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James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 1
DC MOTORS
Faraday demonstrated in the mid-19th century.
Simple operation more voltage translates to more speed.
With the introduction of AC power in the early 20th century, AC
motors have displaced DC motors in many applications.
Since DC motors are easier to control, they are still retained in
difficult control applications.
Two basic mode of operation:
Voltage (velocity) mode controlling voltage across
Current (torque) mode controlling current through
Operating principle:
Torque Generation
Current-carrying conductor in magnetic field will induce electro-
magnetic force acting on the conductor.
Back-Electromagnetic Force (EMF)
Electric potential will be generated across moving conductor in
magnetic field.
James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 2
DC MOTORS
Terminology
Rotor: the rotating part of the motor.
Stator: the stationary part of the
motor.
Field System: the part of the motor
that provides the magnetic flux.
Armature: the part of the motor
which carries current that interacts
with the magnetic flux to produce
torque.
Brushes: the part of the electrical
circuit through which the current is
supplied to the armature.
Commutator: the part of the rotor
that is in contact with the brushes
Motors are actuation devices
(actuators) that generate
torque as actuation.
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James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 3
DC MOTORS - PRI NCI PLES OF OPERATI ON
Torque Generation
Needs two elements:
Force will act on a conductor in a magnetic
field with current flowing through the
conductor.
Integrate over the entire length:
Total torque generated:
dL
v
v
B
d f
v
i
B
L
t electrical
current
F

electromagnetic
(Lorentz) force
Magnetic field
Electrical current
B flux density
J

= i
u
JI B
F = i
u
I B

coI
= 2 F R
= 2 i
u
I B R
James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 4
DC MOTORS - PRI NCI PLES OF OPERATI ON
Let N be the number of coils in the motor.
The total torque generated from the N coils
is:
For a given motor, (N, B, L, R) are fixed. We
can define
as the Torque Constant of the motor.
The torque generated by a DC motor is
proportional to the armature current i
A
:
For a DC motor, it is desirable to have a
large K
T
. However, size and other physical
limitations often limits the achievable K
T
.
Large K
T
:
Large (N, L, R).
(N, L, R) is limited by the
size and weight of the
motor.
Large B:
Need to understand the
methods of generating
flux ...
I
M
= N 2 i
u
B I R
= 2 N B I R i
u
K
1
= 2 N B I R |NmA]
I
M
= K
1
i
u
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James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 5
DC MOTORS - PRI NCI PLES OF OPERATI ON
Back-EMF Generation
Electromotive force (EMF) is generated in
a conductor moving in a magnetic field:
Integrate over the entire length L:
Since the N armature coils are in series,
the total EMF is:
Define the Back-EMF Constant K
EMF
:
v
v
v
B
v
B
v
v
Note: K
T
= K
EMF
is true only if SI unit is used !
Jc
LMP
= : B JI
c
LMP
= : B I
I
LMP
= 2N R BI

= 2 N R B I
K
LMP
= 2 N R B I |v(iausec)]
The Back-EMF generated due to the rotation of the motor
armature is opposing the applied voltage and is proportional to
the angular speed of the motor:
I
LMP
= K
LMP

James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 6
DC MOTORS - PRI NCI PLES OF OPERATI ON
-K
LMP
I
IN
1
[
m
s + b
m

I
L
I
out

K
1
R
u
I
m
I
m
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James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 7
DC MOTORS - PRI NCI PLES OF OPERATI ON
Permanent Magnet
Permanent-Magnet DC Motors (PMDC)
Field Coil Induced Magnetic Field
Series Wound DC Motor
High starting torque and no-load
speed
Unidirectional
Shunt Wound DC Motor
Low starting torque and no-load
speed
Good speed regulation
Unidirectional
Compound DC Motor
High starting torque & good
speed regulation
Unidirectional
Separately Excited DC Motor
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DC MOTORS - PRI NCI PLES OF OPERATI ON
Commutation
Current flow in the coil must be made functions of position.
The current direction must be reversed every time the torque starts
to decrease can be achieved with brushes.
Coils on rotor and stator is either permanent magnet or field coil
excited magnetic field.
Brush commutation amounts to a mechanical switching control
system.
To avoid top-dead-center problem and make more uniform torque
generation, multi-coil rotors are always used.
N S
V
IN
+

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James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 9
OPERATI NG CHARACTERI STI CS
From a control view of a DC motor
Motor box is lossless and stores no energy.
At steady-state (constant speed operation, why?), power flow on
the mechanical and electrical sides of the motor must match
instantaneously, i.e.
Since
This is the back-EMF.
During constant speed operation, the supplied voltage is
equivalent to the back-EMF generated by the motor. Hence,
by maintaining constant supply voltage, we can achieve
constant output speed.
Q: Does the load on the mechanical side affect the steady-state
speed?
Motor
Speed,
Torque
Voltage,
Current
P = I i _
LIcctcuI
powc
= I _
McchuncuI
powc
I = K
1
i I = K
1

