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PROJECT REPORT ON NIB

TABLE OF CONTENTS S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Contents Abstract Introduction to NIB Features of NIB NIB Connectivity diagram Types of Broadband Connections Installation Wi-Fi /WIMAX Troubleshooting of errors Services Equipments Future aspects Conclusions References Page number 3 5 7

ABSTRACT
Broadband refers to a connection that has capacity to transmit large amount of data at high speed. Presently a connection having download speeds of 256 kbps or more is classified as broadband. When connected to the Internet broadband connection allows surfing or downloading much faster than a dial-up or any other narrowband connections. BSNL offers 2 Mbps minimum download speed for its Broadband connections.

Broadband is an always-on data connection that is able to support interactive services including Internet access and has the capability of the minimum download speed of 256 kilo bits per second (kbps) to an individual subscriber.
BSNL has placed Purchase Order to TCIL consortium against tender for turnkey implementation of various network components required for the National Internet Backbone (NIB), Phase II (Project 3) for turnkey implementation of Messaging and Storage Service platform, Operation Support System (OSS) & Billing, Security System and Enterprise Management System which are to be implemented in BSNL, data centers in four cities viz. Bangalore (Main), Delhi, Mumbai and Pune (Disaster Recovery). The turnkey implementation involves Planning, Engineering, Supply, Installation and Testing and Commissioning. The turnkey implementation also involves Operations & Maintenance support on 24X7 basis for the network for a period of 6 months after commissioning of the network.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
As Thy is the origin of all, Whether one believes it or not, All this work, I dedicate thee, Whether you take its credit or not This project highly acknowledges the contribution of Amity School of Engineering and Technology (ASET) and our (acting) D.G. Mr. K.M. Soni (Pro-VC Academics, Amity University) because of which we got this opportunity to prove myself. Then we would like to thank a lot our ECE dept. and HOD Mr. M. K. Dutta, and our P.L. Mr. Manmohan Singh under whose constant surveillance, we kept on proceeding with our work. Then a million times thanks to Mr. Manish Sharma and Ms. Shweta Yadav my guide, and my industrial mentor Mr. Gurdeep Singh without whose help, guidance, support, & enthusiasm , this project wouldve been nothing but a mere collection of black and white heap of no meaning. By every way, you tried to develop a thirst in us to research, to explore, made us realize to solve the quests that occurs around us and had belief that I could unveil them. Thank you sir(s), for making this project more admirable, by filling in your colours of hope in us. Then, we would like to thanks our parents without whom we would not have come into Existence even, and not at all less, God in whom we deeply believe.

INTRODUCTION TO NIB
Core of BSNLs Broadband service is National Internet Backbone (NIB). NIB is a mission to build world-class infrastructure to help accelerate the Internet revolution in India.
National Internet Backbone has been conceived to provide Nation-wide connectivity to ISPs as well as customers. NIB consists of 550 nodes available at almost all the district headquarters. NIB is connected to VSNL Gateways at 6 locations i.e. Mumbai, Kolkata, New Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai and Ernakulam.

In todays globally networked society through internet, there is always increasing demand for higher capacity systems and more bandwidth for new services & networking, hence new various types of access technologies for broadband have to be found for this exponential growth. Prior to broadband service, PSTN dialup (including ISDN) was the main technique to get Internet access. For high speed, only alternative was lease line bandwidth. Even today, PSTN dialup service is prevalent. BSNL offers many options for dialup Internet account such as Sancharnet (pre-paid) and Netone (CLI based) service. Sancharnet is an all India roaming account i.e. user can use it from any landline in India. The dialup charges are payable on landline whereas, Internet usage gets deducted from Sancharnet account. The download speed depends on quality of PSTN line and goes up to 56Kbps limited by capacity of modem used. For Internet access, BSNL also offers Unlimited plan on postpaid CDMA and usage based for prepaid CDMA service.
Broadband refers to a connection that has capacity to transmit large amount of data at high speed. Presently a connection having download speeds of 256 kbps or more is classified as broadband. When connected to the Internet broadband connection allows surfing or downloading much faster than a dial-up or any other narrowband connections. BSNL offers 2 Mbps minimum download speed for its Broadband connections. Requirement for providing Broad Band connection 1. 2. 3. 4. Personal Computer ADSL Modem Land Line Connection Splitter for separating telephone from Personal computer.

Broadband is an always-on data connection that is able to support interactive services including Internet access and has the capability of the minimum download speed of 256 kilo bits per second (kbps) to an individual subscriber.
BSNL has placed Purchase Order to TCIL consortium against tender for turnkey implementation of various network components required for the National Internet Backbone (NIB), Phase II (Project 3) for turnkey implementation of Messaging and Storage Service platform, Operation Support System (OSS) & Billing, Security System and Enterprise Management System which are to be implemented in BSNL, data centers in four cities viz. Bangalore (Main), Delhi, Mumbai and Pune (Disaster Recovery). The turnkey implementation involves Planning, Engineering, Supply, Installation and Testing and Commissioning. The turnkey implementation also involves Operations & Maintenance support on 24X7 basis for the network for a period of 6 months after commissioning of the network.

