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LEARNER WORKBOOK 4

BLAST PLANNING AN D RE PO RT IN G IN UNDERGROUND COAL


MINES

COPYRIGHT All rights reserved. This work is copyright and available only from the SkillsOnline website under license to NSW DET. Permission is given to trainers and teachers to make copies by photocopying or other duplicating processes for use within their own training organisations, or in a workplace where training is being conducted. The onus rests on you as user to ensure compliance with licensing arrangements. The Licensing Agreement stipulates the extent to which you can copy this material. If you use any portion of the material, you must acknowledge NSW DET as the copyright owner. If you develop enhancements of the material, you must ensure that NSW DET is appropriately acknowledged as the original copyright owner. You may not make it available for hire or re-sale with financial gain other than at a cost recovery fee for distribution and within the extent allowed by your Licensing Agreement. Outside these guidelines, all material is subject to copyright under the Copyright Act 1968 (Commonwealth) and permission must be obtained in writing from the NSW DET. Acknowledgement This work has been produced initially with the assistance of funding provided by the NSW Department of Education and Training, Industry Programs, through the Industry and Enterprise Skills Program with advice from the Project Steering Committee. These resources have been developed by SkillsDMC in conjunction with industry stakeholders. SkillsDMC wish to thank Graham Terrey and TAFE NSW for their work on this project. Disclaimer The views expressed in this work do not necessarily represent the views of the NSW Department of Education and Training. The NSW Department of Education and Training do not give warranty or accept any liability in relation to the content of this work.

PROJECT TEAM NSW DET would like to acknowledge the valuable contribution of the many people who generously gave of their time and ideas and contributed to the development of these resources by providing information, an industry perspective and review of the project materials. Name Allan Shoesmith Bill Brooks Bruce McGeachie Cherie Chen Claire Cappe Craig Parker David Barker Graham Cowan Graham Hogg Lawrence Buswell Leanne Parker Lorenzo Laguna Mihai Leonte Michael Creese Developed By: Graham Terrey Developer Team: Danny Duke David Chapman Dorothy Rao Giselle Mawer Robin Bishop Organisation Centennial Coal WorkCover NSW Xstrata Coal DET NSW DET NSW Pybar WorkCover NSW DPI Downer EDI Barrick Gold Hanson Rio Tinto, Northparkes NSW DPI Newcrest, Cadia Valley Operations Mine Resilience Australia Duke Consulting 2nd Project Coordinator TAFE NSW SkillsDMC Giselle Mawer & Associates Robin Bishop & Associates 1st Project Coordinator

Further copies of this resource are available from Website: www.skillsonline.net.au For further information contact: Email: skillsonline@det.nsw.edu.au Or visit SkillsDMC on: http://www.skillsdmc.com.au/

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Candidates Details
Name: Employer: Position: Course: Start Date: Location: Signature: Date:

Manager / Supervisor Endorsement


Name: Signature: Date: Comments:

Coach, Trainer Details


Name: Contact details:

Assessor Details
Name: Contact details

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Contents
WHAT IS THIS LEARNER WORKBOOK & RECORD BOOK FOR?
WORKBOOK RECORD BOOK PEOPLE WHO CAN HELP Industry Trainer Workplace Assessor Fellow workers Other students/trainees

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6 7 7 7 7 7 7

BLAST PLANNING & REPORTING


WELCOME Topics covered in each of the modules ASSESSMENT Conduct of Assessment Successful completion of the unit RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING (RPL)

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8 8 10 10 10 10

4.0 SELF-ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST: BLAST PLANNING & REPORTING 4.1 REVIEW QUESTIONS: DESIGN & SURVEY BLAST
LEARNING & ASSESSMENT TASK 4.1A - CALCULATING HOLE SPACINGS & POWDER FACTORS LEARNING & ASSESSMENT TASK 4.1B - SECONDARY BLASTING PROCEDURE

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4.2 REVIEW QUESTIONS: CALCULATE QUANTITIES OF EXPLOSIVES REQUIRED


LEARNING & ASSESSMENT TASK 4.2 CALCULATING QUANTITIES OF EXPLOSIVE REQUIRED POWDER FACTORS

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4.3 REVIEW QUESTIONS: IDENTIFY MAXIMUM INSTANTANEOUS CHARGE (MIC) & DELAYS
LEARNING & ASSESSMENT TASK 4.3 CHECKING MIC & DELAYS

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4.4 REVIEW QUESTIONS: MONITOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS


LEARNING & ASSESSMENT TASK 4.4 - ENVIRONMENTAL & GROUND VIBRATION MONITORING

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4.5 REVIEW QUESTIONS: REDUCE BLAST IMPACTS


LEARNING & ASSESSMENT TASK 4.5 REDUCING & CONTROLLING BLAST IMPACTS

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4.6 REVIEW QUESTIONS: DISPOSE OF EXPLOSIVES


LEARNING & ASSESSMENT TASK 4.6 - DESCRIBING YOUR SITES REQUIREMENTS FOR DISPOSAL OF UNWANTED EXPLOSIVES

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4.7 REVIEW QUESTIONS: MAINTAIN DOCUMENTATION & REPORT


LEARNING & ASSESSMENT TASK 4.7 - REPORTING COMPILING A SET OF RECORDS

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RECORD OF LEARNING
EVIDENCE GATHERED DURING OFF-THE-JOB TRAINING. EVIDENCE GATHERED DURING ON-THE-JOB TRAINING. WHAT HAVE YOU DONE REGARDING BLAST PLANNING & REPORTING FOR ITEMS IN THE TABLE BELOW? Have you, for example, compiled a work journal, or used the journal below that shows that you have:

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THIRD PARTY PRACTICAL VERIFICATION REPORT: MODULE 4 BLAST PLANNING & REPORTING

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WHAT IS THIS LEARNER WORKBOOK & RECORD BOOK FOR?

This workbook covers underground coal mines, and is very similar to a parallel Workbook that has been developed for all sites other than coal mines. The two Workbooks for this subject one for underground coal mines, and the other for all other sites are deliberately similar and have subtle differences. The principles involved are the same for all shotfiring, but the precautions are stricter for underground coal mines so the practices differ and are constrained in some areas. The Learner Resources are slightly slimmer as a result. Workbooks are not much slimmer and will look the same, though there are word and term changes, and subtle differences in focus. However, for key principle and for career progression reasons, the Learner Resources and Workbooks are kept in parallel so that a person can move from underground coal mines to other sites, or the other way around, and take advantage of the progress they have already made. The delivery of all four Modules in the Shotfiring course involves workshops, demonstrations and workplace practice. Each Learner Workbook helps you to work through the Learner Resource and complete the assessment tasks. It can also help you to: plan your study build your skill as a learner plan ways to apply and practise what you learn (use it, or lose it). Your workplace trainer will guide you through the material and some of the activities, and will help you develop a learning approach to ensure you can apply your learning. This Workbook and Record Book helps a Trainer and an Assessor to develop and assess your required knowledge and skill.

WORKBOOK
Throughout this Workbook there are Review Questions that will test your knowledge of the subject. There are also some Learning and Assessment Tasks through the book that help develop your knowledge and skills. Early on in this book you will find a self-assessment checklist to help you and your Trainer to determine the areas that you will need to develop further.

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RECORD BOOK
At the back of this book there is a section for you to fulfil and record your on- and off-the-job experience.

Fellow workers
If you are studying this unit on-site you will be able to obtain assistance from those around you. They can advise on a wide range of issues including: current practices and procedures where you can find information that will assist your studies the meaning of words used in the unit, and industry examples that will help you to understand basic principles.

PEOPLE WHO CAN HELP


You should not feel that you are alone when you study. There are many people who can help you and also enhance the quality of your learning experience. How you study this unit will determine who will be able to assist you.

