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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND BUILT ENVIRONMENT DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

STUDY GUIDE for:

Chemical Engineering Technology III


CMTB321

NATIONAL DIPLOMA: CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

Compiled by Profs Edison Muzenda and Freeman Ntuli


July 2013

Your lecturesrs are professors Edison Muzenda and Freeman Ntuli. Their brief biographies are below.

Biography: Edison Muzenda is a Full Professor of Chemical Engineering, the Research and Postgraduate Coordinator as well as Head of the Environmental and Process Systems Engineering Research Group in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Johannesburg. Professor Muzenda holds a BSc Hons (ZIM, 1994) and a PhD in Chemical Engineering (Birmingham, 2000). He has more than 17 years experience in academia which he gained at different Institutions: National University of Science and Technology, University of Birmingham, Bulawayo Polytechnic, University of Witwatersrand, University of South Africa and the University of Johannesburg. Through his academic preparation and career, Edison has held several management and leadership positions such as member of the student representative council, research group leader, university committees member, staff qualification coordinator, research and postgraduate coordinator as well as academic department leadership. Edisons teaching interests and experience are in unit operations, multi-stage separation processes, environmental engineering, chemical engineering thermodynamics, entrepreneurship skills, professional engineering skills, research methodology as well as process economics, management and optimization. He is a recipient of several awards and scholarships for academic excellence. His research interests are in waste water treatment, gas scrubbing, environment, waste minimization and utilization, green energy engineering as well as phase equilibrium measurement and computation. He has published more than 140 international peer reviewed and refereed scientific articles in journals, conferences and books. Edison has supervised 18 postgraduate students and 8 have completed their studies, 2 postdoctoral fellows as well as more than 120 Honours and BTech research students. He serves as reviewer for a number of reputable international conferences and journals. Edison is a member of the Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment Research and Process, Energy and Environmental Technology Committees. He has also chaired several sessions at International Conferences. Edison is an associate member of the Institution of Chemical Engineers (AMIChemE), member of the International Association of Engineers (IAENG); associate member of Water Institute of Southern Africa (WISA) and member of the International scientific committee of the World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (WASET) as well a member of the Scientific Technical Committee and Editorial Board of the Planetary Scientific Research Centre. Edison is recognized in Marquis Whos Who as an Engineering Educator. 2

Freeman Ntuli is an Associate Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering. He holds a PhD in Chemical Engineering from the University of Cape Town. He joined the University of Johannesburg in 2008 and currently teaches courses in fluid flow, separation processes, material and energy balances. He is also actively involved in the supervision of postgraduate students. His main areas of research are in hydrometallurgy, crystallization and environmental process engineering. His specific research activities involve gaseous reduction processes, leaching processes, reduction crystallization, modeling of particulate processes, wastewater characterization and treatment. Prof. Ntuli has authored more than 60 articles in international scientific journals and conferences and a number of technical research reports to industry. He is a member of the International Association of Engineers (IAENG), Golden Key Honour Society and an associate member of the Institution of Chemical Engineers (IChemE). He currently serves as a member of the editorial board for the Environment and Pollution Journal and a reviewer for Environmental Science and Pollution Research Journal and Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Prof Ntuli also serves as an external examiner for Chemical Engineering courses at the University of Witwatersrand, Cape Peninsula University of Technology and the University of South Africa.

Dear student, As a would-be chemical engineer it will be necessary to understand the basic principles of engineering. This is the foundation of all engineering knowledge for your future. By participating and applying the principles that you will learn you will be able to master the following life skills, also known as critical outcomes: How to solve problems; How to work effectively as a member of a team or group; How to communicate effectively verbally and in writing; How to present yourself with confidence; How to use science and technology effectively; and How the decisions you make affect other people and situations. It is therefore essential that you as the student participate continuously either in groups or individually to be successful and competent at the end of the course. These modules will be an integral part of all your other activities. It will contribute to your achieving the specified outcomes or final competencies related to the National Diploma in Chemical Engineering. We want lots of feedback from the class, so feel free to participate actively during the lectures! There will be a lot of one-on-one interaction between ourselves and you (consultation). Please learn the work as soon as possible rather than everyone leaving it to the last minute and risking not qualifying to write the exams. Also note that all course materials and any special communication will be delivered via email, therefore it is you responsibility to send your email address in time and to check your mailbox frequently. Students are encouraged to contribute to the effective teaching of this course by giving constant feedback on how the course material is presented in the lectures and in the notes. Remember we are all in the process of learning!! Good luck for the studies ahead!

