y i n t h e a i r, u n t i l o n e d a y Wa l t f i n d s a m e t h o d t o i t . A f t e r t h e K K K m e m b e r s a s s a u l t t h e h o u s e a n d l y n c h A e s o p a n d M o t h e r S i o u x t o d e a t h , Wa l t t o u r w i t h M a s t e r a r o u n d A m e r i c a a s Wa l t t h e Wo n d e r B o y. A s h e e n t e r s h i s a d o l e s c e n c e , h o w e v e r, h e h a d t o g i v e u p t h e f l y i n g f a c u l t y, a n d t h e y h e a d t o H o l l y w o o d . O n t h e w a y Wa l t s u n c l e a s s a u l t s t h e m a n d t a k e s a l l t h e i r m o n e y. I n j u r e d M a s t e r s h o o t s a n d k i l l s h i m s e l f , a n d Wa l t e n t e r s the underworld of Chicago. His fascination with a Cardinals Pitcher

Fujii 10

D i z z y D e a n l e a d s Wa l t t o a t t e m p t t o k i l l h i m , a n d Wa l t , a r r e s t e d , j o i n s t h e a r m y. H e r e t i r e s , m a r r i e s , a n d a f t e r h i s w i f e a n d h i s o l d f r i e n d w h o m h e t a k e s c a r e o f d i e , Wa l t b e g i n s t o w r i t e t h e s t o r y o f h i s l i f e i n notebooks. The problem of the self and language become less

remarkable in the novel, instead the theme of race, American culture, and the father son relationship are prominent. The novel also suggests its connection with City of Glass.

[ 9 ] Ti m b u k t u . N e w Yo r k : H o l t , 1 9 9 9 . T h e s t o r y d e s c r i b e s t h e a d v e n t u r e s o f a d o g , M r. B o n e s . M r. B o n e s c o m e s t o B a l t i m o r e w i t h h i s m a s t e r Wi l l y G. C h r i s t m a s , w h o d i e s o n t h e s t r e e t o f t h e c i t y. M r. B o n e s m e e t s a C h i n e s e b o y a n d t h e y s t a r t a r e l a t i o n s h i p , u n t i l t h e b o y s f a t h e r, w h o h a t e s d o g s , k n o w s t h e f a c t a n d c h a s e M r. B o n e s a w a y.

d ) A u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l Wr i t i n g s [1] The Invention of Solitude. 1982. San Francisco: Sun and Moon, 1982; London: Penguin, 1988. A memoir which consists of two parts: Portrait of an Invisible Man a n d T h e B o o k o f M e m o r y. T h e f i r s t p a r t , a m e d i t a t i o n o n h i s l a t e f a t h e r s l i f e , p r e s e n t s t h e e f f o r t a n d f a i l u r e t o w r i t e a b o u t h i m . A u s t e r takes up the problem of writing about another person in The Locked Room. The second part meditates on himself in the third person narrative and explores the nature of solitude, m e m o r y, chance,

language and the relationship with his son. The Book of Memory

Fujii 11

shows many of his preoccupations he explores in the subsequent novels.

[2] The Red Notebook. London: Penguin, 1995. Rpt. in The Art of Hunger. N e w Yo r k : P e n g u i n , 1 9 9 8 . 3 4 1 - 3 7 9 . Consists of thirteen episodes, all of which are chance events. The contents of the episodes are: Argue and Phibbs, the name of a firm, t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f M r. S u g a r w h e n A u s t e r a n d h i s g i r l f r i e n d s u f f e r e d e x t r e m e h u n g e r, a s o l d i e r i n w h o l u c k i l y s u r v i v e d a n d k e p t h i s l e g f r o m h a v i n g i t c u t o f f , A u s t e r s f i n d i n g a d i m e i n S h e a S t a d i u m j u s t a f t e r h e h a d l o s t a n o t h e r o n t h e s t r e e t , a p a i n t e r s m a r r i a g e t o a n o l d f r i e n d , a f r i e n d s a c c i d e n t a l a c q u i s i t i o n o f a b o o k f r o m a s t r a n g e r, a w o m a n w h o h a s l i v e d o n t h e s a m e f l o o r t h a t A u s t e r s w i f e h a s l i v e d w h o s e s i s t e r m e t t h e s i s t e r o f A u s t e r s w i f e i n Ta i p e i , a f a k e l e t t e r written under A u s t e r s name and address, a French p o e t s

c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h h i s l o n g - a b s e n t f a t h e r, a f r i e n d o f A u s t e r s w h o was with him on all occasions of flat tires, a woman who married to her f a t h e r w h o h a s b e e n l o n g m i s s i n g , A u s t e r s f a t h e r s e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e d a n g e r o f l i f e a n d A u s t e r s s a v i n g a g i r l s f r o m b e i n g r u n o v e r, a n d wrong calls that started the idea of City of Glass. All of them are c h a n c e e v e n t s , s h o w i n g A u s t e r s f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h c o i n c i d e n c e . S o m e o f them also show his preoccupation with the father son relationship.

[ 3 ] W h y Wr i t e ? P r o v i d e n c e : B u r n i n g D e c k , 1 9 9 6 . R p t . i n T h e A r t o f H u n g e r . N e w Yo r k : P e n g u i n , 1 9 9 8 . 3 8 1 - 3 9 5 .

Fujii 12

C o n s i s t s o f f i v e e p i s o d e s o f c h a n c e e v e n t s . Tw o a r e n o t h i s o w n experience: the births of the two daughters of his German friend, both took place when she was watching the same film, and the reunion of a f o r m e r p r i s o n e r o f w a r a n d a f o r m e r g u a r d , w h o k n e w e a c h o t h e r, n o w as the fathers of the groom and the bride. The other three are his own experience: catching his daughter from falling from the stairs, a boy h i t b y l i g h t n i n g i n f r o n t o f h i m , a n d m e e t i n g Wi l l y M a y s i n t h e ballpark.

[ 4 ] H a n d t o M o u t h : A C h ro n i c l e o f E a r l y F a i l u re . N e w Yo r k : H o l t , 1 9 9 7 . An Autobiographical memoir on the early years, from childhood to the publication of Squeeze Play. The consistent theme of the book is the lack of money and the problems it caused. Though it is not a biography in a strict sense, it is still an invaluable source of autobiographical information that appears in his novels, especially in The Locked Room.

e) Screenplays [ 1 ] S m o k e a n d B l u e i n t h e F a c e . L o n d o n : F a b e r, 1 9 9 5 . I n c l u d e s t h e s c r i p t s o f t h e t w o f i l m s . S m o k e i s d i r e c t e d b y Wa y n e Wa n g , f e a t u r i n g H a r v e y K e i t e l a n d Wi l l i a m H u r t . A d d e d t o t h e b a s i c s t o r y, A u g g i e Wr e n s C h r i s t m a s S t o r y, a r e t h e e p i s o d e s o f t h e p a r e n t c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n A u g g i e a n d F e l i c i t y, b e t w e e n C y r u s a n d R a s h i d w h o h a p p e n s t o s a v e P a u l f r o m b e i n g r u n o v e r. T h e f i l m i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e s e c t i o n s : P a u l , R a s h i d , R u b y, C y r u s , a n d A u g g i e . Paul Benjamin is the pseudonym under which Auster published his

Fujii 13

first novel, Squeeze Play.

[ 2 ] L u l u o n t h e B r i d g e . N e w Yo r k : H o l t , 1 9 9 8 . T h e s c r i p t o f t h e f i l m w r i t t e n a n d d i r e c t e d b y A u s t e r.

f) Essays, Reviews, and Other Contributions to Periodicals [ 1 ] P a g e s f o r K a f k a . E u ro p i a n J u d a i s m 1 6 ( 1 9 7 4 ) : 3 6 - 3 7 . R p t . i n T h e A r t o f H u n g e r . N e w Yo r k : P e n g u i n , 1 9 9 8 . 2 3 - 2 5 . A brief meditation on Kafka. Auster calls him an exile in his own b o d y, m e n t i o n i n g t o h i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c o n t i n u o u s wandering and dreaming of stopping. The theme of wandering and exile within the self appears in this article.

[ 2 ] I t i n e r a r y. C h e l s e a 3 3 ( 1 9 7 4 ) : 1 6 9 - 1 7 0 . R p t . i n T h e A r t o f H u n g e r . N e w Yo r k : P e n g u i n , 1 9 9 8 . 2 1 - 2 2 . A brief commentary on American poet Laura Riding. Auster calls her the first American poet to have accorded the poem the value and the dignity of a struggle and states that her poem becomes act, rather than object, transparent rather than thing, and it is the power to burrow through walls. The connection between poetry and wall (stone) is seen.

[3] Jacques Dupin. The Art of Hunger. 181-184. Rpt. of Preface. Fits and St a r t s : S e l e c t e d P o e m s o f J a q u e s D u p i n . B y J a q u e s D u p i n . N e w Yo r k : Living Hand, 1974.

Fujii 14

P r e f a c e t o h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f D u p i n s F i t s a n d S t a r t s : S e l e c t e d P o e m s o f J a c q u e s D u p i n . A u s t e r e x p l a i n s t h a t D u p i n s p o e m i s t h e f i e l d o f mental space in which the struggle of destroying the poem to create the possible poem is unfolded. He also states that the poetic operation is a kind of spiritual purification.

[4] Andre du Bouchet. The Art of Hunger. 185-188. Rpt. of Preface. The U n i n h a b i t e d : S e l e c t e d P o e m s o f A n d re d u B o u c h e t . B y A n d r e d u B o u c h e t . N e w Yo r k : L i v i n g H a n d , 1 9 7 4 . P r e f a c e t o h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f d u B o u c h e t s T h e U n i n h a b i t e d : S e l e c t e d p o e m s o f A n d re d u B o u c h e t . A u s t e r m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e p o e t r y o f d u Bouchet, the record of an obsessive, wholly ruthless attempt to gain access to the self, is an act of survival. The notion of writing as survival is common to his interpretation of Kafka and Celan.

[ 5 ] T h e D e a t h o f S i r Wa l t e r R a l e i g h . P a re n t h e s e 4 ( 1 9 7 5 ) : 2 2 3 - 2 2 7 . R p t . i n The Art of Hunger. 75-82. A meditative essay on the life of Raleigh, on his imprisonment in the To w e r, h i s v o y a g e t o t h e w e s t , a n d h i s s o n s d e a t h . T h e i n s e p a r a b i l i t y of life and death is emphasized. Here Auster describes death as a wall.

[6]

New

Yo r k

Babel.

The

Art

of

Hunger.

26-34.Rpt.

of

One-Man

L a n g u a g e . N e w Yo r k R e v i e w o f B o o k s 2 2 : 1 ( 1 9 7 5 ) : 3 0 - 3 1 . A c o m m e n t a r y o n L e S c h i z o e t l e s L a n g u e b y L u i s Wo l f s o n , w h i c h

Fujii 15

records his adherence of English language. Auster states that the novel exists in the margins of language as well as literature and calls the w o r k a k i n d o f t h i r d p e r s o n a u t o b i o g r a p h y, a m e m o i r o f t h e p r e s e n t w h i c h e n a b l e s Wo l f s o n t o c r e a t e a s p a c e b e t w e e n h i m s e l f a n d h i m s e l f , t h u s t o p r o v e h i m s e l f t h a t h e e x i s t s . A u s t e r a l s o r e f e r s t o Wo l f s o n s suggestion of the fundamental connection between speaking and eating which is an important theme in In the Country of Last Things.

[7] Fro m Cakes to Stone. Commentary 60 (1975): 93-95. Rpt. in The Art of Hunger. 83-89. A b r i e f e s s a y o n B e c k e t t s n o v e l M e rc i e r a n d C a m i e r . A u s t e r s t a t e s t h a t t h e k e y w o r d i n a l l B e c k e t t s w o r k i s d i s p o s s e s s i o n . R e f e r r i n g t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f D a n t e s P u rg a t o r i o o n t h e n o v e l a n d t h e a f f i n i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e n o v e l a n d Wa i t i n g f o r G o d o t , A u s t e r c o n c l u d e s t h a t M e rc i e r a n d C a m i e r s t a n d s f o r t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g o f h i s n e w l i f e of writing in French.

[ 8 ] Tr u t h , B e a u t y, S i l e n c e . T h e A r t o f H u n g e r . 6 2 - 7 4 . R p t . o f T h e R e t u r n o f L a u r a R i d i n g . N e w Yo r k R e v i e w o f B o o k s 2 2 : 1 3 ( 1 9 7 5 ) : 3 6 - 3 8 . A n e s s a y o n L a u r a R i d i n g s w o r k . A u s t e r s t a t e s t h a t R i d i n g s w o r k , both poetry and prose, shows her consistent attempt to realize a kind of universal truth in language. He also states that her interest in problems that extend beyond the scope of poetry led to her break with poetry after 1938.

Fujii 16

[ 9 ] I d e a s a n d T h i n g s . H a r p e r s 2 5 ( 1 9 7 5 ) : 1 0 6 - 1 1 0 . R p t . i n T h e A r t o f Hunger. 103-106. A b r i e f a r t i c l e o n a p o e t J o h n A s h b e r y, r e g a r d i n g h i s u n i q u e n e s s o f flatness and familiarity that make ordinary things seem strange for his r e a d e r s . A u s t e r s t a t e s t h a t A s h b e r y s g r e a t e s t t a l e n t i s h i s u t t e r f a i t h f u l n e s s t o h i s o w n s u b j e c t i v i t y, w h i c h i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e F r e n c h symbolists. He also points out that the essential feeling in his later poems is homesickness.

[10] Poet of Exile. Commentary 61 (1976): 83-86. Rpt. in The Art of Hunger. 90-102. An essay on Paul Celan. Introducing a summary of his life, Auster e x p l a i n s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e H o l o c a u s t o n C e l a n s w o r k , s u c h a s To d e s f u g u e . A u s t e r s t a t e s t h a t C e l a n s p o e m s a r e a m e a n s t o o r i e n t himself within himself and take his stand in the world, a means to stay alive.

[ 11 ] I n n o c e n c e a n d M e m o r y. T h e A r t o f H u n g e r . 1 2 0 - 1 2 8 . R p t . o f M a n o f P a i n . N e w Yo r k R e v i e w o f B o o k s 2 3 ( 1 9 7 6 ) : 3 5 - 3 7 . An essay on Italian poet Giuseppe Ungaretti. Auster states that U n g a r e t t i s w o r k i s a l o n g r e c o r d o f c o n f r o n t a t i o n s w i t h d e a t h , a n d t h a t his obsession with death derives from an almost savage will to live. Auster also argues that his work is a constant effort to renew the self without destroying its past, and his concern is the search for spiritual self-definition.

Fujii 17

[12] Resurrection. The Art of Hunger. 129-133. Rpt. of The Rebirth of a P o e t . H a r p e r s B o o k s e l l e r 2 ( 1 9 7 6 ) : 1 5 . A brief essay on American poet Carl Rakosi. Auster explains how Rakosi abandoned writing poetry during the Great Depression and resumed it after two decades, which shows the extent to which the poet i s a p r i s o n e r o f h i s c a l l i n g . O n R a k o s i s p o e t r y, A u s t e r s t a t e s t h a t h i s chief preoccupation is the raw data of the world, and that his poem is an equalizing gesture between subject and object.

[ 1 3 ] D a d a B o n e s . T h e A r t o f H u n g e r . 5 4 - 6 1 . R p t . o f F l i g h t o u t o f Ti m e . Mulch 8/9 (1976): 186-191. An essay on the diaries of Hugo Ball, one of the founders of the Dada movement. Auster calls him one of the exemplary spirits of his age, who sought prelapsarian language and regarded Dada as a way of radical doubt, an instrument for producing a genuine critique of the age.

[14] Contemporary French Poetry: An Introduction against Introductions. Tr i - Q u a r t e r l y 3 5 ( 1 9 7 6 ) : 9 9 - 1 1 6 . Presents his translations of eleven contemporary French poets such as du Bouchet, Dupin, and Jabes. Auster states that an anthology that is an instrument of literary categorization and cultural assimilation can lead to a faulty conception of the nature of a poem which gives birth to a space that cannot be penetrated by efforts of classification or

Fujii 18

explication.