Other students/trainees
If you are studying this unit on-site or at an external training organisation you will have other students/ trainees to help you. Other student/trainees will have different work experiences and can help with many things including: study groups where you can discuss the knowledge and skills required to achieve competency one-to-one question and answer sessions to help with your mastery of the contents of the unit, and emotional support if you are having difficulties with your studies. Here are some simple tips for saving time, getting the results you want, and making the most of your learning. Try using the checklist to assess yourself as an effective learner at different times during the course. Learning Tips
1. 2. 3. 4. Clarify course requirements and training times at the beginning Set date targets to finish the assessment tasks Look through all the materials to get the big picture first Make it your course, not what someone is telling you to do (even if they are) 5. Use and build on the experience and skills you already have 6. Ask questions when you need to clarify any point 7. Make sure you complete/participate in the activities 8. Review each section as you go how does the learning relate to your job 9. Talk about what you are learning with others (colleagues, friends) 10. Use what you learn in the workplace while its fresh 11. Look for specific, practical ways to use your learning beyond the course.

Industry Trainer
If you study this unit on-site you will have a Trainer who will either teach the unit in a face-to-face situation or guide you through the unit if you are doing it self-paced. Your Trainer can answer any questions and give you advice about: where you can find information safety issues involved in performing activities where to find equipment and any other materials required for performing activities, and performance standards to be achieved when performing activities.

Workplace Assessor
If you study this unit through an external training organisation you may be required to be assessed on-site by a workplace assessor. The workplace assessor can give you advice about: how, where and when you will be assessed assessment tasks, and assessment standards. You will also get feedback from the assessor about your performance.

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WELCOME

BLAST PLANNING & REPORTING

Welcome to Module 4 Blast Planning & Reporting of the Shotfiring Course for underground coal mines. The Shotfiring Course has been structured as a series of four modules each with a Learner Resource and Learner Workbook. The four modules are: 1. Storing, Handling, and Transporting Explosives 2. Charging Blast Holes 3. Firing Shots 4. Blast Planning and Reporting This structure allows flexibility in the delivery of the training to accommodate differing roles, responsibilities and requirements of personnel involved in shotfiring.

Topics covered in each of the modules


Module 1 Storing, Handling, & Transporting Explosives 1. Identify explosives & associated hazards and comply with Acts, Regulations, Standards and Codes by implementing risk management & procedures 2. Access & maintain storage and security of explosives 3. Transport of explosives including defective explosives & emergency plans & response Module 2 Charging Blast Holes 1. Prepare for charging, including safety requirements and checking blast area and shotholes 2. Mix / manufacture explosives, and checking of equipment 3. Prime shotholes 4. Load explosives 5. Clean-up & Report

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Module 3 Firing Shots 1. Hook up and test 2. Clear/isolate the area affected by the blast 3. Fire the shot 4. Conduct post-blast checks 5. Report 6. Return surplus explosives 7. Handle misfires Module 4 Blast Planning & Reporting 1. Design / survey blasts 2. Calculate quantities of explosives required 3. Identify the Maximum Instantaneous Charge 4. Monitor environmental impacts 5. Reduce blast impacts 6. Dispose of explosives 7. Report The four modules follow a learning sequence to progressively gain the skills necessary for a shotfirer. After successfully learning the Learner Resource and completing related activities in this Learner Workbook you should be able to complete the assessment tasks in blast planning and reporting and meet the requirements for the relevant units of competency. This Workbook is for people who are already familiar with storing, handling & transporting explosives, charging shotholes, and firing the shot. Blast planning and reporting is a necessary part of being a shotfirer, who is accountable for conducting safe and efficient blasts and maintaining records, and specifically to: 1. Design / survey blasts: a. Knowing where and how youre going to blast; b. Designing & surveying a blast; c. Thinking about the basic factors involved in a blast design; d. Understanding what happens during a blast; e. Calculating the burden & spacing of shotholes; f. Managing special conditions.

2. Calculate quantities of explosives required: a. smooth-wall blasting; b. testing against the real situation; c. sinking a shaft or well; d. calculating explosives requirements. 3. Identify the Maximum Instantaneous Charge & delays: a. Knowing whether you are restricted in the amount of explosives fired on one delay; b. Remembering public safety too; c. Thinking about the tightness of the shot & environmental consequences; d. Adjusting your rule of thumb for site experience e. Identifying problems & possible solutions; f. Selecting the shothole pattern; g. Planning the blast delay. 4. Monitor environmental impacts: a. Being aware of environmental disturbances; b. Identifying causes of disturbance; c. Improving community awareness. 5. Reduce blast impacts: a. Controlling variables; b. Reducing flyrock risk (notably when shaft sinking / drifting near the surface); c. Reducing dust (notably when shaft sinking / drifting near the surface); d. Reducing noise or airblast overpressure; e. Minimising ground vibration. 6. Dispose of explosives: a. Collecting and removing explosives; b. Destroying explosives and detonators; c. Complying with legal obligations.

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7. Maintain documentation & Report: a. Taking a systematic approach to the management of explosives usage & risks; b. Being accountable & responsible for records; c. Giving commitment to your safety policy including having a blast management plan; d. Keeping risk management records; e. Documenting procedures; f. Training & records; g. Supervising & maintaining shift records; h. Maintaining site security, induction & access; i. Maintaining equipment & facilities; j. Monitoring safety & health, production, environment & community relations performance; k. Complying with, or enforcing rules & standards. For assessment purposes it is essential that you demonstrate competence in these areas.

Successful completion of the unit


When you have finished working through this module and the related activities you will need to demonstrate that you can perform the assessment tasks and meet the requirements of the units of competency. Assessment of this module consists of a practical demonstration of the required skills and answers to written/oral knowledge questions. The practical tasks will be similar to the activities that are included in this Learner Workbook. That is why you will need to ensure you can perform the activities in this Workbook satisfactorily. You must practice the activities until you feel satisfied that you can perform them to the required standard. The activities in this Learner Workbook prepare you for assessment. When you are satisfied that you can achieve competency in this module you should ask to be assessed. Successfully completing the assessment demonstrates that you have achieved the module of competency outcomes. If you are unable to provide evidence that you can apply your learning in a workplace or in a simulated situation, you can ask your trainer for a statement regarding your learning that you can use later as evidencetowards achieving competency when you are assessed in the workplace or in a simulated situation for your Unit.

ASSESSMENT
Assessment will be against the shotfiring units of competency in the following Training Packages: 1. MNC04 Coal Training Package The assessment tasks for Firing Shots are designed to meet the outcomes of the following relevant units of competency. They are: a. MNCU1048B Conduct shotfiring operations b. MNCU1049B Support shotfiring operations This is further detailed in another book called the Learners Guide.

RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING (RPL)


Recognition of Prior Learning is the recognition of competencies you currently hold. In order to grant RPL your assessor must be confident that you are currently competent against the endorsed competency standards. You can use the Self Assessment Checklist at the beginning of the Learner Workbook to assess your knowledge and skill in blast planning and reporting. If you are confident you can demonstrate competence discuss the opportunity for RPL with your trainer/assessor.

Conduct of Assessment
Your trainer and/or assessor will confirm with you the assessment process and your readiness for assessment. A range of evidence will be gathered for the assessment including written and/or verbal questions, observation and third party reports, such as from your supervisor, of you applying your knowledge. Assessment tasks are provided in this Learner Workbook.
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4.0
SELFASSESSMENT CHECKLIST: BLAST PLANNING & REPORTING

Write / Draw Before commencing your learning you might like to use this self-assessment checklist to review your knowledge and skills in critical items of evidence. You can also use the checklist to see if you: a. have the knowledge and skills to apply for RPL b. are ready for assessment at the completion of the module c. wish to identify particular areas in which youd like to concentrate in your further development. Please place a tick ( 3 ) or cross ( 5 ) in the boxes as applicable in the areas listed below. Note: the following comprehensive checklist is the same for all Modules so it may be a bit daunting - discuss it with your Trainer or simply tick the topics with which you now feel comfortable, or the areas on which you feel you need to concentrate. It is in this form because, in 2008, the Units of Competency are in a stage of consolidation and possible transition. The transition has been anticipated in the Modules. Do not feel that you have to be competent in every item below at this stage. By the time you have completed Module 4, you should have ticked all of the Competency Unit References. These Units of competency are listed in the table below and relate to a reference number in the checklist. For example, in the first box relating to Design / survey blasts, the Competency Unit Reference Number 1(1.1) refers to RIIBLA202, Element 1.1, and you would find useful material to help you, in Modules 1 and 2, while Competency Unit 2 material will mostly be covered in Modules 2 and 3, with Competency Unit 3 being covered in the main by Modules 3 and 4. As a general (and fairly crude) guide, you might focus on the those areas relating to: 1. in Module 1 - the first Unit of Competency in the list below (RIIBLA202) 2. in Module 2 parts of the first two Units (RIIBLA202 and 302) 3. in Module 3 mostly RIIBLA302 4. in Module 4 mostly RIIBLA302 and 401

