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Benefits of Inclusive Education

The benefits of inclusive education are numerous for both students with and without disabilities. Benefits of Inclusion for Students With Disabilities 1. Friendships 2. Increased social initiations, relationships and networks 3. Peer role models for academic, social and behavior skills 4. Increased achievement of IEP goals 5. Greater access to general curriculum 6. Enhanced skill acquisition and generalization 7. Increased inclusion in future environments 8. Greater opportunities for interactions 9. Higher expectations 10. Increased school staff collaboration 11. Increased parent participation 12. Families are more integrated into community Benefits of Inclusion for Students Without Disabilities 1. Meaningful friendships 2. Increased appreciation and acceptance of individual differences 3. Increased understanding and acceptance of diversity 4. Respect for all people 5. Prepares all students for adult life in an inclusive society 6. Opportunities to master activities by practicing and teaching others

7. Greater academic outcomes 8. All students needs are better met, greater resources for everyone There is not any research that shows any negative effects from inclusion done appropriately with the necessary supports and services for students to actively participate and achieve IEP goals.

Components of Inclusive Education


There's a difference between "real" inclusion... and just being present.
Key "Necessary" Components of "Inclusive Education"

Students are in their home schools, general education classes o Where the students would be if they did not have disabilities Appropriate Supports and Services
o o

Based on individual's and needs. Supports follow the students, the students don't go somewhere to get them

"On-going" planning for success


o o o o o

Obstacles are issues waiting for solutions "Teams" are proactive, addressing needs before problems arise Inclusion is a process, not an event All team members actively seek out information and resources All team members have a shared vision of what success looks like

for each individual student


o

Classroom, building and district decisions and planning reflect the needs of students with disabilities

Active Participation
o o

Exclusion can happen in a general education environments All activities are designed to be accessible for all students

All students have a sense of belonging


o o o

All students are valued Social goals are integrated within class activities for all students Adults model and facilitate inclusion and interactions

Achievement of IEP Goals


o

Goals are dependent on individual and worked on within general curriculum

Natural proportions
o

Same proportion of students with disabilities are in classes as are in the general population Students with disabilities are not grouped All classes practice inclusion, none are referred to as "inclusion classes"

o o

Classes get ready for students


o

Students do not have to get "ready" to be included

o o

There are no prerequisites for inclusion Staff are trained based on students' needs

Collaboration and Team Planning


o

General and special education staff have ownership of students with disabilities All team members collaborate and communicate frequently

Diversity is valued through out all environments, activities and events


o o o o o

Sensitivity and awareness are interwoven throughout Universal design and curriculum are utilized first People 1st language is promoted and used in all environments All students get what they need based on individuals, not labels All students count in assessments and evaluations

Inclusion, it's not for everyone?


By Colleen Tomko
Is a sense of belonging, meaning and purpose, or happiness for everyone? Is the foundation of our country, the pursuit of life, liberty and justice for some? If inclusion isnt for everyone, is exclusion for some? Who decides who is to be excluded and on what basis, religion, race, sex, skin color, beliefs, abilities? Before a statement is made about whether or not inclusion is for everyone, there must be a clear definition of what inclusion is. In education, the word inclusion sometimes is used to simply describe a child with a disability placed in a regular class. Could this really be a definition of inclusion? Is every child in the regular class with or without a disability considered "included" just because they are there? Are there no requirements of being an active participant or being considered as a member who belongs? If you sit in the room you are included?

In general, when people describe being included they use words such as happy, accepted, welcomed, friendship, love, valued and togetherness. When people describe being excluded, they use words like, isolated, lonely, dejected, angry, sad, abandoned and depressed. If the general thought is that inclusion makes people feel good, then why wouldnt it be for everyone? A goal of education is to help children reach their potential and become productive members of society. When people feel good, they have a greater capacity to function to their potential in every aspect of their lives. There are sports, clubs, assemblies, and other non-academic activities that help children become well rounded and more receptive to learning. If overall needs are important for all children, they are equally important to the growth of a child with a disability too. If a child happens to have a disability he or she is still first and foremost a child. That child has the same basic needs of health and physical fitness; social and a sense of belonging; mental challenges and stimulation; spiritual and a sense of meaning and purpose, as any other child. When all these needs are met in an integrated way, a child can function better in every area of his or her life. Unmet needs affect the childs overall well-being and his or her potential to function and learn. Meeting all of a childs needs should not be conditional upon placement. Being physically placed in the regular class should never mean that any needs are sacrificed. Additional needs can be met that can not be met in an excluded setting. My definition of inclusion in education is "the act of attending regular education classes, with the supports and services needed to successfully achieve the individual's IEP goals, while actively participating in activities as a member of the class who belongs." I believe inclusion is a desired state to be achieved, that may or may not occur by simple placement alone. It is an ongoing process. I believe that unless a child has a sense of identity with the class, and unless he or she has the supports and services needed and is reaching his or her IEP goals then inclusion has not been achieved. Yes, this does define inclusion only in the terms of success, but I truly believe that inclusion only means success. With that definition in mind, who is inclusion not for?

