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# FORM 4 CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS __________________________________________________________________________________

## CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS

A RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS AND RELATIVE MOLECULAR MASS
Learning Outcomes You should be able to: state the meaning of relative atomic mass based on carbon-12 scale state the meaning of relative molecular mass based on carbon-12 scale state why carbon-12 is used as a standard for determining relative atomic mass and relative molecular mass calculate the relative molecular mass of substances

Activity 1
1. The relative atomic mass (Ar) of an element is the . mass of one atom of the . when compared with 1/12 of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.

Relative atomic mass of an element = the average mass of one atom of an element 1/12 x the mass of a carbon-12 atom
2. By comparing relative atomic masses, we can determine the ratio of the actual masses of atoms. Example: (i) Calculate how many times heavier are 3 calcium atoms compared to 5 carbon atoms. [Relative atomic mass: C, 12; Ca, 40]

(ii) How many magnesium atoms will have the same mass as two silver atoms? [Relative atomic mass: Mg, 24; Ag, 108]

## FORM 4 CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS __________________________________________________________________________________

3. The relative molecular mass (Mr) of a substance is the average of a . of the substance when compared with 1/12 of the mass of one carbon-12 atom.

Relative molecular mass of a substance = the average mass of one atom of one molecule of a substance 1/12 x the mass of a carbon-12 atom
4. A molecule is made up of a number of . Therefore, the relative molecular mass of a substance is calculated by adding up the .. of all the atoms present in a molecule of the substance. Example: (i) Calculate the relative molecular mass of ammonia. [Relative atomic mass: H, 1; N, 14]

(ii) Calculate the relative molecular mass of water. [Relative atomic mass: H, 1; O, 16]

5. The term relative molecular mass can only be used for substances that are made up of .................... For ionic compounds, the term (Fr) is used instead.

## FORM 4 CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS __________________________________________________________________________________

6. The relative formula mass of an ionic compound is calculated by adding up the of all atoms in its formula. Example: (i) Calculate the relative formula mass of sodium chloride. [Relative atomic mass: Na, 23; CI, 35.5]

(ii) Calculate the relative formula mass of potassium oxide. [Relative atomic mass: K, 39; O, 16]

(iii) Calculate the relative formula mass of copper(II) chloride. [Relative atomic mass: Cu, 64; CI, 35.5]

FORM 4 CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS __________________________________________________________________________________ B THE MOLE AND THE NUMBER OF PARTICLES
Learning Outcomes You should be able to: define a mole state the meaning of Avogadro constant relate the number of particles in one mole of a substance with the Avogadro constant solve numerical problems to convert the number of moles to the number of particles of a given substance and vice versa

Activity 2
1. In chemistry, we use the unit to measure the amount of substance. It has the symbol 2. One .. is defined as the amount of substance that contains as many particles as the number of atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12. One mole of substance contains particles. 3. The Avogadro constant, NA is defined as the number of.. in one mole of a substance. The value of the Avogadro constant is .. 4. 1 mole of atomic substance contains . atoms. 5. 1 mole of molecular substance contains . molecules. 6. 1 mole of ionic substance contains formula units. 7. Relationship between number of moles and number of particles:

## FORM 4 CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS __________________________________________________________________________________

8. Find the number of particles for the substances given the number of moles. Number of moles (i) 0.5 mole of carbon Number of particles

## (vi) 0.5 mole potassium bromide

9. Find the number of moles for the substances given the number of particles. Number of particles (i) 3.01 x 1022 of water molecules (ii) 3.01 X 1024 of hydrogen molecules Number of moles

(iii) 1.806 x 1023 of oxygen molecules (iv) 1.505 x 1024 of bromine molecules (v) 9.03 x 1023 of carbon dioxide molecules (vi) 1.806 x 1023 formula units of zinc bromide

FORM 4 CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS __________________________________________________________________________________ C THE MOLE AND THE MASS OF SUBSTANCES
Learning Outcomes You should be able to: state the meaning of molar mass relate molar mass to the Avogadro constant relate molar mass of a substance to its relative atomic mass, relative molecular mass or relative formula mass solve numerical problems to convert the number of moles of a given substance to its mass and vice versa

Activity 3
1. Molar mass is the mass of one of a substance. It has unit of . 2. The molar mass of a substance is numerically equal to its , or 3. The relationship between the number of moles and the mass of a substance: x Molar mass Number of moles Molar mass 3. Find the mass for the substances given the number of moles. Number of moles (i) 0.1 mole of magnesium Mass Mass (g)

