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Matrices: Definition and Classification

A rectangular array of symbols (which could be real or complex numbers) along rows and columns is called a matrix. Thus a system m n symbols arranged in a rectangular formation along m rows and n columns and bounded by the brackets [.] is called an m by n matrix (which is written as m x n matrix)

i.e. A =

is a matrix of order m n. is represented by A = [aij], 1 < i < m,

In a compact form the above matrix 1 < j < n, where is, j i or simply [aij] m n.

The numbers a11, a12, ... etc of this rectangular array are called the elements of the matrix. The element aij belongs to the ith row and the jth column and is called the (i, j)th element of the matrix. Equal Matrices Two matrices are said to be equal if they have the same order and each element of one is equal to the corresponding element of the other. CLASSIFICATION OF MATRICES Row Matrix A matrix having a single row is called a row matrix. e.g. [1 3, 5, 7] Column Matrix

A matrix having a single column is called a column matrix. e.g. Square Matrix

An m x n matrix A is said to be a square matrix if m = n i.e. number of rows = number of columns.

For example: A =

is a square matrix of order 3 3.

Note: In a square matrix the diagonal from left hand side upper corner to right hand side lower corner is known as leading diagonal or principal diagonal. In the above example square matrix containing the elements 1, 3, 5 is called the leading or principal diagonal.

Algebra of Matrices

Addition and Subtraction of Matrices Any two matrices can be added if they are of the same order and the resulting matrix is of the same order. If two matrices A and B are of the same order, they are said to be conformable for addition. For example:

Note: * Only matrices of the same order can be added or subtracted. * Addition of matrices is commutative as well as associative. * Cancellation laws hold well in case of addition. * The equation A + X = 0 has a unique solution in the set of all m n matrices. Scalar Multiplication The matrix obtained by multiplying every element of a matrix A by a scalar is called the multiple of A by and its denoted by A i.e. if A = [aij] then A = [aij]. For example:

Note: All the laws of ordinary algebra hold for the addition or subtraction of matrices and their multiplication by scalar. Multiplication of Matrices Two matrices can be multiplied only when the number of columns in the first, called the prefactor, is equal to the number of rows in the second, called the postfactor. Such matrices are said to be conformable for multiplication.

where cij = ai1 b1j + ai2 b2j +...+ ain bnj= nk=1 aik bki j = 1, 2, 3 ......, p. Properties of Multiplication

i = 1, 2, 3 ......, m and

(i) Matrix multiplication may or may not be commutative. i.e., AB may or may not be equal to BA (a) If AB = BA, then matrices A and B are called Commutative Matrices. (b) If AB = BA, then matrices A and B are called Anti-Commutative Matrices. (ii) Matrix multiplication is Associative (iii) Matrix multiplication is Distributive over Matrix Addition. (iv) Cancellation Laws not necessary hold in case of matrix multiplication i.e., if AB = AC => B = C even if A 0. (v) AB = 0 i.e., Null Matrix, does not necessarily imply that either A or B is a null matrix. Illustration:

A= Solution:

and B =

, show that AB BA.

Here A.B =

and B.A = Thus A.B B.A.


If A = Solution: We have

, then find AA.