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ISO F ocus

The Magazine of the International Organization for Standardization


Volume 1, No. 7, July-August 2004, ISSN 1729-8709

Safe machinery saves

Crash test dummy gains international acceptance Consumers want standards and the law

Contents
1 2 3 4
ISO Focus is published 11 times
a year (single issue : July-August). It is available in English. Annual subscription 158 Swiss Francs Publisher Central Secretariat of ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 1, rue de Varemb CH-1211 Genve 20 Switzerland Telephone Fax E-mail Web + 41 22 749 01 11 + 41 22 733 34 30 allen@iso.org www.iso.org

Comment Alfred Sutter, Chair ISO/TC 199, Safety of machinery Preparing safety for all World Scene
Highlights of events from around the world

ISO Scene
Highlights of news and developments from ISO members

Guest View
By Mr. Helmut Reuter, CEO of the Rieter Group, Winterthur, Switzerland

Main Focus

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Safe machinery saves lives


Putting machine safety in a global perspective Safety pays: designing machines that care Universal and individual risk Easy to operate: earth-moving machinery Hazards are everywhere: how to achieve functional safety Vibration and shock affect peoples lives Radical improvements in crane safety Ergonomics : the road to health, safety and efciency Burning a trail ahead in protective clothing Reducing the risk of hearing damage The value of statistical techniques Automobile safety a dummy that can take it all Best practice for information security Legislation and standards partners in consumer protection The unrelenting advance of video compression ISO to go ahead with guidelines for social responsibility

34 Developments and Initiatives

ISSN 1729-8709 Printed in Switzerland Cover photo : ISO


ISO Focus July-August 2004

45 Coming up

Comment
Preparing safety for all
S
afety in the workplace entails a complex interaction and reaction between the human, machine and the work environment. Not only is this concept important to ensuring the safety and health of employees, but it is the foundation of the standardization process for machine safety. The slogan Do it once do it right do it internationally has in this instance to be complemented by Do it right from the beginning meaning that the concept of safety must be integrated into the machinery at the design stage. The result of this slogan saves companies both time and money and, at the same time, ensures employees the safety and comfort of a workerfriendly environment. In order to implement a systemic approach to standardization in machine safety, a standardization concept with horizontal and vertical standards is needed to help the designer with the methodology or giving decision guidance for designing a safe machine. While horizontal standards describe the safety philosophy and methodology, verticial standards, on the other hand, are intended for specific safety aspects such as safety distances, general noise aspects and application of ergonomic principles, or products that can be used in different machines, e.g. safe control systems, two-hand control systems, and interlocking devices. Internationally, work began when ISO technical committee ISO/TC 199, Safety of machinery, was created in 1991 upon the initiative of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN), represented by Paul Makin, who became its first chair. It is to his credit that the horizontal European standards were developed as ISO technical reports and subsequently became ISO standards. Thanks to that, international work on safety of machinery is known in an increasing number of countries and becoming ever more important internationally. of our working groups has prepared a draft to be circulated soon for inquiry within the technical committee. The coming decade will be dedicated to the revision of all other ISO/TC 199 standards, meaning that they will gain further international acceptance but maintain at the same time their function within European legislation. This will be a considerable challenge for the experts in the coming years.

Safety must be integrated into the machinery at the design stage.


By standardizing best practice at the international level, we are certain to eliminate the technical barriers to trade while maintaining the safety and health of users of machinery. That level of safety needs to be high to be in line with the occupational health and safety requirements of national legislations of different countries around the world. Where do we go from here ? The next decade will call for the revision of the standards to improve the interface between new emerging technologies and new ways of perceiving machine safety. EN 292 parts 1 and 2 have been successfully revised in 2004 as ISO 12100, Safety of machinery Basic concepts, general principles for design Part 1 : Basic terminology, methodology, and Part 2: Technical principles. Currently ISO 14121, Principles of Risk Assessment, is in the process of revision. Alongside ISO 12100, this standard has gained wide acceptance. Many users regretted that it did not provide specific tools to carry out risk assessment, so that, due to the need to adapt the standard to the new ISO 12100, a revision of ISO 14121 became necessary. Another important issue of the machinery safety concept is information for use : instructions for users are an important element in ensuring the safety of machinery. One

Alfred Sutter Chair ISO/TC 199, Safety of machinery

ISO Focus July-August 2004

World Scene
Standing up for the global economy
More than 800 leaders of government and business from 70 countries gathered on the occasion of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) 35 th World Congress, from 6 to 9 June in Marrakesh, Morocco, to address the key challenges facing business today while highlighting the ICC tools available to tackle them and ICC commission work being done to address them. Jean-Ren Fourtou (below), the Chief Executive of Vivendi Universal and the Chair of the ICC, issued the Marrakesh Business Declaration urging progress in the world trade talks and strongly supporting globalization. Institute (NEN), ISO member for The Netherlands and NKN, the Dutch national IFAN member. bridge the gaps between environmental, social and economic aspects, gaps between the stakeholders concerns and gaps between the regional concerns. Abstracts of 500 words or less are being accepted until 1 September 2004. This is the fourth event in the series of international conferences, which is now seen as the premier international event in the field of Sustainable Buildings. For more information visit the SB05Tokyo Website : www.sb05.com/ or the SB05Tokyo Conference Secretariat : info@sb05.com ISOs Committee on conformity assessment is holding its plenary meeting on 9 and 10 November in Amsterdam in order to facilitate participation in both events. For more information : www.ifan2004.com ence on Promoting Entrepreneurship and Innovative SMEs in a Global Economy. The Ministerial Conference, which was organized jointly by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) and the Turkish Ministry of Industry and Trade, approved the Istanbul Ministerial Declaration, and committed to, Working cooperatively to achieve progress in reducing barriers to SMEs access to international markets. The event builds on the first OECD ministerial conference in Bologna, Italy, in 2000, at which 48 countries adopted the Bologna Charter on SME Policies. The Charter established the International Network for SMEs (INSME), today an association of over 40 countries to promote innovation and technology transfer among small businesses. For more information : www.oecd.org

Workshop spurs standardization activities in African Union


A new momentum has been created for the effective coordination of standardization activities in Africa by a recently concluded workshop. The African Regional Organization for Standardization (ARSO) and the African Union (AU) organized the two-day workshop on 24 and 25 May in Kigali, Rwanda, to raise awareness on standardization and to highlight the needs to coordinate standardization activities in Africa, with a view at establishing an African Common Market. Presentations included a report by Mr. Asraf Caunhye, Director of the Mauritius Standards Bureau and ISO Regional Liaison Officer for Africa, on collaboration between ISO and ARSO. Among the recommendations to emerge were the need to encourage country membership and participation in ARSO, its activities and in international standardization as well as to apply the principles of harmonization of standards as laid down in the WTOs Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade and the WTOs Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. The African Union meeting of experts endorsed the recommendations and agreed to forward them for consideration by the African Union Conference of Ministers of Trade and Industry for ratification and eventual implementation within the rules and procedures of the African Union.

International Conference on StandardizationAwareness-Compliance


Leaders from industry, government, standards user organizations and standards developing organizations will gather for the 11th International Federation of Standards Users (IFAN) International Conference in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, on 11 to 12 November 2004. The Conference will review initiatives from around the world aiming to raise awareness of standards and the standards development process and the relationships between regulations, compliance and standards. An audience of around 300 participants is expected to attend the event which will feature presentations by ISO Vice-President (Policy), Dr. Torsten Bahke, and other prominent figures in international standardization. The event is being organized by IFAN, in cooperation with the Netherlands Standardization

One part of the declaration says, There is an evident need today for heightened security measures for the movement of goods and people across borders. It also said, But those measures must be cost-effective and pose the minimum of hindrance to international commercial flows. One area of security that drew attention was the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code) that took effect 1 July 2004, aimed at securing maritime transport. For more information: http://iccworldcongress.net/

2005 World Sustainable Building Conference in Tokyo


Some 1500 building researchers, practitioners, officials, industry representatives and students from all over the world will gather for the World Sustainable Building Conference in Tokyo, Japan on 27 and 28 September 2005 to exchange the latest knowledge and experience on sustainable buildings. Its slogan Action for Sustainability recognizes that now is the time to move into action towards the common goal of providing buildings and an urban context that support sustainable ways of living. Towards this end, the conference will focus on how to

Ministerial Conference on small businesses and entrepreneurship


Ministers and government representatives of more than 70 countries issued a common declaration in Istanbul on 5 June 2004 at the close of the 2 nd OECD Ministerial Confer-

ISO Focus July-August 2004

ISO Scene
ISO Presidents official visit to Poland
ISO President Oliver Smoot paid an official visit to Poland in May 2004 as guest of the national standards institute, Polish Committee for Standardization (PKN), ISO member for the country.

Pan American Standards Commissions General Assembly


An overwhelming majority of delegates attending the Pan American Standards Commission General Assembly (COPANT GA) prefer to enhance participation in ISO and IEC rather than create a new set of regional standards, according to ISO VicePresident (technical) Ziva Patir. The COPANT GA and related meetings were hosted by the Associao Brasileira de Normas Tcnicas (ABNT), ISO member for Brazil, in Salvador de Bahia, from 10 to 14 May 2004.

national Standards and global trade on national and regional standardization. The meeting agenda was highlighted by two workshop sessions : the Roles of Standards and Conformity Assessment to support Good Regulatory Practice and Mentoring & Twinning Arrangements . A tribute was made to Peter Walsh of Standards Australia International (SAI), who will be leaving the organization after some 30 years experience, for his service and contributions to PASC. The meeting was hosted by SCC, the Standards Council of Canada, ISO member for the country.

ISO Secretary-General Alan Bryden with the Prime Minister of Kazakhstan, Mr. Akhmietov. by the representatives of 14 countries of the region. Mr. Bryden spoke on International Standards in the global economy and gave a press conference in the company of Mr. Kussainov, EASC Chairman and President of KAZMEMST, Kazakhstans Committee for Standardization, Metrology and Certification and ISOs member for the country since 1994. Mr. Bryden encouraged the public authorities and all other economic actors to increase their participation in international standardization. He welcomed Kazakhstans current projects to adjust its legal framework for technical regulations, as well as to build up its infrastructure and increase initiatives to promote quality in industry and services. At the EASC meeting, Mr. Sergiu Baban, General Director of the Department of Standardization and Metrology in the Republic of Moldova, was elected the new President of EASC.

ISO President Oliver Smoot with Mrs. Smoot (centre) with the President of PKN, Dr. Janusz Szymanski (far right) and the President of the Polish Confederation of Employers, Dr. Andrzej Malinowski (far left). In addition to his discussions with the President of PKN Dr. Janusz Szyma nski, Mr. Smoots schedule of VIP meetings included a visit with the President of the Polish Bank Association, the President of the Polish Chamber of Commerce and the President of the Polish Confederation of Employers. He underlined the increasing need for and expectations placed on International Standards to support a sustainable global economy, with particular emphasis on their significant contribution to facilitating international trade. PKN has been a member of ISO since 1947 and currently participates in 272 of ISOs standardsdeveloping technical committees and subcommittees, which represents about 40 % of the total. For more information : www.pkn.pl

Ziva Patir, ISO Vice-President (technical) gives a presentation at the COPANT General Assembly. Ms. Patir noted the increasing number of COPANT members interested in adopting ISO standards and translating them into Portuguese and Spanish in an effort to avoid duplication and unnecessary barriers to trade. Great interest in standards for social responsibility was revealed at a CSR seminar held in conjunction with the COPANT General Assembly, particularly from developing countries that believe they stand to gain from any ISO activity in the area. Carlos Santos Amorim of ABNT was designated the President-Elect of COPANT.

ISO participates in 5 th International Conference on Performance-Based Codes and Fire Safety Design Methods
ISOs technical committee on fire safety engineering (TC 92/SC 4) is participating in the 5th International Conference on Performance-Based Codes and Fire Safety Design Methods which will present the state-of-the-art and case studies in this matter. Due in part to the contribution of ISO/TC 92, a growing library of fire safety engineering design methods is available to support these existing and emerging performance-based codes. An understanding of the role of underpinning research, engineering education and the evolution process from prescriptive to performance basis is a key to successful implementation. The conference, organized by the Society of Fire Protection Engineers, in collaboration with CIB, IFE and IRCC will take place on 6-8 October 2004 in the European Commission facilities in Luxembourg. For more information : www.sfpe.org
ISO Focus July-August 2004

Standards Norway

ISO Secretary-General on official visit to Kazakhstan


ISO Secretary-General Alan Bryden met the Prime Minister of Kazakhstan, Mr. Akhmietov, and the Minister for Industry and Trade, Mr. Zhaksybekov, during a visit to the country in late May to participate in the 25 th session of the Euro-Asian Council for Standardization, Metrology and Certification (EASC), attended

A new standards body has been established in Norway following the reorganization of the standardization system in the country. Standards Norway (SN) takes over all responsibilities in regard to ISO which were previously held by the Norges Standardiseringsforbund (NSF). In accordance with this change, ISO membership for Norway has been transferred to SN from NSF as of 1 June 2004. For more information : www.standard.no

Pacific Area Standards Congress


The 27 th meeting of the Pacific Area Standards Congress (PASC), a forum to strengthen international standardization programmes for countries in the Asia-Pacific region, was held in Vancouver, Canada in May 2004. Presentations included a report from ISO President Oliver Smoot, on the impact of Inter-

Guest View

Hartmut Reuter
artmut Reuter is Chief Executive Officer of the Rieter Group, Winterthur, Switzerland, since May 2002. After studying industrial engineering at Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany, specializing in electrical engineering, he graduated in 1981. He has been with Rieter Holding Ltd., Winterthur, Switzerland, since July 1997. Most of his previous career was with Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart, Germany, between 1981 and 1997. He lives in Birchwil, in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland. ISO Focus : With a workforce of 13 000 employees at 60 locations worldwide, the Rieter Group plays a leading role both in textile machinery manufacturing and as a supplier to the international automotive industry. Before we turn our attention to International Standards, could you please describe the businesses of Rieter and how they interrelate? Hartmut Reuter : Rieter, established in Winterthur in 1795, is a Swissbased group operating on a global scale in two industrial sectors, namely textile machinery and automotive supply. In both of these fields the group is a world market leader in the segments covered. Worldwide sales in 2003 increased by 4 % to 3,12 billion CHF, while 13 % of its approximately 13 000 employees work in Switzerland. Rieter Textile Systems Systems is well known for its spinning machines producing yarn out of cotton or man-made fibers and for its equipment for the production of nonwovens. Rieter Automotive Systems develops and produces components and systems for acoustical comfort such as carpets, headliners and parcel shelves and dampers.

