Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 1

forging process and six formulations for forward-backward extrusion-forging processes are analyzed and the optimal solution for non-dimensional extrusion pressure is found out for further computation. The model is developed using FORTRAN code.

Experiments are performed for triangle, square, pentagon, hexagon, 4-tooth, 6-tooth, 8-tooth and 12-tooth spur gear (involutes profile and pressure angle 14½ º ) is form using flat / square dies. Both forward and forward-backward extrusion-forging processes are carried out.

FEM based commercial package DEFORM ® -3D code is used for finite element analysis of the processes.

The results obtained from experimental investigation are found to be in good agreement with the similar one predicted by theoretical analysis using the proposed modified SERR technique and finite element analysis.

Summary of Findings

Because of the industrial significance of the combined extrusion/forging process the proposed research work not only attempt to develop and optimize the process, but also make an effort to understand the flow stress of the material, frictional conditions and mode of flow of the material.

1. Computational model for forward and forward-backward extrusion-forging process with and without considering friction is developed by incorporating all special features for the sections. Three formulations for forward extrusion-forging process and six formulations for forward-backward extrusion-forging processes are analyzed and the optimal solution for non-dimensional extrusion pressure is found out for further computation. Among all formulations carries out in this study, in the most of the cases, double-point formulation gives the lowest upper bound for forward extrusion-forging situations, and it is the three-point formulation for forward- backward extrusion-forging. It is evident that by increasing the floating points, more than the optimized number, we may incorporate more redundancy.

2. The model is self-developed using FORTRAN code. The results validate and convey the suitability of the proposed model for the combined extrusion-forging processes.

3. Experimental studies are carried out with a view to compare some of the theoretical results predicated using upper bound method in general, modified SERR technique in particular, with that obtained from the experiment. SERR technique is used to analysis the last stage of the combined extrusion forging process (which requires maximum load). Both forward and forward-backward extrusion-forging processes are analyzed. The results obtained by the proposed model well in line with the practically observed results.