Important Do's and Donts for BSNL Broadband customers

Do's
No phone/Fax should be connected before splitter. Change your password regularly Pl. remembers / writes down your password after every change of password. Check your usages detail regularly. You can see usages of current month and last 12 months in system. Please note that the Surfing, Listening Live Music, Chatting, Online Gaming, Internet Telephony, E-mail, Anti-virus and any other software updates through Internet etc. are part of download/upload. Please keep automatic updates disabled on your computer software (e.g. Windows update, Antivirus update, different Driver update) to avoid unanticipated high usage. Please clean your computer virus regularly. Please log off from broadband connection and switch off modem when not in use.

Donts
Please do not disclose your broadband User ID and Password to anybody.

BSNL has an IP based network called National Internet Backbone NIB, Phase 1 under which Prepaid and Post Paid PSTN and ISDN Dialup Access services, Integrated Telephone and Internet Access Services and MPLS VPN services are implemented.
Under National Internet Backbone NIB Phase 2, BSNL has planned to make new investment in state of the art IP infrastructure across the country to provide existing services and a range of new value added services with both duration and volume based billing, pre-paid and post paid billing. Services to be offered in the NIB, Phase 2 are dialup Internet Access, Broadband Internet Access, Leased Access, Messaging, Web/Message Hosting, Web Co-location.

The turnkey implementation of National Internet Backbone- Phase 2 involved the following projects -

Project 1 : MPLS based IP Infrastructure Project 2.1 : Narrowband Access (Dialup Remote Access) Project 2.2 : Broadband Access (DSL Access)

Project 3 : Messaging, Storage, Provisioning, Billing, Security, Order Management, Enterprise Management, AAA, Help Desk and Inventory Management etc.

BSNL has also envisages setting up an OSS infrastructure which is centralized but has decentralized roles/ privileges based access to Customer Service Representatives (CSRs) and Account Managers matching with the BSNLs distributed organizational structure.
A high level generic Operation Support System (OSS) architecture has following broad blocks:

Network & Resource management Planning and Control Business Support Product Management Service Management Customer Management, Revenue Management

FEATURES OF NIB
It provides a diversified range of Internet access services including support for VPN (Layer-2, Layer-3 and Dialup and Broadband services). It also offers SLA Reports including security, QoS (quality of service) and any to any connectivity. Offers fully managed services to customers. It offers services like bandwidth on demand etc. over the same network. The network is capable of on-line measurement and monitoring of network parameters such as latency, packet loss, jitter and availability so as to support SLA s with customers The routers support value added services such as VPNs, Web and content hosting, Voice over IP, Multicast etc. Value Added Services like :Encryption Services. Firewall Services. Multicast Services. Network Address Translation (NAT) Service that will enable private Users to access public networks. Messaging Services. Internet Data Centre Services at Bangalore, Delhi and Mumbai.

Broad Band Services like:Broadcast TV using IP Multicasting service. Multicast video streaming services. Interactive Distant learning using IP multicasting Services. Video on demand. Interactive gaming service.

Two Layer Network: Layer 1: High speed Backbone (STM-16) that will comprise of fully or partially meshed Core routers with built-in redundancies supporting MPLS protocol. Layer 2: Consists of edge routers for aggregation of customer traffic and enforcing QoS and other administrative policies.

Classification of Cities for NIB II network architecture


The cities in India City Type have been classified in six types namely A1, A2, A3, A4, B1, B2, details of which are given below: Sr No 1. A1 Description Cities

5 Core cities

Bangalore, Chennai, Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata Pune, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Ernakulam, Lucknow, Jaipur, Indore, Jalandhar, Patna

2.

A2/A3

9 next core cities

level

NIB2 Expansion and Year 2 Order Overview 29 locations added which makes the total to 100 Core backbone is getting aligned to BSNL Transmission (DWDM) network 24 City core network increased to 29 All 29 city core network links are STM-16 (ie STM1 connectivity of A4 cities will be upgraded to STM16) New 5 Cities are Belgaum, Dehradun, Rajkot, Jodhpur, Jabalpur

Components of Broad Band Access Network Broad band Remote Access Server (BBRAS). Gigabit and Fast Ethernet Aggregation Switches (LAN Switches). Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexers (DSLAMs). SSSS/SSSC (Subscriber Service Selection System/ Centre). Servers for AAA, LDAP at NOC

NIB connectivity diagram

Provisioning and configuration management at NOC. DSL CPEs (MODEM). The DSLAMs will in general be collocated with existing PSTN exchanges, which provide last mile access to customers over copper wire up to average span lengths of 3 kms. All DSLAMs will be aggregated through a FE interface except 480 port DSLAM, which w ill be aggregated through Gigabit Ethernet Interface. The 240 ports DSLAM will have two number of FE interface. The FX or GBIC module in DSLAM and LAN switch capable of driving upto 10 km on a single mode fiber. The SX or GBIC module in LAN Switch used for connecting Tier2 to Tier1. In bigger cities like A1, A2, A3 and A4, one BBRAS per city will be deployed initially. There will be no BBRAS at B1 and B2 cities. The DSLAMs in B1.B2 and other lower hierarchical cities will be aggregated through Layer 2 switches, and will be connected to the nearest BBRAS of A cities on Ethernet over SDH. The BRAS shall terminate the PPP sessions initiated by the customer and extend the connection further to MPLS VPN/ Internet as desired by the customer.