[ 1 5 ] P r i v a t e I , P u b l i c E y e . H a r p e r s B o o k l e t t e r 3 ( 1 9 7 7 ) : 1 2 - 1 3 . R p t . i n T h e A r t o f H u n g e r . 11 5 - 11 9 . A brief review of a poet George Oppen. Auster calls him a publicpoet whose aim is to discover the world, and states that for Oppen the act of seeing implies an inner commitment and the act of speech belongs to the realm of ethics.

[ 1 6 ] B o o k o f t h e D e a d . T h e A r t o f H u n g e r . 1 0 7 - 11 4 . R p t . o f S t o r y o f a S c r e a m . N e w Yo r k R e v i e w o f B o o k s 2 4 ( 1 9 7 7 ) : 3 8 - 4 0 . A r e v i e w o f E d m o n d J a b e s s T h e B o o k o f Q u e s t i o n s . A u s t e r e x p l a i n s the influence of Jewishness and the Book on Jabes, and states that for J a b e s b e i n g a w r i t e r i s i d e n t i c a l t o b e i n g a J e w. O n T h e B o o k o f Questions, in which the past and the present meet and dissolve in to e a c h o t h e r, A u s t e r a r g u e s t h a t w h a t h a p p e n s i n t h e b o o k i s t h e a t t e m p t to write it, and nothingness is at the heart of the book.

[ 1 7 ] N o r t h e r n L i g h t s : T h e P a i n t i n g s o f J e a n - P a u l R i o p e l l e . T h e M e r r i C re e k , O r N e ro 3 ( 1 9 7 7 ) : 9 . R p t . i n T h e A r t o f H u n g e r . 1 9 2 - 1 9 8 . A m e d i t a t i v e e s s a y o n R i o p e l l e s p a i n t i n g s , c o n s i s t i n g o f f i v e b r i e f s e c t i o n s : p r o g r e s s o f t h e s o u l , t h e b o d y s s p a c e , d i s a p p e a r a n c e , the end of the earth, and nature. Auster defines the act of seeing as a w a y o f b e i n g i n t h e w o r l d a n d s t a t e s t h a t R i o p e l l e s a r t i s a p o r t r a i t of a man at the limit of himself, and that he paints in the same way that

Fujii 19

he breathes, in order to make life possible for himself.

[ 1 8 ] K a f k a s L e t t e r s . T h e A r t o f H u n g e r . N e w Yo r k : P e n g u i n , 1 9 9 8 . 134-139. Rpt.of Letter to Friends, Family and Editors. San Francisco Review of Books 3 (1978): 8-9. S t a t e s t h a t K a f k a s l e t t e r s , w h i c h o c c u p y t h e m i d d l e g r o u n d b e t w e e n his inner battle of his dairies and the objective accounts of the b i o g r a p h e r, h e l p u s t o u n d e r s t a n d h i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e w o r l d f r o m m a n y p e r s p e c t i v e s . A u s t e r a l s o s t a t e s t h a t K a f k a s l i f e a n d a r t w e r e inseparable, that he wrote because his very life depended on it.

[ 1 9 ] N a t i v e S o n . T h e A r t o f H u n g e r . N e w Yo r k : P e n g u i n , 1 9 9 8 . 1 4 0 - 1 4 3 . R p t . o f T h e P o e t r y o f Wi l l i a m B r o n k . S a t u rd a y R e v i e w 5 ( 1 9 7 8 ) : 30-31. A s h o r t e s s a y o n Wi l l i a m B r o n k , a n A m e r i c a n p o e t . A u s t e r c a l l s B r o n k s w o r k p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o e t r y, w h i c h c o n t e m p l a t e s a f e w e s s e n t i a l problems and themes: the rift between our image of the world and the reality of the world, the force of desire, the agency of human r e l a t i o n s h i p , o u r p e r c e p t i o n o f n a t u r e . A u s t e r s t a t e s t h a t B r o n k s w o r k is the continuation of a particular American tradition started by Thoreau and Dickinson.

[20] White Spaces. Selected Poems. 81-88. Rpt. of Happiness, or a J o u r n e y t h r o u g h S p a c e : Wo r d s f o r O n e Vo i c e a n d O n e D a n c e r. G ro s s e t e s t e R e v i e w 1 2 ( 1 9 7 9 ) : 6 7 - 7 5 .

Fujii 20

A prose poem which bridges between his poetry and prose.

[21] The Decisive Moment: Charles Reznikoff. Parnassus 7 (1979): 1 0 5 - 1 1 8 . R p t . i n T h e A r t o f H u n g e r . N e w Yo r k : P e n g u i n , 1 9 9 8 . 3 5 - 5 3 . An essay on a Jewish-American poet Charles Reznikoff, who lived in N e w Yo r k . A u s t e r c a l l s h i m a p o e t o f t h e e y e a n d s t a t e s t h a t h i s p o e m i s a w a y o f b e i n g i n t h e w o r l d . R e g a r d i n g R e z n i k o f f s i d e n t i t y, A u s t e r argues that Reznikoff exists in the middle ground between the

American and the Judaism world, and that it is a condition of being nowhere, of an exile.

[ 2 2 ] M a l l a r m e s S o n . T h e A r t o f H u n g e r . N e w Yo r k : P e n g u i n , 1 9 9 8 . 2 3 8 - 2 4 8 . R p t . o f S t e p h a n e M a l l a r m e s A To m b f o r A n a t o l e . P a r i s Review 22 (1980): 134-148. A n a r t i c l e o n t h e M a l l a r m e s n o t e s f o r h i s s o n , w h o d i e d f r o m r h e u m a t i s m a t t h e a g e o f e i g h t . Q u o t i n g f r o m M a l l a r m e s l e t t e r s , A u s t e r s t a t e s t h a t t h e f r a g m e n t e d n o t e s o f A To m b f o r A n a t o l e i s M a l l a r m e s e f f o r t t o t r a n s m u t e A n a t o l e i n t o w o r d s a n d t h e r e b y p r o l o n g h i s l i f e , a n d t h a t , l i t e r a r y, t h e n o t e s i s a r a r e a n d e a r l y e x a m p l e o f isolate words able to span the enormous mental spaces that lie between them.

[ 2 3 ] T h e A r t o f H u n g e r. S h e a r s m a n 3 ( 1 9 8 1 ) : 6 2 - 6 8 . R p t . i n T h e A r t o f H u n g e r . N e w Yo r k : P e n g u i n , 1 9 9 8 . 9 - 2 0 . A n e s s a y o n K n u t H a m s u n s H u n g e r . A u s t e r s t a t e s t h a t t h e n o v e l

Fujii 21

proposes a new thought about art as indistinguishable from the life of t h e a r t i s t w h o m a k e s i t , a n d c a l l s t h e n e w a r t t h e a r t o f h u n g e r. H e a l s o r e f e r s t o B e c k e t t a n d K a f k a s T h e H u n g e r A r t i s t , s t a t i n g t h a t the art of hunger is a way of looking death in the face, and the risk of death is inherited in any act of art.

[ 2 4 ] P r i v a t e I , P u b l i c E y e . T h e A r t o f H u n g e r . N e w Yo r k : P e n g u i n , 1 9 9 8 . 11 5 - 11 9 . R p t . o f A F e w Wo r d s i n P r a i s e o f G e o r g e O p p e n . P a i d e u m a 10 (1981): 49-52. A brief essay on a poet George Oppen. Auster calls him a public poet whose aim is to discover the world and states that for Oppen the act of seeing implies an inner commitment, and speech belongs to the realm of ethics.

[ 2 5 ] Tw e n t i e t h - C e n t u r y F r e n c h P o e t r y. T h e A r t o f H u n g e r . N e w Yo r k : Penguin, 1998. 199-237. P r e f a c e t o T h e R a n d o m H o u s e B o o k o f F re n c h P o e t r y . B e g i n n i n g w i t h the influence of French on English and American literature and the difference between French and English, the greater part of the preface is assigned to the chronological explication of the characteristics of the poets included in the book: Apollinaire, Forgue, Dadaists,

Surrealists, Artaud, Michaux, Cesaire, du Bouchet, Dupin, Jabes, etc.

[ 2 6 ] T h e P o e t r y o f E x i l e : P a u l C e l a n . S t u d i e s i n Tw e n t i e t h C e n t u r y L i t e r a t u re 8 ( 1 9 8 3 ) : 1 0 1 - 11 0 . R p t . i n T h e A r t o f H u n g e r . N e w Yo r k :

Fujii 22

Penguin, 1998. 90-102. An essay on a Jewish poet Paul Celan. Auster introduces a summary of h i s l i f e a n d e x p l a i n s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e H o l o c a u s t o n C e l a n s w o r k , s u c h a s To d e s f u g u e . A u s t e r a l s o s t a t e s t h a t C e l a n s p o e m s a r e a means to orient himself within his own life and take his stand in the world, a means to staying alive.

[ 2 7 ] O n t h e H i g h Wi r e . T h e A r t o f H u n g e r . N e w Yo r k : P e n g u i n , 1 9 9 8 . 249-260. P r e f a c e t o h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f P h i l i p p e P e t i t s O n t h e H i g h - Wi re . A u s t e r c a l l s P e t i t s p e r f o r m a n c e t h e a r t o f h i g h - w i r e w a l k i n g a n d s t a t e s t h a t no art so clearly emphasizes the deep aesthetic impulse inside human b e i n g s . H e p r a i s e s O n t h e H i g h - Wi re a s a r e m a r k a b l e b o o k , w h i c h i s a n e x e m p l a r y t a l e o f o n e m a n s s e a r c h f o r p e r f e c t i o n .

[ 2 8 ] A c r o s s t h e R i v e r a n d I n t o t h e Tw i l i g h t Z o n e . N e w Yo r k Ti m e s B o o k Review 91 (1986): 14. A r e v i e w o f S t e v e E r i c k s o n s R u b i c o n B e a c h . A u s t e r p r a i s e s E r i c k s o n for creating a highly imaginative work whose true subject is the imagination itself. He also points out that imagery is far more important than plot, and that the events in the dominating images of w a t e r t a k e o n a n a l m o s t J u n g i a n t o n a l i t y.

[29] Moonlight in the Brooklyn Museum. Art News 86 (1987): 104-105. A d e s c r i p t i o n a n d i m p r e s s i o n o f R a l p h A l b e r t B a l k e l o c k s p a i n t i n g

Fujii 23

Moonlight. Auster writes that the picture is not so much a landscape as a memorial for a vanished world, and that Blakelock painted an American idyll which was meant to stand for everything Americans had lost. The essay was written when Moon Palace was in progress, and reappears in the novel with slight changes, in pp. 137-140.

[ 3 0 ] T h e B a r t l e b o o t h F o l l i e s . N e w Yo r k Ti m e s B o o k R e v i e w 9 2 ( 1 9 8 7 ) : 7 . R p t . i n T h e A r t o f H u n g e r . N e w Yo r k : P e n g u i n , 1 9 9 8 . 1 7 0 - 1 7 5 . A r e v i e w o f G e o r g e s P e r e c s L i f e : A U s e r s M a n u a l , w h i c h i s a s e r i e s o f self-contained but interconnecting stories. Introducing the story of its central character Bartlebooth, Auster states that B a r t l e b o o t h s

behavior as a parable about the efforts of the human mind to impose an arbitrary order on the world.

[ 3 1 ] A C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Wi l l i a m B r o n k . S a g e t r i e b 7 ( 1 9 8 8 ) : 1 7 - 4 4 . forthcoming.

[ 3 2 ] A u g g i e Wr e n s C h r i s t m a s S t o r y. N e w Yo r k Ti m e s 1 4 0 ( 1 9 9 0 ) : A 3 1 . R p t . in Smoke and Blue in the Face. A u s t e r s f i r s t s h o r t s t o r y, a n d t h e f i l m S m o k e i s b a s e d o n t h e s t o r y. A w r i t e r P a u l i s a s k e d b y N e w Yo r k Ti m e s t o w r i t e a C h r i s t m a s s t o r y, i s lost what to write. Auggie, a counterman of a cigar store in Brooklyn, whose hobby is to take picture of the same street in front of the store o n t h e s a m e s p o t , a t t h e s a m e t i m e , t e l l s P a u l t h e s t o r y, h o w h e s t o l e the camera from the house of an old blind woman. As in his novels, the

Fujii 24

boundaries between fact and fiction are blurred.

[33] The Red Notebook. Granta 44 (1993): 232-253. Rpt. in The Art of H u n g e r . N e w Yo r k : P e n g u i n , 1 9 9 8 . 3 4 1 - 3 7 9 .

[34] Black on White: Paintings by David Reed. Denver Quarterly 28 ( 1 9 9 3 ) : 6 3 - 6 4 . R p t . i n T h e A r t o f H u n g e r . N e w Yo r k : P e n g u i n , 1 9 9 8 . 189-191. A r e v i e w o f R e e d s p a i n t i n g s . U n l i k e t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l p a i n t i n g , A u s t e r c l a i m s , R e e d s w o r k h a s m a d e t h e p a i n t i n g h a n d v i s i b l e , a n d t h e finished work is the process of painting itself. Quoting from

B l a n c h o t s D e a t h S e n t e n c e , A u s t e r c o n c l u d e s t h a t R e e d s p a i n t i n g s a s k to be read rather than observed, thus impose the serious task of seeing on the spectators.

[ 3 5 ] A P r a y e r f o r S a l m a n R u s h d i e . N e w Yo r k Ti m e s 1 4 2 ( 1 9 9 3 ) : A 3 1 . R p t . i n T h e A r t o f H u n g e r . N e w Yo r k : P e n g u i n , 1 9 9 8 . 1 7 6 - 1 7 8 . A short message for Salman Rushdie. As a fellow writer Auster praises the courage of Rushdie who is fighting for his life, and thanks Rushdie for supporting him.

[ 3 6 ] T h e A r t o f H u n g e r . 1 9 8 2 . 4 t h e d . N e w Yo r k : P e n g u i n , 1 9 9 8 . A collection of primary sources: essays, prefaces, interviews, and Why Wr i t e ? a n d T h e R e d N o t e b o o k . I t p r o v i d e s i n v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n s u c h a s l i t e r a r y i n f l u e n c e o n A u s t e r, h i s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s w r i t i n g , a n d t h e

Fujii 25

progression of his fiction.

[ 3 7 ] C h r o n i c l e o f t h e G u a y a k i I n d i a n s : Tr a n s l a t o r s N o t e . T h e A r t o f Hunger. 261-268. P r e f a c e t o h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f a F r e n c h a n t h r o p o l o g i s t P i e r r e C l a s t r e s s work, for which it took more than twenty years to be published. Auster p r a i s e s t h e b o o k f o r t h e i n c i s i v e n e s s o f i t s o b s e r v a t i o n , i t s h u m o r, a n d i t s i n t e l l e c t u a l r i g o r, a n d s t a t e s t h a t i t i s a p o r t r a i t o f C l a s t r e s h i m s e l f as well as of the people he studied.

[38] 1,001 Laughs. PEN-America. 1 (2000): 90-93. I n t r o d u c e s s o m e p a s s a g e s f r o m B o r g e s s S e l e c t e d N o n - F i c t i o n s , w h i c h c o m m e n t o n D r e i s e r, B r e t o n , We l l s , F i n n e g a n s Wa k e , a n d C i t i z e n K a n e . A u s t e r v a l u e s B o r g e s s p r o s e a s n u t t y, f u n n y, a n d u n e x p e c t e d a t almost every turn.

g) Interviews

[ 1 ] R o d e f e r, S t e p h e n . Tr a n s l a t i o n . 1 9 8 5 . T h e A r t o f H u n g e r . N e w Yo r k : Penguin, 1998. 272-273. Auster says that he began doing translations as a private activity to understand French poems. Though translation has become more and m o r e m a r g i n a l i n h i s l i f e , h e n a m e s h i s r e c e n t t r a n s l a t i o n s o f J o u b e r t s n o t e b o o k , t h e A n a t o l e f r a g m e n t s b y M a l l a r m e , a n d P e t i t s O n t h e H i g h - Wi re a s s t i l l b e l o n g i n g t o h i s i n n e r l i f e .

Fujii 26

[ 2 ] A r c h e r, J o h n . H a l l o f M i r r o r s . T h e O b s e r v e r N o v 2 2 ( 1 9 8 7 ) : 2 5 . A brief interview with introduction to his work. Auster says that identity is the main question he deals with and that he tries to leave e n o u g h r o o m i n t h e p r o s e f o r t h e r e a d e r t o e n t e r i t f u l l y. H e a l s o c l a i m s t h a t N e w Yo r k , v a s t a n d l a b y r i n t h i n e c i t y, i s t h e o n l y l o c a t i o n w h e r e t h e Tr i l o g y w o u l d b e p o s s i b l e .