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(Your) Name The following are my views of my knowledge and experience against a compilation of elements & performance criteria from the following competencies: 1. RIIBLA202 Support underground shotfiring operations 2. RIIBLA302 Conduct shotfiring in underground coal mines 3. RIIBLA401 Manage Blasting Operations Elements and Performance Criteria I can show that I have the required knowledge and can: 1 Design / survey blasts a. Receive, i. interpret, ii. clarify and iii. confirm and iv. manage blast plans, associated reporting and related shotfiring management work requirements, by preliminary site inspection if necessary b. Identify potential hazards/risks associated with blast planning and related shotfiring management work, and i. manage risks including managing risks associated with the storage, handling and transport of explosives, charging shotholes, and connecting and testing circuits, and risks associated with disposal of explosives and misfires managing on behalf of the organization, the secure and safe systems of shotfiring-related work c. Access, i. interpret and ii. clarify legislative and iii. site requirements and iv. procedures specifically carry out pre-blasting procedures and v. establish exclusion zone vi. for the range of shots on site d. Arrange / ensure Survey of blast area to blast plan and i. site requirements is complete, locate position of blast holes and prepare survey reports, and report to appropriate personnel 1(1.1) 2(1.1, 1.3) 3(1.1) Comp Unit Ref Yes / No Note: these Units replace Competency Units: MNCU1048B Conduct shotfiring operations MNCU1049B Support Shotfiring Operations MNMUGC118A Charge underground blasts

I need further development and / or experience in

2(2.9) 3(1.4, 2) 3(4) 3(5) 3(1.5)

2(1.2)

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(Your) Name Elements and Performance Criteria I can show that I have the required knowledge and can: e. Access, i. interpret and ii. apply geological and survey data and weather conditions required to complete the shot f. Carry out calculations to enable i. pattern design, ii. loading and iii. tying in shots within iv. legislative requirements and v. site procedures for the range of shots on site including 1. shots in solid coal 2. shotfiring in stone g. Identify, confirm and adjust the explosives and accessories required for a blast, and i. Arrange for purchase and re-stocking as required ii. Conduct regular stock-takes Comp Unit Ref Yes / No I need further development and / or experience in

1(1.2) 2(1.2, 2.3)

1(1.4, 1.5) 2(2.3) 3(3.8) 1(1.6) 2(1.2) 3(1.3) 3(3.5)

1(1.6, 3.5) 3(3.6) 1(1.6)

h. Coordinate and manage support requirements for all shots, including i. vehicles, ii. public and iii. site notification and iv. other equipment i. Establish as relevant for all shots, the i. stemming stockpile and ii. accessories on shot site

j. Store explosives and accessories in facilities at the shot to comply with i. legislative requirements and ii. site procedures

1(2.1)

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(Your) Name Elements and Performance Criteria I can show that I have the required knowledge and can: k. Establish and communicate access routes to all shot areas for i. authorised persons and ii. vehicles Comp Unit Ref Yes / No I need further development and / or experience in

1(2.5) 2(3.3)

l. Transport and manage the transport of explosives and accessories to blast area and i. segregate explosives on-the-job

1(2.5)

m. Ensure that explosives are not left unattended

n. Identify hole locations and i. any problems with shotholes or other non-conforming conditions in preparation for charging

1(3.4) 2(2.8)

o. Ensure blast holes are primed, charged, stemmed and tied-in in accordance with loading plan and i. identify non-conforming conditions ii. flushed out or cleaned iii. apply explosion inhibitor iv. tied in v. carry out pre-blasting procedures vi. initiated vii. follow post-blast procedures viii. deal with misfires ix. carry out post-blast coordination x. complete & maintain records and reports p. Supervise blast personnel during i. loading, ii. tie-in and iii. initiation operations

1(3.4) 1(3.8) 1(3.4) 1(3.5) 1(4.1) 1(4.1) 1(3.6) 1(4.3) 1(4.4) 1(4.5) 1(5.1) 1(5.2) 1(3.9) 3(7) 3(3.2)

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(Your) Name Elements and Performance Criteria I can show that I have the required knowledge and can: q. Test equipment and accessories and i. carry out inspection and ii. required maintenance after shotfiring operations iii. manage maintenance of blasting equipment r. Manage the implementation of the sites blast management plan including i. Verifying the implementation of the sites blast management plan Comp Unit Ref Yes / No I need further development and / or experience in

1(3.7) 3(3.4)

2 Calculate quantities of explosives required a. Carry out calculations of the quantities of explosives required (to enable pattern design, loading and tying in shots within legislative requirements and site procedures) 1(1.4)

b. Carry out pre-blasting procedures and i. establish exclusion zone

1(4.2) 2(3.2)

c. Secure including i. manage site procedures for securing shot area

3(3.7)

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(Your) Name Elements and Performance Criteria I can show that I have the required knowledge and can: 3 Identify the Maximum Instantaneous Charge a. Carry out calculations of MIC and i. delay sequences (to enable pattern design, loading and tying in shots within legislative requirements and site procedures) 1(1.4, 1.5) Comp Unit Ref Yes / No I need further development and / or experience in

b. Initiate the blast

1(4.3)

4 Monitor environmental impacts a. Carry out calculations of environmental impacts (to enable pattern design, loading and tying in shots within legislative requirements and site procedures) 3(3.1, 4)

b. Declare area safe for re-entry

c. Carry out post blast coordination and i. Post-blast inspection

d. Conduct blast monitoring and i. Apply the sites blast monitoring system

1(5.1, 5.3) 3(3.4)

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(Your) Name Elements and Performance Criteria I can show that I have the required knowledge and can: 5 Reduce blast impacts a. Based on blast monitoring and blast records ensure future blast holes are charged in accordance with i. loading plan including for secondary blasting and ii. identify problems (or nonconforming conditions) to iii. reduce blast impacts) within legislative requirements and site procedures 6 Dispose of explosives a. Deal with misfires 1(4.5) 3(3.8) Comp Unit Ref Yes / No I need further development and / or experience in

b. Dispose of i. damaged, ii. deteriorated and iii. surplus explosives iv. notifying relevant emergency personnel c. Maintain inventory control systems in accordance with i. legislative requirements and ii. site procedures

1(2.4)

1(2.2)

d. Manage the disposal of misfires

3(6)

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(Your) Name Elements and Performance Criteria I can show that I have the required knowledge and can: 7 Report a. Maintain records including i. Relevant tickets, permits, licences or authorities Comp Unit Ref Yes / No I need further development and / or experience in

1(5.2) 3(1.2, 3.10)

b. Complete reports

3(1.6)

c. Report, and manage the reporting of, any unexplained loss or theft of explosives immediately

3(1.7)

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THE USE OF ICONS


The icons used throughout the Learner Workbook are:

Write / Draw Write or draw answers in the spaces provided in this Learners Workbook.

Read Read as directed.

Technical Information Refer to technical information. For the most part this will be an accompanying Learner Resource, but may also include relevant standards and site information.

Video / Multimedia Watch a video or other multimedia resource

Activity These activities require you to locate and use training resources. Danger The activities are potentially dangerous.

Safety You must follow safety procedures or wear protective equipment

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4.1
REVIEW QUESTIONS: DESIGN & SURVEY BLAST

Write / Draw The following questions will provide you with an opportunity to refresh your understanding before completing the following Learning & Assessment Task.

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1. What is the purpose of a pre-work meeting before moving out to the blast site?

2. What are at least four vital factors in the design of a blast?

3. When an explosion occurs, what are the two main features that make them work?

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4. List three ways of preventing flyrock?