Network Layout A City

Service Under NIB


Category Layer 2 VPN services Layer 3 VPN services Details PPP / HDLC / Ethernet Port / Ethernet VLAN / FR / over MPLS COS & application based Priority services, Bandwidth over subscription, NAT services, Firewall services, Multicast services, Encryption services, Internet Access, Managed Service Dial Internet Access, Dial VPN, DSL services (ADSL, ADSL2, ADSL 2plus), MPLS VPN Access, Bandwidth on demand,

Dial Access Always-on Access

Basic Services (Server based) Value Added services

usage based billing, video multicast, Video on demand, customer self provisioning, Whole sale services AAA, Messaging (email) Storage, Antivirus, Law full monitoring

Glossary Terms BBRAS: A Broadband Remote Access Server (BBRAS) routes traffic to and from the digital subscriber line access multiplexers (DSLAM) on an Internet service. DSLAM: Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer. Specifically, it is a device that takes a number of ADSL subscriber lines and concentrates these to a single ATM line. CPE: Customer Premises Equipment - Any equipment provided by the customer at their premises. GBIC: Gigabit Interface Converter: a Fiber Channel optical or copper transceiver that is easily swapped to offer a flexible choice of copper or fiber optic media.

TYPES OF BROADBAND CONNECTIONS


Broadband includes several high-speed transmission technologies such as:

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Cable Modem Fiber Wireless Satellite Broadband over Power lines (BPL)

The broadband technology you choose will depend on a number of factors. These may include whether you are located in an urban or rural area, how broadband Internet access is packaged with other services (like voice telephone and home entertainment), price and availability.

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)

Digital Subscriber line (DSL) is a wire line transmission technology that brings data and information faster over copper telephone lines already installed in homes and business. Traditional phone service connects your home or business to a telephone company office via copper wires. A DSL modem accesses the local telephone companys central offi ce where a DSL Access DSLAM then transmits the signal from the copper telephone line onto a network backbone, and eventually to the Internet. With high speed Internet access that uses DSL transmission technology, there is no need to dial in to a traditio nal modem. This service allows consumers and business to have an always-on dedicated connection to the Internet. The following are types of DSL transmission technologies that may be used to provide high-speed Internet access.
Symmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL)

It is used typically for business applications such as video conferencing. The traffic from the user to the network is upstream traffic, and from the network to the user is downstream traffic. When the data rate in both directions is equal, it is called a symmetric service.
Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) ADSL stands for Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. It is a technology that allows copper telephone pairs to be used to provide a broadband connection. It provides always-on Internet connection that is automatically established once the PC and ADSL modem are switched on.

It is used primarily by residential users who receive a lot of data but do not send much, such as Internet surfers. ADSL provides faster speed in a downstream direction (from the telephone central office to the customers premises) than upstream (from customers premise to the telephone central office). When the upstream data rate is lower than the downstream rate, it is called an asymmetric service.
High-data-rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL)

It provides fixed symmetrical high speed access at T1 rate (1.5 Mbps), and is designed for business purposes.
Very high-data-rate Digital Subscriber Line (VDSL)

It provides both symmetrical and asymmetrical access with very high bit rate over the copper line. Deployment is very limited at this time.
ISDN Digital Subscriber Line (IDSL)

It provides symmetrical connection with Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), and is designed to extend DSL to locations with a long distance to a telephone central office. DSLAM DSLAM is the equipment located at a phone companys central office (CO) that links many customer DSL connections over existing copper telephone lines to a single high-speed ATM line. When the phone company receives a DSL signal, an ADSL modem with a POTS splitter detects voice calls and data. The DSLAM intermixes voice frequency signals and high-speed DSL data traffic into a customers DSL line. It also separates incoming phone and data signals and directs them onto the appropriate carriers network. Voice calls are sent to the PSTN, and data are sent to the DSLAM. DSLAM is connected to Internet Backbone for access to World Wide Web and other applications. More DSLAM channels a phone company has, the more customers it can support.

DSLAMs are in general collocated with existing PSTN exchanges which provide last mile access to customers over copper wire up to average span lengths of 3 kms Size of DSLAM vary considerably from 480 Ports , 240 ports, 120 Ports, 64 ports, 48 Ports and 24 ports.

Uplink of DSLAM is on a Ethernet interface, converting ATM traffic to Ethernet. 2 Wire analog for PSTN interface

Network Topology with Multiplay


MultiPlay
Load Balancer BNG

Project 3

PE Router
PE

PE Router
PE

PE

Project -1 NIB-1
NIB-1 ROUTER PE Router

BRAS PE Router
PE

NRAS

BSNLS Broadband Access Technology BSNL Broadband service is built on a world class, multi-gigabit, multi-protocol, convergent IP infrastructure through National Internet Backbone-II (NIB-II), that provides convergent services through the same backbone and broadband access network. In BSNL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) Technology is used for giving the Broadband connection where greater download is required in comparison to upload. Effect of copper pair quality Data speed capability depends on the thickness of wire used in cable network. Higher the gauge, higher the data carrying speed. Data speed deteriorates if copper loop quality is bad i.e. more joints, loose joints, low insulation etc. BSNL Broadband connection, Customer Needs: BSNLs Landline connection Computer with 10/100 Mbps Ethernet Card DSL Modem + Splitter (CPE)

Modem Connections
The following shows the switch and various connectors that are equipped on the rear panel of the ADSL modem 1. Power Port This is where you will connect the power adapter. 2. Console Port 3. LAN Port Reserved for future development. This LAN (Local Area Network) port connects to your PC with network cable included in your kit. You can also connect network devices, such as hubs and switches with a straight- through RJ-45 cable or use a cross-over RJ-45 cable to connect a router (cross-over cable not supplied). Connects your modem to your telephone line.