"Our School Doesn't Offer Inclusion" and Other Legal Blunders

Paula Kluth, Richard A. Villa and Jacqueline S. Thousand Common misunderstandings about schools' legal responsibilities under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act have slowed implementation of the law. School authorities who understand the law can provide a better education for all students. In 1975, Congress passed the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (Public Law 94-142), guaranteeing for the first time that all students with disabilities would receive a public education. The law, whose name changed in subsequent reauthorizations in 1990 and 1997 to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (Public Law 101-476; Public Law 105-17), set the stage for inclusive schooling, ruling that every child is eligible to receive a free and appropriate public education and to learn in the least restrictive environment possible. Specifically, the law ensures that to the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities, including children in public or private institutions and other care facilities, are educated with children who are not disabled. (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 20 U.S.C. 1412 [a][5]) In 1994, the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs issued policy guidelines stating that school districts cannot use the lack of adequate personnel or resources as an excuse for failing to make a free and appropriate education available, in the least restrictive environment, to students with disabilities. Schools have taken much time to implement the law. Although many schools and districts have been educating students with disabilities in inclusive settings for years, families often still have to fight to get their children into general education classrooms and inclusive environments. An analysis of U.S. Department of Education reports found that in the dozen years between 1977 and 1990, placements of students with disabilities changed little. By 1990, for example, only 1.2 percent more students with disabilities were in general education classes and resource room environments: 69.2 percent in 1990 compared with 68 percent in 1977. Placements of students with disabilities in separate classes declined by only 0.5 percent: 24.8 percent in 1990 compared with 25.3 percent in 1977. And, students with disabilities educated in separate public schools or other separate facilities declined by only 1.3 percent: 5.4 percent of students with disabilities in 1990 compared with 6.7 percent of students with disabilities in 1977 (Karagiannis, Stainback, & Stainback, 1996). More recently, the National Council on Disability (2000) released similar findings. Investigators discovered that every state was out of compliance with the requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and that U.S.

officials are not enforcing compliance. Even today, schools sometimes place a student in a self-contained classroom as soon as they see that the student is labeled as having a disability. Some students enter self-contained classrooms as soon as they begin kindergarten and never have an opportunity to experience regular education. When families of students with disabilities move to a different district, the new school sometimes moves the student out of general education environments and into segregated classrooms. In some cases, districts may be moving slowly toward inclusive education, trying to make a smooth transition by gradually introducing teachers and students to changebut moving slowly cannot be an excuse for stalling when a learner with a disability comes to school requiring an inclusive placement. Clearly, more than 25 years after the law came into effect, many educators and administrators still do not understand the law or how to implement it. Three common misunderstandings still determine decisions about students with disabilities in U.S. schools.

"Our School Doesn't Offer Inclusion"


We often hear teachers and families talking about inclusion as if it were a policy that schools can choose to adopt or reject. For example, we recently met a teacher who told us that her school "did inclusion, but it didn't work," so the school "went back to the old way." Similarly, a parent explained that she wanted her child to have an inclusive education, but her neighborhood school doesn't "have inclusion." Special education is not a program or a place, and inclusive schooling is not a policy that schools can dismiss outright. Since 1975, federal courts have clarified the intent of the law in favor of the inclusion of students with disabilities in general education (Osborne, 1996; Villa & Thousand, 2000a, 2000b). A student with a disability should be educated in the school he or she would attend if not identified as having a disability. The school must devise an individualized education program that provides the learner with the supports and services that the student needs to receive an education in the least restrictive environment possible. The standard for denying a student access to inclusion is high. The law clearly states that students with disabilities may be removed from the regular education environment only when the nature or severity of the disability is such that education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily. (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 20 U.S.C. 1412 [a][5])

If schools can successfully educate a student with disabilities in general education settings with peers who do not have disabilities, then the student's school must provide that experience.