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MODE OF OPERATI ON
Generator/Tachometers
The operating equations do not depend on direction of power flow:
Motor Electrical power in mechanical power out.
Generator Mechanical power in electrical power out.
When operated for its output power, it is called a generator.
Generator operating mode can be viewed as adding a load.
Some application it is called a dynamometer or dynamic
breaking.
Can also be operated as a speed sensor:
Back-EMF is proportional to the speed of the rotor.
Measure the open-circuit voltage across the winding tachometer.
Motor
Electrical Energy Mechanical Energy
Heat
Generator Mechanical Energy Electrical Energy
Heat
Mechanical Energy
Break
Heat
Electrical Energy
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James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 11
Speed,
Torque, T
M
Permanent Magnet DC Motor
Equivalent circuit:
At steady-state
Stall Torque ( = 0):
No-Load Speed (T
M
= 0):

NO LOAD
TORQUE-SPEED CHARACTERI STI CS
i
A
L
A
R
A
+
V
IN
_
+
V
EMF
_
J
A

L
,
T
STALL
V
IN
increase
I
IN
= i
A
R
A
+ I
LMP
+I
A

J
Jt
i
A
I
IN
= i
A
R
A
+ I
LMP
= I
M

R
A
K
1
+ K
LMP

I
M
= -
K
1
K
LMP
R
A
+
K
1
R
A
I
IN
I
S1ALL
=
K
1
R
A
I
IN

N0 L0A
=
I
IN
K
LMP
James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 12
DYNAMI C RESPONSE
Given a step change in the input voltage across the motor
terminals:
i
A
L
A
R
A
+
V
IN
_
+
V
EMF
_
J
L

M
,

K
T
1
L
A
s + R
A
K
EMF
1
J
L
s + B
V
IN
i
A
T
M +

I
A

J
Jt
i
A
+ i
A
R
A
+ K
LMP
= I
IN
[
L

J
Jt
+ B = I
M
= K
1
i
A
s =
K
1
I
A
[
L
s
2
+ BI
A
+ R
A
[
L
s + R
A
B +K
LMP
K
1
I
IN
s
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James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 13
DYNAMI C RESPONSE
Further approximation:
Neglect Armature Inductance (L
A
) and Frictional Load (B)
Steady-state gain (speed/volt):
Mechanical Time Constant:
Neglect Frictional Load (B)
Electrical Time Constant:
If 4
L

M
then the transfer function can be approximated by:
Time, t
S
p
e
e
d
,

s =
K
1
R
A
[
L
s + K
LMP
K
1
I
IN
s
0 u =
K
1
K
LMP
K
1
=
1
K
LMP

M
=
R
A
[
L
K
LMP
K
1
0 s
I
IN
s
=
0 u

M
s + 1
s =
K
1
I
A
[
L
s
2
+ R
A
[
L
s + K
LMP
K
1
I
IN
s

L
=
I
A
R
A
s =
1K
LMP
(
M
s + 1)(
L
s + 1)
I
IN
s
James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 14
I MPEDANCE MATCHI NG
Motor has inertia. When connected to load, the dynamic response
can be improved by matching the load and motor inertia through
gear trains (gearbox).
Gear train is used to match static characteristics first:
Speed range and torque range
Many motors and gearbox pairs are possible.
One criterion is to maximize the power transferred to the load.
Total inertia seen by the motor is:
where
J
T
: Total inertia seen by the motor
J
M
: Motor rotor inertia
J
L
: Load inertia
r: Gear ratio
[
1
= [
M
+
1
r
2
[
L
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James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 15
I MPEDANCE MATCHI NG
Optimize for constant torque (i.e. constant current)
Kinetic energy of the load is:
The power at the load is the time differentiation of the kinetic energy:
The power reflected at the motor end is:
The acceleration is proportional to the applied torque:
Since acceleration is constant, the power to the load is:
Maximize P
L
by differentiate P
L
with respect to r :
KE
L
=
1
2
[
L

L
2
P =
J
Jt
KE
L
=
J
Jt
1
2
[
L

L
2
= [
L

L

J
Jt

L
P
L
=
[
L
r
2

M

J
Jt

M
=
[
L
r
2

M
o
M
o
M
=
1
M
]
T
and
M
= o
M
t
P
L
=
[
L

M
I
M
r
2
[
1
[
M
=
1

2
[
L
or r =
]
L
]
M
James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 16
OPERATI NG I SSUES
Brush
Generate electrical noise
Wear out
Limited maximum voltage
Temperature
Heat is the primary performance limitation for DC motors
Sources:
Electrical losses in windings
Eddy current
Hysterisis
Friction
Brush contact resistance
Detailed analysis needs to separate the rotor and motor housing
Transient temperature limit is very different form steady-state limits
(what is on the spec.)
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James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 17
MOTOR DRI VERS (AMPLI FI ERS)
Voltage (Mode) Control Amplifier
Power amplifier produce an output voltage in response to the input
command.
Motor will reach steady-state speed for given constant input
voltage.
Zero voltage (command) produces breaking (due to electrical
dissipation)
R
B
R
A
V
CMD
Bipolar
K
T
1
L
A
s + R
A
K
EMF