4. Line Port

INSTALLATION
ADSL Installation Kit Contents

1 -ADSL Modem 1 - Ethernet cable 1 - Telephone cable 1 - ADSL Filter 1 - Phone jack splitter

1 - DC power adapter

Step 1
ADSL Modem Connection to Internet Plug the telephone cable into the slot labeled Line on the back of your modem. Plug the other end of the telephone cable into the telephone jack, ADSL was provisioned to (see figure 3 & 4).

Figure 3

Figure 4
ADSL can provide connectivity to more than one computer system in your home. For this reason we have two different patterns to follow: - If you only have one computer to supply connectivity, please go to Step 2. - If you have more than one computer please jump to Step 3. Step 2 ADSL Modem Connection to One Computer Plug one end of the Ethernet cable (only use the cable supplied) into the slot labeled LAN on the back of your ADSL modem (see figure 5). Then plug the other end of the network cable into your Ethernet card on your computer system (see figure 6). Please jump to Step 4.

Figure 5

Figure 6 Step 3

ADSL Modem Connection to Multiple Computers If you have more than one computer to connect you will need to connect each of the computers and the ADSL modem to a hub or data switch. You will also need additional network cables. Plug the cross-over Ethernet cable into the back of the ADSL modem (see figure 5). Then plug the other end of the Ethernet cable into your hub/data switch. This cable must be connected to the uplink port on the hub/data switch. If your hub/data switch does not have an uplink port you must use a regular straight through Ethernet cable instead of the crossover cable included within your kit.

The hub/data switch will be used to supply ADSL to each of the computers. This needs to be completed by using a separate Ethernet cable and connecting the Ethernet card of each computer to the hub/data switch. At this point, you have used separate Ethernet cables to connect the ADSL modem to the hub/data switch and each computer to the hub/data switch. (Please refer to your manual for more detailed instructions on setting up your data switch for use with multiple computers.)

Step 4
ADSL Modem Power Connections Plug the black power cord into your ADSL Modem (see figure 7) and then plug the opposite end into an electrical outlet or UPS. Turn on your ADSL modem. All of the lights on your ADSL modem should flash for a short period of time (up to 3 minutes).

Figure 7 Step 5

Figure 8
Status Light Indication If the Power, ADSL Link and LAN Link lights on your ADSL modem are green or flashing green your ADSL modem is connected correctly. If they are not green, see the explanations below. The lights indicate the following: (see figure 8). Power: Amber. The Power LED lights up when the ADSL modem is powered on. ADSL Link: Green. The ADSL Link is continuously lit up when the ADSL modem is successfully connected to an ADSL line. If the Link LED is blinking, the unit is attempting a connection to an ADSL line. PC Link: Green. The LAN Link lights up when a successful Ethernet connection is made through the corresponding port. If this LED is not lighting up, an Ethernet connection has not been established.

ADSLRX: Green. The ADSL RX LED blinks when the Router is actively sending or receiving data over that port.
ADSL TX: Green. The ADSL TX LED blinks when the Router is actively sending or receiving data over that port. Step 6 Filter Installation In your ADSL modem package, you will find several micro-filters that are to be used on every telephone in the house. These filters make sure that there is no interruption in the channels which now reside on your telephone line. Your ADSL line will not receive any static from your telephone and your telephone will not receive any static from your ADSL. All telephones, answering machines, fax machines, security systems or satellite dish receivers, which reside on the same telephone number that ADSL has been provisioned to, will require a filter in place between the line and the device (see figure 9). A telephone line splitter has been provided so that your ADSL Modem and your phone may use the same connection. The splitter splits the line into two. Remember - you always need the filter in place in front of any telephone device (see figure 10).

Figure 9

Figure 10
Be sure to plug the filter into the wall jack and then into analog device within your home.

Single User (SU): Only one PC can be connected to BSNL Broadband connection. Multi User (MU): Customer is allowed to share one BSNL broadband connection among multiple PCs (Often a need of Cyber Cafes, Business setups) Static IP address: For many services such as video conferencing, VPN etc. a fixed IP known as Static IP is required.

Dynamic IP: For normal internet browsing, the customer does not require static IP. In such cases, BSNL allocates temporary IP address to the customer when a session is initiated. Speed Check: Customer are assured of promised speed. They can check it for their connection at link http://www.dataone.in/ The check is performed by measuring the speed of a file transfer. The file transfer is counted towards download limit. Data Usage: This is aggregate of data uploaded and downloaded through broadband connection. When a customer subscribes to Games on Broadband, the data usage is normally not charged separately i.e. it becomes part of monthly rent for Games service or is on per download basis). The Data Usage is accounted in GB (Giga Bytes). One GB (Giga Bytes) is 1024 Megabytes.

How to use?

Connections & Installation For extending the service, the telephone cable coming to the customers premises is connected to a broadband modem using a Splitter. The modem acts as an interface between the telephone cable and the computer. The Splitter is used to separate voice and data signals enabling both Voice and Internet, simultaneously, on the same telephone line. One cable out of the Splitter is connected to the telephone instrument. Your BSNL Broadband connection comes with a user account consisting of a Username and Password. This is used by the modem in establishing connection to the BSNL Broadband network. The username and password are pre-configured in the Broadband modem. When the modem is switched ON, it automatically establishes a connection to the Broadband Network. You can browse Internet using the Web browser such as Internet Explorer or Mozilla. The service can be accessed by creating a broadband dialer in the PC also. The broadband modem and the splitter shall be connected as per the figure given belowSplitter

Telephone Instrument

Telephone Line

Broadband modem

USB or LAN Connection

Username and password


BSNL will activate the Broadband Service by allotting Username and password. The Password given by BSNL need be used for the first time login and thereafter Customer may change and customize his/her Password.