[ 3 ] B r o w n , N i c k . T h e T h i n k i n g D e t e c t i v e . T h e S u n d a y Ti m e s N o v 2 9 (1987): 55. Auster calls the general movement of American literature sociological, almost a kind of reportage, which doesnt interest him at all. He also says that when writing The Invention of Solitude it struck him that everyone is multiple, inhabited by other people.

[4] Maria, Joseph. BOMB 23 (1988): 25-27. Rpt. in The Art of Hunger. New Yo r k : P e n g u i n , 1 9 9 8 . 2 7 4 - 2 8 6 . Auster names Kafka and Beckett as the influential figures on his prose, and poets such as Oppen, Celan, Holderlin and Leopardi as on his p o e t r y. H e e x p l a i n s t h e m a k i n g o f T h e I n v e n t i o n o f S o l i t u d e , t h e r e f e r e n c e s t o D o n Q u i x o t e a n d t h e A m e r i c a n R o m a n t i c s i n t h e Tr i l o g y and those to the historical occurrences in In the Country of Last Things.

[ 5 ] L e w i s , R o g e r. I n t h e C o u n t r y o f L i t e r a r y T h i n g s . P u n c h 7 6 9 7 ( 1 9 8 8 ) :

Fujii 27

49. Auster says that his books are about books, the problems of linguistics and deciphering the array of words. He names Robinson Crusoe and Don Quixote as the ones he often alludes to.

[ 6 ] F r e i t a g , M i c h a e l . T h e N o v e l i s t o u t o f C o n t r o l . T h e N e w Yo r k Ti m e s Book Review. Mar 19, 1989. 9 A short interview concerning Moon Palace. Auster says that in his writing the story and the characters become real and writing it is a m a t t e r o f f o l l o w i n g c o r r e c t l y, a n d t h a t , i n t h i s s e n s e , h e i s n o t i n control of what he is doing. He also says that he tries to be as different as he can in each book, but he keeps discovering himself.

[ 7 ] K e r r, P h i l i p . S e a r c h e r f o r M e a n i n g i n t h e M e a n S t r e e t s . T h e S u n d a y Ti m e s A p r 1 6 ( 1 9 8 9 ) : G 8 - 9 . Auster claims that human beings have a real hunger for stories, the thread to follow from one day to the next, and a writer must never lose that thread. He also says that he exchanged letters with Beckett for a while and stopped, because he didnt want to burden Beckett with correspondence.

[ 8 ] M c C a f f e r y, L a r r y a n d G r e g o r y, S i n d a . A n I n t e r v i e w w i t h P a u l A u s t e r. Mississippi Review 20 (1991): 49-62. Rpt. in The Art of Hunger. New Yo r k : P e n g u i n , 1 9 9 8 . 2 8 7 - 3 2 6 . Auster talks about peculiarity of his work: chance, the question of

Fujii 28

solitude, and autobiographical allusions. He also explains the shift from poetry to prose, his fascination with fairy tales, and the origins of some of his novels: City of Glass, In the Country of Last Things, and Moon Palace.

[ 9 ] D e l R a y, S a n t i a g o . P a u l A u s t e r : A l C o m p a s d e u n r i t m o p e n d u l a r. Quimera 109 (1992): 22-27. forthcoming.

[ 1 0 ] B e g l e y, A d a m . C a s e o f a B r o o k l y n S y m b o l i s t . T h e N e w Yo r k Ti m e s Magazine Aug 30, 1992. 41, 52-54. A b r i e f i n t e r v i e w, w i t h i n t r o d u c t i o n o f h i s f a m e i n E u r o p e , h i s c a r e e r, and Leviathan (his latest work at the time). Auster describes the year of 1979 when his father died and his marriage was falling apart as a c r a z y y e a r, a n d s a y s t h a t w r i t i n g P o r t r a i t o f a n I n v i s i b l e M a n h a s kept his father alive. Auster also says that for him writing is not for money or glory but something he has to do. This interview also introduces comments of his fellow writers, such as Don DeLillo and Russell Banks.

[ 11 ] F r a n k , J o a n . T h e A r t o f A u s t e r i t y. S a n F r a n c i s c o R e v i e w o f B o o k s . 1 7 (1992): 20-22. Auster briefly comments on the following topics: his literary fame, the i m a g i n a t i o n o f a w r i t e r, c i t i e s , r e v i e w s , t h e r e a d i n g p u b l i c , t h e s p a c e b e t w e e n t h e a u t h o r a n d t h e b i o g r a p h i c a l s e l f , a n d b e i n g a f a t h e r. H e

Fujii 29

s a y s t h a t t h e m i n d o f a w r i t e r i s n e i t h e r a w o m a n s m i n d n o r a m a n s m i n d , b u t s / h e i s t r a n s c e n d i n g t h e l i m i t s o f h i s o r h e r o w n b o d y, t i m e , and space, to make a work of imagination. Auster also says that becoming a father made him believe in the possibility of his writing fiction.

[12] Insdorf, Annette. The Making of Smoke. Smoke and Blue in the Face. 3-16. A u s t e r t a l k s a b o u t t h e m a k i n g o f t h e f i l m : w r i t i n g t h e b a s i c s t o r y, h o w h e g o t t o k n o w t h e d i r e c t o r Wa y n e Wa n g , t h e w r i t i n g a n d r e - w r i t i n g process of the script, the casting, and the editing. He explains that the title smoke symbolizes the constantly changing status of things. He a l s o c a l l s t h e f i l m a c o m e d y, t h e m o s t o p t i m i s t i c t h i n g h e h a s e v e r written.

[ 1 3 ] I r w i n , M a r k . M e m o r y s E s c a p e : I n v e n t i n g T h e M u s i c o f C h a n c e . A C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h P a u l A u s t e r. D e n v e r Q u a r t e r l y 2 8 ( 1 9 9 4 ) : 111 - 1 2 2 . R p t . i n T h e A r t o f H u n g e r . N e w Yo r k : P e n g u i n , 1 9 9 8 . 3 2 7 - 3 4 0 . Auster talks about The Music of Chance: his obsession with space, the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e n o v e l a n d M o o n P a l a c e , t h e p o w e r o f m e m o r y, the characterization of Nashe, the role of stories in the world, his r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a G e r m a n f i l m m a k e r Wi m We n d e r s .

[ 1 4 ] C o n t a t , M i c h e l . T h e M a n u s c r i p t i n t h e B o o k : A C o n v e r s a t i o n . Ya l e F re n c h S t u d i e s 8 9 ( 1 9 9 6 ) : 1 6 0 - 1 8 7 .

Fujii 30

Auster explains how his manuscripts came to be collected in the Berg Collection. He also talks about his writing method, and the

r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s f a m i l y. H e m e n t i o n s t o B e c k e t t a n d J a b e s a s paternal figures for him.

[15] Capen, Stephen. 1997. h t t p : / / w o r l d m i n d . c o m / C a n n o n / C u l t u r e / I n t e r v i e w s / a u s t e r. h t m l *forthcoming.

[ 1 6 ] P a c e , C h r i s . Q u e s t i o n s & A n s w e r s w i t h P a u l A u s t e r. 2 0 0 0 . h t t p : / / w w w. b l u e c r i c k e t . c o m / a u s t e r / a r t i c l e s / q a n d a . h t m l A u s t e r e x p l a i n s c h a r a c t e r s o f Ti m b u k t u , t a l k s a b u t h i s d o g a n d w r i t i n g .

Fujii 31

Secondary Sources a) Bibliographies [ 1 ] D r e n t t e l , Wi l l i a m . P a u l A u s t e r : A B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l C h e c k l i s t 1 9 6 8 - 1 9 9 4 . N e w Yo r k : D r e n t t e l , 1 9 9 4 . A comprehensive bibliography that covers from 1968 to 1994, both primary and secondary sources. Though now dated, it is still useful g u i d e t o l o c a t e e a r l y p r i m a r y s o u r c e s , e s p e c i a l l y A u s t e r s e s s a y s a n d other contributions to periodicals.

[ 2 ] - - - . P a u l A u s t e r : A S e l e c t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y. B e y o n d t h e R e d N o t e b o o k . E d . D e n n i s B a r o n e . P h i l a d e l p h i a : P e n n s y l v a n i a U P, 1 9 9 5 . 1 8 9 - 1 9 8 . A selected version of a [1].

[ 3 ] S p r i n g e r, C a r s t e n . B i b l i o g r a p h y. P a u l A u s t e r S o u rc e b o o k . F r a n k f u r t : L a n g , 2 0 0 1 . 7 3 - 11 0 . A comprehensive bibliography that covers from 1968 to 1999,

including articles on the Internet and reviews. An essential guide to secondary sources.

b ) A c a d e m i c Wr i t i n g b-1) General [ 1 ] G u r g a n u s , A l l a n . H o w D o Yo u I n t r o d u c e P a u l A u s t e r i n T h r e e M i n u t e s ? RCF 14 (1994): 7-8. A s h o r t , g e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e t r a i t s o f A u s t e r s f i c t i o n . H e m e n t i o n s t o A u s t e r s r e s e m b l a n c e t o B e c k e t t , h i s l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r e s t ,

Fujii 32

and his American subject.

[2] Rudman, Mark. Paul Auster: Some Elective Affinities. RCF 14 (1994): 44-45. P o i n t s o u t A u s t e r s a f f i n i t i e s w i t h O p p e n , J o u b e r t , s t r e s s i n g o n e l e m e n t s o f c l a r i t y, e c o n o m y, m u s i c , f r a g m e n t , a n d s o l i t u d e .

[3]

Blackburn,

Steven.

S o l i t a i re

and

S o u l - S e a rc h i n g :

Isolation

and

R e v e l a t i o n i n t h e F i c t i o n o f P a u l A u s t e r . M . A . t h e s i s , U n i v. o f N e w c a s t l e u p o n Ty n e , 1 9 9 5 .

[ 4 ] D u p p e r a y, A n n i c k , e d . L O e v re d e P a u l A u s t e r . A r l e s : A c t e s S u d , 1 9 9 5 . The collection of presentations in the international conference o n A u s t e r h e l d a t U n i v. o f P r o v e n c e , F r a n c e .

[ 5 ] C h a m b o n , S o p h i e . L i n v e n t i o n d e l e c r i t u r e e t l a f a b r i c a t i o n d u r o m a n . D u p e r r a y. 5 1 - 5 7 .

[6] Grandjeat, Charles. Le hazard et la necessite dans loevre de Paul A u s t e r. D u p p e r a y. 1 5 3 - 1 6 3 .

[ 7 ] Va l l a s , S o p h i e . T h e v o i c e o f a w o m a n s p e a k i n g : v o i x e t p r e s e n c e s f e m i n i n e s d a n s l e s r o m a n s d e P a u l A u s t e r. D u p e r r a y. 1 6 4 - 1 7 5 .

[8] Metress, Christophe. Iles et archipels, sauver ce qui est recouperable: la

Fujii 33

f i c t i o n d e P a u l A u s t e r. D u p e r r a y. 2 4 5 - 2 5 7 .

[9] Barone, Dennis, ed. Beyond the Red Notebook: Essays on Paul Auster. P h i l a d e l p h i a : P e n n s y l v a n i a U P, 1 9 9 5 . S e l e c t e d c o l l e c t i o n o f e s s a y s o n A u s t e r s w o r k . To t a l 1 0 e s s a y s d e a l with all his work from poetry to Leviathan (except Ghosts). Includes s e l e c t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y. F o r t h e d e t a i l o f e a c h e s s a y, s e e [ 1 0 ] , [ 11 ] a n d [ 1 2 ] i n th i s s e c t i on , b - 2 - [ 1 ] , b -4 - [ 11 ], b - 6 - [ 2 ] , b -8 - [ 5 ] , b - 9 - [ 2 ] , b - 1 0 - [ 5 ] , b - 11 - [ 2 ] .

[10]

Barone,

Dennis.

Introduction:

Paul

Auster

and

the

Postmodern

American Novel. Barone, Dennis. ed. Beyond the Red Notebook: 1-26. Aims to provide the cultural, historical, theoretical context for reading o f A u s t e r s f i c t i o n . C o m p a r i n g A u s t e r w i t h D e L i l l o , O l s o n , B a r o n e defines his work as an unique and important synthesis of postmodern concerns, premodern questions, and a sufficient realism. He Also comments on the self-referentiality of his novels.

[ 11 ] Wi r t h , E r i c . A L o o k B a c k f r o m t h e H o r i z o n . B e y o n d t h e R e d N o t e b o o k . 1995. 171-182. States that Auster documents the reduction of the mundane subject, w h i c h d e r i v e s f r o m p h e n o m e n o l o g y, a n d t h e r e d u c t i o n m a k e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t t h e a u t o m a t o n w h o i s d e p r i v e d o f r o u t i n e m a t e r i a l i t y, k n o w l e d g e , p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y, a n d c a u s e s t h e e m e r g e n c e o f t h e d o u b l e . N o t s o m u c h a n a c a d e m i c a r t i c l e a s a m e d i t a t i v e e s s a y.

Fujii 34

[ 1 2 ] S h i b a t a , M o t o y u k i . B e i n g P a u l A u s t e r s G h o s t . I n B a r o n e ( e d . ) 1 9 9 5 : 183-188. A n e s s a y o n t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f A u s t e r s w o r k . S h i b a t a s t a t e s t h a t translating Auster feels different from other contemporary American writers because his text itself is analogous in various ways (e.g., the w a y c h a r a c t e r s m a k e t h e m s e l v e s d i s a p p e a r, t h e w a y n a r r a t o r s t e l l t h e i r tale, the way protagonists look at themselves) to the act of translation, w h i c h i n v o l v e s t h e e f f o r t a t t r a n s p a r e n c y.

[13] Cortanze, Gerard de. Les Romans en dix mots-cles. MagLitt 338 (1995): 43-48. A F r e n c h a r t i c l e o n p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f A u s t e r s f i c t i o n .

[14] ---. Dossier Paul Auster. Barcelona: Anagram, 1996. *item unavailable.

[15]

K l e p p e r,

Martin.

Pynchon,

A u s t e r,

DeLillo:

die

amerikanische

Postmoderne zwischen Spiel und Rekonstruktion. Frankfurt: Campus, 1996. A G e r m a n b o o k o n P y n c h o n , A u s t e r, a n d D e L i l l o .

[ 1 6 ] M e r i v a l e , P a t r i c i a . T h e A u s t e r i z e d Ve r s i o n . C o n L . 3 8 ( 1 9 9 7 ) : 1 9 9 5 : 183-188. I n t r o d u c e s t w o c o l l e c t i o n s o f e s s a y s o n A u s t e r : L O e u v re d e P a u l Auster and Auster issue of The Review of Contemporary Fiction, with

Fujii 35

summarized contents and evaluations of some of the essays.

[ 1 7 ] B e h r e n s , A l f r e d . D i e e i n z i g e Wi r k l i c h k e i t i s t d i e Wo r k l i c h k e i t d e s Z u f a l l s . A u g e n b l i c k e : M a r b u rg e r H e f t e z u r M e d i e n w i s s e n s c h f a f t 2 6 (1997): 67-82. A G e r m a n e s s a y o n c h a n c e e v e n t s i n A u s t e r s w o r k .

[18]

Herzogenrath,

Bernd.

An

Art

of

D e s i re :

Reading

Paul

Auster.

Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi, 1998. Includes essays on City of Glass, In the Country of Last Things, Moon Palace, and The Music of Chance. All essays are Lacanian analyses. An i n t r o d u c t o r y e s s a y, p r i n c i p a l l y c o n c e r n i n g t h e g e n r e t o w h i c h t h e n o v e l b e l o n g s , i s a s s i g n e d t o e a c h e s s a y. I t r e q u i r e s b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e o f L a c a n , F r e u d , a n d D e r r i d a . F o r t h e d e t a i l o f e a c h e s s a y, s e e b-4-[16][17], b-8-[6][7], b-9-[17][18], and b-10-[7][8].