## FORM 4 CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS __________________________________________________________________________________

4. Find the number of moles of the substances given the mass. Mass (i) 49.2 g of calcium nitrate Number of moles

## NUMBER OF MOLES AND VOLUME OF GAS

Learning Outcomes You should be able to: state the meaning of molar volume of a gas relate molar volume of a gas to the Avogadro constant make generalisation on the molar volume of a gas at a given temperature and pressure calculate the volume of gases at STP or room conditions from the number of moles and vice versa solve numerical problems involving number of particles, number of moles, mass of substances and volume of gases at STP or room conditions

Activity 4
1. The molar volume of a gas is defined as the ................................ of one ................................... of the gas. 2. One mole of any gas always has the ........................ under the same temperature and pressure.

## FORM 4 CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS __________________________________________________________________________________

3. The molar volume of any gas is at STP or .. at room conditions.

## 1 mole of nitrogen gas, N2

4. STP refers to standard temperature of . and pressure of . Room conditions refer to the temperature of and pressure of ..

5. The relationship between the number of moles and volume of gas: x Molar volume x 22.4/24 dm3

Number of moles
Molar volume

## FORM 4 CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS __________________________________________________________________________________

4. Calculate the volume of gas given the number of moles at STP. Number of moles (i) 0.25 mole of oxygen gas Volume of gas

## (iv) 4 moles of helium gas

5. Calculate the volume of gas given the number of moles at room conditions.

Volume of gas

## FORM 4 CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS __________________________________________________________________________________

6. The relationships between the number of moles, number of particles, mass and volume of gases:

Volume (dm3) x Molar volume Molar volume x NA Number of moles x Molar mass Activity 5
1. What is the volume of 12.8 g of oxygen gas, O2, in cm3, at STP? [Relative atomic mass: O, 16. Molar volume: 22.4 dm3 mol-1 at STP]

## Molar mass Mass (g)

Number of particles NA

2. How many molecules of carbon dioxide, CO2 are produced when 120 cm3 of the gas is released during a chemical reaction between an acid and a carbonate at room conditions? [Molar volume: 24 dm3 mol-1 at room conditions. Avogadro constant: 6.02 x 1023 mol-1]

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## FORM 4 CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS __________________________________________________________________________________

3. What is the mass of 0.6 dm3 of chlorine gas, CI2, at room conditions? [Relative atomic mass: CI, 35.5. Molar volume: 24 dm3 mol-1 at room conditions]

4. A sample of nitrogen gas, N2 has a volume of 1800 cm3 at room conditions. What is the mass of the sample and how many molecules of nitrogen gas, N2 are in it?

5. 1.12 dm3 of hydrogen gas, H2 and 1.12 dm3 of oxygen gas, O2 are mixed together in a closed container at STP. What is the total number of molecules in the container? What is the total mass of the gases in the container?

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FORM 4 CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS __________________________________________________________________________________ E CHEMICAL FORMULAE
Learning Outcomes
You should be able to: state the meaning of chemical formula state the meaning of empirical formula state the meaning of molecular formula determine empirical and molecular formula of substances compare and contrast empirical formula with molecular formula solve numerical problems involving empirical and molecular formulae write ionic formulae of ions construct chemical formulae of ionic compounds state names of chemical compounds using IUPAC nomenclature use symbols and chemical formulae for easy and systematic communication in the field of chemistry

Activity 6
1. A chemical formula is a representation of a chemical substance using letters for and subscript numbers to show the .. of each type of atoms that are present in the substance. The letter H shows the symbol of ... atom

H2

The subscript 2 shows that there are .. hydrogen atoms in a molecule of hydrogen gas, H2

2. The chemical formula of a compound shows all the . that are present in the compound and the of atoms of each element.

3. There are 2 types of chemical formulae: (i) (ii) ... 4. Empirical formula of a compound shows the simplest whole number of atoms of each present in the compound.

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## FORM 4 CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS __________________________________________________________________________________

5. Molecular formula of a compound gives the . number of atoms of each element present in one molecule of the compound.

6. Compound Molecular formula Simplest ratio of atoms of elements Water Ethene Benzene Vitamin C H2O C2H4 C6H6 C6H8O6 H:O=2:1 C:H=1:2 C:H=1:1 C:H:O=3:4:3 H2O CH2 CH C3H4O3 Empirical formula

7. The steps in determining the empirical formula of a compound: (i) .. (ii) .. (iii) . 8. To determine the molecular formula of a compound, we need to know the .. and . of the compound.