How to Change Password? Change of Password for your username is a two steps process. 1. Change the password for your account at our Self Care Website http://www.dataone.in or http:// bbservice.bsnl.in 2. Then change the password in your Modem. For assistance contact the JTO/SDE or NIB. How to check the usage Please visit the Website http://www.dataone.in or http://bbservice.bsnl.in/ for checking the usage details. What can be done with 1 GB? One GB is 1024 Megabyte or 1073741824 bytes. You can do the following with 1 GB download limit :
1. An average web page is about 50 kilobytes in size - so you could download around 20,000 web pages for 1 gigabyte. 2. An hour of surfing the web would be around 10 megabytes (200 pages) so you could surf non-stop for about 100 hours for 1 gigabyte. 3. An hour of streamed radio would use about 15-20 megabytes. 4. An hour of streamed video uses around 100-150 megabytes. 5. Playing an online game typically uses about 10-15 megabytes per hour. 6. A super-high resolution (5-6 megapixel) digital camera JPEG picture or typical MP3 music file is about 2-3 megabytes so you could download 350-500 of these images/music files for 1 gigabyte. 7. Emails are very small - so 100 emails would be just 1 megabyte - or 100,000 emails for 1 gigabyte! (of course the attachments count extra)

BROADBAND THROUGH WI FI AND WIMAX


Any two computers can be directly wired to each other using a crossover cable. When number of computer exceeds, cables must be run from each computer to another computer or to the central device. It can be time-consuming and difficult to run cables under the floor or through walls, especially when computers sit in different rooms. The correct cabling configuration for a wired LAN varies depending on the mix of devices, the type of Internet connection, and whether internal or external modems are

used. Look around us at the moment, we have our keyboard connected to the computer, as well as a printer, mouse, monitor and so on. What (literally) joins all of these together?, they are connected by cables. Cables have become the bane of many offices. Most of us have experienced the 'joys' of trying to figure out what cable goes where, and getting tangled up in the details. Is there a technology to replace cable? Wireless is the answer. Today WLAN technologies all follow one of the three main Wi-Fi communication standards. The benefits of wireless networking depend on the standard employed: 802.11b was the first standard to be widely used in WLANs. The 802.11a standard is faster but more expensive than 802.11b; 802.11a is more commonly found in business networks. The newest standard, 802.11g, attempts to combine the best of both 802.11a and 802.11b, though it too is more a more expensive home networking option. Wi-Fi networks can be configured in two different ways: 1. "Ad hoc" mode allows wireless devices to communicate in peer-to-peer mode with each other. 2. "Infrastructure" mode allows wireless devices to communicate with a central node that in turn can communicate with wired nodes on that LAN. Most LANs require infrastructure mode to access the Internet, a local printer, or other wired services, whereas ad hoc mode supports only basic file sharing between wireless devices. A BSS that stands alone and is not connected to a base is called an Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS) or is referred to as an Ad-Hoc Network. An ad-hoc network is a network where stations communicate only peer to peer. Ad-Hoc or IBSS networks are characteristically limited both temporally and spatially. Creating large and complex networks using BSS's and DS's leads us to the next level of hierarchy, the Extended Service Set or ESS. The beauty of the ESS is the entire network looks like an independent basic service set to the Logical Link Control layer (LLC). This means that stations within the ESS can communicate or even move between BSS_s transparently to the LLC. The main problem with WiFi access is that hot spots are very small, so coverage is sparse. Is there a new technology that would provide high speed of broadband service, Wireless rather than wired access, so it would be a lot less expensive than cable or DSL and much easier to extend to suburban and rural areas and Broad coverage like the cell phone network instead of the tiny little hotspots of WiFi. This technology is called WiMAX, short for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. The big difference between Wi-Fi and WiMAX is that we're going to use licensed spectrum to deliver WiMAX. To date, all Wi-Fi technology has been delivered in unlicensed spectrum. WiMAX will use one of the unlicensed frequencies, but we're also supporting two other frequencies that are licensed. What that means is that you can turn up the output power and broadcast longer distances. So where Wi-Fi is something that is measured in hundreds of feet, usually WiMAX will have a very good value proposition and bandwidth up to several miles. services, providing universal Internet access just about anywhere you go. WiMAX will also be as painless as WiFi -- turning your computer on will automatically connect you to the closest available WiMAX antenna. A WiMAX system consists of two parts: 1. A WiMAX tower, similar in concept to a cell-phone tower - A single WiMAX tower can provide coverage to a very large area -- as big as 3,000 square miles (~8,000 square km). 2. A WiMAX receiver - The receiver and antenna could be a small box or PCMCIA card, or they could be built into a laptop the way WiFi access is today.