[ 1 8 ] N i k o l i c , D r a g a n a . P a u l A u s t e r s P o s t m o d e r n F i c t i o n : D e c o n s t r u c t i n g A r i s t o t l e s P o e t i c s . 1 9 9 8 . h t t p : / / w w w. b l u e c r i c k e t . c o m / a u s t e r / a r t i c l e s / a r i s t o t l e . h t m l C o m p a r e s A r i s t o t l e s c o n c e p t o f p l o t , c h a r a c t e r, a n d p o e t i c t e x t i n h i s P o e t i c s w i t h t h e t r a i t s o f A u s t e r s f i c t i o n : c h a n c e , m e m o r y, t h e a b s e n t f a t h e r, h u n g e r, u n k n o w a b l e s e l f , a n d a v o i d a n c e o f c l o s u r e . N i k o l i c a l s o states that Auster challnges and denies the conventions of teleological classic art.

Fujii 36

[ 1 9 ] Wi p f , A l e x a n d e r. F i c t i o n o r R e a l i t y : t h e C i t y i n P a u l A u s t e r s Wo r k s . A p r. 1 9 9 8 . h t t p : / / w w w. w i p f . c o m / t e x t s / a u s t e r. h t m Access requires authorization. Unable to access as of Aug 22, 2002.

[20] Persellin, Ketura. City Subjects: Shoplifters, Bag Ladies, and Other F i g u r e s o f U r b a n Tr a n s g r e s s i o n s i n C o n t e m p o r a r y L i t e r a t u r e a n d F i l m . D i s s . U n i v. o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 9 8 . A n a l y s e s t h e w o r k o f P a u l A u s t e r, M a r k e n G o r r i s , K a t h a l y n H a r r i s o n , a n d J o y c e C a r o l O a t e s t o e x p l o r e t h e f o r m s o f w o m e n s e n c o u n t e r w i t h the spaces of the city and their revisions of familiar understanding of u r b a n h a b i t a t i o n , f o c u s i n g o n w o m e n s e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e c i t y a n d t h e i r subsequent engagement with commodity culture. [DAI 60 (1999): DA9933696]

[ 2 1 ] C o h n , J e s s e . I H a v e S e t M y A f f a i r o n N o t h i n g : L i t e r a r y T h e o r y, Fiction, and the Politics of Antirepresentation. 1999. Attempts to develop an anarchist literary theory and explore its p o s s i b i l i t i e s t h r o u g h r e a d i n g s o f c o n t e m p o r a r y f i c t i o n b y P a u l A u s t e r, J a n e S m i l e y, a n d Ti m O B r i e n . A u s t e r s C i t y o f G l a s s , T h e I n v e n t i o n o f Solitude, and The Music of Chance, as well as others, are discussed as anti-representational versions of anarchist literary t h e o r y. Cohn

concludes that what emerges from the combined readings of anarchist t h e o r y, h i s t o r y, a n d f i c t i o n i s a b r o a d p e r s p e c t i v e o n t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s of art as partof discursive matrix which our collective affairs are set.

Fujii 37

[DAI No.: DA9946655]

[22] Donovan, Christopher A. Postmodern Reconciliations: Liberal Ironism and the Recovery of the Audience in Contemporary American Fiction. P h . D . t h e s i s , N e w Yo r k U n i v. 1 9 9 9 . F o c u s e s o n t h e e v o l u t i o n i n t h e w o r k o f P a u l A u s t e r, D o n D e L i l l o , C h a r l e s J o h n s o n a n d Ti m O B r i e n , a n d s t a t e s t h a t t h e y b e c o m e s t e a d i l y more sympathetic to the expectation of their audience by presenting comprehensible narrative of the genesis of the postmodern condition. R i c h a r d R o r t y s n o t i o n o f l i b e r a l i r o n i s m i s i n t r o d u c e d t o i l l u m i n a t e the writers attitude.

[ 2 3 ] S p r i n g e r, C a r s t e n . A P a u l A u s t e r S o u rc e b o o k . F r a n k f u r t / N e w Yo r k : Lang, 2001. P r o v i d e s v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t A u s t e r s w o r k : a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l material in his fiction, literary sources and allusions, allusions of his w o r k s t o o n e a n o t h e r, l o c a t i o n o f e a r l y v e r s i o n s . I n c l u d e s b i b l i o g r a p h y.

[ 2 4 ] Va r v o g l i , A l i k i . T h e Wo r l d T h a t I s t h e B o o k : P a u l A u s t e r s F i c t i o n . Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2001. Consists of three chapters: Legacies, Austerities, and Realities, o f f e r i n g e s s a y s o n t h e Tr i l o g y , I n t h e C o u n t r y o f L a s t T h i n g s , M o o n Palace, The Music of Chance, and Leviathan. The main focus is A u s t e r s i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y w i t h t h e A m e r i c a n R o m a n t i c s , K a f k a , a n d B e c k e t t . Va r v o g l i e m p h a s i z e s t h e c o n t i n u i t y i n A u s t e r s w r i t i n g b y

Fujii 38

discussing throughout the philosophical underpinnings that lead Auster to question the boundaries between the fictional and the factual, the r e a l a n d t h e i m a g i n e d . F o r t h e d e t a i l o f e a c h e s s a y, s e e b - 7 - [ 2 4 ] [ 2 5 ] , b - 8 - [ 8 ] , b - 9 - [ 2 2 ] , b - 1 0 -[ 1 2 ] , a n d b - 11 - [ 7 ] .

[ 2 5 ] C o h e n , J o s h . D e s e r t i o n s : P a u l A u s t e r, E d m o n d J a b e s , a n d t h e Wr i t i n g of Auschwitz. JMMLA 33-34 (2001): 94-107. Discusses Jabes and Auster as examples of the Jewish writing, a way of inhabiting language after the Holocaust introduced into writing its o w n i m p o s s i b i l i t y. C o h e n s t a t e s t h a t t h e i r w o r k s s h o w t w o d i f f e r e n t modes of articulating the same impulse to come to the absolute by paradoxically turning away from it, the impulse that is expressed as d e s e r t b y J a b e s a n d a s h u n g e r b y A u s t e r.

[ 2 6 ] S p r i n g e r. C a r l . C r i s e s : T h e Wo r k s o f P a u l A u s t e r . F r a n k f u r t : L a n g , 2002.

b-2) On Poetry [1] Finkelstein, Norman. In the Realm of the Naked Eye: The Poetry of Paul A u s t e r. A m e r i c a n P o e t r y 8 ( 1 9 9 0 ) : 1 7 5 - 1 8 7 ; R p t . i n B e y o n d t h e R e d Notebook. 44-59. An interpretation of the poems in Disappearances: Selected Poems in three topics: the problem of the self, Jewishness, and the influence of the objectivitists. The first topic introduces the difference between his poetry and fiction, the second compares Auster with Edmond Jabes, and

Fujii 39

the third argues the influence of Charles Reznikoff and George Oppen.

[ 2 ] C h e n e t i e r, M a r k . U n l i e u f k a g r a n t e t n u l : l a p o e s i e d e P a u l A u s t e r. D u p p e r a y. 2 5 8 - 1 7 0 . A F r e n c h e s s a y o n A u s t e r s p o e t r y.

[3] Thyssen, Christina. Pinocchio som model for en poetik. Edda 2 (1995): 160-168. A F i n n i s h e s s a y o n h i s p o e t r y.

[4] Delvaille, Bernard. Une Poesie du froid. MagLitt 338 (1995): 31-32. A F r e n c h a r t i c l e o n h i s p o e t r y.

[ 5 ] S o u c y, P i e r r e Yv e s . L O e i l e t l e m u r : S u r l a p o e s i e d e P a u l A u s t e r. C o u r r i e r d u C e n t re I n t e r n a t i o n a l d E t u d e s P o e t i q u e s 2 2 1 ( 1 9 9 9 ) : 31-50. A F r e n c h e s s a y o n A u s t e r s p o e t r y.

b-3) On The Invention of Solitude [1] Lemardeley-Cunci, Marie-Christine. The Invention of Solitude de Paul A u s t e r : L a u t r e c o m m e l u n . L A l t e r i t e d a n s l a l i t e r a t u re e t l a c u l t u re d u m o n d e A n g l o p h o n e . L e M a n s : U n i v. d u M a i n e , 1 9 9 3 : 1 9 4 - 1 9 8 . A French essay on The Invention of Solitude.

[ 2 ] M a t h e , S y l v i e . Vo i x d e l a s o l i t u d e , v o i x d e l a m e m o i r e : L a l e c o n d e

Fujii 40

Te n e b r e s d e P a u l A u s t e r d a n s T h e I n v e n t i o n o f S o l i t u d e . Vo i x e t l a n g a g e s a u x E t a t s - U n i s , . E d . S e r g e R i c a r d . A i x - e n - P r o v e n c e : U n i v. de Provence, 1993: 127-153. A French essay on The Invention of Solitude.

[ 3 ] W h i t e , C u r t i s . T h e A u s t e r I n s t a n c e : A F i c t o - B i o g r a p h y. R C F . 1 4 (1994): 26-29. States that the book is not about any specific individual, but about e v e r y b o d y.

[4] Caws, Mary Ann. Paul Auster: The Invention of Solitude. RCF. 14 (1994): 30-31. A brief impression on reading The Invention of Solitude. Caws points o u t t h a t u n l i k e A u s t e r s d e f i n i t i o n o f m e m o r y t h a t m e m o r y i s t h e s p a c e in which things happens for the second time, in the field of surrealism everything happens for the first time.

[ 5 ] B a r o n e , D e n n i s . A u s t e r s M e m o r y. R C F 1 4 ( 1 9 9 4 ) : 3 2 - 3 4 . States that centering the self is the theme of The Invention of Solitude, and that memory is central to the connection between Auster and the world. Barone compares Daniel Quinn with A.

[ 6 ] B a x t e r, C h a r l e s . T h e B u r e a u o f M i s s i n g P e r s o n s : N o t e s o n P a u l A u s t e r s Fiction. RCF 14 (1994): 40-43. S t a t e s t h a t t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f A u s t e r s f i c t i o n i s t o c o m b i n e a n

Fujii 41

American obsession with gaining an identity with the European ability to ask how identity is lost. Also states that family is the source of loss o f i d e n t i t y f o r A u s t e r, a s T h e I n v e n t i o n o f S o l i t u d e s h o w s . B a x t e r refers to Sam Farr in In the Country of Last Things as reminiscent of S a m A u s t e r, A u s t e r s f a t h e r.

[7] Smadja, Robert. La solitude dans Livret de famille de Modiano, et L I n v e n t i o n de la solitude de A u s t e r. Solitudes, e c r i t u re et

re p re s e n t a t i o n . E d . A n d r e S i g a n o s . G r e n o b l e : E l l u g , 1 9 9 5 . 1 3 7 - 1 4 3 . A F r e n c h e s s a y o n T h e I n v e n t i o n o f S o l i t u d e a n d M o d i a n o s w o r k .

[ 8 ] C h a r d - H u t c h i n s o n , M a r t i n e . L e s e s p a c e s d e l a m e m o i r e d a n s L I n v e n t i o n d e l a s o l i t u d e . D u p e r r a y. 1 5 - 2 3 . A French essay on The Invention of Solitude.

[ 9 ] S a m m a r c e l l i , F r a n c o i s e . L i n v e n t i o n d u n e e c r i t u r e : f i l i a t i o n e t a l t e r i t e d a n s L I n v e n t i o n d e l a s o l i t u d e . D u p p e r a y. 2 4 - 3 7 . A F r e n c h e s s a y.

[ 1 0 ] D o w, Wi l l i a m . L I n v e n t i o n d e s o l i t u d e : l u e u r s d a n s l a p p r e h e n s i o n d e l a u t e n t i c i t e . D u p e r r a y. 3 8 - 5 0 . A French essay on The Invention of Solitude. Its English version is P a u l A u s t e r s T h e I n v e n t i o n o f S o l i t u d e : G l i m m e r s i n a R e a c h t o A u t h e n t i c i t y, [ 1 7 ] o f t h i s s e c t i o n .

Fujii 42

[ 11 ] B o z z e t t o - D i t t o , L u c i e n n e . L a r b l e e t l a v i l l e i n v i s i b l e d a n s L I n v e n t i o n d e l a S o l i t u d e . D u p e r r a y. 5 8 - 7 4 . A French essay on The Invention of Solitude.

[12] Rubin, Derek. The Hunger Must Be Preserved at all Costs: A Reading of The Invention of Solitude. In: Barone (ed.) 1995: 60-70. Places The Invention of Solitude in the traditional Jewish literature, s h o w i n g t h a t A u s t e r d e a l s w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f h u n g e r, w h i c h i s t h e J e w i s h q u a l i t y. R u b i n i n t r o d u c e s a n e s s a y b y I s a a c R o s e n f i e l d i n o r d e r t o d e s c r i b e t h e t r a i t s o f h u n g e r.

[ 1 3 ] P e t i l l o n , P i e r r e Yv e s . A u t o b i o g r a p h i e d u n a u t r e . M a g L i t t 3 3 8 ( 1 9 9 5 ) : 41-43. A French article.

[ 1 4 ] M a r l i n g , Wi l l i a m . P a u l A u s t e r a n d t h e A m e r i c a n R o m a n t i c s . L I T 7 (1997): 301-310. States that Auster re-reads the American Romantics and responds to them as his inheritance. It consists of 10 brief parts, showing the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n A u s t e r s T h e L o c k e d R o o m a n d H a w t h o r n e s Fanshawe.

[ 1 5 ] A d a m s , Ti m o t h y D o w. P h o t o g r a p h y a n d Ve n t r i l o q u y i n P a u l A u s t e r s T h e I n v e n t i o n o f S o l i t u d e . Tr u e R e l a t i o n s : E s s a y s o n A u t o b i o g r a p h y a n d t h e P o s t m o d e r n . E d . G. T h o m a s C o u s e r a n d J e s e p h F i c h t e l b e r g :

Fujii 43

We s t p o r t : G r e e n w o o d , 1 9 9 8 . Examines the function of photographs in the book, which reproduces two of the photographs mentioned in the narrative. Adams states that t h e t r i c k p h o t o g r a p h o f A u s t e r s f a t h e r a f f e c t e d h i m m o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y t h a n h i s a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s f a t h e r, a n d c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e book performs a variety of function of life-writing: b i o g r a p h y,

a u t o b i o g r a p h y, m e m o i r, p o r t r a i t u r e , s e l f - p o r t r a i t u r e , f a m i l y a l b u m , c o n f e s s i o n , e u l o g y, a n d e p i t a p h .

[16] Iannone, Carol. Jewish Fathers and Sons and Daughters. Asch 67 (1998): 131-138. J u x t a p o s e s T h e I n v e n t i o n o f S o l i t u d e w i t h Tr i l l i n s M e s s a g e f ro m M y F a t h e r , R o t h s P a t r i m o n y , a n d G o r d o n s T h e S h a d o w M a n i n t e r m s o f t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e f a t h e r. S h e c r i t i c i z e s A u s t e r a n d G o r d o n for pleasing themselves by cruelly and unnecessarily disclosing their fathers lives.

[ 1 7 ] D o w, Wi l l i a m . P a u l A u s t e r s T h e I n v e n t i o n o f S o l i t u d e : G l i m m e r s i n a R e a c h o f A u t h e n t i c i t y. C r i t i q u e 3 9 ( 1 9 9 8 ) : 2 7 2 - 2 8 1 . States that Auster deconstructs the postmodernist aesthetic of

expression, seeking to join the will to an individual and collective morality based on momentary recognitions, thus representing new possibilities for the twentieth century autobiographical structures.

[ 1 8 ] F o r d , M a r k . I n v e n t i o n s o f S o l i t u d e : T h o r e a u a n d A u s t e r. J o u r n a l o f

Fujii 44

A m e r i c a n St u d i e s 3 3 ( 1 9 9 9 ) : 2 0 1 - 2 1 9 . C o m p a r e s T h o r e a u s Wa l d e n w i t h A u s t e r s w o r k . F o r d s t a t e s t h a t b o t h Thoreau and Auster are obsessively concerned with the powers of solitude, which alters the relationship between the text and the world, and is construed as a means of connecting with the world with multiple, metamorphic selves. Ford also points out the similarities between Thoreau and Sachs, a character in Leviathan, in their political attitude.

b-4) On City of Glass [ 1 ] R o w e n , N o r m a . T h e D e t e c t i v e i n S e a r c h o f t h e L o s t To n g u e o f A d a m : P a u l A u s t e r s C i t y o f G l a s s . C r i t i q u e 3 2 ( 1 9 9 1 ) : 2 2 4 - 2 3 4 . P o i n t i n g o u t t h a t t h e S t i l l m a n s e m b o d y Q u i n n s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h l a n g u a g e , R o w e n s t a t e s t h a t t h e d e t e c t i v e s q u e s t i n t h e n o v e l i s t h e search for the prelapsarian language by which alone things can be r e u n i t e d w i t h t h e i r r i g h t n a m e s . C o n c l u d e s t h a t Q u i n n s q u e s t m e r e l y amounts to the partial and glimpsed achievement of truth.