If the industry concerned did not participate there would be a danger of too many theoretical standards being issued that bore little relation to industrial reality.
ISO Focus : Rieter employees actively participate in ISO technical committee ISO/TC 72, Textile machinery, and its subcommittees. What are some of the advantages that participation in ISOs technical work brings to Rieter specifically, and to business in general ? Hartmut Reuter : International standards, whether in the field of product safety, for example, or in quality and environmental management, are appropriate and useful at all events. This is especially true for companies like Rieter with an international scope, which operate in a complex network of suppliers, customers and joint venture partners. We actively participate in ISO working groups so that not only standards that impose restrictions on industry are developed, but

also those that assist industry and make its work easier. If the industry concerned did not participate there would be a danger of too many theoretical standards being issued that bore little relation to industrial reality. We are interested in contributing our experience to the process of drawing up standards and in being acquainted with standards at an early stage so that we can start to put them into practice properly and without being under pressure in terms of time. Participation by the industrial companies that are to implement these standards also prevents unnecessary over-regulation through standards. Overall, standardization should help us to reduce costs and increase our competitiveness. ISO Focus : Offering state-of-the-art manufacturing services in Europe, South America, or China requires International Standards for maintaining industrial production from technical drawings, graphic symbols and testing aspects to the intricate flow of standard interchangeable parts. How have ISO International Standards helped ? What specific standards would you like to see coming out of ISO? Hartmut Reuter : As CEO I am not involved in every detail of these standards. Our quality managers confirm that ISO standards are internationally accepted, but also that their numbering is rather complex. Its difficult to get a clear overall picture. The rather high cost of copies also often means that the standards are not available everywhere. Our quality managers have also pointed out to me that many standards in the field of simplified drawing are only obtainable as DIN or at best EN standards. ISO coverage of product

ISO Focus July-August 2004

All photos Rieter

The Rieter Group


Rieter, established in Winterthur in 1795, is a Swiss-based industrial group operating on a global scale. It is a leading supplier of systems solutions and services for the textile, automotive and plastics industries. Rieter Textile Systems develops and produces machinery, integrated systems and technology components for converting fibers and plastics into yarns, PSA Peugeot Citron, Direction de la Communication nonwovens and pellets. In partnership with automotive manufacturers, Rieter Automotive Systems develops and produces components, modules and integrated systems on the basis of fibers, plastics and metals in order to provide acoustic comfort and thermal insulation in motor vehicles.

through our Rieter department for Environment, Health and Safety (EHS) at the international level with meetings and regular exchanges of experiences so that all Rieter locations worldwide maintain the same standards. Safety provisions encompass personnel, the industrial production processes and the products manufactured by Rieter. In-house and external specialists regularly inspect Rieters plants for compliance with legal requirements as well as internal and ISO standards. For safety and health, local laws and regulations are often more important than ISO standards.

safety is also less than complete : CE conformity in Europe versus CCC conformity in China. In our view ISO should prevent national standards from becoming a barrier to trade through the medium of safety regulations. ISO Focus : On-the-job accidents and illnesses can cause higher absenteeism and more downtime and impact the companys bottom line. What strategies does Rieter implement in order to ensure the safety and health of its workers ? How do ISO voluntary standards help in this endeavour ? Hartmut Reuter : We are convinced that safety standards are very important, and make workplaces safer (e.g. CE conformity of machinery and tools). We coordinate our efforts
Process control in Rieters technology center for man-made fiber machinery.

ISO Focus : What standards are of value to Rieter in terms of quality and environmental management ? Hartmut Reuter : These are primarily ISO 9001, ISO 9004 and ISO 14001. In the Rieter Automotive Systems Division, another 12 plants obtained initial certification for compliance with ISO 14001 in 2003, so that more than 75 % of Automotive Systems locations worldwide are already certified under this standard. Rieter Automotive has launched the so-called ECO WAY environmental
ISO Focus July-August 2004

Rieter Automotives Center of Excellence for acoustics research (systems for acoustic comfort and thermal protection in motor vehicles).

Guest View
programme that focuses on three main issues : 1) eco-efficient products to minimize environmental impacts throughout the product life cycle ; 2) eco-efficient technologies to reduce energy consumption, use secondary raw materials and generMeasuring a Rieter interior carpet in the acoustic roller test bench of Rieter Automotive Systems.

ate less waste ; 3) eco-efficient plants to achieve superior production procedures. ISO Focus : Companies will grow and prosper when they compete on the basis of quality, service, and innovation. What are your views on the respective merits of suppliers declaration and third-party conformity assessment ? Hartmut Reuter : The pressure imposed by ISO 9001 certification helps us to ensure that our suppliers worldwide improve their quality on the basis of a uniform and traceable system. Another advantage of certified companies is that they always have

Assembly of a combing machine in Rieters textile machinery production plant.

a competent contact point for quality, safety and environmental issues. However, successful re-certification after three years provides the first reliable evidence, since initial certification can only be regarded as a beginning, a first step. Nevertheless, we should not forget that ISO certification is certainly an important criterion but that cost and flexibility are also important.

For safety and health, local laws and regulations are often more important than ISO standards.

Interior noise measurement on the acoustic roller test bench of the Swiss supplier Rieter Automotive Systems.

ISO Focus July-August 2004

Main Focus

Copyright BP Plc.

Safe machinery saves lives


Putting machine safety in a global perspective
By Jean Bataill, Convenor ISO/TC 199, Safety of machinery, WG 1, Basic principles, methodology, terminology

Photo ISO

hen, in November 1995, the CEN/TC 114 Special Group undertook to revise ISO/TR 12100 1) (the ISO Technical Report endorsing the basic European standard linked to European regulations: EN 292:1991) within the framework of the Vienna agreement, the members of the group decided from the outset that the standard resulting from

this revision would be a fully-fledged International Standard, both in content and in form. Thanks, therefore, to the participation of experts from a wide range of horizons whether in terms of countries or in terms of the interests they represented this risky undertaking was brought to completion. After eight years of intense activity (November 1995-November 2003), this important core standard for the field of machine safety saw the light of day. The remarkable determination of the Special Group, which did not hesitate to meet five times in the course of 2001 alone to deal with all the comments returned on the DIS (draft International Standard), deserves to be underlined. The only blemish in the process was due to a peculiarity in the implementation of the Vienna Agreement (now corrected), which

unfortunately prevented unanimous adoption by the 23 Participating members of ISO/TC 199.

Promoting the concept of integrated safety


When the designer of a machine does everything in his power to ensure that the user of the machine has nothing more to do, to work safely, than to stay within the boundaries of the normal anticipated use, then he is integrating safety into the design of this machine. As yet, the principle of integrated safety is not universally applied and was therefore hotly debated before

1) ISO/TR 12100, Safety of machinery Basic concepts, general principles for design Part 1: Basic terminology, methodology and Part 2: Technical principles. ISO Focus July-August 2004

Main Focus
the group members finally agreed on the fact that the more upstream the protective measures are applied, the more effective, safe and even cost-effective they are. Finally, in Part 2, ISO 12100 describes a number of general principles for the implementation of each of the three steps of the risk reduction method (inherently safe design, safeguarding, information for use).

A well established risk reduction strategy


ISO 12100 advocates an iterative method (involving a succession of loops ) for reducing risk at the design stage; according to this method, the integrated protective measures applied during each loop result from an initial assessment of the risk, and their effect is evaluated on the basis not only of the achieved reduction in risk, but also of elements such as the non-introduction of new risks, the preservation of the machines ability to perform its function, the preservation of the operators working conditions and those of other people involved (concept of adequate risk reduction). This 3-step iterative method requires the designer to take full advantage, in turn, of inherently safe design measures, safeguarding measures and, finally, user information measures aimed at providing the latter with all he needs to know to take the protective measures relevant to his field.

Photo Yves Cousson/INRS

A broad range of users


A careful reading of the two parts of the standard shows that it does indeed apply to all machines : conventional machine tools, mobile machines, lifting machines, machines intended for the general public. ISO 12100 is primarily intended for designers of machines all machines particularly when there are

One important element of this strategy lies in the method used to evaluate by answering a set of nine questions whether the risk reduction objectives have been achieved.

Terminology, basic hazards, and principles for design


Before describing the 3-step method, ISO 12100 defines 54 terms ranging from machine to protective measures and from safety function to failure to danger . This terminology will serve as a basis for an international multilingual glossary of machine safety. The standard also gives a description of basic hazards to be taken into account in the design of machines, a description which is particularly useful in connection with the initial risk analysis, which is one of the preconditions to the implementation of the 3-step method.

ISO 12100 defines the basis on which all international Standards devoted to machinery safety should be built to meet the criterion of worldwide relevance.
About the author
Jean Bataill was in charge of conformity to standards and regulations, applicable in France, and of the exports of handheld electrical tools at Black & Decker, and subsequently at Peugeot Outillage lectrique. In 1988, he joined the Union de Normalisation de la Mcanique (French standardization bureau for mechanical engineering) and takes an active part in CEN/ TC 114, Safety of machinery, and in ISO/TC 199. Jean Bataill joined the Mission Normalisation in Institut National de Recherche et Scurit (French occupational health and safety institute) in 2001 and increased his involvement in the standardization of machinery safety.

ISO Focus July-August 2004

Photo Yves Cousson/INRS

Safe machinery saves lives


no specific standards dealing with the machine in question (product safety standard, or Type C standard according to the definition given in ISO/IEC 51 ; Type C standards are product standards that contain detailed specifications for particular machines or groups of machines). It is also intended as a help to writers of Type C standards and is in fact aimed at all social and economic players involved in machine safety. Considering the nature of its provisions, the standard is also intended for those who train designers (students or engineers). In its introduction, the standard states : It is recommended that this standard be incorporated in training courses and manuals to convey basic terminology and general design methods to designers . The training of designers is a form of advanced protection which cannot but have a positive impact on both society and the economy. Steps to that end have already been taken in many countries to approach those involved in further training as well as initial training.

A special place among other standards


The content and scope of ISO 12100 3-step method, description of basic hazards, general design principles applicable to all machines (industrial machines, mobile machines, lifting appliances, etc.), the representativeness of the experts within the Special Group (representatives of machinery manufacturers and users, consumer associations, occupational safety and health experts and public authorities), but also the quadripartite ISO/IEC/CEN/ CENELEC representation, the participation of the membership of technical committee ISO/TC 199, Safety of machinery, representing all continents all of these elements lend support to the claim that ISO 12100 defines the basis on which all International Standards devoted to machinery safety should be built to meet the criterion of worldwide relevance.

By Paul Makin, immediate past chair, ISO/TC 199, Safety of machinery, Chester, United Kingdom

he increased use of machinery is one of the key stages in the development of any country, and there is now a wide spectrum of use from the mature societies in the developed world to those in the emerging economies. Today, machines are used for both professional use in such key sectors as metal and wood working, plastics and paper, construction, agriculture and forestry as well as non-professional use in the home and garden and leisure. Indeed, a growing trend is the migration of machines intended for professional use into the non-professional sector. However, while the intensity and range of use may vary from country to country and industry to industry, the risks from the use of an

individual machine are the same or at least similar wherever it is used. It is therefore logical to expect that there should exist the possibility of developing a common approach a common philosophy and methodology to reducing the risks arising from the use of machinery that could be applied anywhere in the world. Historically, national laws and regulations dealing with the safety of machines have developed in parallel with the increased use of machines in response to societys need to have the benefits from the machines without the consequential costs from the risks that machines generate. Individual countries have developed their own approach to machinery safety legislation and many of these sometimes conflicting approaches have in effect been seen or are barriers to a truly global trade in machines. Manufacturers have had and still are having to produce machines with different protective measures to gain access to different markets.
ISO Focus July-August 2004

Photo ISO

Safety pays : designing machines that care

Main Focus
How a common philosophy and methodology can help
The use of a common philosophy and methodology that can be used for any machine and for any risk or combination of risks will : Facilitate relations between manufacturers, users and bodies in charge of technical inspection and testing. Promote the risk-based approach to machinery design. This approach, as encapsulated in ISO 12100, Safety of machinery Basic concepts, general principles for design Part 1: Basic terminology, methodology and Part 2 : Technical principles, gives special benefits to SMEs that may not have the resources to develop their own approach to many sophisticated areas of technology. They can also use the standards with the confidence that they are using the methodology that has been developed by the worlds leading experts in the given technology.

Allow product standards to be developed within ISO and IEC that are based on an internationally accepted approach. Stimulate the development of protective devices as technology develops. Promote a constructive dialogue between the developed and developing countries. Allow a wide range of interests such as consumer groups and employee representatives to take part in the future development of the philosophy and methodology. Contribute towards the development of an international machinery market through the abolition of technical barriers to trade. Reduce the risks of injury at home, work and leisure. Contribute towards the achievement of equal levels of safety in the various countries for each safety aspect dealt with in a standard. Stimulate the development of protective devices as technology develops. Promote a constructive dialogue between the developed and developing countries.

Photo New Holland

developed and accepted by all countries and that is not the case at the moment. Standardization both generally and within the machinery sector is a rich countries club. It requires a well developed national standards structure to participate at the ISO/IEC level. It also requires national organizations that are prepared to send experts to the meetings which are almost inevitably somewhere else in the world. These requirements exclude most developing countries that do not have the necessary resources in money and expertise. Lest we are too complacent, let us also understand that within Europe many interest groups are also excluded from the standardization process. For

My views on the current situation in standards bodies


Nearly everyone involved in the production of safety standards agree that the future lies in making standards at the international level : do it once, do it internationally . This is reflected within CEN and CENELEC where most new work and revisions of existing standards are planned as ISO or IEC standards under the cooperative agreements (Vienna Agreement and Dresden Agreement) with CEN and CENELEC.

About the author


Paul Makin was chair of ISO/TC 199, Safety of Machinery from its inception in 1991 until 2002, and was chair of the ISO/IEC group that produced ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999, Safety. A professional mechanical engineer by training, he was employed as an engineering manager in the senior management teams of various companies and was one of the UKs Inspectors of Health and Safety in the Health and Safety Executive, heading machinery safety in the Technology Division. He was head of the BSI delegation to CEN during the creation of the machinery safety programme in support of the European Machinery Directive. He was one of the philosophers that wrote the European standards, EN 292, Safety of machinery. Paul Makin presently runs his own consultancy providing advice on machinery safety, standards and European legislation.

The risks from the use of an individual machine are the same or at least similar wherever it is used.
However, in my view, it would be wrong to take the view that the future is all bright for international standardization in the safety of machinery field. There are some fundamental problems that standards bodies and national governments have to solve. The first one is that to be truly international the standards have to be

10

ISO Focus July-August 2004

Safe machinery saves lives


example, few working groups have an input from workers representatives or from consumer groups. The same applies to SMEs the very organizations expected to benefit from the new standardization process.

Clash of legal systems


Another major problem is the clash of national legal systems. This has became very apparent within the machinery sector over the so-called list of hazards . Using the EN 292/ ISO 12100 approach, it is necessary to produce a list of hazards being dealt with within the standard. This is an essential step from the European point of view which defines the basis of the risk assessment and the consequent risk reduction measures. However, from the American point of view or at least the American legal profession this is completely unacceptable because it is considered to be guilty knowledge and makes the machinery supplier vulnerable in the event of a claim for damages. From the European point of view, any standard that gives risk reduction measures without defining the hazards that they are aimed at is dangerously misleading because it could be used to deal with the wrong mix of hazards. This apparently simple difference is holding up the production of a wide range of machinery standards. The declaration by the World Trade Organization that international standards are an essential aid to a truly global trade was encouraging. However, the reality of the situation is that there has been little or no positive action to support the use of standards to remove Technical Barriers to Trade (TBTs). Perhaps we need to resolve some of the problems within the standards organizations before this will happen ? There is also the need to speed up the whole production process so that the very scarce resources available with the whole standardization field are used to the best effect.

Universal and individual risk


By Dennis R. Cloutier, Cloutier Consulting Services, Cincinnati, USA, US Delegate to TC199/WG 5, Risk assessment

focus of many institutions. This is not to suggest that the safety of machinery was ignored or not considered earlier during its evolution. It is the authors observation that safety of machinery has become its own discipline within the past 60 to 70 years.

How to address hazards present in the operation of machinery


There are numerous products that are used continuously, every day by mankind to help us travel, communicate, manufacture items, prepare our food and so on. In the International Standards community, ISO/TC 199 is concerned with the safety of machinery. There are numerous standards that address the safety of machinery society uses on a daily basis. Many of these standards include safety requirements applicable to specific machines. There are some standards that address the concept of safety, in general, as it applies to the manufacture and use of machinery. These address the hazards present in the operation of machinery and the risk of harm to those involved in the operation or repair of the
ISO Focus July-August 2004

hen man first developed implements to assist him with obtaining the basic elements of life, he also introduced risk. If a stick could be used as a club to subdue large animals thus providing food, the stick could also cause harm to the user or other individuals. Today we have advanced far beyond using a stick as a club, and in the process we have introduced unimaginable risk to all of society. A simple examination of the machinery man has invented over time, and especially in the last century, would easily reveal the hazards associated with its use. Over the past several decades, the safety of individuals operating and maintaining machinery has become the

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machinery. It naturally follows that once risk is identified, measures are implemented to reduce that risk.