"She Is Too Disabled to Be Educated in a Regular Classroom


A special education teacher recently told us that she was interested in inclusive schooling and that she decided to "try" it with one of her students. Patricia, a young student with Down's syndrome, began 1st grade in Sept-ember, but the school moved her back to a special education classroom by November. The teacher told us how difficult the decision had been and explained why educators had changed Patricia's placement: "The kids really liked her and she loved 1st grade, but she just wasn't catching on with the reading. She couldn't keep up with the other kids." Many families and teachers have the common misperception that students with disabilities cannot receive an inclusive education because their skills are not "close" enough to those of students without disabilities. Students with disabilities, however, do not need to keep up with students without disabilities to be educated in inclusive classrooms; they do not need to engage in the curriculum in the same way that students without disabilities do; and they do not need to practice the same skills that students without disabilities practice. Learners need not fulfill any prerequisites to participate in inclusive education. For instance, a middle-school social studies class is involved in a lesson on the U.S. Constitution. During the unit, the class writes its own constitution and bill of rights and reenacts the Constitutional Convention. Malcolm, a student with significant disabilities, participates in all these activities even though he cannot speak and is just beginning to read. During the lesson, Malcolm works with a peer and a speech and language therapist to contribute one line to the class bill of rights; the pair uses Malcolm's augmentative communication device to write the sentence. Malcolm also participates in the dramatic interpretation of the Constitutional Convention. At the Convention, students acting as different Convention participants drift around the classroom introducing themselves to others. Because he cannot speak, Malcolmacting as George Masonshares a little bit about himself by handing out his "business card" to other members of the delegation. Other students are expected to submit three-page reports at the end of the unit, but Malcolm will submit a shorter report, a few sentences, which he will write using his communication device. His teacher will assess Malcolm's grade on the basis of his report and participation in the class activities, his demonstration of new skills related to programming his communication device, and his social interactions with others during the Constitutional Convention exercise. The Constitutional Convention example illustrates how students with disabilities can participate in general education without engaging in the same ways or

having the same skills and abilities that others in the class may have. In addition, this example highlights ways in which students with disabilities can work on individual skills and goals within the context of general education lessons. Most important, his teachers designed and put in place the supports and adaptations that Malcolm needed for success. Malcolm did not have to display all the skills and abilities of other students to participate. Instead, Malcolm's teachers created a context in which Malcolm could demonstrate competence. For Malcolm to be successful in his classroom, his teachers need to provide him with a range of "supplemental supports, aids, and services," one of the law's requirements (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 20 U.S.C. 1412 [a] [5]). Supports, aids, and services might include a piece of assistive technology, use of an education consultant, instruction from a therapist, support from a paraprofessional, peer tutors, different seating or environmental supports, modified assignments, adapted materials (such as large-print books, graphic organizers, or color-coded assignment books), curriculum that is differentiated to meet the needs of the learner, time for teachers' collaborative planning, coteaching, training for school personnel, or any number of other strategies, methods, and approaches. Schools do not need to provide every support available, but they must provide those required by the student with disabilities. Families do not have to prove to the school that a student with disabilities can function in the general classroom. In Oberti v. Board of Education of the Borough of Clementon School District (1993), for example, a U.S. circuit court determined that the neighborhood school of Raphael Oberti, a student with Down's syndrome, had not supplied him with the supports and resources he needed to be successful in an inclusive classroom. The judge also ruled that the school had failed to provide appropriate training for his educators and support staff. The court placed the burden of proof for compliance with the law's inclusion requirements squarely on the school district and the state instead of on the family. In other words, the school had to show why this student could not be educated in general education with aids and services, and his family did not have to prove why he could. The federal judge who decided the case stated, "Inclusion is a right, not a special privilege for a select few."

"We Offer Special Programs Instead of Inclusion


A few years ago, one of us went to a neighborhood school to vote. To get to the ballot machines, voters had to walk down a long hallway to a classroom marked Autistic Center. Knowing that the district had been providing inclusive education to many students with disabilities, we were surprised to learn that although students with mild disabilities were in general education classrooms, others were still in "special programs." The teacher in the Autistic Center was responsible for educating all the district's students who were diagnosed with autismeight learners, ages 6 to 14.

Across the United States, many school districts still operate programs for discrete groups of students. Separate programs and classrooms exist for students identified with certain labelsemotional disabilities, for exampleand for students with perceived levels of need, such as severe or profound disabilities. In many cases, students enter these self-contained settings without an opportunity to receive an education in a general classroom with the appropriate aids and services. In 1983, the Roncker v. Walter case challenged the assignment of students to disability-specific programs and schools. The ruling favored inclusive, not segregated, placement and established a principle of portability. The judge in the case stated, It is not enough for a district to simply claim that a segregated program is superior. In a case where the segregated facility is considered superior, the court should determine whether the services which make the placement superior could be feasibly provided in a nonsegregated setting (i.e., regular class). If they can, the placement in the segregated school would be inappropriate under the act (IDEA). (Roncker v. Walter, 1983, at 1063) The Roncker court found that placement decisions must be determined on an individual basis. School districts that automatically place students in a predetermined type of school solely on the basis of their disability or perceived level of functioning rather than on the basis of their education needs clearly violate federal laws.