5. Why might you lightly charge the holes around the roof of a roadway or tunnel heading?

6. What are typical ratios for hole diameter and hole spacing for blasting when a. the coal moves at right angles to the shothole, and b. for stone in a roadway heading?

7. When is it absolutely essential that you stem shotholes?

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10. Does your site have any special conditions, such as hot or reactive ground, or the potential for gas and/ or dust explosions that might change your blast design? If so, describe how these special conditions alter your sites blast design. You might need to think about this question, because you might not recognise the difference it makes, so when you think about this question, try to think about any special way in which your sites blasting may be significantly different to other sites. You might also discuss this with your sites undermanager(s), asking them if your sites shotfiring practices differ in any significant way to other sites. (make notes below)

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LEARNING & ASSESSMENT TASK 4.1A - CALCULATING HOLE SPACINGS & POWDER FACTORS
Alternatively, you might refer back to your Learners Resource to draw up two blast plans relevant for your site a plan graph is attached below and a typical blast plan is attached behind this Task for your use if needed.

Activity Obtain a copy of two different blasting plans or standard designs used at your site. Find out what hole diameter(s) is drilled and the burden and spacing for shotholes; you may have two or more main sizes of drill holes for example, one for development rounds and another for production blasts. Calculate the relationship between the burden and spacing and the diameter of the shothole(s). Compare your result with typical relationships for quarry/ stope blasts or tunnel/drive headings. Comment on the difference or similarity and explain the difference or similarity.

Write / Draw Write your answer in the space provided. If there is insufficient space use an extra sheet of paper.

Safety The activities will require you to move around the mine site and you must follow safety procedures and wear personal protective equipment.

Technical Information You may be able to obtain a copy of blasting plans or standard designs from a senior blasting supervisor, technical person or mining/civil engineer, and if that isnt successful by asking the mine/quarry/civil construction manager or even a blasting contractor.

4.1.1 Obtain a copy of two different blasting plans or standard designs used at your site (what are they? give a brief explanation).

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i. Find out what hole diameter(s) is (are) drilled and the burden and spacing for the shotholes (you may have two or more main sizes of drill holes for example, one for development rounds and another for production blasts and dont worry too much about reamed holes in a drive heading for example).

ii. Calculate the relationship between the burden and spacing and the diameter of the shothole(s).

iii. Compare your result (in answering the previous question) with typical relationships for civil construction tunnel/drive headings. Comment on the difference or similarity and explain the difference or similarity.

Attach any diagrams such as blast plans or standard designs here (but be sure to make a note of this in question 4.1.1 above)

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SAMPLE BLAST PLAN


Site Date fired Time fired Shot Number EXPLOSIVES USED Type Tonnes/m3 metres metres metres metres tonnes Mm/hole millimetres degrees metres metres Total cost. $ Kg Powder factor Kg/cubic metre Kg Burden Spacing Number of holes Average depth Total metres Total tonnes of stone Subgrade drilled Pattern type Shothole diameter Number of rows Shothole inclination angle Bench height Stemming depth Stemming material Unit cost, cents per cubic metre or tonne Total explosive charge Heaviest charge detonated on any one delay (Maximum Instantaneous Charge) Quantity Cost, $ DRILLING & LOADING DETAILS Type of stone Density of stone

Remarks, including: Variation from standard in loading, drilling, for example, wet or misaligned holes, undercut face, stemming changes, delays different, etc

Fragmentation Weather Ground vibration Shot loaded by Complaint Nature of comments Action taken Who What mm/s

% through primary crusher Airblast overpressure Date received Time/date Checked dB(linear) Supervisor

Muckpile profile

Location Person(s) concerned Feedback & response

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LEARNING & ASSESSMENT TASK 4.1B - SECONDARY BLASTING PROCEDURE


Clearance procedures may form part of a broader procedure so only take action here with a focus on the clearance and isolation part of the procedure; If you cant obtain a copy, refer to your Learner Resource 3 and make up a procedure - using the format for a procedure that you saw in Module 3 Firing Shots with no more than ten steps.

Activity Obtain a copy of the standard operating procedure for secondary blasting on your site, or describe the procedure used on your site. If your site has chosen not to break rocks by secondary blasting, interview your supervisor or the person to whom they refer you, and write down or explain the reasons for this choice, and any circumstances that might cause them to reconsider their choice. Cover all possibilities for secondary blasting including breaking up large boulders from main blasts, clearing large boulders from a crusher, and clearing large boulders as part of site clearing.

Write / Draw Write your answer in the space provided. If there is insufficient space use an extra sheet of paper.

Safety The activities will require you to move around the mine site and you must follow safety procedures and wear personal protective equipment.

Technical Information You may be able to obtain a copy of your sites procedure from a supervisor or safety officer, or from a senior blasting supervisor, technical person or mining/civil engineer, and if that isnt successful by asking the mine/ quarry/civil construction manager or even a blasting contractor.

4.1B.1. Obtain a copy of the standard operating procedure for secondary blasting on your site, or describe the procedure used on your site.

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4.1B.2 If your site has chosen not to break rocks by secondary blasting, interview your supervisor or the person to whom they refer you, and write down or explain the reasons for this choice

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and any circumstances that might cause them to reconsider their choice. Cover all possibilities for secondary blasting including breaking up large boulders from main blasts, clearing large boulders from a crusher, and clearing large boulders as part of site clearing.

Attach any documents such as procedures after this page (but be sure to make a note of this in question 4.1B.1 above)

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4.2
REVIEW QUESTIONS: CALCULATE QUANTITIES OF EXPLOSIVES REQUIRED

Write / Draw The following questions will provide you with an opportunity to refresh your understanding before completing the following Learning & Assessment Task.

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1. What are typical powder factors for the activities in the following table?
Application Blasting solid coal Roadway shooting in stone Trenching Tunnelling in civil construction Shaft sinking Powder Factor

2. If you were required to shoot a roadway in stone, what sort of cuts could you use and what makes the difference in selecting one over the other? Cut 1

Cut 2

Cut 3

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3. How much of a shothole do you leave uncharged (in relation to the burden)?

4. What are at least ten factors to take into account when designing a blast that help you work out how much explosive to use?

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LEARNING & ASSESSMENT TASK 4.2 CALCULATING QUANTITIES OF EXPLOSIVE REQUIRED POWDER FACTORS

Activity Calculate the powder factors used in at least two different types of blasts on your site; 1. calculate this powder factor as the weight of explosive in kilograms per cubic metre of rock and 2. compare your result with typical relationships for civil construction tunnel/drive headings. (Note: some sites refer to powder factors in terms of kilograms of explosive per tonne of rock, so for the purposes of this assessment task you will need to convert this from kg/t to kg/m3; if you need help doing this ask your supervisor or ask someone for the density of the rock to convert tonnes to cubic metres.) 3. Comment on the difference or similarity in the powder factors on your site compared with typical powder factors and explain the difference or similarity.

Technical Information You may be able to the necessary information or advice from your sites senior blasting supervisor, technical person or mining/civil engineer, and if that isnt successful by asking the mine/quarry/civil construction manager or even a blasting contractor. Alternatively you may refer back to your Learner Resource 4 Blast Planning & Reporting for typical powder factors that you could check.

Write / Draw Write your answer in the space provided. If there is insufficient space use an extra sheet of paper.

Safety The activities will require you to move around the mine site and you must follow safety procedures and wear personal protective equipment.

4.2.1 Calculate the powder factors used in at least two different types of blasts on your site; calculate this powder factor as the weight of explosive in kilograms per cubic metre of rock and compare your result with typical relationships for civil construction tunnel/drive headings. (Note: some sites refer to powder factors in terms of kilograms of explosive per tonne of rock, so for the purposes of this assessment task you will need to convert this from kg/t to kg/m3; if you need help doing this ask your supervisor or ask someone for the density of the rock to convert tonnes to cubic metres.) Blast type 1.

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Blast type 2.

4.2.2 Comment on the difference or similarity in the powder factors on your site compared with typical powder factors and explain the difference or similarity.