Each task is evaluated for possible hazards


The new draft includes an extensive informative annex which includes several examples of risk assessment and risk reduction methodologies. The examples will include an analysis at the design phase (without protective measures), for the identification of hazards, hazardous situations and harmful events. Another example will be a methodology utilizing a risk matrix. This example uses a task-based approach which begins by identifying what individuals do when operating or repairing a machine. Then each task is evaluated for possible hazards, resulting risk including exposure and severity of harm. Finally, protective measures are implemented to reduce risk to a predetermined level. Another example demonstrates the use of a graph to lead the user through the process. There are two similar examples that use a numerical scoring system and a quantification method to help

ISO 14121, Safety of machinery Principles of risk assessment, was first developed using European standard EN1050 as a model document. Currently it is undergoing a revision which will harmonize it with other ISO standards that prescribe the performance of a risk assessment and risk reduction. TC 199/WG 5 has been established to write the revision of ISO 14121. The working group currently is midway through the project and it is apparent the revised document will be substantially more than the original. Risk assessment is a process that can be applied to any piece of equipment, or process. It will help the people performing the assessment to identify hazards associated with the machine or the process subject to the assessment. With hazards identified, risk can be evaluated and appropriate protective measures can be selected to reduce risk to some predetermined level. However, while the process may be considered universal, the application to a particular type of equipment may differ. The difficulty comes with the nature of the equipment. That is, if the equipment is a production machine, operated in a controlled environment, the assessment is different from if it is a consumer product developed for public use. Another difficulty comes from considering who is performing the risk assessment and the risk reduction. The manufacturer (supplier) of equipment must perform an assessment and apply appropriate protective measures because he knows best the details of his equipment. As the manufacturer gives the performance of his equipment he has to guarantee its safe use. However, because the focus of all this is the reduction of harm to individuals involved in the day to day operation or maintenance of machinery, the user (employer) should also be considered.

To achieve maximum risk reduction, he, too, must perform the risk assessment and the risk reduction by taking into account the instructions and information for use of the manufacturer. ISO 14121 is being revised in order for it to harmonize with the requirements of newly revised ISO 12100 (see p. 7). This revision of ISO 14121 provides the required elements for performing a risk assessment and how it should be organized. The subjective nature of evaluating risk, determining the exposure to and severity of that risk and estimating the probability of a harmful event taking place leads to several different methods to perform risk assessment. This does not take into account the selection of appropriate protective measures, which must be done to complete the process.

Photo A. Sutter, SUVA

The elements needed for performing a risk assessment

About the author


Dennis R. Cloutier has been President since 2001 of Cloutier Consulting Services, in Cincinnati, USA, a technical services company, and has been long involved in safety consulting services, compliance with regulations and standards, risk assessment training, and is a presenter at educational forums. Between 1973 and 2001, he was with Cincinnati Incorporated, first as a factory service representative and then safety coordinator for nearly 20 years. He is a member of National Safety Council, American Society of Safety Engineers, and is ISO/TC 199/WG 5 representative for US TAG, as well as chair of ANSI B11TR3 committee, Technical report on Risk Assessment and Risk Reduction, and chair of ANSI B11TR5 committee, Technical report on the measurement of noise generated by machinery.

Our goal is the elimination or reduction of harm to individuals.


Photo A. Sutter, SUVA

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Safe machinery saves lives


the individuals performing the assessment through some of the subjective aspects of the process. A review of the examples may lead some to consider the various attributes of the different approaches and consider developing their own. There will be an example of a hybrid method to illustrate how this can successfully be accomplished.

Attempting to unify the process


There are many risk assessments documents in place or under development. Attempts have been made, and continue to be considered to unify the process and develop one universal risk assessment and risk reduction guide. The difficulty the experts in the field cite in this effort is the challenge presented by the varied nature of risk and the different kinds of exposure for individuals. Consumer products are very different from machine tools that are provided for the manufacturing environment. Individuals are exposed to risks from all types of machines with which they may interact through the average day. The car, bus or train they commute in, the building elevators or escalators they ride in or on, the machines they operate or repair, and everything else present numerous risks as well as hazardous situations. The subject is very broad and no expert or committee of experts has yet been able to address an issue of this scope without the project becoming too complex and the experts losing sight of the real goal. Remember, our goal is the elimination or reduction of harm to individuals. So, individual risk assessment and risk reduction standards or guides will continue to be developed by the various industry sectors. This will result in specific rather than general guidance, which will achieve greater reductions in harm to society.

Easy to operate : earth-moving machinery


Photo Caterpillar

by Dan Roley, Chair of ISO/TC 127, Earth-moving machinery, and of ISO/TC 127/SC 2, Safety requirements and human factors , Standards Manager for Caterpillar Corporate Standards and Regulations Department, USA

arth-moving machines are used for excavating, loading, transporting, spreading, and compacting earth and other materials see the examples of earth-moving machines on the following pages. They range in size from small machines that can drive through doorways to very large machines that can be worth several million USD. Operating an earth-moving machine is similar to driving a car or truck, except the operator must also control the machine attachment or work tool that moves the earth or other material. The operator stations on earth-moving machines are designed to comply with the ISO/TC 127/SC 2 safety and ergonomics standards to

provide a working environment for the operator that is safe and comfortable, with controls that are easy to operate. By the 1960s the earth-moving machinery industry was already a global industry, with machines from the USA, Europe and Asia being sold into earthmoving applications around the world. Several countries were beginning to develop standards and regulations for earth-moving machines, which created a challenge for the industry to be able to meet the different requirements in different countries.

Adopted as national standards, ISO standards have reduced the cost and complexity of developing and proving compliance with the safety standards.
To address the challenge of having to comply with the different requirements around the world, ISO/TC 127 was formed in 1968
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ergonomics standards by the USA and Japan and have been referenced for the technical requirements in the European earth-moving machine standards. With the adoption of the ISO standards as national standards, the cost and complexity of developing and proving compliance with the safety standards has been reduced and the overall level of safety and comfort for the earthmoving machinery industry has been improved.

With ISO standards, the overall level of safety and comfort for the earthmoving machinery industry has been improved.
Photo Caterpillar

to develop international standards for earth-moving machinery. The objective was to develop a complete set of ISO standards that could be used as the basis for any national standards and regulations. Since 1968, over 100 ISO/TC 127 standards have been published to address the commercial needs for earth-moving machines and the safety and ergonomics areas for earth-moving machines. Twenty new standard projects are underway to address smaller, larger and new types of machines and the application of new technologies.

Addressing safety and human factors


One common objective of both the earth-moving machinery industry and the users of earthmoving machines is to provide a safe and comfortable work place for the workers who operate the machines. This common objective has enabled health and safety experts from industry, relevant organizations and independent test laboratories to work together efficiently in ISO/TC 127/SC 2 to develop over 40 standards that address the safety and human factors

areas of earth-moving machines. Representatives from 18 Participating member countries take part in ISO/TC 127/SC 2. The combined input from all participants has been compiled into standards that cover safety areas such as the following : Access systems operator dimensions and space requirements operator protection systems braking visibility and mirrors steering controls seats and seat belts vibration sound safety signs electrical and electronic systems warning alarms operator environment lighting guarding operator instructions visual displays.

The ISO operator protection standards are the best examples of the ISO/TC 127/SC 2 safety standards that have improved operator safety and that have significantly reduced the costs to market of machines globally. Industry performed extensive testing and simulations of machine rollovers and intrusions into the operator space to develop performance criteria for operator protections systems. These criteria were incorporated into ISO standards for rollover protection structures (ISO 3471), falling object protection structures (ISO 3449) and operator protection guards (ISO 10262). The ISO/TC 127/SC 2

ISO standards adopted and referenced worldwide

Most of the ISO/TC 127/SC 2 safety and ergonomics standards have been adopted as national safety and

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ISO Focus July-August 2004

Photo Caterpillar

Safe machinery saves lives

Photo Caterpillar

About the author


Dan Roley, Chair of ISO/TC 127 and of TC 127/SC 2 is the Standards Manager for Caterpillar in the corporate Standards and Regulations Department. His first research projects at Caterpillar were in the ergonomics and whole body vibrations areas, where he developed ergonomic guidelines for earth-moving machines and provided input for the ISO/TC 127 standards for ergonomics and seat vibrations. Dan Roley worked at the INRS Vibration Laboratory in France as a participant in the USA-France Exchange of Scientists Program, following which he worked as the Project Leader for the test and development of new machines used for earthmoving, agriculture and forestry. Mr. Roley worked at the Caterpillar European office in Geneva, Switzerland, as the International Research Manager, then moving to the Standards and Regulations Department.

operator protection standards have been accepted by all countries, which allow one design to be used around the world. Since operator protection structures are complex to design and require costly destructive testing to show compliance with the standards, the internationally accepted standards enable significant cost savings for both industry and customers. Several other ISO/TC 127/SC 2 standards have provided similar results in improving safety and providing performance criteria for effectively addressing safety areas. Four good examples of other ISO standards that are internationally accepted and that enable significant cost savings are the standards for steering (ISO 5010), electromagnetic compatibility (ISO 13766), visibility (ISO 5006) and braking (ISO 3450). Manufacturers of earth-moving machines generally have incident tracking systems that document any safety incidents on their machines. The information from the incident tracking systems show that the ISO/

TC 127/SC 2 standards define safety performance criteria that are effective. While ISO/TC 127/SC 2 has developed over 40 standards in its attempt to develop a complete set of safety and ergonomics standards, the work in SC 2 is continuing to address new types of machines and the new technology. SC 2 has 22 active projects to update the existing standards and to develop new standards. Some examples of new standards projects include new standards for: electronic control systems, hazard detection systems, remote control of machines and whole body vibrations. Some examples of standard update projects include: steering to cover electronic steering, controls standard to cover new types of multifunction controls, excavator operator protection standard to cover larger excavators, EMC standard with more stringent immunity requirements, and roll-over protections standard to cover nonmetallic components.
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Hazards are everywhere: how to achieve functional safety


By Mark Bowell, Specialist inspector of control systems in the United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive
ur workplaces are full of hazards (potential sources of harm). To name but a few : a guillotine on a paper-cutting machine could slice off a workers hand, a crane that is too overloaded will fail mechanically, exothermic reactions in a chemical plant could reach a runaway condition, hydrocarbons on an oil refinery could leak and ignite, and the dynamic positioning system of a ship must continuously adjust the thrusters correctly to avoid collision with a nearby installation.

Our first aim is always to eliminate the hazards at source. This can be achieved by the application of inherent safety principles and good engineering practice. However, in many industrial scenarios it is not practicable to eliminate every hazard. For example, guillotines need a sharp blade to cut paper, an exothermic reaction may be the only way to produce a particular chemical, and oil refineries always contain hydrocarbons. Fortunately, these hazards very rarely materialize because we design control or protection systems to ensure safety. These safety-related systems defend against the remaining hazards by monitoring the state of the process under control and taking specific action to prevent an unsafe state occurring. In many cases the specific action is to shut down part or all of the process being monitored. If there is no simple safe state, such as with a ships dynamic positioning system, the safety-related system will have to continuously control the process. Safety that depends on a control or protection system operating correctly in response to its inputs is called functional safety. Functional safety

is the topic of the IEC 61508 series, which covers safety-related systems that use electrical and/or electronic and/or programmable electronic (E/E/ PE) technologies. The standard applies to these systems irrespective of their application and includes every part of the system necessary for correct operation (not just the control logic).

About the author


Mark Bowell is n expert suporting the work f IEC SC65A Working Group 4 and the develpment of the EC Functional afety Zone. He as been a speialist inspector of control systems in the UK Health and Safety Executive since 1999. Before then, he was a research scientist with the Health and Safety Laboratory investigating software engineering techniques for safetyrelated systems. He has an MSc in Software Engineering, is a Member of the IEE (the Institution of Electrical Engineers) and is a Chartered Engineer.

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Photo ISO

Safe machinery saves lives


Example applications and technologies
An example E/E/PE safetyrelated system using electrical (or electro-mechanical) technology is the guard interlocking and emergency stopping system for machinery. Many safety-related systems that would have used electromechanical technology or solid-state electronics now use programmable electronics instead. Such devices include programmable controllers, programmable logic controllers and digital communication systems (e.g. bus systems). Enabling technologies such as application-specific integrated circuits, microprocessors, and intelligent sensors, transmitters and actuators, are increasingly being integrated into products and systems.

Meeting the challenge


The challenge is to make sure that our safety-related systems are sufficiently reliable and carry out all the functions we need. In practice, E/E/PE safety-related systems are too complex to fully determine every failure mode or to test all possible behaviour. We have to design each system in such a way as to prevent dangerous failures or control them when they arise. Dangerous failures may arise from

development of the safety requirements, specification, design and implementation, operation and maintenance, and modification, to final decommissioning and/or disposal. The standard considers all parts of an E/E/PE safetyrelated system that are necessary to carry out the required functions (i.e. from sensor, through control logic and communication systems, to final actuator, including any critical actions of a human operator).

Recent developments include network-based safety-related systems, facilitated by Internet technology


Example applications include crane safe load indicators, variable speed motor drives used to restrict speed for protection, systems for interlocking and controlling the exposure dose of medical radiotherapy machines, or the indicator lights, anti-lock braking, and enginemanagement systems on automobiles. Other examples are emergency shutdown systems in hazardous chemical plants, railway signalling systems and fly-by-wire operation of aircraft flight control surfaces. Recent developments include network-based safety-related systems, often facilitated by Internet technology, such as the remote monitoring, operation or programming of a network-enabled water treatment plant. An E/E/PE system may be safety-related even if it does not have any direct control over potentially hazardous equipment. For example, an information-based decision support tool might be safety-related if erroneous results compromise safety.

errors or omissions in the specification, random failures of hardware due to wear and tear, systematic failures of hardware and/or software due to design errors, human error, environmental influences such as temperature or electromagnetic interference, or problems with the electrical supply. IEC 61508 uses a risk-based approach to determine what effort should be spent on the design of the E/E/PE safety-related system and to quantify the required hardware reliability. It covers all development activities from initial concept, through hazard analysis and risk assessment,

Photo ISO

Hence, IEC 61508 aims to release the potential of E/E/PE technology to improve both safety and economic performance, and enable future technological developments to take place within an overall safety framework. Users and regulators can gain confidence where it has been applied. It increases efficiency in the supply chain for suppliers of subsystems and components across industrial sectors, improves communication, increases clarity of what needs to be specified, and enables the development of conformity assessment services if required.
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IEC basic safety publications
Parts 1, 2, 3 and 4 of IEC 61508 are IEC basic safety publications. One of the responsibilities of IEC technical committees is, wherever practicable, to make use of these parts of IEC 61508 while preparing their own sector or product standards that have functional safety of any E/E/PE safety-related systems within their scope. Standards based on IEC 61508 have already been published for the nuclear (IEC 61513) and process (IEC 61511 series) sectors. Other work in development includes standards for the machinery sector and for power drive systems. Sector specific standards based on IEC 61508 are aimed at system designers, system integrators and users. They take account of specific sector practice, which can allow less complex requirements, they use sector terminology to increase clarity, and may specify particular constraints appropriate for the sector. Usually the sector specific standard will rely on the requirements of IEC 61508 for detailed design of subsystems, but they may allow end users to achieve functional safety without having to consider IEC 61508 themselves. All parts of IEC 61508 can be used directly by industry as a set of general requirements for E/E/PE safety-related systems where no application sector or product standards exist or where they are not appropriate. IEC 61508 is also used by suppliers of E/ E/PE components and subsystems for use in all sectors. The IEC web site has a Functional Safety Zone (www.iec.ch/ functionalsafety) giving further details of the IEC 61508 series and associated standards. This includes an extensive set of frequently asked questions. If you cannot find the information you are looking for, you can submit a new question for consideration by the committee responsible for guidance on the standard.
Photo ISO

Vibration and shock affect peoples lives


By Bruce Douglas, Chair ISO/TC 108, Mechanical vibration and shock, and Eberhard Christ, Chair ISO/TC 108/SC 4, Human exposure to mechanical vibration and shock

n ISO/TC 108, Mechanical vibration and shock, we take the development of mechanical vibration and shock standards for workplace safety very seriously. This responsibility, along with the effects of vibration and shock on public safety and the environment, is a paramount concern

in the development of our standards. Simply put, these standards can literally affect peoples lives, livelihoods and quality of life. The general science behind these standards covers the broad areas of biodynamics, structural dynamics, rotor dynamics, structural acoustics (in concert with ISO/TC 43, Acoustics), signal processing and the condition monitoring of structures and machines. These sciences are complex in their own right and many are in the early stages of evolution. All directly impact workplace safety by providing guidance to establishing either : human exposure limits ; methods to evaluate, assess and monitor the overall dynamic workplace environment i.e. assess risk ; methods to identify, diagnose and prognosticate specific potential workplace hazards ; and

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methods to identify appropriate cost-effective corrective action to mitigate potential workplace hazards.
1 Cracked Power Plant Rotor.