Benefits of Understanding the Law


Implementation of the law is still in its infancy, and educators are still learning about how the law affects students in their classrooms. Reviewing the intent and language of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act will help administrators shape districtwide or school-based policies and procedures; evaluate the ways in which programs are labeled and implemented; and make more informed decisions about student assessment, placement, and service delivery. Administrators should also consider the following questions:

Are all students in the least restrictive environment? Are we providing students with disabilities with the necessary supplemental supports, aids, and services? Do teachers and administrators understand their responsibilities under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act? Do teachers and administrators talk about inclusive education as if it were a choice that can be made by a school or by a teacher?

Do school personnel require additional training?

School district leaders and school principals who understand the federal law can avoid lawsuits, enhance education experiences for students with and without disabilities, and move toward the development of school communities that are egalitarian, just, and democratic for all.

References
Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, Public Law 94-142 (1975). Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 20 U.S.C. 1400 et seq. (1997). Karagiannis, A., Stainback, S., & Stainback, W. (1996). Historical overview of inclusion. In S. Stainback & W. Stainback (Eds.), Inclusion: A guide for educators (pp. 1728). Baltimore: Brookes. National Council on Disability. (2000, January 25). Back to school on civil rights. (NCD #00-283). Washington, DC: Author. Oberti v. Board of Education of the Borough of Clementon School District, 995 F.2d 1204 (3rd Cir. 1993). Osborne, A. G. (1996). Legal issues in special education. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Roncker v. Walter, 700 F.2d 1058 (6th Cir. 1983), cert. denied, 464 U.S. 864 (1983). Villa, R., & Thousand, J. (Eds.). (2000a). Restructuring for caring and effective education. Baltimore: Brookes. Villa, R. & Thousand, J. (2000b). Setting the context: History of and rationales for inclusive schooling. In R. Villa & J. Thousand (Eds.), Restructuring for caring and effective education: Piecing the puzzle together (pp. 737). Baltimore: Brookes. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Paula Kluth (pkluth@syr.edu) is an assistant professor in the Department of Teaching and Leadership, Syracuse University, 150 Huntington Hall, Syracuse, NY 13244. Richard A. Villa (ravillabayridge@cs.com) is President, Bayridge Consortium, 767 Pebble Beach Dr., San Marcos, CA 92069. Jacqueline S. Thousand (jthousand@csusm.edu) is a professor in the College of Education, California State UniversitySan Marcos, San Marcos, CA 92096. Copyright 2001 by Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development Volume 59 Number 4 December 2001/January 2002 http://www.ascd.org/

WHAT IS INCLUSIVE EDUCATION ? Inclusive education is a system of education in which all the pupils with special educational needs are enrolled in ordinary classes in their district schools, and are provided with support services and an education based on their forces and needs. Inclusive schools are based on the basic principle that all schoolchildren in a given community should learn together, so far as is practicable, regardless of their handicaps or difficulties. They should recognize and take into account the diverse needs of their pupils, adapt to different styles and rhythm of teaching and provide quality education through the appropriate use of resources, school organization and study plans as well as partnership with the community. There is need to ensure that the services provided correspond exactly to the special needs, regardless of their grades.

Pakistan Association for Inclusive Education


What is Inclusive Education? Inclusive Education advocates that all children should be educated together, regardless of ability. Children with disabilities and/or other special needs have the right to receive schooling in mainstream schools along with their same-age peers. Inclusive education recognizes that all children can learn and that teaching must cater to individual strengths and needs in order for students to meet their full potential.

Why Inclusive Education?

The international perspective: The United Nations and other international organizations are encouraging the development of inclusive education systems for a number of reasons. The most important reason is the human rights for all children to receive education. Providing education for all children in one educational system has educational, social and economical advantages:

Regular schools with this inclusive orientation are the most effective means of combating discriminatory attitudes, creating welcoming communities, building an inclusive society and achieving education for all; moreover, they provide an effective education to all the majority of children and improve the efficiency and ultimately the cost-effectiveness of the entire education system
(The Salamanca Statement, United Nations, 1994)

Benefits of Inclusive Education

All children benefit from Inclusive Education. Inclusive teachers are good teachers because of their ability to use a wide variety of teaching and assessment methods. The advantages of inclusive education go beyond just academics, and also benefit children socially by teaching them responsibility, tolerance, and cooperation skills. Purpose of PAIE To provide a platform for teachers of mainstream and special schools to meet and learn together about Inclusive Education. PAIE Activities Monthly workshops on the second Saturday of the month Short courses Production of a 6-monthly newsletter Raising awareness in members schools and the wider community.