A WiMAX tower station can connect directly to the Internet using a high-bandwidth, wired connection (for example, a T3 line). It can also connect to another WiMAX tower using a lineof- sight, microwave link. This connection to a second tower (often referred to as a backhaul), along with the ability of a single tower to cover up to 3,000 square miles, is what allows WiMAX to provide coverage to remote rural areas. What this points out is that WiMAX actually can provide two forms of wireless service: There is the non-line-of-sight, WiFi sort of service, where a small antenna on your computer connects to the tower. In this mode, WiMAX uses a lower frequency range -- 2 GHz to 11 GHz (similar to WiFi). Lower-wavelength transmissions are not as easily disrupted by physical obstructions -- they are better able to diffract, or bend, around obstacles. There is line-of-sight service, where a fixed dish antenna points straight at the WiMAX tower from a rooftop or pole. The line-of-sight connection is stronger and more stable, so it's able to send a lot of data with fewer errors. Line-of-sight

Broad Band Services


BSNL is in the process of commissioning of a world class, multi-gigabit, multi-protocol, convergent IP infrastructure through National Internet BackboneII (NIB-II), that provides convergent services through the MPLS based backbone and broadband access network. The high speed Backbone comprises of powerful Core Routers connected with high speed 2.5 Gbps (STM-16) on DWDM links. MPLS VPN is a technology that allows a service provider like BSNL to have complete control over parameters that are critical to offering its customers service guarantees with regard to bandwidth throughputs, latencies and availability. The Broadband service are available on DSL technology (on the same copper cable that is used for connecting telephone), on a countrywide basis spanning more than 690 cities.
Services available through Broadband

High speed Internet Access: This is the always-on Internet access service with speed ranging from 256 kbps to 8 Mbps. Bandwidth on Demand: This will facilitate customer to change bandwidth as per his / her requirement. For example a customer with 256 kbps can change to 1 Mbps during the video Conferencing session. Multicasting: This is to provide video multicast services, video-on-demand etc. for application in distance education, telemedicine etc. Dial VPN Service: This service allows remote users to access their private network securely over the NIB-II infrastructure. Video and Audio Conferencing: Content based Services: Like Video on Demand, Interactive Gaming, Live and time shifted TV

Video on Demand: Customers can view any movie of their choice from a pool of movies stored in a central server. The movies can be viewed either on a TV or a PC. Audio on Demand: It is a similar service where person can listen to any music of his choice. TV channels through broadband connection: The TV channels may be available in the broadband connection. In fact, there may be other new channels, particularly the educational and scientific channels, depending on demand. Additional equipments required in the customer's premises are
Set Top Box (STB) - The STB converts the digital IP based signal to a form compatible with the TV set. PC and TV The TV services envisaged are: i. ii. iii. iv. S-VoD : Subscription based Video Content, as in Pay Channels. Video-On-Demand N-VoD : Near Video-On-Demand. NVOD provides playouts on fixed time bands which people can watch against payment. T-VOD : Transaction or Pay-Per-View service.

The video content will have Hindi, international and regional movies, music, soaps and serials, sports, news, interactive gaming, e-learning and niche channels. "The driver in entertainment will be on-demand movies, interactive gaming, broadband Internet connectivity and e-learning,"

Billing: To provide a means to bill for the aforesaid services by either time-based or volume-based billing. It shall provide the customer with the option to select the services through web server To provide both pre-paid and post paid broadband services IP Telephony Messaging: plain and feature rich, Multi-site MPLS VPN with Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees. Wi-Fi Web hosting & web co-location. Lease line service.

Basic internet Access Service controlled and uncontrolled (256Kbps to 1000Mbps) . BSNL has various tariff plans for home and business customers. Content Based services: [Video on Demand (VoD), Education, Audio on Demand (AoD) etc.] BSNL has tied up with franchisees to offer this service. A set top box (STB) is provided which acts as the interface between ADSL modem and TV. Web conferencing: BSNL has tied up with a franchisee to offer this service. Toll free number for knowing details is 1800-111-233. BSNL Web Conferencing Service enables to conduct virtual meetings with business partners, suppliers, employers etc. It has the innovative feature such as Persistent meeting rooms, which simulates physical room environment wherein authorized users can enter their designated rooms the way do in physical meetings. The users can access the rich features, apart from multi-point, multi-media (Audio, Video & Data) conferencing service, BSNL web Conferencing service provides very powerful data conferencing tools to enhance collaboration among users such as sharing of

PowerPoint Presentation, Whiteboard, Documents, & Chat facility amongst the conference participants, which will significantly aid in increasing the effectiveness of your business meetings. BSNL Web Conferencing Service does not require expensive end points; all that you require are a PC, Webcam and an ADSL Connection. It is ideally suited for users at all levels in large corporate houses, Small and medium businesses, SOHOs & quality conscious individuals to enhance collaboration, increase productivity and save costs. Interactive Gaming: This service is offered in association with a franchisee Broadband customers can visit http://bsnl.indiagames.com/ and subscribe this service. Various monthly plans are available. BSNL toll free number is 1800 425 0500. Multiplay (A term meaning offer of multiple services such as Voice, Data, Video, Games etc. as listed above). VPN on broadband. Dial up VPN Service. Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS). Bandwidth on Demand (User and or service configurable)

Miscellaneous Applications of Broadband

Video-on-Demand Interactive Games Share market dealing & personal banking News, travel & leisure information Music/Movie Download Chat rooms & newsgroups E-mail & instant messaging Personal websites and online magazines Educational materials & research resources Tele-medicine Work at home Internet radio & webcast concerts

Multiplay services and features BSNL has started new Multiplay services which will provide following services from one ADSL/VDSL connection 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Basic Broadband IPTV Video On Demand Bandwidth on Demand Gaming On Demand Audio on Demand Tele educations VPN over Broadband