Assessing the nature of dynamic forces at work


When assessing the effects on vibration and shock on workplace safety, the first consideration is the nature of dynamic forces at work. They vary widely from steady state vibration to low range impulsive forces to high level shock, and each requires different methodology, monitoring cycles and assessment tools. The general scope of ISO/TC 108 covers the broad area of mechanical vibration and shock and their effects on

2 Whole-body vibration exposure at work with a wheel-loader. 3 Hand-arm vibration exposure at work with an angle grinder.

humans, machines, vehicles and structures, all factors in workplace safety. More specifically, its scope includes the general areas of mechanical vibration and shock pertaining to : terminology and nomenclature ; actuators, sensors and associated signal analysis instrumentation ; vibration and shock reduction and control methods ; and, finally, the measurement and evaluation of the exposure of humans, stationary structures, vehicles and machines. In addition, standard methods of data processing, data acquisition, diagnostic measurement methods, transducer calibration and condition monitoring of machines and structures are actively being developed. All these subjects are related to workplace safety either directly through assessment of human exposure, potential workplace hazards and application of hazard control or indirectly by diagnosing and predicting future workplace hazards.

Human exposure to whole-body vibration is a widespread occupational factor that may cause adverse effects on safety and health.
One major category of workplace hazards is the catastrophic failure of machines or structures leading to injury. Figure 1 dramatically illustrates the high energies involved when a rotor is cracked and fails in operation. Such failures can be anticipated if a suitable schedule for monitoring, maintenance and condition assessment is implemented. For example, mechanical mobility methods can be used to assess a structural resonance which could amplify dynamic forces in a system including structures, machines and even the human body. TC 108 has generated a series of standards, ISO 7626, which outline acceptable methods for measuring mechanical mobility and related transfer functions that, when applied, will provide reliable information about the state of the system under study for further in-depth assessment by experts.
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P . Krieger

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Condition monitoring for reliable hazard prediction
Since prediction of impending workplace safety hazards relies on the monitoring changes in normal operating vibration signatures of critical systems the quality of the data bases involved are critical to identifying precursors to failure. TC 108 is currently working on a series of standards which, when taken as a whole, will form a baseline for making an ISOsanctioned vibration measurement. When complete, these standards will provide engineers involved in the workplace with a basic tool for condition monitoring from high-quality databases where small changes in the spectral nature of a vibration measurement can serve to predict failure. Within TC 108, Subcommittee SC 4, Human exposure to mechanical vibration and shock, is the standards body concerned with human exposure to mechanical vibration and shock. SC 4 is primarily involved with standardization projects in regard to health, safety, performance and comfort criteria and with guidelines regarding the effects of occupational and non-occupational exposure on human population. This includes also relevant terminology and characterization of the biodynamic properties of the human whole-body and the hand-arm system by means of biodynamic models. exposure by periodic, random and transient vibration in relation to health and comfort, the probability of vibration perception and the incidence of motion sickness. They do not contain vibration exposure limits. In the frame of the ISO 2631 series, ISO/TC 108/SC 4 prepares standards concerning the whole-body vibration exposure on humans in buildings (comfort and annoyance of the occupants) as well as on passengers and crews in fixed-guideway transport systems (comfort in railways). These standards establish methods for the evaluation of relative comfort, not applicable to the evaluation of effects on human health and safety (Figure 2).

The vibration transmitted by the seat on a seated person in all kinds of vehicles affects mainly the lumbar spine and the connected nervous system.
Human exposure to whole-body vibration
Human exposure to whole-body vibration is a widespread occupational factor that may cause adverse effects on safety and health. The vibration transmitted by the seat on a seated person and/or by the feet on a standing person in all kinds of vehicles and mobile machines affects mainly the lumbar spine and the connected nervous system. Performance and comfort criteria may be related e.g. to interference with activities as reading, writing, drinking, etc. and the incidence of motion sickness. The standards in the field of whole-body vibration exposure (ISO 2631 series) define methods of quantifying the whole-body vibration

Exposure to handtransmitted vibration


The second important area of standardization on human exposure to vibration comprises the so-called handarm vibration caused by hand-held and hand-guided vibration machines/tools, by vibrating workpieces held in the hands or by controls of mobile or fixed machinery. Excessive exposure to hand-transmitted vibration may cause muscular/bone structure, neurological and vascular disorders of hand and arm. The standards in the field of hand-transmitted vibration (ISO 5349 series) define methods of quantifying the human exposure by periodic, random or non-periodic vibration. They provide also guidance for the evaluation of hand-transmitted vibration but do not define limits of safe vibration exposure. Part 2 of ISO 5349 provides guidelines for the measurement and evaluation of hand-transmitted vibration at the workplace. In principle, all defined measuring and evaluation methods in the standards regarding the vibration exposure of humans can form the bases to set legal requirements by the competent authorities for occupational safety and health. Manufacturers and designers will be able to ensure that their products are in conformity with essential safety requirements (Figure 3).

About the authors


Dr. Bruce Douglas is founder and Chief Scientific Officer of Resonance Technologies, a technical firm specializing in the dynamic design of structures and vehicles. He currently serving as Chair of ISO/TC 108 and was Director of Research at the David Taylor Research Center, the US Navys principal laboratory responsible for naval vehicles and logistics. He developed a fundamental theory for inter-laminar damping in elastic-viscoelastic structures and a key analytical model for the implementation of active isolation in multiple input-multiple output structural systems. Dr. Eberhard Christ is the current head of the department of Physical Environmental Factors (noise, vibration, radiation) and Ergonomics of the BG-Institute for Occupational Safety and Health BIA in Sankt Augustin/Germany. He also serves as Chair of ISO/TC 108/SC 4, Human exposure to mechanical vibration and shock, and chair of the national DIN committee, Human Vibration Exposure. At the European level, he is the chair of the CEN/TC 231, Mechanical vibration and shock.

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Safe machinery saves lives


Through my job, that has taken me to practically every industrialized country in the world, I have become a fervent advocate of international crane standards. Having seen them at work, I have seen the advantages they can bring to the crane industry in terms of safety, of reputation and in costs. And, what is true for cranes is certainly true for a good number of similar industries.

In a tight world economy, there is no place for unreliability.


There are nearly 10 million cranes in operation today worldwide, on such a scale, it is barely surprising that economies can be big when crane management programmes are fully implemented: potentially, an estimated USD 3 billion per year can be saved. But money is not the only consideration. Safety is another and a truly vital one.

Lower costs, better quality, fewer accidents


International crane standards set up conditions under which everyone wins. Crane builders can count on producing better, higher quality products. Crane operators enjoy safer working conditions and cranes with improved ergonomics. Firms can rely on increased crane productivity with lower costs for use and maintenance. And business in general can expect fewer accidents, increased operational safety, and increased reliability. Proper preventive maintenance routines increase the reliability of equipment performance. Using a mandatory defect history database, combined with inspections and repairs carried out by qualified crane specialists, decreased safety-related faults are found. By specifying qualification requirements for operators and specialists to train them, safety is enormously improved (crane operator errors lie at the root of 73% of all crane accidents). International Standards provide crane maintenance firms
ISO Focus July-August 2004

Radical improvements in crane safety


By Rolf Lovgren, former Chair, ISO/TC 96, Cranes, SC 5, Use, operation and maintenance of cranes

n a tight world economy, there is no place for unreliability. This is true of all fields, including cranes. To keep cranes shipshape, in a constant state of readiness, and properly maintained is no longer desirable it is simply vital. Question : How do you make them safe and reliable ? Answer : By introducing quality crane safety management. And to do so, one key weapon, and particularly effective one International crane standards.

Photo ISO

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Photo CranePartner International

The story of a safe handler

Control panel in a overhead bridge crane.


Photo CranePartner International

Bridge wheels badly worn, rail broken, no brakes etc.

Photo CranePartner International

Lets look at a shining example of the implementation of crane inspection and condition monitoring standards for 500 cranes in an automotive plant (General Motors/Saginaw Metal Casting Operation, Saginaw, Michigan USA). GMs Powertrain operations engine-block casting facility in Saginaw was first established in the 1920s, and has grown since then to having approximately 140 000 m under roof. They use 500 cranes/hoist in their operations, in 24 different locations within the plant, made by 22 different manufacturers, with capacities ranging from 0,125 to15 tons. The average crane/ hoist is 20 years old. They set out to increase safety, reduce costs and be on world-class level as far as crane safety and maintenance are concerned. So what did they do ? GMs Powertrain operations engineblock casting facility in Saginaw decided to implement ISOs International Standards on crane inspection and condition monitoring ISO 9927:1994, Cranes Inspections Part 1: General, and ISO 12482: 1995, Cranes Condition monitoring Part 1: General, for their crane maintenance. CranePartner Internationals service division in Michigan (CraneCare Inc.) was selected for the implementation and maintenance for 500 cranes/ hoists in the plant. Operations started in 1997 by tailoring individual checklists for every crane/hoist, collecting information about operational data etc. and adapting the CranePartner Crane Maintenance and Condition Monitoring programme (CranePartner System CPS) for the task. And the results ? Development between June 1997 and December 2001 was as follows : Crane defects have declined from average 7,2 / Hoist/Year in 1997 to 0,85/ Hoist/Year in 2001 (see diagram p. 23) Crane Maintenance Costs have declined from average USD 1 274/ hoist/ year, to USD 580/hoist/year (see diagram p. 23) GM/SMCO purchase specifications for cranes are similar to ISO crane standards.
Photo GM

Stell structure damages caused by wery rough handling.

with tools to evaluate how well they are doing in meeting their customers requirements. In my experience with crane operations in paper mills in North America and Europe, such maintenance practice has reduced maintenance cost from 33% to 64% while reducing failures between 46% and 60% and safety incidents between 33% and 97%. Results of International Standard level maintenance in steel mills is also impressive: maintenance costs reduced by from 28% to 56%, failures reduced by 50% up to 83% and safety incidents by 63% up to 95%. The demanding automotive industry in USA (namely, in General Motors) has seen some radical improvements in crane safety and reduced maintenance costs after focusing their crane management on international crane standards (see box opposite). Annual crane defects have declined by 86% and maintenance costs by 57%.

The only market that counts is the world market


Throughout the world, there are increasing safety and environmental demands and regulations, and the customers expectations are constantly on the rise. New technological developments simplify procedures and maintenance if properly channelled through International Standards. A modern comprehensive crane maintenance programme pays substantial dividends when it is congruent with International Standards.

The marketplace, obviously, is now global: with cranes, the only market that counts is the world market, and competition is fierce: by applying selfagreed International Standards, a lot of the grind is taken out of maintenance work as components and procedures are standard. International Standards lead to higher quality, which, in turn, means higher safety, greater reliability, and enhanced customer satisfaction, giving those that apply them an all-round image of a professional global service provider. To become and to remain a successful service provider means

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What ISO crane standards can offer
ISO/TC 96 works on standardization in the field of cranes, lifting appliances, and related equipment, particularly general design procedures, terminology, classification, load rating, terminology, safe use, maintenance, inspections and condition monitoring, crane selection etc., through nine subcommittees with delegates representing national standards groups from 30 countries. These are: subcommittee SC 2, Terminology, SC 3, Selection of wire ropes, SC4, Test methods, SC 5, Use, operation, and maintenance, SC 6, Mobile cranes, SC 7, Tower cranes, SC 8, Jib cranes, SC 9, Bridge and gantry cranes, SC 10 (previously SC 1), Design procedures. Crane safety improvement standards are used to: Design/specify a safe crane. Buy a safe crane Maintain a safe crane. Use the crane safely.

Photo Man

paying special attention to developing and maintaining services which follow global requirements: this gives the assurance that you are on the right track, at present and for the future. 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 1500 1000 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

Crane operation and maintenance is difficult to obtain


There are three basic approaches to crane maintenance: maintenance by in-house crews; service contract by the manufacturer, and service contract by a third-party crane maintenance organization. All three approaches are appropriate if personnel have sufficient knowledge of both cranes and maintenance. All the elements necessary for building a world-class crane management programme are included in the International Standards, even though the design and execution of such a programme will still have to be coordinated by the plant maintenance organization or an outside group contracted to handle the responsibility. The comprehensive crane maintenance programme will include crane inspection and evaluation by knowledgeable engineers, preventive maintenance tasks by operators and maintenance specialists, predictive maintenance technologies, and computerized maintenance management systems. Comprehensive knowledge of crane operation and maintenance is difficult to obtain. Pockets of excellence exist in crane builder and crane user companies and organizations throughout the world. But if no country or company has succeeded in gathering all the best knowledge and practice for designing, building, installing, operating and maintaining cranes, the efforts of ISO/TC 96 have been promising in this field. One of the most valuable committee activities for maintenance organizations is the standard for condition monitoring.

Decline in crane defects


500 cranes in automotive plant
Defects/Year

Safety related defects Production related defects

Total

Crane operator errors lie at the root of 73 % of all crane accidents.


About the author
Rolf Lovgren was Chair of ISO/TC 96 Cranes, SC 5, Use operation and maintenance of cranes between 1986 and 2004. He is a member of ANSI/ASME B30, Standards Committee for Cranes (USA), US Delegate to ISO/TC 96 and MIOSHA advisory board member for Crane Safety (Michigan OSHA). Mr Lovgren is President and CEO of CranePartner International Inc. and has been in the crane and maintenance engineering business worldwide for over 30 years.
ISO Focus July-August 2004

120 % 100 % 180 % 160 % 140 % 120 % 110 %

Decline in crane costs


500 cranes in automotive plant
Cost/Year

Material cost Labor cost

Total

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

CPI 2002

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Ergonomics : the road to health, safety and efficiency


By Dr. Armin Windel, Head of Ergonomics Unit, Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Germany, and delegate to several working groups ISO/ TC 159, Ergonomics
retrospective survey of ergonomic standardization in recent decades shows that some widely differing objectives have been pursued in European and international standardization activities. Work on implementing guidelines on the improvement of safety in the workplace began with European and national standards back in the 1960s. With regard to the ergonomic design of products, this has meant and continues to mean today that the fundamental principles of ergonomics need to be taken into account in development, production and use, and thus in all phases in the life of a product. Since the 1970s, European and international standards have increasingly aimed at consumer protection while safeguarding free movement of goods. Consequently, ergonomic principles also have to be considered in the design of work systems. Fundamental ergonomic knowledge was increasingly bundled in the 1980s, chiefly in international standards. The Vienna Agreement as well as the need for globalization have prompted those concerned in the recent past to look for common ground in these three approaches which are apparently difficult to reconcile. The route being followed at present envisages a standardization procedure according to the Vienna Agreement being conducted in parallel at the international and European levels. At present, only standardization procedures for which there is a European directive and for

Our standards take account of the aims of preventive industrial safety, increase the performance of man-system interaction and improve the cost-effectiveness of the complete system.
which mandating is planned are followed under European direction. In the meantime, there are a large number of projects in ergonomic standardization which have been handled in that way and therefore meet the various requirements. Below, I describe three areas of ergonomic standardization that go to show where the emphasis lies at present.