Membership

Any teacher/individual who believes that Children with Special Needs should be given the opportunity to study in a mainstream school. Annual fee for individuals is Rs.200/ Any school that is planning to work or already working towards becoming an Inclusive School. Annual fee for schools is Rs.500/-. We hope that members will be actively involved by co-facilitating workshops, helping with the newsletter, or serving on the PAIE Working Committee.

2005 Session Topics

Months

January

Topics Facing differences: overcoming fears " Recognizing our feelings as we start to include children with special needs in our classrooms
Speech Problems Story Telling

Mar May

June - July

August

Oct

Dec

5 Day Summer sessions " What makes a good inclusive teaching team" Science in the classroom- joint session with SAP AUTISM: teaching strategies in the classroom Chronic health problems - joint session with HEALTH

Contact Details:

Pakistan Association for Inclusive Education (PAIE)


paie@ptan.org Debbie Kramarroy Phone: 634-7611 ext 3070 Professional Teacher Associations Network (PTAN) C/O Institute for Educational Development IED-PDC, 1-5/B - VII, F.B. Area Karimabad, P.O.Box 13688 Karachi-75950, PAKISTAN Tel: 092-21-6347611-4 Fax: 092-21-6347616 Email: info@ptan.org

What is Inclusive Education? Concept Sheet

Inclusive Education (IE) is a strategy contributing towards the ultimate goal of promoting an inclusive society, one which enables all children/adults, whatever their gender, age, ability, ethnicity, impairment or HIV status, to participate in and contribute to that society. Difference is respected and valued. Discrimination and prejudice will be actively combated in policies, institutions and behaviour.

Education is the right of all children, and IE aims to ensure that all children have access to an appropriate, relevant, affordable and effective education within their community. This education starts in the home with the family, and includes formal, non-formal and all types of community-based education initiatives. Within schools IE is an approach which aims to develop a child-focus by acknowledging that all children are individuals with different learning needs and speeds. Teaching and learning can become more effective, relevant and fun for all. Therefore IE will always be good for all schools, although all schools may not be good for all children. IE is part of development, and development should be inclusive, i.e. responding to the needs of real people who are all different. As with all children, disabled children have a range of basic needs which need to be met in order for them to benefit from education. These include nutrition, acceptance, love and basic health care. Poverty and lack of basic infrastructure (roads, transport) affects childrens access to education, including disabled children. Whatever the level of socio/economic development, the education of disabled children should be seen as integral to the development of education for all children. Many of the problems which exclude disabled children from education are a result of exclusive planning: planning should be inclusive. IE is the responsibility of both government and community, requiring collaboration between sectors and extensive participation. Supporting and involving families is central to IE, as the family has prime responsibility for the care and education of their children (whether disabled or not). Community Based Rehabilitieation (CBR) as a component of community development can help meet basic and specific needs of disabled children, such as access to braille and sign and mobility aids. CBR may also have a direct role in supporting the education of children with severe and multiple disabilities, both in the context of their own homes and in day care facilities. Issues of disabled identity and discrimination need to be addressed as part of an IE strategy. In order to combat discrimination and to promote positive identity in disabled children, disabled role models should be accessible to all children, schools should employ disabled teachers, and curriculum materials should reflect the existence of disabled people in society in positive ways. As a catalyst for change IE provides not only school improvement but an increased awareness of human rights which leads to a reduction of discrimination. By finding local answers to complex problems it empowers communities and can lead to wider community development. IE addresses a real need, is a readily understandable concept and requires no new major resources. It primarily involves changes of attitudes and behaviour. It has the potential to be a very effective starting point for addressing the Rights of the Child in a range of cultures and contexts. Note on use of terms The term Integrated Education generally refers to an approach which has focused on helping disabled children and children with learning difficulties benefit from mainstream