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4.3
REVIEW QUESTIONS: IDENTIFY MAXIMUM INSTANTANEOUS CHARGE (MIC) & DELAYS

Write / Draw The following questions will provide you with an opportunity to refresh your understanding before completing the following Learning & Assessment Task.

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1. What do you understand the term Maximum Instantaneous Charge to mean?

2. List six environmental and public safety reasons for controlling the MIC.

3. Give a possible solution to the problems listed in the following table.


Problem Excess over-break Possible Solution

Rocks excessively scatter

Rocks come out, but fragmentation poor Excess back-shatter

Toe between holes

High bottom

Boulder in front of pile

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Boulders on top of pile

Boulders on floor

Boulder within pile, good fragmentation

4. Why would you use short delay detonators instead of long period delays in shotfiring in underground coal mines?

5. Draw below a roadway blast and show the order of firing in the sequence.

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LEARNING & ASSESSMENT TASK 4.3 CHECKING MIC & DELAYS

Activity Examine the copies of blast plans or standard blast designs that you have already obtained, and check that the delays are shown on the plans. These delays may be shown as the order in which each hole fires, or as the delay period, or as the delay after the shot is initiated. Check what is the largest number of shotholes that will be detonated on any one delay. Calculate the weight (in kilograms) of explosives in each of the holes that are fired on the same delay and multiply this by the number of shotholes to work out the MIC (or total weight of explosives per delay).

Technical Information You have already obtained a copy of blast plans. If they do not show the delays you may be able to help from your sites senior blasting supervisor, technical person or mining/civil engineer, and if that isnt successful by asking the mine/quarry/civil construction manager or even a blasting contractor.

Write / Draw Write your answer in the space provided. If there is insufficient space use an extra sheet of paper.

Safety The activities will require you to move around the mine site and you must follow safety procedures and wear personal protective equipment.

4.3.1 Check what is the largest number of shotholes that will be detonated on any one delay on the copies of blast plans or standard blast designs that you have already obtained (These delays may be shown as the order in which each hole fires, or as the delay period, or as the delay after the shot is initiated).

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4.3.2 Going on from the previous check, calculate the weight (in kilograms) of explosives in each of the holes that are fired on the same delay and multiply this by the number of shotholes to work out the MIC (or total weight of explosives per delay).

Attach any diagrams such as blast plans or sketches here (but be sure to make a note of this in question 4.3.1 above)

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4.4
REVIEW QUESTIONS: MONITOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

Write / Draw The following questions will provide you with an opportunity to refresh your understanding before completing the following Learning & Assessment Task.

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1. What are the two key environmental constraints placed on most blasting?

2. What are other environmental impacts that need to be watched?

3. What are the blast conditions that result in high ground vibrations?

4. What are the worst weather conditions for blasting near the surface, in respect of neighbours?

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5. What is the worst condition for blasting at your site from a complaints point of view?

6. What monitoring equipment does your site use to measure blast impacts? (if your site does not have its own monitoring equipment, find out who the site engages to measure blast impacts and try to discuss monitoring equipment with them, or look at your Learner Resource and AS2187) a. What equipment is used for airblast overpressure?

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b. What equipment is used for ground vibration?

c. How do know that these items of equipment are recording correctly? (when were they last checked for accuracy?)

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d. Who might be responsible for sending the items away for checking?

e. If the equipment was checked for accuracy, what records are kept to prove that they are reading correctly?

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f. Who does any repairs or maintenance on the equipment, and what records of maintenance are kept?

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LEARNING & ASSESSMENT TASK 4. 4 - ENVIRONMENTAL & GROUND VIBRATION MONITORING

Activity From your previous Assessment Task (4.3), in which you calculated the MIC for two blasts, now estimate the ground vibration using the graph from AS2187.2 Appendix J (see below). You might also use your Learner Resource to estimate airblast overpressure. Enquire of your supervisor / manager and find out how close the nearest residence is to your blasting activities. Find out what if any environmental restrictions have been placed on blasting at your site, and compare your estimate of ground vibration with those restrictions or limits. Enquire of others on site who are involved with blast design to find out what environmental issues are of greatest concern, and whether there have been any complaints about blasting. If there any complaints briefly outline the nature of the complaint and the outcome of any investigation or regulatory response as a consequence.

Technical Information If your site has environmental limits for blasting, you may be able to obtain a copy from a senior blasting supervisor, technical person or mining/civil engineer. Or you may refer back to your Learner Resource 4 Blast Planning & Reporting for common limits or further information if that is necessary; Appendix J of AS2187.2 is also a useful reference for environmental monitoring.

Write / Draw Write your answer in the space provided. If there is insufficient space use an extra sheet of paper.

Safety The activities will require you to move around the mine site and you must follow safety procedures and wear personal protective equipment.

4.4.1 From your previous Assessment Task (4.3), in which you calculated the MIC (or effective charge per delay) for two blasts, estimate the ground vibration using the graph from AS2187.2 Appendix J (included for your use below): a. at a residence 300m away from the shot for the largest MIC

b. or, if you wanted to make sure that the vibration was less than 2mm/s at a residence 300m away what would be your MIC

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c. and, enquire of your supervisor / manager and find out how close the nearest residence is to your blasting activities and calculate the MIC for your sites largest blasts.

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4.4.2

Estimate (using your Learner Resource 4) the airblast overpressure at the same location.

4.4.3 Which of the two (ground vibration or airblast overpressure) is likely to be the most significant to limiting your blasting practice? Discuss your answer with your shotfirer or the person most likely to receive complaints.

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4.4.4 Find out what if any environmental restrictions have been placed on blasting at your site, and compare your estimate of ground vibration with those restrictions or limits.

4.4.5 Enquire of others on site who are involved with blast design to find out what environmental issues are of greatest concern, and whether there have been any complaints about blasting. If there have been any complaints briefly outline the nature of the complaint and the outcome of any investigation or regulatory response as a consequence.

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4.4.6 If your site conducts blast monitoring (whether routinely or only very occasionally), compare your estimates with actual monitoring results and compare results.

Attach any procedures after this page (but be sure to make a note of this in question 4.4.1, 4.4.2, or 4.4.3 above)

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4.5
REVIEW QUESTIONS: REDUCE BLAST IMPACTS

Write / Draw The following questions will provide you with an opportunity to refresh your understanding before completing the following Learning & Assessment Task.

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1. List at least four uncontrollable variables that have an impact on environmental impacts from blasting.

2. List at least six controllable variables that have a direct affect on blast impact reduction.

3. List at least six ways that you can reduce the likelihood of flyrock if you were commencing a shaft sink or a drift.

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4. List at least six ways that you can reduce airblast overpressure.

5. List at least six ways that you can reduce ground vibrations from blasting.

6. What are typical limits for ground vibration and airblast overpressure?

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LEARNING & ASSESSMENT TASK 4.5 REDUCING & CONTROLLING BLAST IMPACTS
In particular, outline also your site approach to minimising any risk of flyrock. Activity From your previous Assessment Task (4.4), in which you found out what if any environmental restrictions are been placed on blasting at your site, and you found out what environmental issues are of greatest concern at your site, outline how you measure or monitor these issues. If your site does not have any environmental limits restricting your blasting at present, assume that you will commence a shaft sink. What instruments are, or would be used and what readings are or would be taken. When do you or would you turn on the instruments. If your site does not take routine measurements of environmental issues, find out from your supervisor or blasting expert or manager if and how your site has estimated or would estimate the environmental impacts and whether this was or would be based on external expertise with or without trial blasts or occasional measurements being taken. Also outline the controls for typical blasts at your site in relation to these issues. Technical Information Appendix A of AS2187.2 contains information about the sorts of information recorded in blast plans. A typical Blast plan is attached below for your reference if needed.

Write / Draw Write your answer in the space provided. If there is insufficient space use an extra sheet of paper.

Safety The activities will require you to move around the mine site and you must follow safety procedures and wear personal protective equipment.

4.5.1 From your previous Assessment Task (4.4), in which you found out what if any environmental restrictions are been placed on blasting at your site, and you found out what environmental issues are of greatest concern at your site, outline how you measure or monitor these issues. (What limits are they, or would they be if you were to commence a shaft sink? What instruments are/would be used and what readings are/would be taken? When do/would you turn on the instruments, etc ?).