[ 2 ] L a v e n d e r, Wi l l i a m . T h e N o v e l o f C r i t i c a l E n g a g e m e n t : P a u l A u s t e r s City of Glass. Con-L 34 (1993): 219-239. E x a m i n e s t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e n o v e l : i t s p o i n t o f v i e w, c h a r a c t e r s , p l o t . Lavender states that the novel deconstructs the form of the novel, the c a n o n o f c r i t i c i s m , t h e o r y, t r a d i t i o n , a n d t h e n o v e l i t s e l f , t h u s a t t a c k i n g u p o n l i t e r a t u r e a n d t h e o r y.

[3]

Rossello,

Mireille.

The

S c r e e n e r s

Maps:

Michael

de

C e r t e a u s

Fujii 45

Wa n d e r s m a n n e r a n d P a u l A u s t e r s H y p e r t e x t u a l D e t e c t i v e . H y p e r / Te x t / T h e o r y . E d . G e o r g e P. L a n d o w. B a l t i m o r e : J o h n H o p k i n s U P, 1994. 121-158. Forthcoming.

[ 4 ] Ty s h , C h r i s . F r o m O n e M i r r o r t o A n o t h e r : T h e R h e t o r i c o f D i s a f f i l i a t i o n in City of Glass. RCF 14 (1994): 46-52. States that the novel deploys an economy of opaque chaos which d e g r a d e s r e a d e r s n o t i o n o f i d e n t i t y, c u l t u r e , a n d l a n g u a g e , r e f e r r i n g t o t h e o r i s t s s u c h a s D e r r i d a , L a c a n a n d B a r t h e s . Ty s h i n t r o d u c e s p o s s i b l e a r g u m e n t s : i n t e r t e x t u a l i t y, L a c a n i a n a n a l y s i s , f a t h e r s o n r e l a t i o n s h i p , a n d t o p o l o g y.

[ 5 ] M a l a m u d d e R u b e n s , P. I . H e r e n c i a c u l t u r a l , t e m a e i n t e r t e x t u a l i d a d e n C i t y o f G l a s s d e P a u l A u s t e r. E s t a d o s U n i d o s y A m e r i c a : re l a c i o n e s i n t e rc u l t u r a l e s . 230-237. A Spanish essay on City of Glass. Ed. Rolando Costa Picazo. Buenos Aires, 1994:

[ 6 ] G e v a i s , B e r t r a n d . A u p a y s d e s t o u t d e r n i e r s m o t s : u n e C i t e d e v e r re s a u x l i m i t e s d u l a n g a g e . D u p e r r a y. 8 6 - 1 0 1 . A French essay on City of Glass.

[ 7 ] M e l l i e r, D e n i s . Tu y a u t e r i e s e t t h e o r i e s a l a n o i x : m e t a f i c t i o n e t s i g n i f i c a t i o n d a n s C i t e d e v e r re . D u p e r r a y. 1 0 2 - 11 3 .

Fujii 46

A French essay on City of Glass.

[ 8 ] H e n n i n g s , Te r r i J a n e . Wr i t i n g a g a i n s t A e s t h e t i c I d e o l o g y : To m S h a r p e s T h e G re a t P u r s u i t a n d P a u l A u s t e r s C i t y o f G l a s s . D i s s . U n i v. o f Minnesota, 1995. Explores how the postmodern might be used to question the

preconceived notions of liberal humanism that excluded issues of race, e t h n i c i t y, a n d g e n d e r, f o c u s i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r o n a c a d e m i c a n d p u b l i c reaction to the critical theory that emerged in France and the United States since the 1960s. Hennings analyzes the investigation of

l a n g u a g e a n d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f i d e n t i t y i n A u s t e r s C i t y o f G l a s s a n d S h a r p e s T h e G re a t P u r s u i t . [DAI 57 (1996): DA9612967]

[ 9 ] M a l m g r e n , C a r l D . D e t e c t i n g / Wr i t i n g t h e R e a l : P a u l A u s t e r ' s C i t y o f Glass. 1995. Introducing the differences between the world of mystery fiction and that of detective fiction, Malmgren states that Quinn, thinking he is e n t e r i n g t h e w o r l d o f m y s t e r y f i c t i o n , t h e w o r l d o f c e n t e r e d n e s s , o r d e r, a n d s t a b i l i t y, i n f a c t e n t e r s t h a t o f d e t e c t i v e f i c t i o n w h e r e s i g n i f i e r s t e n d t o d e t a c h f r o m s i g n i f i e d s , r e f l e c t i n g t h e A m e r i c a n r e a l i t y. H e concludes that Auster nevertheless subverts the reality claims of detective fiction by the metafictional devices.

[ 1 0 ] R a y n a l , P a t r i c k . S o u s l e s i g n e d u p o l a r. M a g L i t t 3 3 8 ( 1 9 9 5 ) : 3 8 - 4 0 .

Fujii 47

A French article.

[ 11 ] S o p r a p u r e , M a d e l e i n e . T h e D e t e c t i v e a n d t h e A u t h o r : C i t y o f G l a s s . Beyond the Red Notebook. 1995. 71-87. D e f i n e s t h e n o v e l a s a n a n t i - d e t e c t i v e f i c t i o n , l i k e P y n c h o n s T h e Crying of Lot 49, and states that City of Glass reinforces the critique of the mythology and presuppositions of the traditional detective novel on t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e a u t h o r. S h e a l s o d e f i n e s t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s ( Q u i n n , S t i l l m a n S r. , a n d t h e n a r r a t o r ) a s a u t h o r - c h a r a c t e r s , a n d s t a t e s t h a t their impulse to establish order and certainty generates disorder and a n x i e t y.

[ 1 2 ] K o p c e w i c z , A n d r e j . P a u l A u s t e r s M a s q u e r a d e s i n C i t y o f G l a s s . A m e r i c a n C u l t u re s : A s s i m i l a t i o n a n d M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m . E d . E l z b i e t a O l e s k y. S a n F r a n c i s c o : I n t e r n a t i o n a l S c h o l a r s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 9 5 . 63-73. N a m e s M e l v i l l e s T h e C o n f i d e n c e - M a n a s t h e s u b t e x t f o r t h e n o v e l a n d s t a t e s t h a t M e l v i l l e s c r i t i q u e o f E m e r s o n i n T h e C o n f i d e n c e - M a n r e i n f o r c e s A u s t e r s p a r o d y o f S t i l l m a n s E m e r s o n i a n q u e s t f o r t h e l a n g u a g e a s a b r i d g e f r o m c o n c r e t e a p p e a r a n c e t o s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y.

[ 1 3 ] N e a l o n , J e f f r e y T. Wo r k o f t h e D e t e c t i v e , Wo r k o f t h e Wr i t e r : P a u l A u s t e r s C i t y o f G l a s s . M F S 4 2 ( 1 9 9 6 ) : 9 1 - 1 1 0 . Points out that the work of the detective in the novel mirrors the work of writing and states that the novel offers a confrontation with a

Fujii 48

w r i t i n g s p a c e o f ( i m ) p o s s i b i l i t y, h e s i t a t i o n a n d r e s p o n s e t o a l t e r i t y. The abrupt and ineffective quotations from and discussion of Blanchot and Heidegger make the greater part of the argument elusive

[ 1 4 ] L i t t l e , Wi l l i a m G. N o t h i n g t o G o o n : P a u l A u s t e r s C i t y o f G l a s s . Con-L 38 (1997): 133-163. Introduces the notion of nothing, which cannot be treated or processed by the technologies of reason, and states that the novel, a nothing that makes a difference by refusing to be eliminated in the name of truth, turns up nothing besides the truth. Little defines white as the color of nothing, hunger as the activity that reveals the n o t h i n g a t t h e c o r e o f s u b j e c t i v i t y.

[ 1 5 ] L e v y, A a r o n D . T h e B i r t h o f t h e R e a d e r : A u t h o r i t y a n d L a n g u a g e i n P a u l A u s t e r s C i t y o f G l a s s . h t t p : / / w w w. s a s . u p e n n . e d u / ~ a d l e v y / g l a s s . h t m ( 1 9 9 7 ) Unable to access as of Aug. 17, 2002.

[ 1 6 ] H e r z o g e n r a t h , B e r n d . L o o k i n g f o r C l u e s : T h e D e t e c t i v e S t o r y. A n A r t o f D e s i re . 1 5 - 2 6 . A n e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e d e t e c t i v e s t o r y, w h i c h b e g i n s w i t h Poe, developing through British authors (Doyle, Sayers), Americans (Hammet, Chandler), to the postmodern detective fiction by Pynchon, Borges, and Robbe-Grillet. A general and effective introduction to the detective genre.

Fujii 49

[ 1 7 ] - - - . P a r a d i s e ( A l w a y s A l r e a d y ) L o s t : C i t y o f G l a s s . A n A r t o f D e s i re . 27-72. S t a t e s t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t t h e s u b - s t a g e s o f L a c a n s m i r r o r stage, shoeing the ego of Quinn is always threatened. Frequently referring to Derrida and Freud as well, he concludes that the mirror s t a g e e n d s w i t h t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e i d e n t i t y o f Q u i n n i s a n o t h e r.

[ 1 8 ] B r a u l t , P a s c a l A n n e . Tr a n s l a t i n g t h e I m p o s s i b l e D e b t : P a u l A u s t e r s City of Glass. Critique 39 (1998): 228-238. F e a t u r i n g t h e n o v e l s q u e s t i o n o f t r a n s l a t i o n , s t a t e s t h a t t h e n o v e l i s made to defy translation, and through the passage to translation into other languages emerges its linkage to America as the chosen country for Babel, the country of an original language.

[ 1 9 ] A g u i r r e , M a n u e l . P a u l A u s t e r s C i t y o f G l a s s , J o s e M a r i a C o n g r e t s To d a s l a s M u j e re s a n d E u r o p e a n P o s t m o d e r n i s m . N e o p h i l o l o g u s 8 2 (1998): 169-180. C o m p a r e s C i t y o f G l a s s w i t h C o n g r e t s S p a n i s h n o v e l , w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e n a r r a t i v e s : a n o v e l i s t s l e t t e r t o h i s e d i t o r, A u t h o r s n o t e , and scenes which present a life of a nameless man. Aguirre states that the same strategies and goals are found on both sides of the Atlantic: incorporating conventional popular culture, transgressing reference, the limits of on the the

novel, intertextual

and reflection

c o n c e p t o f a u t h o r.

Fujii 50

[20]

C h a p m a n , S i o b h a n ; R o u t l e d g e , C h r i s t o p h e r. T h e P r a g m a t i c s o f
D e t e c t i o n : P a u l A u s t e r s C i t y o f G l a s s . L a n g u a g e a n d L i t e r a t u re 8 (1999): 241-53. *forthcoming.

b-5) On Ghosts [1] Burke, Michael. Iconicity and Literary Emotion. EJES 5 (2001): 31-46. Discusses the value of the linguistic notion of iconicity for the interpretation of literary texts. Burke analyzes the opening paragraph of Ghosts and shows how its syntactic form is used iconically to prompt readers to derive particular iconic-emotive elements, in this c a s e t h e n o t i o n o f d i s o r i e n t a t i o n a n d a n x i e t y, f r o m t h e d i s c o u r s e .

b-6) On The Locked Room [ 1 ] S e g a l , A l e x . S e c r e c y a n d G i f t : P a u l A u s t e r s T h e L o c k e d R o o m . Critique 39 (1998): 239-257. A d o p t i n g D e r r i d a s a r g u m e n t o f t h e g i f t t o t h e n o v e l , s t a t e s t h a t A u s t e r explores the paradox that the gift engenders.

[ 2 ] B e r n s t e i n , S t e p h e n . A u s t e r s S u b l i m e C l o s u r e : T h e L o c k e d R o o m . I n : Barone (ed.) 1995: 88-106. D i s c u s s e s t h e n o v e l s e m p h a s e s o n d o u b l i n g , h o m o e r o t i c i s m , a n d s u b l i m i t y. H e s t a t e s t h a t t h e s e e m p h a s e s l e a d t o t h e n a r r a t i v e s p r o b l e m o f c l o s u r e . H e a l s o i n t r o d u c e s o t h e r l i t e r a r y w o r k s : H o g g s P r i v a t e

Fujii 51

Memoir and Confessions of a Justified Sinner as an example of the d o u b l i n g a n d t h e c i r c u l a r n a t u r e o f t h e q u e s t o f t h e d e t e c t i v e , D e L i l l o s White Noise as the relationship between closure and the sublime, the c l o s u r e o f B e c k e t t s T h e U n n a m a b l e a n d C o m p a n y a s T h e L o c k e d R o o m s i n t e r t e x t u a l d e b t , C o n r a d s H e a r t o f D a r k n e s s a n d L o rd J i m a s t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f c l o s u r e . H e c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e n o v e l s h o w s A u s t e r s refusal to accede to the traditional category of closure.

b - 7 ) O n T h e N e w Yo r k Tr i l o g y [ 1 ] D e c o n s t r u c t i n g T h e N e w Yo r k Tr i l o g y : P a u l A u s t e r s A n t i - D e t e c t i v e Fiction. Critique 31(1990): 71-84. A D e r r i d e a n a n a l y s i s o f T h e N e w Yo r k Tr i l o g y . R u s s e l l a r g u e s t h a t t h e detectives search for the missing persons become linguistic quest for the correspondence between signifiers and signified and thus becomes t h e q u e s t f o r o r i g i n a n d i d e n t i t y.

[ 2 ] A l e x a n d e r, M a r g u e r i t e . F l i g h t s f ro m R e a l i s m : T h e m e s a n d St r a t e g i e s i n Postmodern British and American Fiction. London: Arnold, 1990: 190-199. A s e c t i o n o n t h e Tr i l o g y i n t h e c h a p t e r t h a t a r g u e s t h e w r i t e r l y n o v e l . b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e Tr i l o g y s h o w s a f o r e g r o u n d i n g o f t h e t e x t a n d i t s p o w e r t o c r e a t e i t s o w n r e a l i t y, s t a t e s t h a t a l l t h r e e quests of the protagonists are ultimately internalized, and expose within the self a frightening void. Alexander names the early Puritan t h e o l o g y, t h e A m e r i c a n R o m a n t i c s , a n d B e c k e t t s Tr i l o g y a s A u s t e r s

Fujii 52

literary frame.

[3] Saltzman, Arthur M. De(in)forming the Plot. Designs of Darkness in C o n t e m p o r a r y A m e r i c a n F i c t i o n . P h i l a d e l p h i a : U o f PA P r e s s , 1 9 9 0 . 52-96. I n t r o d u c e s T h e N e w Yo r k Tr i l o g y a s a n e x a m p l e o f c o n t e m p o r a r y version of detective fiction, which features voided characters and admits accidents and gaps, loose and dead ends. Summarizing the plot, S a l t z m a n e x a m i n e s t h e t r a i t s o f e a c h v o l u m e o f t h e Tr i l o g y . S t a t e s t h a t the absurd dance of detective and detected in City of Glass parallels t h a t o f B e c k e t t s M o l l o y , t h a t t h e n o t i o n o f i d e n t i t y a s a s y s t e m o f h o s t a g e h o l d i n g h o s t a g e i n G h o s t s c o m p a r e s w i t h K a f k a s n o t i o n o f b e i n g a w r i t e r, a n d t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r F a n s h a w e r e l a t i o n s h i p i n T h e L o c k e d R o o m i s s i m i l a r t o t h e H u m b e r t Q u i l t y o n e i n N a b o k o v s Lolita.