schooling. As a result of initial efforts to respond to the needs of children with disability/learning difficulties, schools become more flexible and child-centred and therefore enable other marginalised groups to benefit. The term Inclusive Education is a more accurate term which reflects our common goal. However, many programmes will continue to use the term Integrated Education where this is more meaningful and familiar in that context and culture. Specific Terms used in Relation to Children and Learning Guiding Principles Every child is different, and there is no fixed dividing line between disabled children and non-disabled children, or between children with learning difficulties, and those without. Whatever language is used, it is important that it is clearly understood, promotes positive attitudes and practice, and does not stigmatise. Therefore different terms will be appropriate in different contexts and cultures. Language should not be used for labelling children, but rather for highlighting problems and improving practice. Whatever term is used, the words child or children should be added, e.g. children with learning difficulties. Impairment This commonly refers to the lack of part or all of a limb, a defective limb, organism or mechanism of the body. Children with different impairments (e.g. ranging from missing finger, club foot, epilepsy, facial scar to severe brain damage) can be excluded from education for different reasons. These include negative attitudes, lack of physical access/transport, and rigid teaching methods in schools. Having an impairment (e.g. short sight, missing finger) does not automatically mean that the person is disabled. Disability Save the Children Fund (SCF) views disability as a social and development issue, not a medical one. In this context, a child with an impairment is disabled when, in their particular context and culture, they are excluded from society/education or discriminated against. The term does not just refer to physically disabled children but includes any impairments (such as the less visible hearing impairment). The term handicapped is generally felt to be not appropriate in most English-speaking societies (coming from cap-in-hand and evoking a passive charity model). Where it is still used, it often refers to people with severe impairment who are handicapped by society, and may be used interchangeably with the term disability. Special Educational Needs This term arose out of the realisation by educationalists that not all disabled children (e.g. those who used wheelchairs) had problems learning, and that many children without obvious impairments were failing in schools. It represented a move away from focusing on a medical condition to acknowledging different learning needs and speeds. However, it is unfortunately still used to label individual children, rather than highlight problems in the system. It is positive concept when it helps schools to become more child-focused and flexible but it does have its limits and is not possible to define precisely. United Nations

Educational Scientific & Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) uses the term children with special needs to refer to street children and other marginalised groups. Learning Difficulty Children do not have a fixed ability to learn. All children can learn, and any child may experience difficulty. Their learning is affected by a wide range of factors including the home and school environment, skills/methods of teachers and cultural perceptions of what types of learning are valued and given status. Children with learning difficulty is used to refer to children who are not succeeding in mainstream schools. But often their lack of success is to do with poor teaching methods and lack of appropriate support for their learning. So it is a term which should not be used to label children. However some children (e.g. those with conditions such as Down's Syndrome or iodine deficiency, or brain injury) may learn at very different rates and with certain overall (but broad) limits. Mental Handicap In some societies, children with severe learning difficulties has replaced the terms mental handicap/retardation which encourage stigma and focus on a perceived defect. In other societies, mental handicap may be a big improvement on mad or idiot and so is appropriate for the time being (see Guiding Principles).

1980 - 1995: SCFs Main IE Programme Overseas


Thailand 1983: Various disability projects started, including units for hearing impaired children and day care for mentally disabled children. 1989: Special classes within mainstream schools started as a response to waiting lists for residential institutions. 1991: IE programme for visually impaired children began. China 1988: Work with the Anhui Provincial Education Committee began. Two kindergartens started to integrate. 1993: SCF advisor appointed for two years to help scale up. Laos 1991: Primary Education Programme staff exposed to UNESCO pack and study tour. 1993: Pilot IE school began. 1995: SCF advisor appointed to take work forward and link with Kindergarten programme. Vietnam 1989: Initial collaboration with Centre for Research and Education of Disabled Children. 1990: Support for special school teacher training, resource centre development and scholarships. 1994: SCF advisor appointed for two years to develop IE.

Lesotho Pre-1988: SCF ran hostels for boys with polio while they attended mainstream schools and for visually impaired boys while they attended a resource centre for blind people. SCF was considered the lead agency on disability in Lesotho. 1988: Regional disability advisor visited Lesotho and started policy negotiations on IE. Collaboration with the Ministry of Education began. 1991: SCF advisor appointed to coordinate national IE programme. Morocco 1993: CBR programme began in Khemisset, including small classes for hearing impaired and mentally disabled children. Lobbying and advocacy at national level to promote IE. Some Examples of Programmes with an IE Component Swaziland: Pre-school IE is a component of CBR programme. Zanzibar: IE in mainstream primary is a component of CBR programme. South Africa: Pre-school IE component in several CBR programmes and in work with NGOs. Zimbabwe: IE in pre-schools is part of commercial farm workers programme. Mozambique: As part of CBR. Small signing groups for deaf children. West Bank: Outreach programme and sponsorship. Summary of IE Literature Search Sparse, dominated by a small elite. Misleading and unreliable use of hard data in relation to formal provision of education to disabled children. Reinforces negative deficit model of developing country. Concepts confused and unexamined, e.g. what is meant by the term special needs? Cross-cultural issues not addressed.

Inclusive school
Inclusive education is about the education of all children in mainstream schools and classrooms and the recent drive toward inclusive education is about more than disability or special educational needs. It reflects changes in the social and political climate wherein a new approach characterizes thinking about difference. In recent debate about inclusion, a premium is placed upon full participation by all and respect for the rights of others. Discussion about the benefits of an inclusive society assumes that a society which can nurture, develop and use the skills, talents and strengths of all its members will enlarge its collective resources and ultimately is likely to be more at ease with itself. These changes in thinking are espoused in much recent discourse about education. Increasingly, this discourse emphasises learners rights as well as their needs, and stresses the importance of an education free from discrimination and segregation.