9. Video Conferencing 10. Video telephony 11. VoIP 12. Internet Policy Servers for URL Filtering
The BSNL NIB2 network is primarily designed to be a high speed IP/MPLS network. The network is intended to be used for convergent services, integrating data, voice and video. It will provide services like Internet bandwidth for ISPs, Corporate, Institutions, Government bodies and retail users. The BSNL network is designed to be capable of meeting a wide range of customer requirements, including security, Quality of Service (QoS), and any-to-any connectivity. It is designed to be able to offer fully managed services to customers and allow BSNL to introduce additional services such as bandwidth on demand, etc. over the same network. The backbone infrastructure consists of an MPLS core with Internet services and VPN services edge networks. Cisco 12416 GSR & Cisco 12410 GSR routers are used to build the core network with the edge network consisting of Cisco 7613 routers. Cisco 7613 Routers serve also as the miscellaneous routers like Router Reflectors, International Data Center Routers, Internet Exchange Point Routers, IP Tax Routers, International Gateway Routers. Below are the services, which the network is designed to offer:

i. L3 MPLS VPN services


1. Intranet -Managed & Unmanaged 2. Extranet Managed & Unmanaged 3. Internet Access services

ii. Layer 2 MPLS VPN Services


1. Ethernet over MPLS 2. Frame relay over MPLS 3. PPP over MPLS 4. VPLS (Virtual Private LAN Service) 5. Layer 2 Any-to-Any Interworking (except ATM)

iii. Encryption services iv. Firewall Services v. NAT Services vi. Multicast Services

Broadband Error Codes


If you are customer of broadband and using Bridge mode (or dialer mode) connection, you must have experienced these or at least some of these errors at least once in your system and then you keep scratching your head that what the hell went wrong when you were doing

every thing accordingly. Stop scratching your head, because I am providing the solutions for those errors. Though it is a very vast topic but I will touch all the frequent coming error codes. I will take the error codes not according to ascending/ descending order, but according to frequency of error occurrence.

ERROR 678: "The remote computer did not respond"

It is most common broadband error code and I am sure most of you have faced this error once in your system. Reason:
1. 2. 3.

Wrong connection at broadband CPE. LAN card of PC may be disabled. PC Ethernet (LAN card) port fault/ Driver corrupt.

4. Line problem between your end and POP of Internet Service Provide (ISP). 5. 6.

Modem fault/ Modem Configuration Fault. Voice and Data Splitter at your end may be faulty.

7. Spy ware is running on the computer and is interfering with the connection. 8. 9.

Third-party firewall software is blocking the connection. Server down or due to higher network element faults at ISP.

Solution: Please follow instruction step-by-step to solve this error: 1. Check whether ADSL/ DSL/ Link light of your modem is stable glowing or not. If it is Stable, then take a ping test from your PC to modem. Procedure for PING Test: start-> run, then type ping 192.168.1.1 t and press enter. If reply is ok, then check the modem configuration. If reply is not ok (i.e. Destination host unreachable or request time out), then LAN card/ Ethernet Driver or modem is faulty. So, better you check your modem in another PC or laptop for modem verification. 2. If ADSL/ DSL/ Link light of your modem is not stable means either blinking or off. First of all check your CPE (i.e. Modem, Splitters,Phone Jack etc.) Physical connection, whether all are connected perfectly. If all is ok, then surpass the Splitter box and directly terminate the line cable to your modem, it should work if your splitter is faulty. Still your Link light is not stable then you should lodge a complain to BSNL office or through online complain Portal.

ERROR 769: The specified destination is not reachable Reason: Due to LAN port disabled. Solution: Enable the LAN port (or Local Area Connection). Procedure:

Start->setting->control panel->network connection->right click on local area connection>enable .

ERROR 691: Access was denied because the user name and/or password was invalid on the domain Reason: 1. Incorrect User name or password, or Spelling error. 2. Due to forget of changed password. 3. Due to wrong port binding by ISP. 4. Due to authentication problem in AAA server of ISP. Solution: 1. Check spelling of User name & password. 2. Verify Caps Lock Key. 3. Ask to BSNL office for password reset.

ERROR 676: The phone line is busy Reason: Due to Modem Configuration problem. Solution: Reconfigure the modem with correct value of VPI/ VCI.

ERROR: 619- The remote computer did not respond and port was closed

Reason:

1. It occurs when another application / process requires the same port as being used by the broadband / internet modem. In particular, fax software is often associated with error 619. 2. Due to corrupted Modem USB driver (If using). 3. Due Registry Problem. 4. You may have installed a router and is causing you some issues with connectivity. Solution: 1. Most of the time, when you restart your system it automatically solved.

2. Fix your System registry problem with registry cleaning software. 3. Uninstall

and

reinstall

your

Broadband

modem USB

driver.

ERROR 651: Your modem (or other connecting device) has reported an error

This error comes mainly on Windows 7 OS. This problem is due to problem in windows 7 files mainly with PPPoE driver file raspppoe.sys. Solution: 1. Replace the raspppoe.sys in Windows/System32/Drivers directory. (High Risk!): The RAS PPPoE driver file raspppoe.sys found under c:\windows \system32\drivers folder seems to be the root cause of the problem. Fortunately, we can workaround the problem simply by renaming the original raspppoe.sys file to something like raspppoe_orig.sys copying a working file from a Windows Vista system. If you do not have access to a Windows Vista system. You may download raspppoe.sys file (unzip) from http://www.windowsreference.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/raspppoe.zip 2. Windows System Restore in back date may solve the problems. 3. Uninstall Microsoft Virtual PC 2007, the problem seems to be fixed. 4. Disable IPv6 for your connection source. 5. Reinstall LAN/NIC drivers. 6. Last but most easy solution is to change the modem configuration from Bridge to PPPoE (This procedure I will explain in Modem Configuration Topic).