No clear structure yet in ergonomics


While a classification according to basic standards, product group and product standards is required and has been largely implemented in the area of standardization of machine safety, a similarly clear structure has been

lacking to date in ergonomic standardization. It is consequently still the case that ergonomic requirements are described in many ways and to some extent in slightly differing terms. Work is therefore in progress on a guiding and integrating framework. The basic standard ISO 6385, Ergonomic principles in the design of work systems, pursues the aim not just of stipulating the principles of ergonomics in relation to the design of work systems but also of describing a framework concept in the best sense of a base standard, on which other standards on specific topics can be based. At the European level, it is necessary to underpin the requirements of the Machinery Directive on ergonomic design with (mandatory) standards. General principles of ergonomics in relation to the safety of machines are described in the EN 614, Safety of machinery Ergonomic design principles. In common with EN 13861, Safety of machinery Guidance for the application of ergonomic standards in the design of machinery, which can be understood as a guide to the consideration of ergonomic aspects in product standards, knowledge of the design and use of machines and experience gained from incidents, accidents and injuries is brought together here. Combination

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Safe machinery saves lives


with international standardization is also aimed for and is already being put into practice for this area of European standardization.

Designing worker-friendly work


A new International Standard on the design of work systems is expected to result in improved user health, safety, and performance as well as cost savings for business. A work system involves a combination of people and equipment, within a given space and environment, and the interactions between these components within a work organization. A work system, whether directly or indirectly, may contribute to a plethora of mental and physical health problems and can result in increased absenteeism, poor timekeeping and staff turnover all of which affect the productivity and efficiency of the organization and have a negative effect on the bottom line. To avoid these negative effects, it is necessary to fit the work system to the user. ISO 6385:2004, Ergonomic principles in the design of work systems, offers a route to improving the interface between individual users and the components of their working situation such as tasks, equipment, workspace and environment right from the beginning of the design process. For example, concerns over family problems may cause distraction, predisposing workers to errors. The right design of workplaces can minimize the potential for human error or, where concentration is vital, provide additional social support. The new standard provides a framework for the design of new or existing work systems, with a view to facilitating the work behaviour and well being of users, from office staff to assemblyline workers. Its guidance may also apply to the design of products for domestic and leisure activities. ISO 6385:2004, which replaces ISO 6385:1981, has been updated to include a description of the design process, definitions of ergonomics and ergonomic design principles and gives an overview of the components involved in the design of a work system. ISO 6385 is relevant for all sectors, not only heavy industry, but also the growing service industries and the health sector, says Wietske Eveleens, Convenor of the working group that developed the new standard. ISO 6385 helps professionals in the creation of durable solutions when facing the challenge of human-centred technical innovation in a quickly changing world. The new standard is aimed to be used by managers, workers (or their representatives) and professions such as ergonomists, human resources, project managers, and designers who are involved in the design or redesign of work systems. ISO 6385:2004 is the work of ISO technical committee ISO/TC 159, Ergonomics, subcommittee SC 1, Ergonomic guiding principles.

A new framework for visual display terminal work


Another prime concern of international ergonomic standardization is the revision and restructuring of the ISO 9241 series of standards on visual display terminals. Because of the great significance of work equipment and the steady development of technology in the area of visual display terminal work, the ISO 9241 series of standards has become very widely known. When the scope of this series of standards was expanded by eliminating the limitation to office work, the group title of the standard was changed from Ergonomic requirements for office activities with visual display terminals to Ergonomics of man-machine interaction . The restructuring of ISO 9241, in particular logical numbering of the parts of the standard and the integration of what to date have been separate standards, also pursues the aim of giving this increasingly significant subject area a stronger, guiding framework. Topics which are of current interest and much (Continued overleaf)

About the author


Dr. Armin Windel studied Psychology at the Ruhr-University of Bochum, Germany. From 1991 to 1999 he was scientific assistant and lecturer at the department of industrial and organizational psychology. Since 1999 Dr. Windel has been a member of the Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in Germany, where he is head of the Ergonomics Unit. He is involved in several working groups of ISO/ TC 159, Ergonomics, and CEN/TC 122.

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Main Focus
in demand such as usability, accessibility and multimedia and mobile devices are obviously also taken into account. In addition, it supports practical implementation of the European VDU (Visual Display Unit) Directive. safety and health of employees but also performance attainment in enterprises. Not least because of the consideration of mental workload in European legislation, the need for many enterprises and employees for detailed consultation on the topic of mental workloads has steadily increased in recent years. The honour of having created a suitable basis of understanding on this topic goes to the ISO 10075 series, Ergonomic principles related to mental workload. Problems of understanding still exist if mental workloads are misunderstood as individual shortcomings on the part of the person concerned and are not recognized as shortcomings in working conditions in the enterprise. Alongside precise definitions of the terms mental workload , mental stress and their potential negative consequences (Part 1), the standard series does not just offer assistance in measuring and assessing incorrect mental workloads (Part 3), it also offers tips in the second part on optimizing working conditions.

We promote industrial safety and cost-effectiveness


As this brief survey of current focal points for action in ergonomic standardization shows, the activities in ISO/TC 159 are aimed at taking better and adequate account in future of human characteristics, capabilities and skills in the design of products and work systems. Concept-related work and the restructuring of existing standards also raises the suitability for use of the product known as standard for the user. To summarize, the standardization activities in ISO/TC 159 take account of the aims of preventive occupational safety and health, increase the performance of man-system interaction and improve the cost-effectiveness of the complete work system.

Still underestimated : mental workload and stress


Processes which are described by terms such as structural change , flexibilization of work or dynamics of the world of work are characteristic of massive restructuring activities around the world. For employees, they are associated with radical changes in their working conditions, which may lead to changes in areas of activity, new challenges, but also changed and, in some cases, higher workloads. On this basis there is agreement both internationally and in Europe that avoiding or reducing work-related incorrect loads has become a focal point for action in order to promote the
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Safe machinery saves lives

Burning a trail ahead in protective clothing


By Mick Smith, Chair ISO/TC 94/SC 14, Firefighters personal protective equipment

irefighting personnel are putting their lives on the line ; any work done by TC 94/SC 14 to ensure that what they wear and the equipment they use is better suited to the task will benefit firefighter safety around the world. That is our goal, and the recent meeting of the subcommittee 14 in Adelaide, Australia, served to show how internationally our groups work is burning a trail ahead and progressing knowledge and safety methods to this end. Previous annual meetings of TC 94/SC 14 were held in London, Berlin and Winnipeg. The 2001 meeting in London occurred after 9/11: it responded to the obvious need of firefighters for appropriate PPE (personal protective equipment). This need has never been

so evident as today, after the bombings in Oklahoma City (April 1995), 9-11, the Bali nightclub, Madrid train, and other events where firefighters have to cope with very dangerous situations. The working groups were crafted according to the risk that firefighters face. Each working group is working towards developing a single standard for PPE that, when used, will protect the firefighter against the risk. Subcommittee SC 14 is made up of five working groups : WG 1, General requirements WG 2, Firefighting structural WG 3, Wildland firefighting WG 4, Hazardous materials incidents WG 5, Non-fire rescue incidents

What is involved in rescue ?


Standards Australia along with the South Australian Metropolitan Fire Service (SAMFS) hosted the fourth conference meeting of SC 14 in Adelaide, at the SAMFS Training Centre, between May 31 and June 4, 2004. At our meeting, a day was set aside as a workshop wholly devoted to work involved in WG 5, Rescue personal protective equipment or Non-fire personal protective equipment. This covers road accident rescue, high angle rescue, urban search and rescue, trench rescue, confined space rescue, swift and still water rescue and industrial rescue. These have been categorized by WG 5 into four distinct groups; rope rescue, rescue from water, rescue from vehicles and plant and special rescue. The event was intended to facilitate discussion and to demonstrate techniques under each of the four categories of rescue identified by WG 5. Its purpose was to provide a greater appreciation of what is involved in rescue, so that the suite of standards to be written for rescue
ISO Focus July-August 2004

The standards writers needed to see the personal protective equipment in action to fully understand the end use by the people wearing the ensemble.

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Main Focus

The ISO/TC 94/SC 14, Firefighters personal protective equipment, conference was held in May-June 2004, in Adelaide, Australia, and attended by 44 committee members and 20 observers during the week.

Ensuring the same protection level is afforded to all


The practical demonstrations given by SAMFS training officers, and South Australias ambulance services, country fire services, state emergency services, police special tactics and response group and aviation rescue and firefighting division were the key to the success of the day. Alec Feldman from GD Group of Companies, Ireland, convener of WG 5, said ; In all my involvement around the world in formulating standards, I myself and many of the others here have never seen anything like this done before. The standards writers needed to see the personal protective equipment in action to fully understand the end use by the people wearing the ensemble .

A lot of the protection for firefighters comes in the form of technological advances in materials that the PPE is made from, but we cannot rely on this alone. Firefighter PPE must be aligned to training and safe work practices in order for it to fully protect the wearer.

The varied disciplines of rescue mean different clothing needs


One of the problems ISO/TC 94/ SC 14 has is that in this diverse world and the variety of areas firefighters now work in, firefighting itself only amounts to approximately 10 % of their total work output. It is also accepted that the protective performance levels of PPE set down in current standards

Convenors of the Working Groups met for a pre-conference. A complete day was set aside for a workshop with practical demonstrations for WG 5, Rescue (or or Non-fire) personal protective equipment.

personal protective equipment is based on assessments of hazard and risk. The aim was also to lay the foundations for a forum of discussion amongst rescuers on procedures, techniques, etc. to support the hazard and risk analysis on which the ISO standards will be based. This was run as an observation exercise for standard writers, test houses and manufacturers. WG 5 is responsible for rescue, and the workshop gave this group greater insight into personal protective equipment (PPE) currently worn by Emergency Services in South Australia. They looked at : Helmets Boots Gloves Clothing Eye protection Hearing protection Communications, and Other Safety Features

The acceptance of International Standards as an alternative to local standards is an important step forward.
Firefighters, test houses and manufacturers from around the world are committed to standards development and, in this case, firefighter personal protective equipment. The development of International Standards and their acceptance as an alternative to local standards is an important step forward. TC 94/SC14 is fostering the compilation of the work of technical experts and end-users from a diverse range of countries and climates that will ultimately apply the standard to their own needs but with the same protection level afforded to all.

About the author


Mick Smith, Chair of ISO/TC 94/SC 14, Firefighters personal protective equipment (PPE), has been Deputy Chief Officer of the South Australian Metropolitan Fire Service (SAMFS) since September 2002. Mick Smith joined the Fire Service in January 1978, aged 21. In January 1986, he was promoted to Senior Firefighter, in December 1987 to Station Officer, in July 1998 to District Officer, and in July 2000 to Commander. Mick was also the Leader of the Australian Delegation to ISO/TC 94/ SC 15, Respiratory protection. He has also been involved in a number of Australian and Australasian committees on the subjects.

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ISO Focus July-August 2004

Test methods for protective clothing to reduce injury and death

Safe machinery saves lives


Health care workers that treat and care for the sick and injured, as well as categories such as rescue personnel, paramedics, veterinarians and laboratory technicians, may be at risk from biological liquids transmitting disease. ISO is helping to reduce the risk by two International Standards for evaluating the effectiveness of their protective clothing. The risk of contamination by viruses such as AIDS, HIV, hepatitis and others from blood or other body fluids is a constant source of concern for health care staff, and the two standards provide a tool to assess the barrier capacity of the materials used for these protective garments, says Fred Foubert, Deputy Convenor of the ISO group of experts that developed the standards. The new standards describe laboratory test methods for measuring the penetration resistance of clothing materials to blood, body fluids and other potentially infectious materials. They will enable manufacturers to develop protective clothing that will reduce the potential of direct skin contact to a variety of blood-borne viruses by medical personnel. ISO 16603:2004, Clothing for protection against contact with blood and body fluids Determination of the resistance of protective clothing materials to penetration by blood and body fluids Test method using synthetic blood, will be used to determine the resistance of materials to synthetic blood when exposed to physical stresses and pressures exerted on protective clothing in use. ISO 16604:2004, Clothing for protection against contact with blood and body fluids Determination of resistance of protective clothing materials to penetration by blood-borne pathogens Test method using Phi-X174 bacteriophage, will help detect micro-holes in materials using a microorganism that is similar to the hepatitis C virus in size and shape but also serves as a substitute for the hepatitis B virus and HIV (human immunodeficiency viruses). There are a large number of potential users of these standards, or of people who could benefit from them. This not only concerns health care professionals in the strict sense such as doctors and nurses, but also rescue workers, paramedics, veterinarians, people who come into contact with dead animals, laboratory technicians etc., further noted Mr. Foubert. We hope these test methods will provide a good basis for the evaluation and further development of materials used in protective apparel for a wide group of people, especially people our lives could depend on. ISO 16603:2004 and ISO 16604:2004 are the work of ISO technical committee ISO/TC 94, Personal safety Protective clothing and equipment, subcommittee SC 13, Protective clothing.

are aimed at protection against exposure to worst possible fire scenarios, i.e. flashover conditions or ensembles for wildland conditions. The rest of the time is occupied by the various other disciplines of rescue. From this, fire services have used combinations of firefighting clothing levels to accomplish rescue. This is far from an ideal situation, and indeed should be considered as inappropriate PPE. More seriously, this can mean that for 90 % or more of the work of firefighters, they are wearing PPE that could add to the risk of heat stress. This makes the work of WG 5 under Alec Feldman one of the biggest challenges of TC 94. The workshop at the Adelaide conference assisted in the education of standards writers to the facts of the situation. Fire services tend to be steeped in history when it comes to changing work practices : and, after the completion of this ISO standard, ISO/CD 11613, it will now be a huge effort to educate fire services around the world to duly implement it.

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Reducing the risk of hearing damage


By Dr. Klaus Brinkmann, Chair ISO/TC 43, Acoustics

Photo ISO

years, and the resulting annual social and economic costs are of the order of magnitude of 120 million USD. Other industrialized countries are faced with similar problems.

n daily life, acoustics is usually associated with positive sounds like music and speech communication. Unfortunately, however, acoustics also has a grave negative side which becomes obvious when sound turns into noise. The main objective of ISO/ TC 43, Acoustics, and its subcommittee 1, Noise, is to deal with this negative side, and to contribute towards a reduction of unwanted effects of sound. It is said that some 20 % of the total population in Europe is exposed to noise levels in their living environment that exceed the acceptable limits set by the scientific and medical community, leading to manifold physical and psychological irritations for the people concerned. Such effects are, however, difficult to quantify. More solid data exist for noise-induced hearing damages at workplaces, however. In Germany, for instance, hearing impairment has been at the top of all occupational impairments for many

Noise measurement results from different sources


It is beyond the brief of ISO/TC 43 to enforce non-dangerous working conditions directly this is an issue that has to be left to the economy and to legislation but TC 43 does provide a significant contribution towards safer workplaces by delivering a variety of proper tools to achieve this goal. Let us look at these.

We have developed guidance on the design of low-noise machinery and equipment and the design of low-noise workplaces.
Measurement standards: The standardization of well-established and reproducible methods for noise measurements is the main field of activity of TC 43/SC 1. Such standards are closely related to noise limits prescribed by national or regional leg-

islators, and form the basis for decisions on whether criteria are met or on whether noise reduction measures have to be initiated by manufacturers or customers for machinery. Considering the diversity of machinery in use (from small handheld devices to big industrial plants), of given acoustic environments for measurements (from in situ to laboratory conditions), and the intended use of data (from characterization and labelling of machinery to evaluation of noise exposure at workplaces), it is obvious that no one single procedure is going to be suitable in all situations. Instead, TC 43/SC 1 offers families of framework standards for different applications (e.g. the ISO 3740 family for sound power measurements, the ISO 9614 series for sound intensity and the ISO 11200 family for sound pressure at work stations). Guidance is given on the selection of the most appropriate standard in a given situation. To meet the needs of customers who sometimes complain about the complexity of noise measurements and their costs, SC 1 offers, wherever possible, a selection of procedures ranging from precision methods providing most accurate results to simple survey methods. In order to get reliable results, machinery specific data, like operat-

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Safe machinery saves lives


ing and mounting conditions, have to be specified in addition to the basic acoustical requirements in so-called Noise Test Codes. SC 1 provides guidance on how to write a suitable code, but leaves the work itself in most cases to product committees where more relevant knowledge on the machinery in question is likely to be available. However, TC 43 establishes close cooperation with these committees in maintaining its overall responsibility in all questions related to noise.