LEGISLATION The new anti-discriminatory climate has provided the basis for much change in policy and statute, nationally and internationally. Inclusion has been enshrined as segregation and discrimination have been rejected and outlawed. Articulations of the new developments in ways of thinking, in policy and in law include: The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) which sets out childrens rights in respect of freedom from discrimination and in respect of the representation of their wishes and views. The UNESCO Salamanca Statement (1994) which calls on all governments to give the highest priority to inclusive education.

What is inclusive education?


Inclusive education differs from previously held notions of integration and mainstreaming, which tended to be concerned principally with disability and special educational needs and implied learners changing or becoming ready for accommodation by the mainstream. By contrast, inclusion is about the childs right to participate and the schools duty to accept. It is about rejecting segregation or exclusion of learners for whatever reason ability, gender, language, care status, family income, disability, sexuality, colour, religion or ethnic origin; maximising the participation of all learners in the community schools of their choice; making learning more meaningful and relevant for all, particularly those learners most vulnerable to exclusionary pressures; rethinking and restructuring policies, curricula, cultures and practices in schools and learning environments so that diverse learning needs can be met, whatever the origin or nature of those needs. Inclusion is about school change to improve the educational system for all students. It means changes in the curriculum, changes in how teachers teach and how students learn, as well as changes in how students with and without special needs interact with and relate to one another. Inclusive education practices reflect the changing culture of contemporary schools with emphasis on active learning, authentic assessment practices, applied curriculum, multi-level instructional approaches, and increased attention to diverse student needs and individualization. The claim is that schools, centers of learning and educational systems must change so that they become caring, nurturing, and supportive

educational communities where the needs of all students and teachers are truly met. Inclusive schools no longer provide "regular education" and "special education". Instead, inclusive schools provide an inclusive education and as a result students will be able to learn together. In other words, it is open to all students, and that ensure that all students learn and participate. For this to happen, teachers, schools and systems may need to change so that they can better accommodate the diversity of needs that pupils have and that they are included in all aspects of school-life. It also means identifying any barriers within and around the school that hinder learning and participation, and reducing or removing these barriers. Inclusive education is a process of enabling all students, including previously excluded groups, to learn and participate effectively within mainstream school systems. Placing excluded students within a mainstream setting does not of itself achieve inclusion.

Principles

Every student has an inherent right to education on basis of equality of opportunity. No student is excluded from, or discriminated within education on grounds of race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, disability, birth, poverty or other status. All students can learn and benefit from education. Schools adapt to the needs of students, rather than students adapting to the needs of the school. The students views are listened to and taken seriously. Individual differences between students are a source of richness and diversity, and not a problem. The diversity of needs and pace of development of students are addressed through a wide and flexible range of responses.

Practice
The practice of developing inclusive schools involves:

Understanding inclusion as a continuing process, not a one-time event. Strengthening and sustaining the participation of all students, teachers, parents and community members in the work of the school. Restructuring the cultures, policies and practices in schools to respond to the diversity of pupils within their locality. Inclusive settings focus on identifying and then reducing the barriers to learning and participation, rather than on what is "special" about the individual student or group of students, and targeting services to address the "problem". Providing an accessible curriculum, appropriate training programs for teachers, and for all students, the provision of fully accessible information, environments and support. Identifying and providing support for staff as well as students.

A somewhat different model is implemented by Hands On Learning Australia wherein disengaged students, as well as some students with special needs, are taken out of class one day per week and put into an alternative cross-age peer group to develop strong relationships and enable them to better cope with mainstream classes.

Teaching/programming
It is general practice that students in an inclusive classroom are with their chronological age-mates. Also, to encourage a sense of belonging, emphasis is placed on the value of friendships. Teachers often nurture a relationship between a student with special needs and a peer without need. Another common practice is the assignment of a buddy to accompany a student with special needs at all times (for example in the cafeteria, on the playground, on the bus and so on). In principle, several factors can determine the success of inclusive classrooms:

Family-school partnerships Collaboration between general and special educators Well-constructed Individualized Education Program plans Team planning and communication Integrated service delivery Ongoing training and staff development

Teachers use a number of techniques to help build classroom communities:


Games designed to build community Involving students in solving problems Songs and books that teach community Openly dealing with individual differences Assigning classroom jobs that build community Teaching students to look for ways to help each other Utilizing physical therapy equipment such as standing frames, so students who typically use wheelchairs can stand when the other students are standing and more actively participate in activities

Benefits
Inclusive education is claimed by its advocates to have many benefits for the students. Instructional time with peers without need helps the learners to learn strategies taught by the teacher. Teachers bring in different ways to teach a lesson for special needs students and peers without need. All of the students in the classroom benefit from this. The students can now learn from the lesson how to help each other. Socialization in the school allows the students to learn communication skills and interaction skills from each other. Students can build friendships from these interactions. The students can also learn about hobbies from each other. A friendship in school is important for the development of learning. When a student has a friend the student can relate to a member of the classroom.