[ 4 ] K e n d a l l , J o s h u a . T h e N o v e l : K a s p a r H a u s e r, S y m b o l o f I s o l a t i o n a n d Deprivation in the Big C i t y. The Kaspar Hauser S y n d ro m e of

P s y c h o l o g i c a l D w a r f i s m . E d . J o h n M o n e y. N e w Yo r k : P r o m e t h e u s , 1992: 239-249. S t a t e s t h a t t h e t h e m e s o f d e p r i v a t i o n a n d i s o l a t i o n i n t h e Tr i l o g y r e v i v e the legend of Kaspar Hauser in order to symbolize the coercive process whereby all human beings achieve the status of individuation, and that A u s t e r r e p r e s e n t s t h e H a u s e r f i g u r e s i n t h e Tr i l o g y a s t h e p r o t o t y p e s o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y o r p o s t - m o d e r n c i t y - d w e l l e r. K e n d a l l a l s o i n f e r s t h a t

Fujii 53

in City of Glass Auster suggests a parallel between the life history of Hauser and the history of America, both symbolizing a pure state of nature.

[ 5 ] B r a d b u r y, M a l c o m . P a u l A u s t e r : T h e N e w Yo r k Tr i l o g y . I n T h e M o d e r n A m e r i c a n N o v e l : N e w E d i t i o n . N e w Yo r k : Vi k i n g , 1 9 9 3 : 2 5 7 - 2 6 0 . I n t r o d u c e s t h e Tr i l o g y a s a n e x a m p l e o f e x p e r i m e n t a l r e a l i s m o f t h e p o s t m o d e r n w r i t i n g i n t h e 1 9 8 0 s , w h i c h r e f l e c t s o n i t s r e l a t i o n s t o r e a l i t y. Bradbury states that the Tr i l o g y reveals the increasing

complexity and the growing theoretical confidence of Auster who is investigating himself, and that he engages in the act of detection of s t o r y i t s e l f , o f r e a l i t y, f o r w h i c h h e i s r e s p o n s i b l e .

[ 6 ] D e L o s S a n t o s , O s c a r. T h e C o n c e a l e d D i a l e c t i c : E x i s t e n t i a l i s m a n d ( I n t e r ) - S u b j e c t i v i t y i n t h e P o s t m o d e r n N o v e l . D i s s . O h i o S t a t e U n i v, 1993. Explores existentialism and (inter)subjectivity in the postmodern novel and states that some writers have bridged the gap between the t w o . H e e x a m i n e s A u s t e r s Tr i l o g y , j u x t a p o s i n g C h a n d l e r s T h e L o n g G o o d b y e w i t h A u s t e r s n o v e l s t o p r o v e t h a t A u s t e r d e v i a t e s f r o m t h e modern mystery and writes postmodern existential detective fiction. Wo r k s o f P y n c h o n a n d C o o v e r a r e a l s o e x a m i n e d . [ D A I 5 4 ( 1 9 9 3 ) : DA9325387]

[ 7 ] - - - . A u s t e r v s . C h a n d l e r : O r, C r a c k i n g t h e c a s e o f T h e P o s t m o d e r n

Fujii 54

M y s t e r y. C o n n e c t i c u t R e v i e w 1 6 ( 1 9 9 4 ) : 7 5 - 8 0 . C o m p a r e s C h a n d l e r s T h e L o n g G o o d b y e a n d A u s t e r s Tr i l o g y a s examples of the modern detective story and the postmodern detective s t o r y, r e s p e c t i v e l y. P o i n t i n g o u t t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r f o c u s o f t h e m y s t e r y, c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , n a r r a t i o n , a n d r e s o l u t i o n s , h e c o n c l u d e s t h a t A u s t e r s a p p r o a c h t o t h e d e t e c t i v e s t o r y c h a l l e n g e s h i s a u d i e n c e .

[ 8 ] C a l d w e l l , R o y C . N e w Yo r k Tr i l o g y : r e f l e x i o n s p o s t m o d e r n e s . L O e v re d e P a u l A u s t e r . E d . A n n i c k D u p e r r a y. A r l e s : A c t e s S u d , 1 9 9 5 : 7 7 - 8 5 . A F r e n c h e s s a y o n t h e Tr i l o g y .

[9]

H a r d y,

Mireille.

Le

blanchiment

des

reperes

dans

la

Tr i l o g i e

n e w - y o r k a i s e . D u p e r r a y. 11 4 - 1 2 7 . A F r e n c h e s s a y o n t h e Tr i l o g y .

[ 1 0 ] I i n o , To m o y u k i . A f f a i r e c l a s s e e : l a n a i s s a n c e d u n r o m a n c i e r d a n s L a Tr i l o g i e n e w - y o r k a i s e . D u p e r r a y. 1 4 0 - 1 5 0 . A F r e n c h e s s a y o n t h e Tr i l o g y .

[ 11 ] C o c h o y, N a t h a l i e . P r e t e - m o i l a p l u m e : l a f a c e c a c h e e d e N e w Yo r k d a n s l a Tr i l o g i e e t M o o n P a l a c e . D u p e r r a y. 2 2 8 - 2 4 2 . A F r e n c h e s s a y o n t h e Tr i l o g y a n d M o o n P a l a c e .

[ 1 2 ] C a r e , A n t o i n e . L e Tr a d u c t e u r e t s e s d o u b l e s . M a g L i t t 3 3 8 ( 1 9 9 5 ) : 35-37.

Fujii 55

A French article.

[ 1 3 ] A l f o r d , S t e v e n E . S p a c e d - O u t : S i g n i f i c a t i o n a n d S p a c e i n P a u l A u s t e r s T h e N e w Yo r k Tr i l o g y . C o n L . 3 6 ( 1 9 9 5 ) : 6 1 3 - 6 3 2 . S t a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e t y p e s o f s p a c e i n t h e Tr i l o g y : p e d e s t r i a n spaces, mapped spaces, and utopian spaces, and that characters s u f f e r i n g d e r i v e s f r o m t h e i r m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s p a c e t h e y o c c u p y. Alford refers to the arguments of space by Lefebure and De Certeau.

[ 1 4 ] - - - . M i r r o r s o f M a d n e s s : P a u l A u s t e r s T h e N e w Yo r k Tr i l o g y . C r i t i q u e (1995): 17-33. A n a n a l y s i s o f t h e n a r r a t i v e a n d t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s o f t h e Tr i l o g y . Showing that the self and other confrontation in each novel engenders a t h i r d e n t i t y, t h u s f o r m i n g a t r i a d o f t h e s e l f , s t a t e s t h a t A u s t e r establishes the sense of his identity by projecting himself into the n a r r a t o r, a n d h i s n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e i n c l u d e s t h e r e a d e r, a s h e s h o w s i n his analysis of Don Quixote.

[ 1 5 ] H o l z a p f e l , A n n e M . T h e N e w Yo r k Tr i l o g y : W h o d u n i t ? : Tr a c k i n g t h e S t r u c t u re o f P a u l A u s t e r s A n t i - D e t e c t i v e N o v e l s . F r a n f u r t : L a n g , 1 9 9 6 . A n a l y z e s t h e s t r u c t u r e a n d t h e m e s o f t h e Tr i l o g y . I n t r o d u c i n g t h e development of the detective genre from Poe to the anti-detective n o v e l , H o l z a p f e l s t a t e s t h a t t h e Tr i l o g y b e l o n g s t o t h e a n t i - d e t e c t i v e f i c t i o n . S h e a l s o e x a m i n e s e a c h v o l u m e o f t h e Tr i l o g y f r o m s e v e r a l perspectives: elements of the detective novel, aspects of identity and

Fujii 56

l a n g u a g e , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a u t h o r a n d r e a d e r, b e t w e e n f a c t s and fiction, to show that each novel has the double structure of a detective story and the second level of more complex themes. She c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e t h e m e s a n d s t r u c t u r e o f t h e Tr i l o g y a r e o r i e n t a t e d towards writing, which is an effort by Auster to overcome the obstacles of problem of presence ands representation.

[ 1 6 ] S z a b o , A n n a - T. T h e S e l f - C o n s u m i n g N a r r a t i v e : P a u l A u s t e r s N e w Yo r k Tr i l o g y . A n a C h ro n i s t 1 9 - 2 1 ( 1 9 9 6 ) : 2 6 6 - 2 7 9 . *forthcoming.

[ 1 7 ] R u b e n s t e i n , R o b e r t a . D o u b l i n g , I n t e r t e x t u a l i t y, a n d t h e P o s t m o d e r n U n c a n n y : P a u l A u s t e r s N e w Yo r k Tr i l o g y . L i t 9 ( 1 9 9 8 ) : 2 4 5 - 2 6 2 . E x p l o r e s t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e F r e u d i a n u n c a n n y i n t h e Tr i l o g y : d o u b l e characters, intertextual doubles such as Hawthorne, Kafka, repetition, Oedipal conflict, automaton, imagery of eyes. Robenstein states that Auster gives narrative expression to his haunted and uncanny inner life.

[ 1 8 ] Z i l c o s k y, J o h n . T h e R e v e n g e o f t h e A u t h o r : P a u l A u s t e r s C h a l l e n g e t o T h e o r y. C r i t i q u e 3 9 ( 1 9 9 8 ) : 1 9 5 - 2 0 6 . States that Auster experiments the possibilities of the new authorship i n t h e Tr i l o g y , b y a p p e a r i n g a n d d i s a p p e a r i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e t h r e e novels.

Fujii 57

[ 1 9 ] P a c e , C h r i s . E s c a p i n g t h e L o c k e d R o o m : O v e r t h r o w i n g t h e Ty r a n n y o f A r t i f i c e i n P a u l A u s t e r s N e w Yo r k Tr i l o g y . 1 9 9 9 . h t t p : / / w w w. b l u e c r i c k e t . c o m / a u s t e r / a r t i c l e s / t h e s i s . h t m l P o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e d e t e c t i v e g e n r e w h i c h t h e Tr i l o g y e m p l o y s s e t s c o n v e n t i o n a l r o l e s , o r t h e t y r a n n y o f a r t i f i c e t h a t t h e a u t h o r, t h e r e a d e r, a n d t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e s u p p o s e d t o p l a y i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e book. Pace also states that Auster subverts the conventions by having his characters become aware of their existence as characters in the book (the locked room) and escape from it by realizing their creative p o w e r, a n d b y h a v i n g t h e r e a d e r s a c t a s t h e c h a r a c t e r s d o .

[ 2 0 ] E s c o u t e l o u p , H e l e n e . M o d e s o f B e i n g i n P a u l A u s t e r s N e w Yo r k Tr i l o g y . M a i t r i s e p a p e r, U n i v e r s i t e d e P a u , 1 9 9 9 .

[ 2 1 ] Va n s k i k e , E l l i o t L e e . R e a d i n g M a s o c h i s t i c a l l y : T h e Wo r k i n g o f Frustration in the Fiction of Gertrude Stein, Alain Robbe-Grillet, Paul A u s t e r, K a t h y A c k e r, a n d J . G. B a l l a r d . D i s s . U n i v. o f I o w a , 2 0 0 0 . Discusses the problem of intimacy between readers and metafictional texts, adapting the m a s o c h i s t s paradoxical desire for deferred

resolution to the narratological study of texts that frustrate readers by denying closure, and argues that these texts have the potential to r e m a k e r e a d e r s . A u s t e r s Tr i l o g y i s e x a m i n e d a s a n e x a m p l e w h i c h manipulates readers desire by disappointing their expectations for resolution through a kind of narrative bait and switch. [DAI 61 (2000): DA9975850]

Fujii 58

[22] Hansen, Gitte Duemose. vandrere og hjemfarne: Livsbaner og andre R u m i l i g e a s p e k t o r i T h e N e w Yo r k Tr i l o g y o g B l u e i n t h e F a c e . K a n d k 28 (2000): 13-34.

[ 2 3 ] C r e s p o , R a q u e l O r g e i r a . P r o b l e m s i n t h e Tr a n s l a t i o n o f P a u l A u s t e r s T h e N e w Yo r k Tr i l o g y . B a b e l 4 6 ( 2 0 0 0 ) : 2 2 7 - 2 4 4 . E x a m i n e s t h e p r o b l e m s i n t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e Tr i l o g y i n t o S p a n i s h : n a m e s , r h y m e s , w o r d p l a y, i d i o m s , c u l t u r a l r e f e r e n c e s , c o l l o q u i a l i s m s , and miscellaneous phenomena. Crespo states that in many cases the translator has to choose whether to translate the original word or phrase into Spanish and explain its meaning in a footnote or to keep the original unaltered. Showing examples from the original and the

translated texts, Crespo concludes that the problems are successfully solved.

[ 2 4 ] Va r v o g l i , A l i k i . L e g a c i e s . T h e Wo r l d T h a t I s t h e B o o k . 2 1 - 6 8 . A n e s s a y o n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e Tr i l o g y a n d t h e A m e r i c a n Romantics, consisting of two sections: Ye a - S a y i n g and

N a y - S a y i n g . T h e f i r s t s e c t i o n s t a t e s t h a t E m e r s o n s t h e o r y o f l a n g u a g e a n d T h o r e a u s Wa l d e n a r e t h e s u b t e x t s o f C i t y o f G l a s s a n d G h o s t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y, t h o u g h t h e i r s e n s e o f u n i t y o f t h o u g h t , p e r c e p t i o n , a n d t h e u n i f i e d s e l f i s n o t s h a r e d b y A u s t e r. T h e s e c o n d s e c t i o n n a m e s H a w t h o r n e s Wa k e f i e l d a s t h e s u b t e x t o f T h e L o c k e d R o o m , a n d states that H o w t h o r n e s inclination toward open-endedness,

Fujii 59

inexplicable events, and exploration of the real by way of the invented i s s h a r e d b y A u s t e r. I t a l s o r e f e r s t o M e l v i l l e a n d P o e a s r e f e r e n t i a l figures in City of Glass, concluding that the skepticism of Hawthorne a n d M e l v i l l e t o w a r d Tr a n s c e n d e n t a l i s m a n d P o e s d i c h o t o m y b e t w e e n s u b j e c t a n d o b j e c t a r e t h e t r a i t o f A u s t e r s w o r k .

[ 2 5 ] - - - . T h e U n n a m a b l e . T h e Wo r l d T h a t I s t h e B o o k . 7 9 - 8 7 . The first section of the second chapter of the book. It points out the t h e m a t i c s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n A u s t e r s Tr i l o g y a n d B e c k e t t s Tr i l o g y : question of identity and language, and textuality of the narrative.

b-8) On In the Country of Last Things [ 1 ] We s s e l i n g , E l i s a b e t h . I n t h e C o u n t r y o f L a s t T h i n g s : P a u l A u s t e r s Parable of the Apocalypse. Neophilologus 75 (1991): 496-504. States that Auster describes history-in-reverse in the novel by referring to Kurt Schwitters, criticizing the We s t e r n notion of

historical progress. She also states that Auster adopts the paradoxes of Zenon in order to defer the end, effacing the boundary between the r e a l i t y a n d f a n t a s y, t h u s m a k i n g t h e n o v e l a s o r t o f p a r a b l e w h i c h inquires the little that is necessary to make life livable.

[ 2 ] Wa s h b u r n , K a t h a r i n e . A B o o k a t t h e E n d o f t h e Wo r l d : P a u l A u s t e r s I n the Country of Last Things. RCF 14 (1994): 62-65. States that the novel is not about the past but occupied with the hellish present, pointing out the similarities between the city in the fiction and

Fujii 60

t h e p r e s e n t r e a l i t y. O r w e l l s 1 9 8 4 i s m e n t i o n e d a s r e l e v a n t t o t h e n o v e l .

[ 3 ] B i r k e r t s , S v e n . R e a l i t y, F i c t i o n , a n d I n t h e C o u n t r y o f L a s t T h i n g s . RCF 14 (1994): 66-69. States that Auster explores the real by way of the fictional, as in The N e w Yo r k Tr i l o g y . B i r k e r t s a l s o c o m p a r e s t h e n o v e l w i t h V. S . N a i p a u l s d e s c r i p t i o n o f C h i r i c o s p a i n t i n g a n d C o e t z e e s L i f e a n d Ti m e s o f M i c h a e l K .

[ 4 ] M a n i e z , C l a i r e . P a r o l e e t e c r i t u r e d a n s L a Vo y a g e d e A n n a B l u m e . D u p e r r a y. 1 8 7 - 1 9 6 . A French essay on In the Country of Last Things.