Professors Edison Muzenda and Freeman Ntuli Course Conveners

WELCOME! The Department of Chemical Engineering extends a warm welcome to all students registered for the Chemical Engineering Technology III (CMTB 321) course. The department is available to assist students and the lecturers are available at specified times. The department is a disciplined one and learners will be well advised to adhere to rules and procedures of the Department of Chemical Engineering. 4

The National Diploma in Chemical Engineering is intended for suitably qualified matriculated learners with the intention to follow a career in chemical engineering and process related industries. Learners achieving this qualification will have the basic understanding and overview of a variety of chemical process industries, raw materials, plant flow diagrams and operating conditions. As a part of the National Diploma, the CMTB 321 course will run for the next six month. We are going to learn more about transfer processes, evaporation, distillation, absorption, drying and leaching, humidification and cooling towers, liquid liquid extraction and solution thermodynamics related to separation processes.

Introduction Your learning guide is designed to assist you through this course and will guide you with preparation for classes, assignments and exams. The aim of the course delivery is to promote self-study. The lecturers will explain the basic principles and the practical implementation thereof. It remains the responsibility of the student to master the detail. Each specified outcome consists of several specified outcomes that are linked to critical outcomes. Specified outcomes are linked to assessment criteria and unit standards. Specified outcomes can only be achieved by studying the contents of the necessary literature, and mastering the required skills. The following is recommended: Study the sources of the indicated specified outcomes Make short notes of the most important facts Formulate problems that can be discussed during class sessions Compile a list of possible questions Be prepared for class Study unknown and important terms and ascertain their precise meanings Self-study, task analysis and research are of vital importance for this module.

1. GENERAL INFORMATION Lecturers: Room No: Phone No: E-mail: Professors Edison Muzenda and Freeman Ntuli 4151/ 4159 (011) 559-6817 / (011) 559-6003 emuzenda@uj.ac.za / fntuli@uj.ac.za

Consulting hours Please see the notice on your lecturers door. Your lecturer has allocated a time period during which you may approach him about problems relating to your subject. Please ensure that all administrative problems are directed to the secretary or, if necessary, the Head of the 5

Department. Do not waste the lecturers consultation time asking questions that he CAN NOT answer i.e. do not apply to his subject. Your lecturers are not always at your disposal! Please remember that yours is not the only subject that they lecture. Beside your two lecturers are active and leading researchers with more than 20 postgraduate students to supervise in addition to BTech projects. Emphasis In order to pass this course it is essential that you attend all lectures and tutorials. For repeat students, you will soon notice that the scope of work may differ slightly from last year. You will be exposed to the basic concepts and principles of mass transfer, with the main emphasis on separation processes as mentioned earlier on. References and Prescribed Books Consult the following books for further reference if necessary: Chemical Engineering vol 1 and 2 Coulson and Richardson Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann Separation Process Principles J D Seader and EJ Henley Publisher: Wiley Mass Transfer Operations Robert Treybal Publisher: McGraw-Hill Book Company Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles CJ Geankoplis and PR Toliver Publisher: Prentice Hall Prerequisites Upon entry to the Semester 4(S4) of study, it is assumed that learners should have demonstrated the following competencies through the successful completion of S1, S2 and S3 in the Chemical Engineering programme (approximately 270 credits). Using various modes of accessing and communicating information, including industry specific information technology, effectively in order to promote the chemical engineering discipline in a changing business environment. Using a range of chemical engineering skills to contribute to effective decision-making and the execution of operations.

Applying basic chemical engineering principles that include mass, energy and thermodynamic principles to contribute to effective decision-making and sustainability of the chemical engineering industry. 6

Expectation from the Learner The learner is expected to attend all lectures, quizzes, laboratories and tests as well as to complete all assignments and hand-in on the due date specified. Revision of each section or module before a lecture is recommended to enhance the learning experience. Missing a test will jeopardize the class mark. If a learner is sick, contact the lecturer within 3 days of the test. You will be expected to produce a medical certificate from an accredited doctor.

2. REQUIREMENTS FOR ASSESSMENTS

Assessment policy If you obtain less than 40% as your semester mark and do not complete your laboratory component of the course with at least 45%, you will not qualify to write the exam. Note that you also need to become competent in all the outcomes (see the syllabus for a list of outcomes) before qualifying. If a mark less than 40% is obtained in the exam, no supplementary examination may be written. Marks are allocated (about 5%) for appearance and neatness of documents handed in. Handing the assignments in late will also result in reduced marks. The pass mark for the course is 50%. The following Table outlines the assessment components.

ASSESSMENT

WEIGHT (Semester Mark)

DATE

VENUE

TEST 1 TEST 2 TEST 3 QUIZES ASSIGNMENT LABS TOTAL

28% 27% 20% 5% 5% 15% 100%

15 August 2012 26 September 2012 17 October 2012

LAB

An exam will be written at the end of the course in the normal way. Note that you need to obtain a semester mark of at least 40% and complete all the laboratory work to qualify to write the exam. 7

The exam will count 60% of the final mark, while the semester mark will make up the remaining 40%. Marks obtained in tests, assignments and practicals will be incorporated into a class mark, which will make up 40% of your final mark. The examination is 60% of the final mark. The sub minimum to be achieved in the examination mark for a positive result in the course is 40%. The overall course pass mark is 50%. A distinction is 75% and higher. It is at the lecturers discretion to modify the mark breakdown at anytime during the semester. Missing tests and absenteeism No sick tests or make-up tests will be written. Missing a test for whatever reason, will greatly affect your final coursework mark, as it will be at the lecturers discretion to determine how your final marks will be computed.