Students being able to relate to each other gives them a better learning environment. Involving peers without need with special needs peers gives the students a positive attitude towards each other. The students are the next generation to be in the workforce; the time in the classroom with the special needs and peers without need will allow them to communicate in the real world someday. Special needs students are included in all aspects of school-life. For example, homeroom, specials such as art and gym, lunch, recess, assemblies, and electives. Special needs students involved in these classrooms will give them the time they need to participate in activities with their peers without need. Awareness should be taught to students that will be in the classroom with the special needs peers. The teacher can do a puppet show, show a movie, or have the student talk to the class. The teacher could also read a book to help the student describe his or her special need. The class can ask questions about what they learned and what they want to know. This will help when the students are together in the classroom. Positive modeling is important for the students in the classroom. Positive modeling is the teacher showing a good example towards both special needs and peers without need this will help the students to get along more.

Criticism
This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2007) Opponents of inclusive schools believe that individual differences will slow the progress of students without special needs. Therefore, this will create problems for teachers. Some argue that inclusive schools are not a cost-effective response when compared to cheaper or more effective interventions, such as special education. They argue that special education helps "fix" the special needs students by providing individualized and personalized instruction to meet their unique needs. This is to help students with special needs adjust as quickly as possible to the mainstream of the school and community. Proponents counter that students with special needs are not fully into the mainstream of student life because they are secluded to special education. Some argue that isolating students with special needs may lower their self-esteem and may reduce their ability to deal with other people. In keeping these students in separate classrooms they aren't going to see the struggles and achievements that they can make together. More recently, post-modern and post-structuralist approaches have also led to critiques of mainstream thinking on inclusion. Broadly, these have explored the exclusionary influence of the language that is characteristic of most current debates on inclusion, going on to challenge the relations of power and hierarchy that operate in much inclusive education. Julie Allan, for example, examines the ideas of the 'philosophers of difference' Gilles Deleuze, Michael Foucault and Jacques Derrida - and puts them to work on inclusion (Allan 2008). She argues that these ideas allow the task of including children to be reframed, and offer not solutions, but different ways of working which involve altering adult-child relationships subverting, subtracting, and inventing and restructuring teacher education recognition, rupture and repair. She also advocates making greater

use of the arts to challenge exclusion, disrupt boundaries, and establish more inclusive practices.

Notes
1. ^ http://www.bps.org.uk/downloadfile.cfm?file_uuid=CE1DCB9D-1143-DFD07EA9-5C1B82EA4596&ext=doc British Psychological Society position statement on inclusive education 2. ^ Scheyer et al. (1996). The Inclusive Classroom Teacher Created Materials, Inc. The Inclusive Classroom 3. ^ http://armlawreview.org/guide/Hamazasp%20Harutyunyan.doc 4. ^ Teaching Students with Severe Disabilities third edition, David L. Westling and Lise Fox

See also

Inclusion (education) Post Secondary Transition For High School Students with Disabilities Mara Sapon-Shevin Teaching for social justice

References

Inclusive Education:

Ainscow M., Booth T. (2003) The Index for Inclusion: Developing Learning & Participation in Schools. Bristol: Center for Studies in Inclusive Education Allan, J. (2008) Rethinking Inclusive Education: The philosophers of difference in practice, Dordrecht: Springer Thomas, G., & Loxley, A. (2007) Deconstructing Special Education and Constructing Inclusion (2nd Edition). Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Elementary programming for inclusive classrooms Social development: Promoting Social Development in the Inclusive Classroom M. Mastropieri, Thomas E. Scruggs. The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Instruction Mary Beth Doyle. The Paraprofessional's Guide to the Inclusive Classroom Conrad M., & Whitaker T. (1997). Inclusion and the law: A principals proactive approach. The Clearing House

Jorgensen, C., Schuh, M., & Nisbet, J. (2005). The inclusion facilitator's guide. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

External links

Kids Together, Inc. an all-volunteer non-profit 501(c)3 that promotes inclusive communities where all people belongs.

Alliance for Inclusive Education web-site An autistic disagrees that inclusive education is the solution Milieu.it Rivista di Culture dell'Inclusione

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