[ 5 ] Wo o d s , Ti m . L o o k i n g f o r S i g n s i n t h e A i r : U r b a n S p a c e a n d t h e Postmodern in In the Country of Last Things. Beyond the Red Notebook. 1995. 107-128. D i s c u s s e s A u s t e r s e n g a g e m e n t w i t h s p a t i a l i t y i n t h e n o v e l . Wo o d s i n t r o d u c e s L e f e b v r e s a r g u m e n t o f s p a c e a s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s i t e a n d outcome of social, political, and economic struggles, and states that the city of the novel is a space of representation in which Auster e x p l o r e s , o b s e r v e s , a n d r e p r e s e n t s c e r t a i n s t a t e s o c i a l b e h a v i o r. H e concludes that the can novel be describes how into fragmentation, political ruptures, and

discontinuities

transformed

strength

opportunities pf social resistance. He also points out peculiarities of A u s t e r s w o r k : J u d a i c r o o t s , t h e a b s e n t f a t h e r, c o n t i n g e n c y, m a t e r i a l i t y

Fujii 61

o f l a n g u a g e , h u n g e r, a n d f u n c t i o n o f m e m o r y.

[6] Herzogenrath, Bernd. In the Future Perfect: Science Fiction and D y s t o p i a . A n A r t o f D e s i re . 7 5 - 9 3 . Places the novel in the postmodern science fiction, offering

re-conceptualization of the relationship between SF and postmodern by s u g g e s t i n g L a c a n i a n s t r u c t u r e o f t i m e s c h e m e t h a t i s n o t l i n e a r.

[ 7 ] - - - . L i v i n g o n t h e E d g e : I n t h e C o u n t r y o f L a s t T h i n g s . A n A r t o f D e s i re . 9 5 - 11 2 . Discusses the novel as the nodal point of three theoretical discourses: F r e u d s B e y o n d t h e P l e a s u re P r i n c i p l e , c a t a s t r o p h e t h e o r y, a n d L a c a n s concept of desire. The conclusion is uncertain, and the argument f o c u s e s o n l y o n B l u m e s s c a v e n g i n g .

[ 8 ] Va r v o g l i , A l i k i . A H u n g e r A r t i s t . A u s t e r i t i e s . T h e Wo r l d T h a t I s t h e Book. 88-101. T h e s e c o n d s e c t i o n o f t h e s e c o n d c h a p t e r. D i s c u s s e s t h e t h e m e o f h u n g e r, c o m p a r i n g t h e n o v e l w i t h K a f k a s A H u n g e r A r t i s t . I t s t a t e s t h a t A u s t e r, a s w e l l a s K a f k a , o f f e r s a n a n a l o g y b e t w e e n h u n g e r a n d writing, both depend upon the existence of the others.

b-9) On Moon Palace [ 1 ] B a w e r, B r u c e . D o u b l e s a n d M o r e D o u b l e s . T h e N e w C r i t e r i o n 7 ( 1 9 8 9 ) : 67-89.

Fujii 62

Praises Moon Palace for its intellectual and accomplished attempt at t h e v i s i o n o f T h e N e w Yo r k Tr i l o g y , s t a t i n g t h a t b o t h s h a r e t h e m a i n t h e m e s : f a t h e r a n d s o n , n o t i o n o f f a m i l y, s e n s e o f a l i e n a t i o n a n d directionlessness.

[ 2 ] We i s e n b u r g e r, S t e v e n . I n s i d e M o o n P a l a c e . R C F 1 4 ( 1 9 9 4 ) : 7 0 - 9 2 . R p t . in Beyond the Red Notebook. 129-142. Discusses the narrative and representation in the novel. Reconstructing F o g g s g e n e a l o g y, w h i c h s h o w s t h e u n s t a b l e a n d a b s e n c e f e a t u r e s o f t h e p a t e r n a l s i d e , We i s e n b u r g e r s t a t e s t h a t M o o n P a l a c e d e n i e s t h e c l a s s i c a l l i n e a r, g e n e a l o g i c a l d y n a m i c s o f n a r r a t i v e . R e g a r d i n g t h e painting Blakelock as the ideological center of the novel, he also states t h a t t h e p a i n t e r, w h o h a s l o n g b e e n f o r g o t t e n , a n d t h e p a i n t i n g , a n anti-representational text, subverts the representational values within t h e o f f i c i a l g e n e a l o g y.

[3] Coulomb-Buffa, Chantal. Reconciliation dans Moon Palace de Paul A u s t e r. R e v u e F r a n c a i s e d E t u d e s A m e r i c a i n e s 1 7 ( 1 9 9 4 ) : 4 0 4 - 4 1 5 . A French essay on Moon Palace.

[ 4 ] C h a s s a y, J e a n - F r a n c o i s . M o o n P a l a c e : l e p a l i m p s e s t e h i s t o r i q u e . D u p e r r a y. 2 1 5 - 2 2 7 . A French essay on Moon Palace.

[ 5 ] C o c h o y, N a t h a l i e . P r e t e - m o i l a p l u m e : l a f a c e c a c h e e d e N e w Yo r k d a n s

Fujii 63

l a Tr i l o g i e e t M o o n P a l a c e . D u p e r r a y. 2 2 8 - 2 4 2 . A F r e n c h e s s a y o n t h e Tr i l o g y a n d M o o n P a l a c e .

[ 6 ] C h e n e t i e r, M a r k . P a u l A u s t e r a s t h e Wi z a rd o f O d d s : M o o n P a l a c e . P a r i s : Didier Erudition, 1996. *forthcoming.

[7]

A d d y,

A n d r e w.

Narrating

the

Self:

S t o r y - Te l l i n g

as

Personal

M y t h - M a k i n g i n P a u l A u s t e r s M o o n P a l a c e . Q W E R T Y 6 ( 1 9 9 6 ) : 153-161. Explores the significance of personal mythologizing in Moon Palace. Pointing out that to narrate a story is to blur the boundaries between f a c t a n d f i c t i o n a n d b e t w e e n f a c t a n d m e m o r y, a n d t h a t M a r c o s narrative of his quest for his origin and identity is the production of i m a g i n a t i o n a n d m e m o r y, A d d y d e f i n e s t h e n a r r a t i v e a c t a s t h e c r e a t i o n o f a m y t h o f t h e s e l f . H e a l s o e x a m i n e s t h e n a r r a t i v e s s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l references to America in the 1960s and states that Marco produces a small scale myth of the self to replace the larger myth of human community and history that contemporary culture refuses.

[8] Brooks, Carlo. Desespoir et possibilite: Le Probleme de lappartenace au monde dans Moon Palace et Libra. QWERTY 6 (1996): 163-175. A French essay on Moon Palace.

[ 9 ] C e s a r i S t r i c k e r, F l o r e n c e . M o o n P a l a c e o u l e s a v a t a r s d u p r o g r a m m e .

Fujii 64

QWERTY 6 (1996): 177-182. A French essay on Moon Palace.

[ 1 0 ] C o c h o y, N a t h a l i e . M o o n P a l a c e o u l a f o r m a t i o n d u l e c t u r. Q W E R T Y 6 (1996):183-192. A French essay on Moon Palace.

[ 11 ] D o w, Wi l l i a m . N e v e r B e i n g T h i s F a r f r o m H o m e : P a u l A u s t e r a n d Picturing Moonlight Spaces. QWERTY 6 (1996): 193-198. Explores the significance of personal mythologizing in the novel. Pointing out that to narrate a story is to blur the boundaries between f a c t a n d f i c t i o n , b e t w e e n f a c t a n d m e m o r y, a n d t h a t M a r c o s n a r r a t i v e of his quest for his origin and identity is the production of imagination a n d m e m o r y, D o w d e f i n e s t h e n a r r a t i v e a c t a s t h e c r e a t i o n o f a m y t h o f t h e s e l f . H e a l s o e x a m i n e s t h e n a r r a t i v e s s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l r e f e r e n c e t o America in the 60s and states that Marco produces a small scale myth of the self to replace the larger myth of human community and history that contemporary culture refuses.

[12] Floch, Sylvain. Ascetisme et austerite dans Moon Palace. QWERTY 6 (1996): 199-207. A French essay on Moon Palace.

[ 1 3 ] H a r d y, M i r e i l l e . C e c i n e s t p a s u n e l u n e : L I m a g e - M i r a g e d e M o o n Palace. QWERTY 6 (1996): 209-215.

Fujii 65

A French essay on Moon Palace.

[14] Michlin, Monica. Bitter-Sweet Gravity: Moon Palace. QWERTY 6 (1996): 217-224. States that the apparent levity of the novel is a way of striving to mask the darkness and the tone of sadness of the novel. She also point out that Auster constantly reminds reader of the fact that Moon Palace is fictional, and that the novel is permeated with the concept of discovery as entailing loss that is expressed as the theme of the fall.

[ 1 5 ] Va l l a s , S o p h i e . M o o n P a l a c e : M a r c o a u t o g r a p h i e , o u l e s e r r a n c e s d u Bildingsroman. QWERTY 6 (1996): 225-233. A French essay on Moon Palace.

[16]

Pesso-Miquel,

Catherine.

Humpty

Dumpty

Had

Great

Fall:

L A m e r i q u e c o m m e l i e u d e l a c h u t e d a n s M o o n P a l a c e d e P a u l A u s t e r. E t u d e s A n g l a i s e s : G r a n d e B re t a g n e , E t a t s U n i s 4 9 ( 1 9 9 6 ) : 4 7 6 - 4 8 6 . A French essay on Moon Palace.

[17] Herzogenrath, Bernd. How Can It Be Finished If My Life Isnt?: The P i c a r e s q u e . A n A r t o f D e s i re . 1 1 5 - 1 2 4 . Shows the typology of the picaresque mode as a narrative structure and its affinity encounters and with Moon Palace: quest for disappearance as a structural o r d e r, c h a r a c t e r s function, and the

picaro-narrator narrative. Herzogenrath states that identification with

Fujii 66

the picaresque story leads to a confrontation of the two texts.

[ 1 8 ] - - - . P u n s , A r t i s t s , a n d O r p h a n s : M o o n P a l a c e . A n A r t o f D e s i re . 125-156. A detailed analysis of the pun on the name of the characters in the novel. Introducing the analysis of metaphor by Lacan and Freud, and the concept of writing of Derrida, Herzogenrath states that the protagonist Marco Stanley Fogg is the subject which is only an effect o f t h e s i g n i f i e r, a n d i s t h e f i g u r e a n d m y t h o f t h e p i c a r o , w h o i s estranged from the origin. He also examines the sublime experience of Effing and states that the pun of his name points into the direction of t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f a r t a s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i t s o w n i n a d e q u a c y, t h e impossibility of representing the real. He concludes that the

picaresque and the aesthetics of the sublime meet in the Lacanian space of desire in which Fogg travels searching for support of his being.

[19] Chauche, Catherine. Approche phenomenologique de la representation p i c t u r a l e d a n s M o o n P a l a c e d e P a u l A u s t e r. I m a g i n a i re s 3 ( 1 9 9 8 ) : 195-204. A French essay on Moon Palace.

[ 2 0 ] R o h r, S u s a n n e . T h e Wo r l d a s O r d i n a r y M i r a c l e i n Wi l l i a m D e a n H o w e l l s s A H a z a rd o f N e w F o r t u n e s a n d P a u l A u s t e r s M o o n P a l a c e . R E A L 1 5 ( 1 9 9 9 ) : 9 3 - 11 0 . *forthcoming.

Fujii 67

[ 2 1 ] Vi l q u i n M o n g o u a c h o n , B r i g i t t e . N o m b r e e t i n i t i a t i o n d a n s A u c o e u r d e s t e n e b re s d e J o s e p h C o n r a d e t M o o n P a l a c e d e P a u l A u s t e r. I r i s 2 0 ( 2 0 0 0 ) : 11 7 - 1 2 5 . A F r e n c h e s s a y.

[ 2 2 ] Va r v o g l i , A l i k i . I n v e n t i n g A m e r i c a . T h e Wo r l d T h a t I s t h e B o o k . 124-141. T h e f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h e t h i r d c h a p t e r. I t s t a t e s t h a t i n M o o n P a l a c e A u s t e r a d d r e s s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f i d e n t i t y, t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t n o t o n l y l i n g u i s t i c b u t a l s o s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s , a n d t h a t F o g g s q u e s t f o r authority becomes the quest for historical facts. It also points out that A u s t e r i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e a b i l i t y o f s p a c e , w h i c h c o n t a i n s h i s t o r y, t o convey meaning.

b-10) On The Music of Chance [ 1 ] K a m i n s k a s , J u r a t e D . L U n i v e r s t r o u b l e d e P a t r i c k M o d i a n o e t d e P a u l A u s t e r : U n e E t u d e d e Ve r s i a i re d e l e n f a n c e e t d e L a M u s i q u e d u h a z a rd . Ta n g e n c e 3 8 ( 1 9 9 2 ) : 4 2 - 5 4 . A French essay on The Music of Chance and Patrick Modiano.

[2] Irwin, Mark. Inventing The Music of Chance. RCF 14 (1994): 80-82. A n i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e n o v e l , w i t h a r e f e r e n c e t o C a m u s s T h e M y t h o f Sisyphus as reminiscent of the novel.

Fujii 68

[ 3 ] B r a y, P a u l . T h e C u r r e n t s o f F a t e a n d T h e M u s i c o f C h a n c e . R C F 1 4 (1994): 83-86. An introduction of The Music of Chance. Bray names Kafka, Beckett, Borges as similar writers and states that the uniqueness of Auster lie in his Americanness. He also states that the novel subverts every

e x p e c t a t i o n o f r e a d e r, a n d t h a t A u s t e r h a s i n v e n t e d a w h o l e n e w k i n d o f fiction.

[4] Birat, Kathie. Le langage de largent: la metaphore comme monnaie D e c h a n g e d a n s L a M u s i q u e d u h a z a rd . D u p e r r a y. 1 9 9 - 2 1 2 . A French essay on The Music of Chance.

[ 5 ] Wo o d s , Ti m . T h e M u s i c o f C h a n c e : A l e a t o r i c a l ( D i s ) h a r m o n i e s Wi t h i n T h e C i t y o f t h e Wo r l d . B e y o n d t h e R e d N o t e b o o k . 1 9 9 5 . 1 4 3 - 1 6 1 . Points out that the novel shifts from the world of freedom and chance events to the world of restrictions and a fixed course of action and states that the correct interpretation of reality is the key motif in the t e x t . Wo o d s a l s o s h o w s t h e a l l e g o r i c a l a n d s y m b o l i c s t r u c t u r e b e t w e e n t h e C i t y o f t h e Wo r l d a n d t h e e r e c t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l w a l l , maintaining that the City represents the imposition of the Protestant work ethic, and that Nashe and Pozzi are the victims of an ideology entrenched in the Foundations of conservative American capital.

[ 6 ] M o s s , M a r i a . D e m o n s a t P l a y i n P a u l A u s t e r s T h e M u s i c o f C h a n c e . Amerikastudien / American Studies 40 (1995): 695- 708.

Fujii 69

Argues that the poker game and the wall-building in the novel become the godgame, where one character is made a victim by another c h a r a c t e r s s u p e r i o r i t y. M o s s a l s o s t a t e s t h a t t h e g o d g a m e i s a n analogy for the development of postmodernism, that Nashe is a representative of the second generation writers, and his death signifies t h e d e a t h o f t h e p o s t m o d e r n w r i t e r.

[7] Herzogenrath, Bernd. On the Road: The Road Novel and the Road M o v i e . A n A r t o f D e s i re . 1 5 9 - 1 7 2 . Placing the novel in the genre of the road novel and the road movie, h e e x a m i n e s t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s n o t i o n o f f r e e d o m . H e r z o g e n r a t h s t a t e s t h a t N a s h e s n o t i o n o f f r e e d o m , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f n e w b e g i n n i n g i s t h e Lacanian object/cause of desire, which is the translation of the Freudian death drive. He also names the novels of the American R o m a n t i c s a s a n c e s t r y o f t h e g e n r e , a n d K a f k a s I n t h e P e n a l C o l o n y a s a possible subtext of The Music of Chance.