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## FORM 4 CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS __________________________________________________________________________________ Activity 7

1. 1.08 g of aluminium combines chemically with 0.96 g of oxygen to form an oxide. What is the empirical formula of the oxide? [Relative atomic mass: O, 16; Al, 27] Element Mass of element(g) Number of moles of atoms Ratio of moles Simplest ratio of moles Empirical formula

2. Copper (II) iodide contains 20.13 % copper by mass. Find its empirical formula. [Relative atomic mass: Cu, 64; I, 127] Element Mass of element(g) Number of moles of atoms Ratio of moles Simplest ratio of moles Empirical formula

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## FORM 4 CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS __________________________________________________________________________________

3. Phosphoric acid has the percentage composition as follows.

## H, 3.06 %; P, 31.63 %; O, 65.31 %

What is the empirical formula of the acid? [Relative atomic mass: H, 1; O, 16; P, 31] Element Mass of element(g) Number of moles of atoms Ratio of moles Simplest ratio of moles Empirical formula

4. A carbon compound has an empirical formula of CH2 and a relative molecular mass of 70. Find the molecular formula of the compound. [Relative atomic mass: H, 1; C, 12]

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## FORM 4 CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS __________________________________________________________________________________

5. 8.5 g of hydrogen peroxide contains 0.5 g of hydrogen. If the molar mass of hydrogen peroxide is 34 34 g mol-1, find its molecular formula. [Relative atomic mass: H, 1; O, 16]

6. Ethanoic acid is an important ingredient of vinegar. The empirical formula of this acid is CH2O. Given that its molar mass is 60 g mol-1, find its molecular formula. [Relative atomic mass: H, 1; C, 12; O, 16]

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## FORM 4 CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS __________________________________________________________________________________

Activity 8 1. Ionic compounds consist of .. and

2. To construct the chemical formulae of ionic compounds, we need to know the formulae of cations and anions.

3. Cation Sodium ion Potassium ion Silver ion Hydrogen ion Ammonium ion Copper (II) ion Calcium ion Magnesium ion Aluminium ion Zinc ion Barium ion Iron(II) ion Iron(III) ion Lead(II) ion Lead(IV) ion Tin(II) ion Tin(IV) ion Chromium(III) ion Formula Anion Fluoride ion Chloride ion Bromide ion Iodide ion Hydroxide ion Nitrate ion Ethanoate ion Manganate(VII) ion Oxide ion Carbonate ion Sulphate ion Thiosulphate ion Chromate(VI) ion Dichromate(VI) ion Phosphate ion Formula

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## FORM 4 CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS __________________________________________________________________________________

4. Chemical formula of an ionic compound by exchanging the charges of the ions. Example: (i) Construct the chemical formula of iron(II) chloride. Ion Charge of ion Number of ions Chemical formula

(ii) Construct the chemical formula of aluminium oxide. Ion Charge of ion Number of ions Chemical formula

(iii) Construct the chemical formula of zinc sulphate. Ion Charge of ion Number of ions Simplest ratio of ions Chemical formula

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## FORM 4 CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS __________________________________________________________________________________

5. Construct the chemical formula for each of the following ionic compounds: Ionic compound Chemical compound

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## FORM 4 CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS __________________________________________________________________________________

Activity 9

1. Chemical compounds are named systematically according to the guidelines given by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).

2. For ionic compounds, the name of the cation comes first, followed by the name of the anion. Cation Sodium ion Calcium ion Barium ion Chloride ion Carbonate ion Sulphate ion Anion Name of ionic compound

3. Certain metals can form more than one type of Thus, Roman numerals are are used in their naming to distinguish the different types of ions. For example, iron can form 2 cations, namely iron(II) ion and iron(III) ion. Thus, the names of the compounds formed by these ions with chlorine would be . and 4. For simple molecular compounds, the more element is written last and is added with an ide. The name of the .. element is maintained. For example, a molecular compounds consisting of hydrogen and chlorine is given the name . 5. Greek prefixed are used to show the .. of atoms of each element in a compound. Prefix MonoDiTriTetraPentaMeaning 1 2 3 4 5 Carbon monoxide Sulphur dioxide Sulphur trioxide Carbon tetrachloride Phosphorus pentachloride Example