We offer help on how to measure the hearing function and how to calibrate audiometric equipment to achieve comparable results.
TC 43/SC1 has therefore developed several standards on the design of low-noise machinery and equipment (ISO 11688 series), the design of lownoise workplaces (ISO 11690 series) as well as on performance measurements on sound insulating enclosures (ISO 11546 series), removable screens (ISO 11821) and cabins (ISO 11957). Industrial customers, noise consultants, safety inspectors and testing laboratories appreciate this assistance. Personal sound protecting devices: If none of the general noise reduction means described above manage to exclude the risk of impairing the hearing of the workers, the ultimate solution is the use of personal hearing protectors. The market offers a variety of products. However, the selection of the right model in a given noise situation is not an easy task. SC 1 has devel-

oped a number of measurement standards suitable for providing comparable hearing protector performance data (ISO 4869 series). Moreover, guidance is given on how to adapt frequencydependent attenuation data of hearing protectors in a simple way to the noise spectrum in a given situation.

Monitoring of the hearing performance


Hearing conservation programmes: Any relationship established between noise exposure and resulting hearing damage are only statistically valid. Individuals may be affected in quite different ways. There is no doubt, however, that the damaging effects of noise build up over a lifetime, and its impairment to hearing, once it has occurred, is hard to repair. Because of this, a permanent monitoring of the hearing performance of workers concerned is usually indispensable. Such programmes provide a basis, e.g. for decisions on additional noise reduction measures, for the selection of most endangered persons at an early stage, for diagnosis and therapy of hearing impairment and, in the worst cases, for proper financial compensation of a definitive hearing loss. ISO/TC 43, again, offers help for such programmes by providing standards on how to measure the hearing function (ISO 6189 and ISO 8253 series) and how to calibrate audiometric equipment (ISO 389 series) in order to achieve comparable results. The latter is done in close cooperation with IEC/TC 29 that is responsible for the performance specification of such equipment, while TC 43 specifies an audiometric zero representing the average threshold of hearing of young otologically normal persons around the world. In sum: though ISO/TC 43 cannot directly reduce the risk of hearing damage at workplaces and the result of its work is not really quantifiable, its contributions to achieve safer working conditions are manifold and are well acknowledged by all parties concerned.

Industrial customers, noise consultants, safety inspectors and testing laboratories appreciate the assistance of ISO standards.
A big challenge at present to the continuous process of updating existing standards and their adaptation to new technologies is the proper treatment of measurement uncertainty. Sufficient knowledge to apply in full the ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) is not always available yet, but it stands to reason in ISO/TC 43 that measurement results from different sources cannot be meaningfully compared without reliable uncertainty data, and reasonable decisions on the fulfilment of any criteria cannot be taken without knowledge of the uncertainty in measurement either.

About the author


Dr. Klaus Brinkmann has been chair of ISO/TC 43, Acoustics and TC 43/SC 1, Noise since 1987. He received his university degree in physics in 1963 and then worked for 40 years at Germanys National Metrology Institute initially in a laboratory for acoustics and finally as head of a division with diverse scientific and technical cross-sectional tasks. Besides his work in ISO/TC 43, he has chaired various technical committees in international and regional organizations such as the International Organization of Legal Metrology, CEN (European Committee for Standardization), and the European Cooperation for Accreditation (EA).

Selecting hearing protectors is not easy


Noise reduction: No universally applicable methods exist to reduce noise at its source or to shield working places against noise by enclosures, screens or insulating cabins. For this reason, the means of noise reduction are not really a field of standardization, and any harmonized specifications bear the inherent risk of hindering technical development. Nevertheless, customers often ask for guidance and mainly to fulfil demands arising from the European Machinery Directive

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The value of statistical techniques


By Lally Marwah, Convenor of the working group for ISO/TR 10017:2003, Guidance on statistical techniques for ISO 9001:2000
he quality of product or service delivered to a customer is among the key objectives of every business. To achieve this objective in a consistent and effective manner requires an organization to develop a comprehensive quality management system (QMS) which ensures that customer requirements are captured, translated into goods or services, and delivered to the customers satisfaction. Data and the analysis of data is central to the management of quality, as it is to every other aspect of an enterprise. This is therefore reflected in all QMS models, the most well known worldwide being the ISO 9001: 2000 Quality Management System.
Figure 1 ISO 9001:2000 QMS model

The primary elements of the ISO 9001:2000 QMS model are depicted in Figure 1. The detailed requirements that underlie the primary elements are provided in the ISO 9001: 2000 standard. In the model above, it is clear that the role of data specifically measurement and analysis is central to the continual improvement cycle of the business that holds customer satisfaction as its ultimate objective. The role of data is similarly recognized in other well-known QMS models, notably those associated with quality awards established in various parts of the world to promote organizational improvement. Most well-known in the USA. is the Malcolm Baldrige Award, which recognizes business excellence. While the criteria for this award have evolved over the years, the effective use of data has remained a specific and central requirement. More familiar to organizations in Europe is the EFQM Excellence Model

that underlies the European Quality Award. This model identifies its criteria under the broad headings of enablers and results , and these are guided by fundamental concepts of excellence . In this case, the role of data is embedded in the guidance provided for award criteria ( management by facts ). Another internationally respected quality award is The Deming Application Prize in Japan, which recognizes distinctive performance improvement through the application of TQM (Total Quality Management) . This award not only endorses a management system based on facts , but strongly reinforces the role of data through explicit reference to the use of statistical techniques to maintain and improve business performance.

Photo ISO

Variability and the role of statistical techniques


Some degree of variability is present in all processes even under conditions of apparent stability and can be observed at various stages of the total life cycle of products. Such variability can be said to ultimately account for problems or issues that constitute poor quality . The value of statistical techniques stems from their potential ability given relevant data associated with a process or product to yield insight into the nature, extent and possible causes of variability. This insight can subsequently assist in controlling or reducing variability, and thereby improve quality. The value of even elementary statistical analysis can be illustrated by a simple example: the maximum level of noise emitted by a device is set at 45 decibels. To determine if a large batch of these devices meets this requirement, a sample of 36 units is randomly drawn from the batch, and their noise-levels are measured and listed in Figure 2a. It is clear that none of the units in the sample exceeds the upper limit of 45 decibels ; but it is not clear what proportion of the total batch might exceed the upper limit.

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Safe machinery saves lives


A graphical plot (Figure 2b) of the same data shows a picture of a distribution that is more revealing it suggests that a small percentage of the batch may exceed the upper limit. If certain assumptions can be made about the data, statistical analysis allows us to estimate that about 0,22% of units in the batch will likely exceed the upper limit, even though none in the sample exceeded that limit.

Six-Sigma
In many organizations the use of statistical techniques is left to the individual initiative of employees and managers. In recent years, we have seen the emergence of a formal initiative broadly termed Six-Sigma to enable a more focused deployment of statistical techniques.
Frequency

Guidance on statistical techniques ISO/TR 10017:2003


The effective use of statistical techniques is greatly influenced by how well their potential applicability and benefits are understood by management. This need is well served by the recently published ISO TR 10017: 2003 Guidance on statistical techniques for ISO 9001:2000 . Written in non-technical language, it identifies well-known statistical techniques and their potential applications in a quality management system. It further provides a clear and concise description of each technique to enable the reader to assess its applicability and benefit, and thereby guide the selection of techniques appropriate to the needs of the business. Thus while ISO/TR 10017: 2003 is specifically aligned to the requirements of the ISO 9001:2000 standard, it can also provide guidance on the potential role of statistical techniques in the broad context of business improvement.

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 34
Figure 2a Noise-level (in decibels) of sample units
Upper limit

36

38

40

42

44 46

Noise level (Db)

Figure 2b Plot of noise level data

Statistical techniques can help describe, analyze and model variability, even with limited data. They can thereby help improve the quality of products and processes over the total life-cycle from design and development, to production and service. Some commonly encountered applications of statistical techniques include : Assessing or assuring the quality of incoming material ; Control of processes in manufacturing and service sectors ; Optimizing complex processes to achieve desired outcomes ; Assessing or predicting reliability of products ; Characterizing delivery or response times in service industry.

Such applications play a vital role in virtually every sector of industry and commerce. While the focus here is on assessing and improving quality, it is worth noting that statistical techniques are also potentially useful in other contexts for example in environmental management to help establish, achieve and verify performance targets and goals.

ssssss

Six-Sigma originated as a statistical concept that calls for a high level of process capability, so that the resulting output has a very low level of defects (in the parts per million range). Six-Sigma has since evolved into a broad initiative for driving business improvement. It is characterized by a high level of executive commitment and support for selected projects, which in turn are aligned to business priorities. It also typically involves a significant level of training in the use of selected techniques statistical and otherwise to ensure successful results. In some corporations Six-Sigma has served not only to achieve high levels of performance, but has also been a vehicle for developing skills and capabilities in the organization itself.

About the author


Lally Marwah is with Global Quality management at Nortel Networks, headquartered in Canada. He has led Nortel Networks to ISO 9001:2000, and primed statistical methods for business improvement at IBM. Recently, he led the development of ISO/ TR 10017:2003 Guidance on statistical techniques for ISO 9001:2000. Contact : lmarwah@nortelnetworks.com Phone : Canada 905-863-3254

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Developments and Initiatives


Automobile safety a dummy that can take it all
a series of 33 laboratory tests. Based on using the ISO/TR 9790 rating scale, the WorldSID rating is 7,6 ( Good on a 10 point rating scale). In comparison, other currently used side impact dummies, US-SID, EuroSID-2RE, EuroSID-1, and EuroSID-2, have ratings of 2,3, 4,2, 4,4, and 4,7 respectively. The ability of vehicle safety engineers to utilize the enhanced biofidelity of the WorldSID should lead to safer vehicle designs, enhanced side impact protection, and reduce human injuries in side impacts.

Making WorldSID available to the worldwide vehicle research community


In addition, as a major benefit of harmonization, introduction of a single universal dummy into regulations and consumer testing in all regions would enable manufacturers to focus and coordinate resources to improve worldwide occupant safety, rather than engineering different safety designs for different dummies. As an international group, the WorldSID Task Group operated under the leadership of a Tri-Chair, consisting of one individual from the Americas, Asia Pacific, and European regions of the world. Each of the Tri-Chairs served as chair of their respective regional Advisory Group and shared the chairmanship of the Task Group, which is made up of worldwide representatives of research facilities, manufacturers, government agencies, and dummy equipment manufacturers. One of the goals of this worldwide group was to achieve harmonization via the use of the same dummy in all worldwide markets. Humans are physically similar worldwide, so it is logical to have a single crash dummy to test vehicle safety. There are presently at least three differ1) Risa Scherer, FORD Motor Company, Chair of the Americas Advisory Group, Akihiko Akiyama, Honda, Chair of the Asia Pacific Advisory Group, Edmund Hautmann, BMW Group, Chair of the European Advisory Group, with Ken Wiley, DYNAMIC RESEARCH INC., WorldSID Phase II Project Manager.

By the WorldSID Task Group 1)


n the automotive safety testing field, the ISO World Side Impact Dummy (WorldSID) Task Group has completed the design and development of the WorldSID. Developed under direction of ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, subcommittee SC 12, Passive safety crash protection systems, working group WG 5, Anthropomorphic test devices, beginning in 1997, and funded by a worldwide consortium at a cost of about 14 million USD, the dummy production design was completed on schedule in March 2004. The WorldSID made its official debut at a United Nations World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (Working Party WP.29) reception on 22 June in Geneva. The WorldSID heralds a significant improvement in the ability of crash dummies to duplicate human motions and responses in side impact tests, which should lead to improved vehicle designs and occupant protection. In addition, WorldSID, which was developed by hundreds of engineers and scientists from over 45 organiza-

tions in Europe, Asia-Pacific and the Americas, represents a major breakthrough in worldwide harmonization of crash test dummies.

WorldSID was developed by hundreds of engineers and scientists from over 45 organizations in Europe, Asia-Pacific and the Americas.
Effective vehicle occupant protection design is very dependent upon the ability of vehicle engineers to use crash dummies to predict possible human injuries. The WorldSIDs biofidelity, a measure of how well the dummy simulates the forces and motions of a human, is the best of any side impact crash dummy to date and far exceeds the performances of the others. ISO/TR 9790, Lateral impact response requirements to assess the biofidelity of the dummy, specifies procedures for evaluating side impact dummy biofidelity performance using

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ent adult male sized side impact dummy designs in use and at least four more have been developed. One, used by the US Department of Transportation, has served as the crash dummy to be used in the existing US side impact crash regulation (FMVSS 214). Others were developed in Europe and are being used or are being considered for use in crash tests under European Regulations. The WorldSID was developed to allow a single test device to be used for side impact testing in any regulation around the world. Such a worldwide-harmonized dummy could not have been developed without the international cooperation exhibited within the Task Group. To ensure that the WorldSID is available to the worldwide vehicle research community, the design details have been documented in ISO/ WD 15830, Design and performance specifications for a 50 th percentile male side impact dummy (WorldSID) Part 1 : Definitions, symbol and rationale, Part 2 : Mechanical subsystems, Part 3 : Electronical subsystems and Part 4 : Users manual, which was recently approved by ISO/TC 22/SC 12/ WG 5, and is currently being reviewed and balloted at the Committee Draft level by ISO/TC 22/SC 12. This documentation, which consists of nearly 500 pages plus 400 fabrication drawings and CAD files, includes all of the design details, material specifications, and performance standards required for the fabrication of the WorldSID.

an optional in-dummy data acquisition system capable of recording up to 224 data channels, which can lead to a better understanding of the loads applied to car occupants during side impacts.

The excellent biofidelity of the WorldSID design is due to the use of new technologies and materials.
The technical performance of the WorldSID design has been thoroughly tested and verified by extensive testing under a variety of conditions. The original prototype dummy underwent nearly two years of biofidelity, vehicle, and component testing. Based on the prototype test results, a pre-production design was developed which resulted in the modification of nearly every part of the dummy in order to improve biofidelity, durability, usability, or other aspects of the dummy. Beginning in early 2003, 11 pre-production dummies were fabricated and delivered to each of the three world regions. The subsequent worldwide testing of the pre-production dummies resulted in a few final modifications, which were incorporated into the final production design. The production design is complete and the production dummy is currently available for purchase and use. In total, testing has included more than 1 000 whole dummy biofidelity, vehicle, and component tests. This testing was conducted in 16 different test labs and agencies in at least 10 different countries, including testing by governmental agencies in Canada, Japan, Australia, the USA, and various organizations as part of a framework research programme of the European Commission. The future use of WorldSID in worldwide regulation is now being

reviewed. During its November 2003 meeting, United Nations Working Party WP.29 agreed that development of the WorldSID should be encouraged, and further agreed that EU member states will make proposals to incorporate the WorldSID in ECE Regulation 95 once the WorldSID is shown to be ready for use, in the expectation that this could be done before the end of the 36-month transitional period specified for ES2 in the proposed amendment. This action ensures that the door remains open for the WorldSID to be considered for adoption as a replacement in UN-ECE Regulations for EuroSID-1, which is scheduled to be phased out in 2007 in keeping with earlier GRSP (Global Road Safety Partnership) decisions. Another and separate discussion involves continued reporting to WP.29/ GSRP, as related to future potential use of WorldSID in any potential future Global Technical Regulation for side impact protection.