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4.5.2 If your site does not take routine measurements of environmental issues, find out from your supervisor or blasting expert or manager if and how your site has estimated environmental impacts from shotfiring

and whether this was based on external expertise with or without trial blasts or occasional measurements being taken.

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.4.5.3 Also outline the controls for typical blasts at your site in relation to these issues.

4.5.4

In particular, outline also your site approach to minimising any risk of flyrock.

Attach any documents or procedures here.

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4.6
REVIEW QUESTIONS: DISPOSE OF EXPLOSIVES

Write / Draw The following questions will provide you with an opportunity to refresh your understanding before completing the following Learning & Assessment Task.

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1. Tick the appropriate boxes to indicate how the following explosives are destroyed.
Destruction by Explosive product Black powder Nitroglycerine ANFO Watergels Emulsions Cast primers Detonating cord Detonators Detonating devices Detonation Burning Water

2. Who would you let know of defective explosives and why?

3. What is your basic assumption when destroying explosives?

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LEARNING & ASSESSMENT TASK 4.6 - DESCRIBING YOUR SITES REQUIREMENTS FOR DISPOSAL OF UNWANTED EXPLOSIVES
Requirements may also be part of a broader procedure or set of rules, that may be obtained from a senior blasting supervisor, technical person or mining/civil engineer, and if that isnt successful by asking the mine/quarry/civil construction manager or even a blasting contractor. Magazine rules may also stipulate what is to be done for the temporary storage of damaged explosives after a blast; and, Your Learner Resource 4 Blast Planning & Reporting provides basic information on the destruction of explosives. AS2187.2 Section 11 also contains information regarding explosive destruction.

Activity Investigate your sites procedure for disposing of defective, deteriorated or obsolete explosives. If your site does not have a procedure, prepare one specifically developed for your site, referring to: 1. provisions in magazines (if you have them on your site) for holding explosives awaiting destruction; 2. processes for destroying small quantities of explosives; 3. on-site approvals for destroying larger quantities of explosives; 4. notification to government agencies; 5. specific places for destroying explosives; 6. warnings and supporting personnel requirements; 7. guarding entry during burning and site clearances; 8. reporting / recording of destruction activities and stock records.

Write / Draw Write your answer in the space provided. If there is insufficient space use an extra sheet of paper.

Safety Technical Information You may be able to obtain a copy of any procedure for destroying explosives from the person who has the responsibility for maintaining the magazine or stock usage. The activities will require you to move around the mine site and you must follow safety procedures and wear personal protective equipment.

4.6.1 Investigate your sites procedure for disposing of defective, deteriorated or obsolete explosives. If your site has a procedure compare its contents against the list suggested below (your procedure may be far more specific about the laying of a sawdust bed, dowsing with diesel and setting it on fire).

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4.6.2 If your site does not have a procedure, prepare one specifically developed for your site, referring to: a. provisions in magazines (if you have them on your site) for holding explosives awaiting destruction; b. processes for destroying small quantities of explosives; c. on-site approvals for destroying larger quantities of explosives; d. notification to government agencies; e. specific places for destroying explosives; f. warnings and supporting personnel requirements; g. guarding entry during burning and site clearances; h. reporting / recording of destruction activities and stock records..

Attach any copies of procedures as appropriate (but be sure to make a note of this, for example in question 4.6.1 above)
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4.7
REVIEW QUESTIONS: MAINTAIN DOCUMENTATION & REPORT

Write / Draw The following questions will provide you with an opportunity to refresh your understanding before completing the following Learning & Assessment Task.

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1. Does your site have a safety policy, and if so does it lay the fundamental intentions for the working environment, equipment, people and procedures (give a brief description)?

is it part of your sites explosives management plan and if so what is the list of contents in that management plan?

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2. Do you see how the policy could relate to explosive storage, handling, transport and use?

3. Does your safety policy refer to or infer risk management?

4. Do you have a formal risk management procedure at your site (What is it called for example is it called a JSA?)?

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Is there a form to use?

How do you get a copy of the form?

When is it to be used?

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Who is responsible for using it?

Is it for group use?

Briefly outline the steps you take to fill it in and have it checked.

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5. Is there a less formal risk management procedure for personal use, such as a Take 5 or SLAM or Track or such like?

and do you use these when one thing changes, and have you used one for explosives concerns?

6. Do your risk management protocols refer to controlling the risk, and are the controls contained in procedures?

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7. Do you have Safe Working or Standard Operating Procedures (SWP, SOP)

and are these based on the experience of others?

Where are they kept and how do you use them?

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Are there such procedures for explosive use?

8. Are your procedures monitored by supervisors?

And do these supervisors keep shift records or diaries to record facts?

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9. Are there records of incidents and are investigations made of unplanned serious events?

10. Do you have toolbox talks, pre-shift or safety meetings in which you get information about serious events and in which you can raise concerns?

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Are these used to review a SWP or SOP to make on-going improvements?

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LEARNING & ASSESSMENT TASK 4.7 - REPORTING COMPILING A SET OF RECORDS


On another example you might note your review of a procedure/training etc. Activity Compile a suite of typical records maintained in relation to the use of explosives, including a copy of the site safety policy. This task will require you to track down a variety of records, so dont get bogged down in detail. Rather you should begin to see the context of the records from two major perspectives: 1. to see records of the four components of work, namely the managed working environment, equipment and materials, people, and processes; and, 2. to see how the continuous improvement loop requires sites to have a clear aim or intent for safe operation, to have a logical approach or plan to achieve that aim, to implement the plan, to monitor the plans implementation, and lastly to make on-going improvements based on the facts derived from the monitoring. On every record you might make a note of your involvement in the record-keeping. For example, you might note this is a copy of the record I (or our team, or the shotfirer, or my/our supervisor, or the maintenance person, etc) made on (date) following (the blast, activity, concern expressed, etc). Technical Information You may be able to obtain a copy of your sites documents from your supervisor, the person responsible for magazines, the shotfirer on site, a senior blasting supervisor, technical person or mining/civil engineer, and if that isnt successful by asking the mine/quarry/civil construction manager or even a blasting contractor. And you can refer back to your Learner Resource 4 Blast Planning & Reporting.

Write / Draw Write your answer in the space provided. If there is insufficient space use an extra sheet of paper.

Safety The activities will require you to move around the mine site and you must follow safety procedures and wear personal protective equipment.

4.7.1 Compile a set of typical records maintained in relation to the use of explosives, including a copy of the site safety policy (make a list of the records in the space below and ask for help from your supervisor to get ones that you need. This task will require you to track down a variety of records, so dont get bogged down in detai)l. Rather you should begin to see the context of the records from two major perspectives: 1. to see records of the four components of work, namely the managed working environment, equipment and materials, people, and processes; and, 2. to see how the continuous improvement loop requires sites to have a clear aim or intent (policy) for safe operation, to have a logical approach or risk management plan to achieve that aim, to implement the plan, to monitor the plans implementation, and lastly to make on-going improvements based on the facts derived from the monitoring.

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4.7.2 For every record you might make a note of your involvement in the record-keeping. For example, you might note this is a copy of the record I (or our team, or the shotfirer, or my/our supervisor, or the maintenance person, etc) made on (date) following (the blast, activity, concern expressed, etc). On another example you might note your review of a procedure/training etc..

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4.7.3

Do you need any special help to get copies of important records?

4.7.4 What specific records are kept for purchasing explosives? (Note: if your site engages a supplier of explosives to supply and load explosives, what records does you site keep of the explosives used, as opposed to those actually purchased directly in the sites name)

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4.7.5 Ask and find out who your site holds as responsible for or custodian of explosives purchasing, storage and transport and discuss with them their actions to manage purchase, storage, transport and liaison with explosives regulators. Make notes of your discussion. Purchasing

Storage

Transport

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Liaison with explosives regulators

4.7.6 Discuss with your shotfirer or a blasting supervisor what they do to record blasts (are there various types of blasts?). Type 1

Type 2

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Type 3

including how they learn to refine their blasting practices by looking at any trends or patterns that blast plans show

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also, how any of the blast plans or results of blasting lead to improvements in the sites blast management plan

and changes to procedures (why and how are they revised)

and changes to your sites blast environmental management approach (including any blast environmental impact plan, procedures for reducing the environmental impacts of blasting, or blast impact monitoring procedures)

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4.7.7 Special Conditions a. Are there special conditions that exist at your site, such as hot or reactive ground, or gas / dust conditions that your site needs to keep track of specifically in relation to shotfiring?

b. If there are, what records are kept, and what use is made of them? (Discuss this with your sites shotfirer(s) and anyone they might refer you to, such as a site, company or consulting geologist)

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c. In particular, is there any monitoring of the conditions that result in special action?