Error 815: Error connecting broadband connection WAN Miniport (PPPOE)

Reason: This error comes especially on Windows Vista System and as per my practical experience it is due to LAN driver problem or IP related issues. One more reason may be registry Problem.

Solution: 1. Login with your admin account and verify IP add. 2. Uninstall and reinstall your LAN drive. 3. Fix your System registry problem with registry cleaning software.

Error - 630-633: Port Is Invalid or Busy / The Modem Is Not Installed or Configured

for... These types of error come basically due to Computer LAN Card problem. So, better you check your card. Some times when you restart your system it automatically solved.

Error 718: Timed out waiting for a valid response from the remote PPP Peer

Reason:
1. A problem with the server at the BSNL (This problem occurs if loading is high on the system and number of customers exceeds the traffic handling capacity of system). 2. The wrong username and or password were entered. 3. The modem may need initialization string to stabilize its operation.

Solution: 1. Reboot the modem. 2. 3. Make sure the correct username and or password have been entered. Make a complaint to BSNL regarding this.

Equipments
NIB consists of the following equipments 3.1 Router : To route customer traffic to desired sites. 3.2 Remote Access server : To give dialup access to the customer. 3.3 LAN Switch : To interconnect Servers, Router and RAS.

3.4 Server /Storage : For running various applications

Ongoing Projects

BSNL has already covered around 95% inhabited villages in the country as per Census 2001. For increasing the penetration in rural market, BSNL is working on various schemes. Under Bharat Nirman Programme of Government of India, BSNL has to provide 66,822 Village Public Telephones (VPT). Currently it has covered 60,208 villages and aims to cover the remaining villages during the current financial year (FY10). BSNL has entered into an agreement with Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF) for providing VPT facility in 62,443 uncovered inhabited villages. 55% work has been completed in this regard. The remaining work is scheduled to be completed progressively during the next 15 months. BSNL also entered into an agreement with USOF to provide rural phones in 1,267 specified areas (SDCAs). 21.51 lakh rural phones have already been provided under this agreement and efforts are being made to provide more. BSNL launched the wireless broadband services using WiMAX e-enabled technology, in Pisangan, Ajmer (Rajasthan) on 13th December 2009. This unique technology has been deployed for the first time in India.

In the first phase BSNL plans to cover 1000 Block Headquarters across the country out of which 32 Block Headquarters in Rajasthan will be covered. This will provide high speed wireless broadband connectivity to 11,500 Common Service Centers in respective Blocks. Through this technology, BSNL has planned to cover the remaining Block Headquarters for connecting 50,000 Common Service Centers in next Phase. This project is being supported by Department of Information Technology, Govt. of India.

Future Plans

Connect villages having 1,000 and above population During the next 2 years (2010 2012), BSNL plans to provide large number of phone connections and Broadband connections on ADSL as well as Wireless technology. It also plans to increase its existing Optical Fibre Cable network and TAX capacity. Aggressive marketing to tap the demand for the 3G technology to enable high speed data transfer applications. Extending the coverage of 3G and WiMAX. Introduce new value added services such as Mobile TV, E-Banking, Mobile Broadband, MMS etc using new technology such as WiMAX. Introduction of new services like FTTH, VOIP etc. Upgradation of existing network to NGN Providing end to end total telecom solutions. Infrastructure sharing. Extensive Enterprise Solution Expansion Plan.

Conclusion
BSNL has a world class, multi-gigabit, multi-protocol, convergent IP infrastructure through National Internet Backbone, through which it is providing convergent services through the same backbone and broadband

access network. The Broadband service is available on ADSL technology (on the same copper cable that is used for connecting telephone), on a countrywide basis. In terms of infrastructure for broadband services NIB has put India at par with most advanced nations. The services that are supported includes: Always-on broadband access to the Internet for residential and business customers Content based services Internet Protocol TV (IPTV) Games on Demand Music and Video on Demand Voice and Video over Broadband IP Telephony Distance learning Messaging: plain and feature rich Multi-site MPLS VPNs with Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees

Major Highlights of Broadband Service


High speed Internet connectivity (upto 24 Mbps) Virtual Private Network (VPN) service to the broadband customers Dial VPN service to MPLS VPN customers. Multicast video services, video-on-demand, etc. through the Broadband Remote Access Server (BRAS) To provide a means to bill for the aforesaid services by either timebased or volume-based billing. It shall provide the customer with the option to select the services through web server. Pre-paid and post paid broadband services.

Technical Capability of the Backbone


The Broadband Service is being given through the state of the art Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) based IP Infrastructure, which is designed to provide reliable routes to cover all possible destinations within and outside the country. Layer 1 of the network consist of a high speed Backbone comprising of 24 powerful Core Routers connected with high speed 2.5 Gbps(STM-16) links. The routers are located on the national DWDM network interfacing at STM-16 optical level to provide for high transmission speeds.

References https://www.bsnl.co.in

https://www.training.bsnl.co.in