[ 8 ] - - - . U n r e s o l v e d H a r m o n i e s : T h e M u s i c o f C h a n c e . A n A r t o f D e s i re . 173-217. A l e n g t h y L a c a n i a n a n a l y s i s o f t h e n o v e l . D e f i n i n g N a s h e s d r i v i n g through America as the desire that drives the subject towards the Lacanian concept of jouissance, the primary experience of

satisfaction which aims at its creation in both the imaginary and s y m b o l i c r e g i s t e r, H e r z o g e n r a t h a r g u e s t h a t N a s h e i s c a u g h t i n t h e f o r m e r r e g i s t e r, a n d t h e m a n s i o n o f F l o w e r a n d S t o n e i s t h e r e a l m o f

Fujii 70

t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . I n t r o d u c i n g t h e L a c a n i a n f o u r d i s c o u r s e ( t h e m a s t e r, t h e h y s t e r i c , t h e u n i v e r s i t y, a n d t h e a n a l y s t ) , H e r z o g e n r a t h s t a t e s t h a t S t o n e a n d F l o w e r o c c u p y t h e d i s c o u r s e o f t h e m a s t e r, w h i l e N a s h e a n d Pozzi the discourse of the hysteric, which proves itself to be the a c c o m p l i c e o f t h e m a s t e r, m a k i n g N a s h e a n d P o z z i e n t e r t h e d i s c o u r s e o f t h e m a s t e r, u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f F l o w e r a n d S t o n e , t h a t i s t h e position of slave. He also claims that in building the stone wall Nashe h a s t o s u b j e c t t o a d i f f e r e n t l a w f r o m t h e s o c i a l l a w, a l a w o f t h e super-ego which causes him to feel the sense of guilt. Herzogenrath concludes that Nashe, having tried to identify with the position of the m a s t e r, f a i l s t o a c c e p t t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e s l a v e , f i n a l l y, a s t h e desperate attempt at freedom, commits suicide, because the real j o u i s s a n c e u l t i m a t e l y e n d s i n d e a t h , i n t h e s u b j e c t s r e t u r n t o t h e real.

[9] Goggin, Joyce. The Big Deal: Card Games in the 20th Century Fiction. D i s s . U n i v. d e M o n t r e a l , 1 9 9 8 . A French dissertation on The Music of Chance. [DAI 60 (1999): DANQ35594]

[ 1 0 ] L a s c h i n g e r, Ve r e n a . P a u l A u s t e r s T h e M u s i c o f C h a n c e : E i n e p a r t i t u r der Homophobie. Forum Homosexualitat und Literatur 32 (1998): 33-44. A G e r m a n e s s a y.

Fujii 71

[ 11 ] W h i t e , J o h n J . T h e S e m i o t i c s o f t h e M i s e - e n - A b y m e . T h e M o t i v a t e d S i g n : I c o n i c i t y i n L a n g u a g e a n d L i t e r a t u re . E d . M a x N a n n y a n d O l g a F i s c h e r. A m s t e r d a m : B e n j a m i n s , 2 0 0 0 . 2 9 - 5 3 . Discusses the function of the mise en abyme, the multi-layered s t r u c t u r e . I n t r o d u c i n g t h e m o d e l o f t h e C i t y o f t h e Wo r l d i n A u s t e r s novel as an example, genesis of the word mise en abyme, and other examples seen in the works of Jorge Luis Borges, Jean Paul, Aldus H u x l e y, F r a n z K a f k a a n d T h o m a s M a n n , W h i t e s t a t e s t h a t t h e m i s e e n abyme reveals a creative interplay between elements of similarity and d i s s i m i l a r i t y, and that it combines elements of endophoric and

exophoric iconicity by pointing via the outer work to the world beyond the fiction.

[12] Dotan, Eyal. The Game of Late Capitalism: Gambling and Ideology in The Music of Chance. Mosaic 33 (2000): 161-176. Explores the relation between the rapid growth of the gambling industry and late capitalism expressed in the poker game in the novel. D i s c u s s i n g t h e n o v e l a s a p l a y g r o u n d i n w h i c h B a u d r i l l a r d s a n d contemporary M a r x i s t s accounts of capital and of significance

e n c o u n t e r, D o t a n s t a t e s t h a t g a m i n g i n t h e n o v e l a i m s a t r e p r o d u c i n g t h e i m a g e r y, f a l s e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e r e a l w o r l d i n w h i c h t h e r e i s reason and justice in the distribution, accumulation, and spending of money (as Marxists claim), and the world of games in which the a r b i t r a r y r u l e s a r e , a s B a u d r i l l a r d d i s c u s s e s , t h e o n l y a u t h o r i t y.

Fujii 72

[ 1 3 ] Va r v o g l i , A l i k i . Wa l l Wr i t i n g . A u s t e r i t i e s . T h e Wo r l d T h a t I s t h e B o o k . 1 0 1 - 11 5 . T h e t h i r d s e c t i o n o f t h e s e c o n d c h a p t e r. S u g g e s t s K a f k a s T h e G r e a t Wa l l o f C h i n a a s t h e s u b t e x t o f t h e n o v e l a n d s t a t e s t h a t A u s t e r f o r e g r o u n d s h i s o w n r o l e a s a r t i f i c e r, s h o w i n g t h e f i c t i o n a l i t y o f h i s writing.

b - 11 ) O n L e v i a t h a n [1] Osteen, Mark. Phantoms of Liberty: The Secret Lives of Leviathan. RCF 14 (1994): 87-91. An explanation of the tangled human relationships in the novel, in t e r m s o f s e c r e c y. O s t e e n s t a t e s t h a t t h e n o v e l r e a f f i r m s A u s t e r s i d e a that every single life contains a multitude, as investigated in his novels. He also points out that Sachs speaks about himself through Aaron by sharing his secrets, and Aaron, in turn, ultimately speaks about himself through Sachs, and their relationship is a revision of the perception of the self in The Locked Room.

[2] Saltzman, Arthur M. Leviathan: Post Hoc Harmonies. Beyond the Red Notebook. 1995. 162-170. D i s c u s s e s A a r o n s r o l e i n t h e n o v e l . S h o w i n g t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between Aaron and Sachs reenacts the one between the narrator and Fanshawe in The Locked Room, states that Aaron, as the characters of t h e Tr i l o g y , t u r n s i n t o a g h o s t w r i t e r, a n a b s e n c e . S a l t z m a n a l s o p o i n t s o u t t h a t A a r o n s e f f o r t t o a c c o u n t t h e l i f e o f S a c h s h a s t o a c c o m m o d a t e

Fujii 73

the inevitability of storification, which beset his enterprises within t h a t e n t e r p r i s e . H e c o n c l u d e s t h a t A a r o n s s u r v i v a l d e p e n d s u p o n t h e s u b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a f o r t h e s t o r y, n o t h e t r u t h .

[ 3 ] F l e c k , L i n d a L . F r o m M e t o n y m y t o M e t a p h o r : P a u l A u s t e r s L e v i a t h a n . Critique 39 (1998): 258-270. Examining the autobiographical elements in the characters, states that t h e n o v e l i s A u s t e r s e f f o r t t o g i v e b i r t h t o h i s f a t h e r S a m A u s t e r b y way of Sachs and to save the life of the father by the essence of c o m e d y.

[ 4 ] F e r r e r, C a r o l i n a . L a s h u e l l a s p e r d i d a s d e l o r d e n : Te o r i a d e l c a o s e n L e v a i t h a n y R e s p i r a c i o n a r t i f i c i a l . Ta l l e r d e L e t r a s 2 6 ( 1 9 9 8 ) : 161-170. A S p a n i s h e s s a y.

[5]

H a r d y,

Mireille.

Les

Leviathan

de

Paul

Auster:

Fiction(s)

et

E x p l o s i o n s . R F E A 7 9 ( 1 9 9 9 ) : 1 0 5 - 11 8 . A F r e n c h e s s a y.

[6] Esders, Karin. (The) Playing Author: Narrativity and Identity in Literature and Interactive Medida. Simulacrum America: The USA and t h e P o p u l a r M e d i a . E d . E l i s a b e t h K r a u s a n d C a r o l i n A u e r. N e w Yo r k : Camden House, 2000. 75-83. S t a t e s t h a t t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s a t t e m p t a t r e c o n s t r u c t i n g S a c h s s l i f e

Fujii 74

story in Leviathan involves the reader in the postmodern world, who, having multiple identities and various self-narrative through the Internet, increasingly find it more difficult to believe in one objective truth and stable, knowable selves.

[ 7 ] Va r v o g l i , A l i k i . E x p l o d i n g F i c t i o n . R e a l i t i e s . T h e Wo r l d T h a t I s t h e Book. 141-156. States that the question of writing and representation is as important as t h a t o f p o l i t i c s i n L e v i a t h a n . C o m p a r i n g t h e n o v e l w i t h D e L i l l o s M a o

a n d H o b b e s s L e v i a t h a n a n d e x a m i n i n g t h e t h e m e o f t h e f a l l , i t
c o n c l u d e s t h a t A u s t e r s L e v i a t h a n i s a n o v e l i n w h i c h t h e c a t e g o r i e s fiction and reality collapse into one another as the world and the book become indistinguishable.

b - 1 2 ) O n M r. Ve r t i g o [1] H a r d y, Mireille. La Metamorphose-mataphore de MR. Ve r t i g o .

I m a g i n a i re s 4 ( 1 9 9 9 ) : 2 0 9 - 2 2 1 . A F r e n c h e s s a y o n M r. Ve r t i g o .

[ 2 ] E d e l m a n , D a v e . P a u l A u s t e r s C i t y o f G l a s s a n d M r. Ve r t i g o . 2 0 0 0 . h t t p : / / d a v e . e d e l m a n . h o m e . a t t . n e t / r e v i e w s / a u s t e r. h t m l Unable to access as of Aug 22, 2002.

b - 1 3 ) O n Ti m b u k t u [1] Cortanze, Gerard de. Domaine etranger: Paul A u s t e r. Magazine

Fujii 75

L i t t e r a i re 3 7 7 ( 1 9 9 9 ) : 3 3 - 3 5 . A F r e n c h a r t i c l e o n Ti m b u k t u .

[ 2 ] K e l l m a n , S t e v e n G. A u s t e r i t y M e a s u r e s : P a u l A u s t e r G o e s t o t h e D o g s . Hollins Critic 37 (2000): 1-13. S t a t e s t h a t t h e d o g , M r. B o n e s , i s a d e v i c e t o e x p l o r e t h e r a n g e o f human possibilities, and that in creating a thinking beast Auster is able to dramatize the mind - body problem. Kellman also points out c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f A u s t e r s f i c t i o n s h a r e d i n t h e n o v e l : w a n d e r i n g characters and self-reference.

b-14) On Films [ 1 ] F e r e n c z i , A u r e l i e n . L E x p e r i e n c e d u c i n e m a . M a g L i t t 3 3 8 ( 1 9 9 5 ) : 59-61. A French article on his films.

[2] Hansen, Gitte Duemose. vandrere og hjemfarne: Livsbaner og andre R u m i l i g e a s p e k t o r i T h e N e w Yo r k Tr i l o g y o g B l u e i n t h e F a c e . K a n d k 28 (2000): 13-34. A D a n i s h e s s a y o n t h e Tr i l o g y a n d t h e f i l m .

b-15) On Others [ 1 ] C a z e , A n t o i n e . S o l e i l c o u c o u p e : L e c r i r e - t r a d u i r e d e P a u l A u s t e r. Poesie en traduction. Ed. Andre Davoust. Paris: Institut dEtudes Anglophones, 1994. 29-47.

Fujii 76

A F r e n c h e s s a y o n A u s t e r s e d i t i o n o f R a n d o m H o u s e A n t h o l o g y o f F re n c h P o e t r y a n d o n h i s e s s a y o n F r e n c h p o e t s a n d B e c k e t t .

[ 2 ] Va l l a s , S o p h i e . L a C r i t i q u e c o m m e q u e t e . M a g L i t t 3 3 8 ( 1 9 9 5 ) : 3 3 - 3 5 . A French essay on The Art of Hunger.

c) Reviews c-1) On City of Glass [ 1 ] O l s o n , To n y. M e t a p h y s i c a l M y s t e r y To u r. N e w Yo r k Ti m e B o o k R e v i e w Nov 2, 1985. 31:1. States that the real mystery is characters confused identity and the b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n f a c t a n d f i c t i o n . O l s o n a l s o p o i n t s o u t t h a t A u s t e r s d e s c r i p t i o n o f N e w Yo r k i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f N a t h a n a e l We s t s M i s s Lonelyhearts.

c-2) On Ghosts [ 1 ] G o l d s t e i n , R e b e c c a . T h e M a n S h a d o w i n g B l a c k I s B l u e . N e w Yo r k Ti m e s B o o k R e v J u n 2 9 , 1 9 8 6 . 1 3 : 1 . States that the names of the characters signify ironic detachment from r e a l i t y, m a k i n g r e a d e r s r e a d t h e n o v e l a s a m e t a p h o r. G o l d s t e i n a l s o states that the novel is a mystery that goes beyond both itself and its genre.

c-3) On The Locked Room [ 1 ] S c h i f f , S t e p h e n . I n w a r d G a z e o f a P r i v a t e E y e . N e w Yo r k Ti m e s B o o k

Fujii 77

Review Jan 4, 1987. 14:1. States that both Fanshawe and the narrator take on aspects of the a u t h o r, a n d r e a d e r s w a t c h t h e w r i t e r h u n t d o w n h i s o w n i d e n t i t y. S c h i f f a l s o p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r, a b i o g r a p h e r o f F a n s h a w e , i s a k i n d o f detective.

c - 4 ) O n t h e Tr i l o g y [1] Gerard, Nicci. Stalking the Precinct. The Observer Nov 29, 1987. 27. S t a t e s t h a t t h e N e w Yo r k C i t y i n t h e Tr i l o g y i s t h e n o w h e r e t h a t h i s n a r r a t o r s h a v e b u i l d a r o u n d t h e m s e l v e s , a n d t h a t A u s t e r, t u r n i n g a w a y from realism, has written a trilogy of speculative brilliance.

[ 2 ] P a r r i n d e r, P a t r i c k . Ta l l S t o r i e s . T h e L o n d o n R e v i e w o f B o o k s D e c 1 0 , 1987. 26. S t a t e s t h a t t h e Tr i l o g y , i t s s o u r c e s b e i n g i n t h e p r i v a t e e y e n o v e l a n d i n K a f k a s a l l e g o r y, e x p l o r e s e x p e r i e n c e s o f i m p o s t u r e a n d m i s t a k e n i d e n t i t y.

c-5) On In the Country of Last Things [ 1 ] P o w e l l , P a d g e t t . T h e E n d I s O n l y I m a g i n a r y. N e w Yo r k Ti m e s B o o k R e v i e w M a y 1 7 , 1 9 8 7 . 11 - 1 2 . States that the book shows much similarity to the world as we know it, and that the world in the novel is reminiscent of the Great Depression. Powell also points out that Ferdinand is reminiscent of Louis-Ferdinand Celine.

Fujii 78

[ 2 ] B a r n e s , H u g h . To w n , G o w n , F r o w n . T h e O b s e r v e r J u n e 2 6 , 1 9 8 8 . 4 2 . S t a t e s t h a t A u s t e r s i m a g e o f a w a s t e l a n d h a s a s m u c h i n c o m m o n w i t h the present as the future. Barnes calls the novel a horror story without the comforting distance of science fiction.

[ 3 ] Wa l l , S t e p h e n . C i t y s p a c e s . L o n d o n R e v i e w o f B o o k s S e p 1 , 1 9 8 8 . 2 1 - 2 2 . Points out that the city of the novel is not located either in time or space, and that freedom from this historical contingency enables Auster to construct a lean dystopian fable of unusual cogency and p o w e r. Wa l l a l s o s t a t e s t h a t A u s t e r d e m o n s t r a t e s h o w m u c h o u r humanity depends on our experience of what is physically outside us and on the language used to think, talk and write about it.

c-6) On Moon Palace [ 1 ] K o r n b l a t t , J o y c e R e i s e r. T h e R e m a r k a b l e J o u r n e y o f M a r c o S t a n l e y F o g g . N e w Yo r k Ti m e s B o o k R e v i e w M a r 1 9 , 1 9 8 9 . 8 - 9 . S t a t e s t h a t M o o n P a l a c e p l a y s w i t h s o m e o f A u s t e r s c o n c e r n s : l o s t fathers, the narrative investigating itself, psyche collapse, life that reveals itself to be a series of lost chances. Kornblattalso points out that the picaresque adventures of Fogg are the journey as initiation.

[ 2 ] P a r r i n d e r, P a t r i c k . A u s t w a r d H o . L o n d o n R e v i e w o f B o o k s M a y 1 8 , 1989. 12. Regards the novel as one of American fiction in which the principle of

Fujii 79

growth

has

often

coincided

with

the

search

for

new

places

to

mythologize. Parrinder points out that there is an analogy between the lunar landscape and those of the western United States, and that the c e n t r a l m a t r i x o f r e l a t i o n s h i p i s r e m a r k a b l y p a t r i l i n e a r.