Attach any documents such as your sites or your explosive suppliers misfire procedure here (but be sure to make a note of this in question 4.7.1 above)

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RECORD OF LEARNING

EVIDENCE GATHERED DURING OFF-THE-JOB TRAINING.


RPL Portfolio of evidence of previous training, work or experience in shotfiring RPL Challenge test Completion of Review Questions in Learner Workbook Oral questions Participation in training sessions Observation checklists for practical situations / simulation Completion of Learning & Assessment Tasks in Learner Workbook Assessment feedback Other

Other

EVIDENCE GATHERED DURING ON-THE-JOB TRAINING.


Gather evidence for at least 6 blasts including 2 different types of blasts.
Work Journal/Log Book Work observation checklists Third party report On-site documentation/written work Oral questions Statutory declarations Other

Other

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WHAT HAVE YOU DONE REGARDING BLAST PLANNING & REPORTING FOR ITEMS IN THE TABLE BELOW?
Include examples from simulated exercises and from any shotfiring other than in underground coal mines.
Blast Planning & Reporting What have you done? (Provide a brief description of your work in each or any of the topics; the date, task, who was the prime contact, and any specific result. Attach a copy of documents where appropriate)

1. Designed / surveyed blasts

a. Working out where and how youre going to blast

b. Designing / surveying blasts

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Blast Planning & Reporting

What have you done? (Provide a brief description of your work in each or any of the topics; the date, task, who was the prime contact, and any specific result. Attach a copy of documents where appropriate)

c. Thinking about the basic factors involved in blast design

d. Understanding what happened in blasts

e. Calculating the burden and spacing in blasts

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Blast Planning & Reporting

What have you done? (Provide a brief description of your work in each or any of the topics; the date, task, who was the prime contact, and any specific result. Attach a copy of documents where appropriate)

2. Calculated quantities of explosives required

a. For different types of blasting

b. Selecting suitable powder factors

c. Calculating explosives required

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Blast Planning & Reporting

What have you done? (Provide a brief description of your work in each or any of the topics; the date, task, who was the prime contact, and any specific result. Attach a copy of documents where appropriate)

3. Identified MIC and delays

a. knowing restrictions on the amount of explosives fired on any one delay

b. remembering public safety too

c. thinking about the tightness of shots and environmental consequences

Shotfiring Course | Learners Workbook 4: Blast Planning and Reporting - In Underground Coal Mines

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Blast Planning & Reporting

What have you done? (Provide a brief description of your work in each or any of the topics; the date, task, who was the prime contact, and any specific result. Attach a copy of documents where appropriate)

d. adjusting rules of thumb for site experience

e. identifying problems & possible solutions

f. selecting shothole patterns

g. planning blast delays

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V1 2009 Department of Education and Training | www.skillsonline.net.au

Blast Planning & Reporting

What have you done? (Provide a brief description of your work in each or any of the topics; the date, task, who was the prime contact, and any specific result. Attach a copy of documents where appropriate)

4. Monitored environmental impacts

a. being ware of environmental impacts

b. identifying causes of disturbance

c. improving community awareness

Shotfiring Course | Learners Workbook 4: Blast Planning and Reporting - In Underground Coal Mines

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Blast Planning & Reporting

What have you done? (Provide a brief description of your work in each or any of the topics; the date, task, who was the prime contact, and any specific result. Attach a copy of documents where appropriate)

5. Reduced blast impacts

a. controlling variables

b. reducing flyrock risk (notably when shaft sinking / drifting near the surface)

c. reducing dust (notably when shaft sinking / drifting near the surface)

88 | LW4

V1 2009 Department of Education and Training | www.skillsonline.net.au

Blast Planning & Reporting

What have you done? (Provide a brief description of your work in each or any of the topics; the date, task, who was the prime contact, and any specific result. Attach a copy of documents where appropriate)

d. reducing noise or airblast overpressure

e. minimising ground vibrations

6. Disposed of explosives

a. collecting and removing explosives

Shotfiring Course | Learners Workbook 4: Blast Planning and Reporting - In Underground Coal Mines

LW4 | 89

Blast Planning & Reporting

What have you done? (Provide a brief description of your work in each or any of the topics; the date, task, who was the prime contact, and any specific result. Attach a copy of documents where appropriate)

b. destroying explosives and detonators

c. complying with legal obligations

7. Maintained documentation and reporting

a. supporting a systematic approach

90 | LW4

V1 2009 Department of Education and Training | www.skillsonline.net.au

Blast Planning & Reporting

What have you done? (Provide a brief description of your work in each or any of the topics; the date, task, who was the prime contact, and any specific result. Attach a copy of documents where appropriate)

b. being accountable for records

c. giving commitment to the site safety policy

d. keeping risk management records

e. documenting procedures

Shotfiring Course | Learners Workbook 4: Blast Planning and Reporting - In Underground Coal Mines

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Blast Planning & Reporting

What have you done? (Provide a brief description of your work in each or any of the topics; the date, task, who was the prime contact, and any specific result. Attach a copy of documents where appropriate)

f. being involved in training

g. supervising and maintaining shift records

h. maintaining site security, inductions and site access

i. maintaining equipment and facilities

92 | LW4

V1 2009 Department of Education and Training | www.skillsonline.net.au

Blast Planning & Reporting

What have you done? (Provide a brief description of your work in each or any of the topics; the date, task, who was the prime contact, and any specific result. Attach a copy of documents where appropriate)

j. involved with health, production, and environment & community performance

k. complying with or enforcing rules & standards

Have you, for example, compiled a work journal, or used the journal below that shows that you have (Even in a simulated excercise):
Done any or all of the following practical work? Been the shotfirer or fired shots under direct supervision for at least six shots (this normally means being the team leader, but it could also mean being responsible for the whole shot where you might be the only shotfirer. It could also be in a simulated environment.) Yes / no Comments

Shotfiring Course | Learners Workbook 4: Blast Planning and Reporting - In Underground Coal Mines

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Done any or all of the following practical work? Been responsible for the shot crew in at least six shots (this may have been under the indirect supervision of site management and may have been under a learners licence/permit, or under a simulated environment)

Yes / no

Comments

Obtained blast designs for at least six shots (and have you attached examples of different blast designs. This might have been for the same six shots for which you were responsible)

Been responsible for checking shotholes and the preparation for at least six blasts (which ones were they give dates or blast numbers or describe the simulated environemt if this is the case)

Checked the stemming, hookup and connection of at least six shots (again, this might have been the same simulated environment as before)

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V1 2009 Department of Education and Training | www.skillsonline.net.au

Done any or all of the following practical work? Completed records for at least six shots, noting especially the diameter of shotholes, the burden and spacing or hole separation distances, and powder factors, or confirming blast designs (these can be, and ideally are the same shots as for the blast designs did you keep and attach a copy)

Yes / no

Comments

Taken environmental monitoring records for any shots

Taken action to reduce environmental impacts on any occasion (what were these, and what was the result)

Disposed of any explosives (this might have been by disposal of small quantities down shotholes during normal blasting, or it might have been on special occasions by burning etc have you indicated what was the disposal method, what explosives were destroyed, why they had to be destroyed, and if any reports were made to government agencies)

Shotfiring Course | Learners Workbook 4: Blast Planning and Reporting - In Underground Coal Mines

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Done any or all of the following practical work? Checked and maintained equipment associated with blasting (what was it, what was the type of test and what were you testing for? Was this in a simulated / training environment)

Yes / no

Comments

Been involved in any improvements to the sites safety systems in relation to explosives (policy, risk assessments, risk management, procedures, training, supervision, instructions, monitoring, consultation, improvements)

Reported to any government agency or applied for any licences (what was the report you made or the licence you applied for?)