Moderation An external moderator will be allocated for the subject. The moderator will review the exam papers and check the marking of the examiner. Appeals procedure Exam papers can be re-marked by the moderator for a fee ask the exams department.

Critical outcomes Problems are identified and solved in such a manner that decision making reflects originality and a critical evaluative approach. Working effectively with others as a member of a team, group, organisation and community. Organise and manage time and activities responsibly and effectively. Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information. Communicate effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and written persuasion. Using technology effectively and critically

SYLLABUS Part 1 Basic Principles - Industrial separation techniques and their selection - Review of thermodynamics relating to separations and mass transfer - Basic principles of diffusion and mass transfer - Phase equilibrium and material balances approaches to mass transfer and separation processes

Part 2 Distillation - Introduction - Single stage distillation - Distillation without reflux - Equilibrium/flash distillation - Differential/simple batch distillation - Steam distillation - Distillation with reflux and McCabe-Thiele Method - Number of theoretical stages (McCabe-Thiele Method) - Total and minimum reflux (McCabe-Thiele Method) Part 3 Absorption - Introduction - Henrys Law - Single stage equilibrium contact for gas-liquid system - Counter-current multiple stage contact - Mass balance for absorption columns - Graphical Design Method - Types of absorption equipment

Part 4 Evaporation - Introduction - Single-effect Evaporators - Multiple-effect Evaporators - Calculation methods for single-effect evaporators (heat and material balance) - Boiling point rise and Enthalpy-concentration charts - Calculation methods for multiple-effect evaporators (heat and material balance) - Comparison of single-effect and multiple-effect evaporators - Evaporation equipment a brief discussion

Part 5 A Humidification and Dehumidification Processes (Drying) Prof E Muzenda - Introduction - Classification of drying methods 9

-Terminology (Humidity, Saturation humidity, % humidity, % relative humidity, Dew point of air-water mixture, humid heat of air-water mixture, total enthalpy of air-water mixture). Humidity charts for air-water vapour mixtures Adiabatic air-water saturation (heat balance, wet bulb temperature) Equilibrium moisture content of materials Rate of drying curves The mechanism of moisture movement during drying Calculation methods for constant rate drying Calculation methods for falling rate drying period Material and Heat balances Drying Equipment Specialized Drying Methods

Part 5 B Humidification and Dehumidification Processes (Cooling Towers) - Principles and Definitions - Rate equations for Heat and Mass Transfer - Heat balances on adiabatic water cooling - Design of cooling towers using film transfer coefficients - Design of cooling towers using overall mass transfer coefficients - Design of cooling towers using height of a transfer unit - Dehumidification tower

Part 6 Leaching - General Principles - Mass Transfer - Equipment For Leaching - Counter Current Washing of Solids - Calculation of Number of Stages - Number of Stages by Graphical Methods TEACHING METHODOLOGY AND NOTES Your lecturers will move from one concept to another as deemed to be necessary. Selected portion of the syllabus will be done in greater detail, while executive summaries will be given in some instances. During lectures important concepts and fundamentals will be explained. Students are supposed to take brief notes. Illustrations and worked examples will be used to enhance the learning experience and understanding. Students will be given detailed notes for each section for them to photocopy before or even after the section is presented. Learners are allowed to ask questions and make contributions to improve the quality of learning.

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PRACTICALS The practical component of this course is compulsory. The marks for practical will be incorporated into your mark. Furthermore, you may be examined on aspects covered in the practical that may not be covered in your lectures. Your responsibilities: 1. Check the list of groups to see which group you are in. 2. Check the dates , time and venue of your practical. 3. Arrive at the laboratory on time, wearing your lab coat ,closed shoes etc. 4. Ensure that you gather all the necessary information during the practical session to write up a practical report(follow format in practical handout) 5 .If you cannot attend one of your practical sessions ,you must inform the lab assistant before. ALL practical must be performed. 6. Read the pre-prac information in the practical handout BEFORE the practical session. If you have been doing the pre-prac work, you will only be allowed to start the practical once the lab assistant has seen that this work has been completed. 7 .Practical reports to be handed in to your lab assistant within 2 weeks of doing the prac. Responsibility of lab assistant: 1. Divide the class into groups. 2. Set up a practical schedule such that all students have the chance to do all the practicals. 3. Set up each practical and give the students a brief explanation of what needs to be done. 4 .Supervise the practicals ensuring safety standards are met. 5 Clean up, switch off, lock up. 6.Help students with post practical analysis of results. Repeat students Practical exemption will be granted provided you passed the practical in the second semester of 2010 only.

We commit this module to the almight and wish you a fruitful, exciting and challenging second semester in 2013.

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