Using new materials to create human-like performances


The excellent biofidelity of the WorldSID design is due in part to the use of new technologies and materials, some of which were not available for use in older dummy designs. The WorldSID ribs achieve human-like deflection performance through the use of a super-elastic nickel-titanium alloy. The WorldSID anthropometry is based on an extensive, diverse 50 th percentile male driver data set, which resulted in a more human-like seating position. In addition the WorldSID can utilize

The team behind WorldSID with their offspring : (from left to right) Jerry Wang, Member of Design Team, Senior Projects Manager, First Technology Safety Systems, USA ; Ken Wiley, Principal Engineer, Programme Manager, Dynamic Research Inc., USA ; Suzanne Tylko, Vehicle Safety Engineer, Transport, Canada, Secretary of Americas region, Canada ; John Zellner, Technical Director, Programme Manager Dynamic Research Inc., USA ; Risa Scherer, Chair of the Americas Advisory Group, Anthropomorphic Test Device Technical Specialist, Ford Motor Co., USA ; Edmund Hartmann, Chair of the WorldSID European Advisory Group, Vehicle Development Passive Safety Testing, BMW Group, Germany ; Akihiko Akiyama, Assistant chief Engineer, Honda R and D, Japan ; Klaus Bortenschlager, Managing Director, PDB, Germany ; Craig Morgan, Vice-Chair, Denton Inc., USA, Member of Design Team.
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Developments and Initiatives

Best practice for information security

By Ted Humphreys, convenor of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 27, IT Security techniques /WG 1, Requirements, security services and guidelines

Insights from organizations applying the standard


NTT Japan, through the voice of Mr. Hisao Iizuka, Executive Vice-President and CSO NTT Communications Corporation, and Mr. Tomokazu Hamaguchi, President and CEO, NTT Data Corporation, made the following statement about the role and importance that ISO/IEC 17799 has had in its business. ISO/IEC 17799, they say, is rapidly being diffused throughout Japan. It is well implemented especially in the telecommunication industry, which requires a high level of information security. After the privatization of Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Public Corporation in 1985, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) has been through business segmentation by the type of business. Ever since, all the NTT groups are nationally and internationally recognized as leading companies in telecommunication industry with their diverse services. Through the privatization and segmentation processes, NTT groups needed to develop

SO/IEC 17799, Information technology Code of practice for information security management, is the best practice standard for information security management. It provides a broad framework for addressing the day-to-day operational issues a business needs to deal with to protect its information from a wide range of threats and risks. This best practice offers organizations the basis for ensuring business continuity, minimizing business damage and maximizing business investments and opportunities by deploying information security best practice.

new governance systems of their own in order to secure a fair and effective competition. As the rapid dissemination of Internet gained not only the convenience in communication but also the potential risks of illegal accesses to the critical information, the significance of information security is reaffirmed. In order for the NTT groups to prove to the society that they are credible in terms of information security, they chose to implement information security management system with the concept of ISO/IEC 17799. The statement continues : Below are some of the cases that have implemented this system : NTT Communications provider for long distance and international telephone services, Internet services, and solution services (management consulting service and system integration service) has been certified, with ISMS (Information Security Management Systems) at the solution service department with 4 000 employees. This case is one of the largest cases in the world. The other departments are being certified subsequently. NTT Docomo Groups, mobile telecommunication service providers, are individually certified with ISMS in each regional office, including NTT Docomo Kansai. The primary service of NTT Data is System Integration (SI). Its R&D department for ISMS was firstly certified and continues to expand the certification as SIer to sector departments including the Public Sector Service Division. All the NTT groups that obtained such certification by implementing the ISO/IEC 17799 concept reaffirm that it is not a one-time only counter-measure but that it is crucial to maintain those management processes.

Protection of information within multiple fields


ISO/IEC 17799 addresses best practice for the protection of information applied, for example, to the Human Resource department, operational systems and processing facilities, third party services, business applications,

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About the author


Ted Humphreys s convenor of he working roup of ISO/ EC JTC 1/SC 7, IT security echniques, esponsible for he maintenance nd future develpment of ISO/ IEC 17799 and other information security management standards. He is also Director and Founder of the ISMS International User Group, the user community forum for ISO/IEC 17799.

ing development) demonstrates our commitment to protecting information in our possession, and establishes a qualification that all IT&T companies should strive to achieve. Increased privacy controls by governments in the countries where PCCW operates is an important issue. As legislation regulating how information is secured and protected becomes increasingly complex around the world, PCCW must be positioned well to respond effectively and adoption of ISO/IEC 17799 and BS 7799-2 enables the company to do exactly that.

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Internet services, business continuity, and compliance with legislation. The risks addressed by the best practice specified in ISO/IEC 17799 apply to most sectors of business ; this standard thus provides a common language for information security risk management. Also the flexible design of the standard enables it to be used by any organizations of any size. The telecommunications sector is a prime example of a major user of information security to protect and manage a range of networks and network services. ISO/IEC 17799 provides a framework for protecting information systems, communications and services deployed by this sector. All organizations, both commercial and governmental, rely in some way or other on network services to carry out their business. This dependability means that security of these services becomes a key aspect hence the take-up of the standard by many network operators around the world that clearly confirms its importance to the sector. This is additionally borne out by the active collaboration between ISO/IEC and ITU-T on the future development of this standard. Says Dale Johnstone, Principal Consultant Risk Management, PCCW, a leading network operator in Hong Kong. Security of information as it is moved between computers and networks has become a high priority

Australian business and government departments commonly use ISO/IEC 17799 to guide in the implementation of best practice information security controls.
in the business world and is crucially important to PCCW in protecting its own, and customers, information assets. Applying ISO/IEC 17799 and attaining certification to the British standard BS 7799-2 (Part 2 of ISO/IEC 17799, at present undergo-

Services provided by third parties


Businesses around the world depend upon services provided by third parties, in particular their use in a growing market for managed data services. This type of business relies heavily on information security for a variety of information handling and processing controls, ensuring the availability and continuity of information services and many others for managing the risks related to the provision of third party services. The following is a view on this by one of the global businesses in this market.

Grant Geyer, Vice-President, Global Managed Security Services, Symantec Corporation, USA, comments : Outsourcing critical infrastructure, especially security, is not a decision easily made by corporations. There is a need for providers to not only deliver extremely high value and quality, but more importantly, an imperative to ensure our clients trust how were running the business. Using ISO/IEC 17799 has enabled Symantec to provide our managed service customers with the assurances they need about our ability to secure their information. Our customers can see that
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Developments and Initiatives


we use globally accepted best practice, with processes that they are able to examine for themselves. Internally, it has improved our management of people, processes and technology and has meant that information security is ingrained in the way we work. that has adopted it as the basis for all State Enterprise Information Security Policies, and the State of Maine has adopted it for all State Government entities as their security policy. In other countries, health authorities, the criminal justice system, trade and industry departments, police services, social services and many more government entities have adopted ISO/IEC 17799. John Snare, Chair, Australian ISMS Users Group, expresses his appraisal thus : Many business and government organizations know that they have unresolved information security problems. However, cost-effective and prioritized action to bring these problems under control is a major challenge. Australian business and government departments commonly use ISO/IEC 17799 to guide in the implementation of best practice information security controls. The use of ISO/IEC 17799 is increasingly being coupled with implementation of a management system, based on AS/NZS 7799.2, Information security management Specification for information security management systems, to prioritize implementation activities and ensure that controls actually achieve their intended objectives.

Information security in the financial sector


The banking institutions are a well-established user of information security whether it be the traditional means of banking or the more modern on-line banking deploying Internet technology. Several banks around the world are now also applying the best practice in ISO/IEC 17799 ; these include CITI Bank Asia Pacific, ING Banking Group, Istituto Bancario SanPaolo, Misys International Banking, to name but a few. The Federal Reserve Bank in New York has been one of the more recent adopters of the ISO/IEC 17799 standard and, in addition, their information security management system based on this standard has undergone an independent third party audit. Ruud Goudriaan, Corporate Legal Compliance & Security, ING/, Amsterdam, says : ING has decided in an early stage (1997) to base their Information Security Policies and organization on the BS 7799. The good foresight of that decision is demonstrated by the approval in 2000 as ISO/IEC standard and the worldwide recognition as reference standard. ING has implemented ISO/IEC 17799 based policies in all its business units.

Legislation and partners in consumer protection


By Giles Allen, Editor of ISO Focus

A common language for a best practice standard


ISO/IEC 17799 is proving to be the global best practice standard for information security. It has made its mark as a common language , as testified by the take-up by businesses across a broad spectrum of market sectors. This standard, like other standards within ISO, is now going through the regular revision process. This is important to ensure that it continues to remain the common language for information security providing best practice for the common good of all businesses worldwide irrespective of whether for the small, medium or large market sector.

Government agencies need security also


The use of ISO/IEC 17799 is not limited to businesses. Governments have also taken to using the standard in many different areas of their business. This includes government agencies, in, for example, Australia, Finland, Germany, India, Japan, United Kingdom, and the USA. There are states in the USA that have adopted the standard, as for example, the State of Georgia

lobalization has rapidly created a pressing need for a system that protects the international consumer in an effective way. To create global regulations as such, however, is a virtually insurmountable challenge. Therefore a softer approach, using the toolbox of instruments that exists at present to their best effect and in the correct doses already represents notable progress in the right direction. It was precisely the mix of these tools that was at the heart of the debates at the workshop Regulation, Co-regulation and self-regulation who is at risk ? Legislation and standardization partners in consumer protection held in Prague, Czech Republic, on 17 May, in conjunction with the COPOLCO (ISO Committee on consumer policy) plenary. Attended by 100 delegates from 29 countries, the workshop provided a good occasion to look at the subtle inter-relations and interaction between regulations and

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The beauty and hospitality of a renovated city of Prague, with its refound confidence in the future, proved the ideal setting for a reflection on consumer issues of particular import and relevance to economies in transition as well as to developing countries.
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standards
standards, and how and where they can help each other in a common cause of protecting the consumer. For, as Ms. Caroline Warne, Chair of COPOLCO said, opening the workshop : There is great concern abroad about the effect on consumers of the shift towards a less regulated environment.

results of entirely voluntary application without effective enforcement are discouraging. For the Czech Republic, that had just integrated the European Union, the question of new approaches to consumer protection was of immediate relevance, as the country adjusted itself to the new situation. As explained by Mr. Libor Dupal, Director of the Czech Consumer Association, the present European consumer policy covers a broad spectrum of areas, with measures of a regulatory nature as well as tools for voluntary use (technical standards and self-regulation instruments).

The issue of trust


There were notable differences between developed, developing and transitional economies, even if disparities were getting less. Mr. Otakar Kunc, Director of the Czech Standards Institute said how pleased he was about the holding of the workshop in the new circumstances in the Czech Republic, particularly as the recent progression in consumer matters here is promising for consumers and for standardization. Mr. Josef Trick, General Director of the Section for Consumer Protection and Internal Market of the Ministry of Industry and Trade, Czech Republic, saw in the heterogeneous Forum the possibility of contributing to a more efficient participation of consumers in the creation of international standards. The level of consumer confidence, he said, is directly proportionate to their involvement in the development of the standards. There was some way to go before the European consumer felt

really at ease in cross-border shopping and, at the heart of everything was the issue of trust but that was only one reason, among other more practical and down-to-earth causes. The follow-up of complaints handling, taking a company in another country to court, in a foreign language with different laws was more than most Europeans felt capable of undertaking with ease, said Dr. Lothar Maier, President of DIN Consumer Council. Shopping outside a consumers country was still the exception: 86 % of Europeans had not shopped across borders in the last year, yet a comparison of prices between countries highlighted big advantages. A bottle of mineral water that could vary in price between the different national outlets by 44 %; but between countries of the Union, that difference soared to 300 %. The European Union is trying to use the tool of standardization to contribute to change the behaviour of consumers in general and in cross-border shopping in particular. But, asked Lothar Maier, is regulation, and what sort of regulation, also necessary to protect the consumer ? Self-regulation is an option but always on the condition of effective enforcement, he said. Co-regulation could be a precious contribution to fair commercial practices, but only on the condition of the establishment of an effective enforcement mechanism. The

The voice of the consumer is critical to achieving ISOs goals, said Oliver Smoot, ISO President. In ISOs mission statement, we make reference to global relevance ; this includes relevance to consumers, and looking for globally acceptable solutions.

Mr. Dupal claimed that one of the most significant tools for the implementation of the European policy should be an effective application of the alternative dispute resolution systems (ADR), including the operation of the European Network for Extra Judicial Settlement of consumer disputes. ADR he defined as amicable, out-of-court juridical dispute resolution, used in most countries on a voluntary basis, and dependent on self-regulatory mechanisms and principles . We have analysed the situation in the Czech Republic and the EU, and are trying to develop new structures for the application of this mechanism. Mr. Dupal stressed how
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Developments and Initiatives


keen he was that ISO keep up the work in the areas of complaints handling and dispute resolution initiated within COPOLCO, and how to make ADR attractive to both parties. University, Japan, described how consumer protection is today constituted by soft law in Japan, made up of various tools co-regulation or self-regulation . Comparing various national experiences, he considered how such systems of self-regulation or co-regulation successfully help safeguard consumer interests by the best mix of tools, according to country and situation. Consumers main concerns relate to safety and health, lack of information, fraud, inability to understand complex transactions, and rational decisions versus high-pressure sales techniques. From the consumer perspective it is particularly important to underpin standards by effective state regulation. There are many different approaches to consumer protection, said Prof. Matsumoto, Government legislation (regulation), cooperative mechanisms between the public and private sectors (co-regulation) and voluntary adherence by businesses to a code of ethics and self-declaration of conformity, enforced by peers or by independent consumer movements. Standards have a role in all three systems.

Ms. Anna Fielder, Director of the Office for Developed and Transition Economies, Consumer International, studied the notions of regulation, self-regulation and coregulation, specifically in the context of the transition economies. While some 12 different definitions of selfregulation existed, she retained three broad categories which were voluntary (where business regulates itself) and delegated self-regulation where the state delegates to a professional body and provides it with a licensing system. Finally there was co-regulation, a hybrid system where the state sets the framework, then industry chooses to join in or not. Historically the consumer movement has been wary of the effectiveness of self-regulation, considering it as a helpful adjunct to state-led regulation rather than an answer in itself. This was because the necessary corollaries of effective regulation followup oversight, enforcement and redress have generally been lacking in self-regulatory systems. In developed economies, consumer organizations themselves play an important function in monitoring or forcing the market to deliver examples range from car crash safety tests that exceed international standards to setting up various codes and schemes for effective service delivery. The situation was different in transition economies : in the area of product standards, for instance, they have changed from a prior situation of strongly regulated pre-market entry product certification to one of presumption of conformity , in order for the new members to align with the EU system, and for the developing economies to conform to the principles laid out in the WTO Technical Barriers to Trade.

Though consumers have been sceptical about the use of selfregulation essentially for the no teeth reasons, we are coming to think that hybrid or co-regulation is the form most likely to deliver for consumers , she said. We are also seeking to encourage ISO to look at codes for effective stakeholder representation .

Closing the gap between incompatibilities


For Dr. Elizabeth Nielsen, Health Products and Food Branch Health Canada, it has become virtually unthinkable to reach an international legislation, so complex and divergent are regulations at the national level. Another means needed therefore to be found to bring the worlds systems nearer together and to close the gap between incompatibilities between national laws the world over. Since International Standards are one of several well-established tools that exist, they can play an extremely useful role in harmonizing and aligning systems by playing a go-between role, and getting legislations throughout the world to pull together in the same direction. For Elizabeth Nielsen, it was preferable not to think of standards and regulations as two separate species, but as two in a range of interlocking tools that were to be used in varying combinations according to need and purpose. Self-regulation has its sceptics, convinced that rogue traders would deal a final blow to ambient permissiveness . However it has its proponents also : Professor Tsuneo Matsumoto, Graduate School of Law, Hitotsubashi

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The consumer and the tools available

A long way to reassure the consumer ?