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V1 2009 Department of Education and Training | www.skillsonline.net.au

Practical Observation Third party verification reports: MODULE 4 BLAST PLANNING & REPORTING

Write / Draw Who should complete this document and why? Third party evidence is evidence gathered from workplace supervisors, peers and others to support the making of a judgement. An assessor cannot always observe a learner for a long period of time and some competency standards are difficult to observe. Therefore third party evidence can be essential piece of evidence in the assessment process. The following checklist can be used by assessors and also adapted for use by third parties to verify their observations of the trainee applying their learning. Please place a tick ( 3 ) or cross ( 5 ) in the boxes as applicable to verify Learners competence in the areas listed below.

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LW4 | 97

Name of person being observed The following are my views of my knowledge and experience against a compilation of elements & performance criteria from the following competencies: 1. RIIBLA202 Support underground shotfiring operations 2. RIIBLA302 Conduct shotfiring in underground coal mines 3. RIIBLA401 Manage Blasting Operations Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being observed can: 1 Design / survey blasts a. Receive, i. interpret, ii. clarify and iii. confirm and iv. manage blast plans, associated reporting and related shotfiring management work requirements, by preliminary site inspection if necessary b. Identify potential hazards/risks associated with blast planning and related shotfiring management work, and i. manage risks including managing risks associated with the storage, handling and transport of explosives, charging shotholes, and connecting and testing circuits, and risks associated with disposal of explosives and misfires managing on behalf of the organization, the secure and safe systems of shotfiring-related work c. Access, i. interpret and ii. clarify legislative and iii. site requirements and iv. procedures specifically carry out pre-blasting procedures and v. establish exclusion zone vi. for the range of shots on site d. Arrange / ensure Survey of blast area to blast plan and i. site requirements is complete, locate position of blast holes and prepare survey reports, and report to appropriate personnel 1(1.1) 2(1.1, 1.3) 3(1.1) Comp Unit Ref Yes / No Note: these Units replace Competency Units: MNCU1048B Conduct shotfiring operations MNCU1049B Support Shotfiring Operations MNMUGC118A Charge underground blasts

Needs further development and / or experience in

2(2.9) 3(1.4, 2) 3(4) 3(5) 3(1.5)

2(1.2)

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V1 2009 Department of Education and Training | www.skillsonline.net.au

Name of person being observed Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being observed can: e. Access, i. interpret and ii. apply geological and survey data and weather conditions required to complete the shot f. Carry out calculations to enable i. pattern design, ii. loading and iii. tying in shots within iv. legislative requirements and v. site procedures for the range of shots on site including 1. shots in solid coal 2. shotfiring in stone g. Identify, confirm and adjust the explosives and accessories required for a blast, and i. Arrange for purchase and re-stocking as required ii. Conduct regular stock-takes Comp Unit Ref Yes / No Needs further development and / or experience in

1(1.2) 2(1.2, 2.3)

1(1.4, 1.5) 2(2.3) 3(3.8) 1(1.6) 2(1.2) 3(1.3) 3(3.5)

1(1.6, 3.5) 3(3.6) 1(1.6)

h. Coordinate and manage support requirements for all shots, including i. vehicles, ii. public and iii. site notification and iv. other equipment i. Establish as relevant for all shots, the i. stemming stockpile and ii. accessories on shot site

j. Store explosives and accessories in facilities at the shot to comply with i. legislative requirements and ii. site procedures

1(2.1)

Shotfiring Course | Learners Workbook 4: Blast Planning and Reporting - In Underground Coal Mines

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Name of person being observed Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being observed can: k. Establish and communicate access routes to all shot areas for i. authorised persons and ii. vehicles Comp Unit Ref Yes / No Needs further development and / or experience in

1(2.5) 2(3.3)

l. Transport and manage the transport of explosives and accessories to blast area and i. segregate explosives on-the-job

1(2.5)

m. Ensure that explosives are not left unattended

n. Identify hole locations and i. any problems with shotholes or other non-conforming conditions in preparation for charging

1(3.4) 2(2.8)

o. Ensure blast holes are primed, charged, stemmed and tied-in in accordance with loading plan and i. identify non-conforming conditions ii. flushed out or cleaned iii. apply explosion inhibitor iv. tied in v. carry out pre-blasting procedures vi. initiated vii. follow post-blast procedures viii. deal with misfires ix. carry out post-blast coordination x. complete & maintain records and reports p. Supervise blast personnel during i. loading, ii. tie-in and iii. initiation operations

1(3.4) 1(3.8) 1(3.4) 1(3.5) 1(4.1) 1(4.1) 1(3.6) 1(4.3) 1(4.4) 1(4.5) 1(5.1) 1(5.2) 1(3.9) 3(7) 3(3.2)

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V1 2009 Department of Education and Training | www.skillsonline.net.au

Name of person being observed Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being observed can: q. Test equipment and accessories and i. carry out inspection and ii. required maintenance after shotfiring operations iii. manage maintenance of blasting equipment r. Manage the implementation of the sites blast management plan including i. Verifying the implementation of the sites blast management plan Comp Unit Ref Yes / No Needs further development and / or experience in

1(3.7) 3(3.4)

2 Calculate quantities of explosives required a. Carry out calculations of the quantities of explosives required (to enable pattern design, loading and tying in shots within legislative requirements and site procedures) 1(1.4)

b. Carry out pre-blasting procedures and i. establish exclusion zone

1(4.2) 2(3.2)

c. Secure including i. manage site procedures for securing shot area

3(3.7)

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Name of person being observed Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being observed can: 3 Identify the Maximum Instantaneous Charge a. Carry out calculations of MIC and i. delay sequences (to enable pattern design, loading and tying in shots within legislative requirements and site procedures) 1(1.4, 1.5) Comp Unit Ref Yes / No Needs further development and / or experience in

b. Initiate the blast

1(4.3)

4 Monitor environmental impacts a. Carry out calculations of environmental impacts (to enable pattern design, loading and tying in shots within legislative requirements and site procedures) 3(3.1, 4)

b. Declare area safe for re-entry

c. Carry out post blast coordination and i. Post-blast inspection

d. Conduct blast monitoring and i. Apply the sites blast monitoring system

1(5.1, 5.3) 3(3.4)

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V1 2009 Department of Education and Training | www.skillsonline.net.au

Name of person being observed Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being observed can: 5 Reduce blast impacts a. Based on blast monitoring and blast records ensure future blast holes are charged in accordance with i. loading plan including for secondary blasting and ii. identify problems (or nonconforming conditions) to iii. reduce blast impacts) within legislative requirements and site procedures 6 Dispose of explosives a. Deal with misfires 1(4.5) 3(3.8) Comp Unit Ref Yes / No Needs further development and / or experience in

b. Dispose of i. damaged, ii. deteriorated and iii. surplus explosives iv. notifying relevant emergency personnel c. Maintain inventory control systems in accordance with i. legislative requirements and ii. site procedures

1(2.4)

1(2.2)

d. Manage the disposal of misfires

3(6)

Shotfiring Course | Learners Workbook 4: Blast Planning and Reporting - In Underground Coal Mines

LW4 | 103

Name of person being observed Elements and Performance Criteria I can state that the person being observed can: 7 Report a. Maintain records including i. Relevant tickets, permits, licences or authorities Comp Unit Ref Yes / No Needs further development and / or experience in

1(5.2) 3(1.2, 3.10)

b. Complete reports

3(1.6)

c. Report, and manage the reporting of, any unexplained loss or theft of explosives immediately

3(1.7)

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V1 2009 Department of Education and Training | www.skillsonline.net.au

Signatures:
Third Party Name: Role: Licence, or ticket number: Signarture: Learner Name: Signarture: Assessor/Instructor Name: Signarture: Supervisor Name: Signarture: Comments Date: Date: Date: Date:

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Notes

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V1 2009 Department of Education and Training | www.skillsonline.net.au