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## FORM 4 CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS __________________________________________________________________________________

F CHEMICAL EQUATIONS
Learning Outcomes You should be able to: state the meaning of chemical equation identify the reactants and products of a chemical equation write and balance chemical equations interpret chemical equations quantitatively and qualitatively solve numerical problems using chemical equations identify positive scientific attitudes and values practiced by scientists in doing research justify the need to practise positive scientific attitudes and good values in doing research use chemical equations for easy and systematic communication in the field of chemistry

## Activity 10 1. Chemical equation is a precise . of a chemical reaction.

2. The chemical equation can be written in word, but it is more convenient and quicker to use 3. The starting substances are called .. They are shown on the left-hand side of the equation. 4. The new substances formed are called .. They are shown on the right-hand side of the equation.

## 5. Based in the law of conservation of mass, matter can neither be . nor

. in a chemical reaction. This means that the number of atoms before and after a chemical reaction are the Therefore, a chemical equation must be .

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## FORM 4 CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS __________________________________________________________________________________

6. Write a balanced equation for each of the following reactions. (i) Carbon monoxide gas + oxygen gas carbon dioxide gas . (ii) Hydrogen gas + nitrogen gas ammonia gas . (iii) Aluminium + iron(III) oxide aluminium oxide + iron (iv) Ammonia gas reacts with oxygen gas to yield nitrogen monoxide gas and water. (v) Silver nitrate solution is added to calcium chloride solution. Silver chloride precipitate and calcium nitrate solution are produced. .. (vi) When solid zinc carbonate is heated, it decomposes into zinc oxide powder and carbon dioxide gas. . 7. Chemical equations give us the following qualitative information: (i) ............................ (ii) 8. Quantitatively, the .. in a balanced equation tell us the exact of reactants and products in a chemical reaction. 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) 2 molecules 1 molecule or or 2 mol 1 mol 2Cu(NO3)2 (s) 2 formula units or 2 mol 2H2O (l) 2 molecules or 2 mol 2CuO (s) + 4NO2 (g) + O2 (g) 2 formula units 4 molecules 1 molecule or or or 2 mol 4 mol 1 mol

9. is the study of quantitative composition of substances involved in the chemical reactions. A balanced equation can be used to calculate , , and .. or .. of a reactant or product.

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FORM 4 CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS __________________________________________________________________________________ Activity 11 1. Copper(II) oxide, CuO reacts with aluminium according to the following equation. 3CuO (s) + 2Al (s) Al2O3 (s) + 3Cu (s)

Calculate the mass of aluminium required to react completely with 12 g of copper(II) oxide, CuO. [Relative atomic mass: O, 16; Al, 27; Cu, 64]

2. A student heats 20 g of calcium carbonate, CaCO3 strongly. It decomposes according to the equation below. CaCO3 (s) CaO (s) + CO2 (g) If the carbon dioxide produced is collected at room conditions, what is its volume? [Relative atomic mass: C, 12; O, 16; Ca, 40. Molar volume: 24 dm3 mol-1]

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FORM 4 CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS __________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 decomposes according to the following equation. 2H2O2 (l) 2H2O (l) + O2 (g)

Calculate the volume of oxygen gas, O2 measured at STP that can be obtained from the decomposition of 34 g of hydrogen peroxide, H2O2. [Relative atomic mass: H, 1; O, 16. Molar volume: 22.4 dm3 mol-1 at STP]

4. Ethene gas burns in excess oxygen according to the following equation. C2H4 (g) + 3O2 (g) 2CO2 (g) + 2H2O (l)

Find the volume of carbon dioxide released as STP if 42 g of ethene is burnt completely. [Relative atomic mass: H, 1; C, 12. Molar volume: 22.4 dm3 mol-1 at STP]

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FORM 4 CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 16 g of copper(II) oxide, CuO is reacted with excess methane, CH4. Using the equation below, find the mass of copper that is produced. [Relative atomic mass: O,16; Cu, 64] 4CuO (s) + CH4 (g) 4Cu (s) + CO2 (g) + 2H2O (l)

## Zn(NO3)2 (aq) + H2 (g)

What is the mass of zinc needed to produce 2.4 dm3 of hydrogen gas at room conditions? [Relative atomic mass: Zn, 65. Molar volume: 24 dm3 mol-1 at room conditions]

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