Getting the consumer conscious and involved in consumer protection begins in education, said Ms. Nadeda Klabusayov, who gave her experience of teaching of quality and consumer protection at the Department of Business Administration of the University of Ostrava (Czech Republic). Getting such consumer demands into students ways of thinking was a highly successful way of later involvement and automatic consumer reactions among tomorrows leaders of opinion. Furthermore, quality begins as a mindset which is best cultivated early in life. Ms. Klabusayov emphasized the importance of inculcating the quality ethic as a backdrop to technical capability in business. Despite the noticeable improvement in the security of the Internet, there was a long way to go before the

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consumer felt totally reassured. Was it possible, asked Mr. Steven Cole, Senior Vice-President, Council of Better Business Bureaus, USA, to count on the self-discipline of the trades-people to ensure the Internet themselves, since there was no enforcement ? Was self-regulation an effective tool ? The response varied, he said ; systems such as the trustmark concept of shopping on the internet with recognized and approved traders, had has considerable success in the USA ; trustmark programmes were a three-legged stool, requiring high standards, accessible dispute resolution and a trustmark. Not all the problems had been solved, however, he said, such as the issue of funding of systems, keeping them independent and trusted. However, argued Steven Cole, the trustmark concept and global trustmark alliance are timely and useful, despite some improvements and issues to resolve, namely a heightened focus on dispute resolution implementation, a need to rethink forms of self-regulation and the possible role of international standard-setting from organizations such as ISO. The Internet and e-commerce companies are global, whence a need for consistency, flexibility and high standards. Breakout groups then tackled themes of particular concern. Talking about consumer participation, attendees noted the greater reliance being placed on standards at both national and international level, but remarked how it was growing even more difficult to find and fund consumer representatives, and looked at alternative funding models. The added credibility, and

thus value, given to standards developed with consumer input needed to be constantly voiced. Participants suggested that the development of a set of criteria for participation, with further benchmarking against such criteria, and inclusion in the new ISO Business Plans of a template with a clear funding mechanism for consumer representation could be a way forward. Environmental issues were very special case, and the second breakout group recognized their importance but stressed the need for political will to address environmental concerns, that were particularly difficult to implement for developing countries due to the costs of certification. There was a need for a mechanism to make environmental standards more effective, and to carry out a survey to study how they were being implemented. This concerned in particular the ISO 14020 series of standards that were not being used sufficiently. E-commerce, that theoretically could open the world to consumers, still suffered from the handicap of the difficulty of access for developing countries, as well as an overdose of information, with its accompanying unreliability and the insecurity involved in the transaction. The OECD Guidelines on e-commerce was an excellent start, and some good national standards exist, but the group felt that an ISO standard on e-commerce would gain wider acceptance.

Standards an indispensable cog in the regulatory mechanism


The workshop sought to explore effective mechanisms by which voluntary standards interact with regulatory regimes to ensure that products and services meet consumers expectations for safety, performance, fitness of purpose, pricing redress and other criteria. In the course of the workshop, the issue of enforcement was constantly either present or in the wings. Among the array of instruments exercising varying degrees of constraint , along with regulations and self-regulations, came voluntary and consensusbased International Standards, one of the most useful of these tools. The level of consensus that transcends national frontiers that is provided by ISO standards propels them forward as actors on the international stage ; they can credibly support national policy goals and be relevant and useful in the increasingly international market.
Speakers, moderators and rapporteurs at the workshop, from left to right, top row to bottom. Josef Trick, General Director of the Section for Consumer Protection and Internal Market of the Ministry of Industry and Trade, Czech Republic ; Bruce Farquhar, Consultant, Canada ; Anne Ferguson, Vice Chair, Consumer Representation in Standardization, British Standards Institution (BSI-CPC) ; Otakar Kunc, Director, Czech Standards Institute (CSNI), Czech Republic; Caroline Warne, COPOLCO Chair ; Nade da Klabusayov, Associate Professor, Technical University of Ostrava, Department of Business Administration, Czech Republic ; Second row : Steve Williams, Standards Officer, TTSB, Trinidad and Tobago ; Herman Schipper, Head International and European Affairs, NEN, Netherlands ; Tsuneo Matsumoto, Japanese Consumer Council, Graduate School of Law, Hitosubashi University, Japan ; Bill Dee, Representative, Standards Australia International ; Steven J. Cole, Senior Vice President, General Counsel, Council of Better Business Bureaus, USA ; Libor Dupal, Director, Czech Consumer Association, Czech Republic ; Bottom row : Agnes Ratz-Ludanyi, MSZT, Hungary ; Elizabeth Nielsen, Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada ; Anna Fielder, Director, Office for Developed and Transition Economies, Consumers International ; Dana Kissinger, Secretary ISO/COPOLCO. Absent : Lothar Maier, University of Applied Sciences, President, DIN Consumer Council, Germany.
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Developments and Initiatives

The unrelenting advance of video compression


By Leonardo Chiariglione, Digital Media Strategist, Convenor of ISO / IEC JTC 1 / SC 29 / WG 11, the Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG) working group
bound to get a solution. This was the case of video compression. The problem was to reduce the number of bits/s required to store or transmit video signals. The smart people were the thousands of researchers who invested time and effort to reduce the bitrate of digital video to low levels. It did not happen overnight. The first applications were driven by the idea that people would like to communicate with video in addition to audio. In the early 1990s the first standard produced by the Moving Picture Experts Group or MPEG (Working Group 11 of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29) targeted storage of digital video on compact disc (CD). MPEG-1, as the standard is called, is used in hundreds of millions of Video CD players. In the mid-1990s, MPEG developed MPEG-2 that is being used in hundreds of millions of digital television set top boxes and Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) players. In the late 1990s, MPEG developed MPEG-4 that is widely used to move digital video files on the web, to view video on cell phones or to store digital video in a computer-friendly fashion. All these standards were characterized by advances in the technologies used to compress video signals. In 2000, MPEG started inquiring if new technologies had
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ver since people first realized that digital technologies could be used to store and transmit video signals with greater fidelity, the problem of the amount of bits required to do so became apparent. The analogue television signals still in common use today have a bandwidth of about 5 MHz. Converted into bits, this generates 216 Mbit/s (million bits per second) some 20 times more than the bitrate of a good ADSL modem ! Ask smart people to solve a well-formulated problem and you are

been developed that would further compress video. In 2001, a Call for Evidence was issued asking the industry to bring evidence that video could be further compressed compared to MPEG-4. The evidence confirmed the validity of the request, and the decision to develop a new part (part 10) of the MPEG-4 standard called Advanced Video Coding (AVC) was taken, this time in collaboration with ITU-T (as had been the case for MPEG-2). ISO/IEC 14496-15:2004, Information technology Coding of audio-visual objects Part 15 : Advanced Video Coding (AVC), was approved as FDIS in July 2003.

AVC video compression of the new generation


There is an understandable tendency on the part of salesmen to overstate the quality of their wares ; MPEG could similarly boast the wonders of its new product . This is not, however, what MPEG does for the audio and video compression standards it develops. When a compression standard nears completion, verification tests are run, using sophisticated techniques that transform the results of a large number of subjective evaluations into objective measures. For AVC it was found that on average the com-

About the author


Dr. Leonardo Chiariglione is Convenor of the Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG), the working group which produced the MPEG-1, MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 standards that support rich-media applications on diverse delivery systems, MPEG-7, that supports advanced search and retrieval of audio-visual content and is developing MPEG-21, the Multimedia Framework and MPEG-A, the MultimediaApplication Formats.

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pression performance of AVC is twice that of MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 part 2 (the original MPEG-4 standard). This is an impressive result and there is a lot of excitment in the industry at the possibilities opened up by this new standard. AVC can be used in at least two new ways : to replace older standards for the same type of application or to use the new standard for new applications. One of the possibilities of the former is to use AVC as the video compression of the new generation DVD that is being discussed in the appropriate fora. Another is to use AVC to provide improved picture quality on such constrained-bandwidth applications as video on mobile devices. When a new technology replaces an old one in widely deployed applications and devices there is always some resistance because of the need to cater for the transition between the old and the new. This is not, however, the case for new applications, such as digital video on the Internet, for which there have been little more than trials. AVC can be the video compression technology of choice along with another successful MPEG technology for audio compression, Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) for what is likely to become the marriage between networks and media. Is this the end of the story for video compression ? Most likely not. In December 2003, MPEG issued a Call for Proposals for video compression technologies with scalable features, and in March 2004 received a large number of responses. MPEG is now busy working on a new video compression standard that is expected to see the light toward the end of 2006. Get ready for more compression with more features !

ISO to go ahead with guidelines for social responsibility


By Roger Frost, Press and Communication Manager, ISO Central Secretariat

SO is to develop an International Standard for social responsibility. The objective is to produce a guidance document, written in plain language which is understandable and usable by non-specialists and not intended for use in certification. The decision was taken at a senior ISO management meeting on 24-25 June 2004 in Stockholm, following an international conference in the Swedish capital earlier the same week on 2122 June. The conference provided a platform for stakeholders to give their views on whether ISO should proceed with work addressing the social responsibility (SR) of organizations and, if so, what form it should take. Based on the consistent and supportive feedback from the conference, ISO concluded that a further feasibility study was unnecessary and that SR work should be undertaken immediately . In taking its decision, ISO acknowledges that social responsibility involves a number of subjects and issues that are qualitatively different from the subjects and issues that have traditionally been dealt with by ISO. Since developing an SR standard will bring new and more varied categories of stakeholders into the

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ISO system, ISO recognizes that the work will need to be carried out in an innovative manner , but insists that this remains consistent with ISOs fundamental principles , including openness and transparency in the way it works. ISO Secretary-General Alan Bryden commented : ISOs decision is based on a thorough analysis of trends and initiatives relating to social responsibility and the active involvement of all interested groups of stakeholders. The consensus achieved on the way forward for an ISO contribution illustrates the broadening of the scope of our work and the recognition that today, ISO not only provides a growing portfolio of technical standards, but may also supply solutions and guidance on social and environmental issues in the global economy. This new venture is obviously of great interest to stakeholder groups such as consumers, NGOs, labour and regulators whose participation and input ISO both needs and values. To develop the SR standard, ISO will set up a new working group answering directly to ISOs Technical Management Board (TMB) that oversees the activities of the organizations 186 standards-developing technical subcommittees. As a first step, it has formed
ISO Focus July-August 2004

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Ms. Ziva Patir, ISO Vice-President (technical management).

Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden, who officially opened the ISO conference on social responsibility in Stockholm, is presented with a bouquet by Swedish Standards Institute (SIS) Chair Hkan Murby.

Lars Flink, Managing Director, Swedish Standards Institute (SIS), hosts to the conference.

a task force to propose the terms of reference and operating processes for the working group in time for consideration at the TMB meeting in September 2004. Even before that date, the national standards institutes that comprise ISOs worldwide membership are being asked to submit by 15 August 2004 their candidates for a twinned leadership and secretariat to the SR working group, linking developed and developing countries. The experts to the working group will be appointed by the ISO members from all stakeholder categories. Related international and broadly based regional organizations will also be able to appoint experts.

Easier participation for experts from developing countries


ISO intends to make it easier for experts from developing countries to participate, as well as from other stakeholder categories with limited resources, such as nongovernmental organizations, consumer associations and others. A post will be created within the working group specifically to deal with stakeholder participation, including funding. In deciding to develop an SR guidance standard, ISO emphasizes that it is intended to add value to, and not to replace, existing inter-governmental agreements with relevance to social responsibility, such as the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and those adopted by the International Labour Organization (ILO), and other UN conventions. Furthermore, it recognizes the need to develop an agreement with ILO on cooperation between the two organizations in the area of social responsibility.

The ISO SR conference, which was hosted by the Swedish Standards Institute (SIS), drew 355 participants from 66 countries, including 33 developing countries, representing the principal stakeholder groups : business, government, labour, consumers, international and nongovernmental organizations. The major focus for discussion at the conference was provided by the work of the advisory group (AG) on social responsibility which ISO had set up in early 2003 to help it decide on eventual involvement in SR. The group had developed an extensive report including an overview of SR initiatives worldwide identifying issues that should be taken into account by ISO. It had concluded that ISO should go ahead with work on SR on condition that a set of key recommendations are met. On the day after the conference, ISO met the AG to discuss the conference feedback and review the report and recommendations. At its own meeting on 24-25 June, ISO basically accepted the AGs recommendations and addresses them in its resolution 35/2004 to launch ISO work on SR that takes fully into account the elements identified by the AG in its report and by other stakeholders at the conference.
Daniel Gagnier, Chair Advisory Group on Social Responsibility, and Senior Vice-President, External and Corporate Affairs, Alcan Inc.

The full resolution can be consulted on the SR conference Web site created by ISO, along with the presentations made at the event, conference photos and the AGs report and recommendations. For the future, ISO will consider developing a Web site as a means of disseminating good practice in the field of social responsibility. Considering that the AG has successfully completed its mission, ISO has now disbanded the group, thanking it and its Chair, Daniel Gagnier, Senior Vice-President, External and Corporate Affairs, Alcan Inc., for their achievements. ISO Deputy Secretary-General Kevin McKinley commented : The extent to which the issues raised by the different stakeholder groups at the Stockholm conference mirrored those identified in the AGs report confirms the value of the work it has carried out for ISO over an 18-month period. Now it is up to ISO to address these issues and face the challenge of developing practical guidelines that benefit all the stakeholders in social responsibility.

Kevin McKinley, ISO Deputy SecretaryGeneral.

Photos by Mns Diedrichs, Corporate Communications, Swedish Standards Institute (SIS).

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ISO Focus July-August 2004

Coming up
Developments and Initiatives
Standards of practice in dentistry. In the last decade, ISO/TC 106, Dentistrys work has increased substantially, with new work items demanding both new standards and the revision of existing specifications, mainly due to the flood of new products and clinical techniques. Three main trends are responsible : firstly, public appreciation of the importance of good teeth to a youthful and aesthetic appearance ;

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Main Focus
Food technologies
The ISO Focus dossier on food technologies brings together the essence of what is happening in standardization in the varied and heterogeneous aspects of the food industry. In each country, the purveyance to its population of food in sufficient quantity, of suitable quality and with inherent safety is a basic political requirement of that country, and thus the production, the possible export, and the necessary import of food represent a prime focus of interest universally. International standardization in the agriculture and food areas started in 1947, and today ISO today has some 640 standards under its belt in the field. ISO/TC 34, Food products, serves as a platform for developing ISO International Standards, and harmonizing the relations with those of other international organizations such as the CODEX Alimentarius Commission and the International Dairy Federation. The most frequent demand to ISO/TC 34 and its subcommittees is to develop International Standards related to analysis and test methods, and approximately 65 % of standards cover such methods. Most product-orientated subcommittees of TC 34 have developed one or more standards for sampling of their products. Another important area : ISOs vocabulary standards are comprehensively used in world trade and are accepted by other international organizations.

Chemicalization of agriculture and the food industry has significantly increased the yields and food production. However, with it has come a widespread fear of chemicals, and the demand is rising for more effective agricultural technologies, that maintain the nutritive value of the raw materials, and that preserve the environment. Food safety has become a universal and absolute demand. In view of this, the trend of work is changing with respect to transgenic materials, new molecular biological methods, markers, techniques and technologies. Changes are expected due to the need to describe novel qualitative and quantitive methods for the detection of Genetically Modified materials, and to follow them in food, in human organisms and in the environment. TC 34s work, that covers all the traditional fields (cereals, tea and coffee, milk and milk products, meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, edible fats and oils, etc.), now tackles new and specific challenges in regard to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and traceability in the food chain. Good Manufacturing Practice has become a must for the industry and consumers : ISO is finalizing ISO 22000, Food safety management systems Requirements throughout the food chain. And in the light of the accidents such as dioxin spills and the BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Mad Cow Disease ) affair, the need for International Standards for methods of analysis for feed are growing.

secondly, the increasing desire for cosmetic or aesthetic dentistry which involves minimal size fillings and toothcoloured filling materials such as polymer-ceramic composites and ceramics. Thirdly, the exponential increase in the use of titanium implants embedded in the jaws as a foundation for the replacement of a missing tooth or teeth.

A world of applications for gas calibration. The work of ISO/TC 158,


Analysis of gases, is mainly concerned with the calibration of gases and gas mixtures, and its market is that of the calibration of gas market, although the direct influence of what it does affects the whole gas market.

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All gas analysing equipment needs calibration, and these standards have a big impact on a wide range of applications where accurate knowledge of gas mixture composition is required. This can be for demonstration of compliance with regulations, for trade purposes, for industrial purposes, or for environmental purposes.
ISO Focus July-August 2004

Whether its Autumn or Spring in your region...


...the environment is global.
001 4 1 ISO

ISO 1 4004

Coming this Winter (or Summer), the revised ISO 14001* and ISO 14004*. The global EMS standards. www. .org
* Already available as FDIS (Final Draft International Standards)