+
1
J
L
s + B
Power
Amplifier
(Driver)
Unipolar
R
B
R
A
V
CMD
V
A
V
M
V
CMD
V
M
James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 18
V
CMD
MOTOR DRI VERS (AMPLI FI ERS)
Current (Mode) Control Amplifier
Power amplifier produce an motor current in response to the input
command.
Normally uses feedback around the motor and amplifier. Feedback
will compensate the back-EMF to the limit of the power supply.
Improves dynamic performance voltage rises sharply during initial
transient.
Current
Amplifier
(Driver)
Current Measurement
Commanded
Current
(voltage)
i
A
=

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James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 19
MOTOR DRI VERS (AMPLI FI ERS)
PWM Amplifier
Runs cooler than linear (transistor-based) amplifiers.
Half H-Bridge Configuration:
James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 20
MOTOR DRI VERS (AMPLI FI ERS)
PWM Amplifier
Triangular waveform generator
Generate a bipolar square wave and run it through an integrator.
V
SQ
V
TR
Integrator
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James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 21
MOTOR DRI VERS (AMPLI FI ERS)
PWM Amplifier
PWM Current Mode Amplifier (Driver)
Time Ratio T
P
/
T
0
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

V
o
l
t
a
g
e

James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 22
MOTOR DRI VERS (AMPLI FI ERS)
PWM Amplifier
Full H-Bridge Configuration
Darlington Connection
For low power applications (less than
0.5 Amp): can connect the digital part
directly to analog transistors.
Darlington connection uses two stage
amplification to bring the current
capacity to about 1 Amp.
H-Bridge
Bipolar operation with unipolar supply
voltage.
PWM operation implied cooler/more
efficient drive.
Easily interface with digital control
signals.
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James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 23
MOTOR DRI VERS (AMPLI FI ERS)
H-Bridge Driver
Circuit Example
James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 24
MOTOR VELOCI TY CONTROL
Uses motor velocity measurement, such as tachometer, resolver, and
encoder, as feedback signal.
Use Voltage Mode Amplifier
Motor + Load
Power
Amplifier
Velocity
Controller
+

Velocity
Command
0.64
Velocity
Control Gain
Voltage
Amplifier
Velocity
Command
-K-
Torque
Constant
1
6e-4s+2e-2
Mechanical
Load
s
1
-K-
Back-EMF
Constant
1
0.011s+10
Armature
0.08 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
Time (sec)
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

(
r
a
d
/
s
e
c
)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Time (sec)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

a
n
d

C
u
r
r
e
n
t
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James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 25
MOTOR VELOCI TY CONTROL
Use Current Mode Amplifier
Current Feedback
1.22
Velocity
Control Gain
Velocity
Command
-K-
Torque
Constant
1
6e-4s+2e-2
Mechanical
Load
s
1
50
Current
Control Gain
-K-
Back-EMF
Constant
1
0.011s+10
Armature
Mechanical
Dynamics
Electrical Dynamic
(Current Loop)
Velocity
Controller
+

Velocity
Command
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Time (sec)
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

(
r
a
d
/
s
e
c
)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Time (sec)
C
o
m
m
e
n
d
e
d

a
n
d

A
c
t
u
a
l

C
u
r
r
e
n
t
James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 26
MOTOR VELOCI TY CONTROL
Gain Limitations
For simple and ideal models, there will be no gain limits.
Practical applications have:
Additional (unmodeled) dynamics
Finite input power
Digital Implementation
These will limit the maximum gain that can be applied to the motor
control systems.
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
time (sec)
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

(
r
a
d
/
s
e
c
)
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
time (sec)
V
o
l
t

&

C
u
r
r
e
n
t
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James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 27
MOTOR VELOCI TY CONTROL
Dynamic Compensation
Lead-lag compensator can be used instead of the simple
proportional control.
PID controller can be used. Adding integral control can eliminate
steady-state velocity error.
Motor + Load
Power
Amplifier
+

Velocity
Command
K
Ts
Ts
+
+
1
1
+
Motor + Load
Power
Amplifier

Velocity
Command
K s K s K
s
D P I
2
+ +
Time (sec.)
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

(
r
a
d
/
s
e
c
)
Velocity Step Response
0 0.016 0.032 0.048 0.064 0.08
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 28
MOTOR POSI TI ON CONTROL
Multi-Loop (Cascade) Control
Uses both the velocity and position measurements that forms two
cascade loops:
Velocity Loop (Inner loop): Relatively high bandwidth
Position Loop (Outer loop): Relatively lower bandwidth
Motor
+
Load
Power
Amplifier
Velocity
Controlle
r
+

1
s
Position
Controlle
r
+

Voltage
Amplifier
3
Velocity
Control Gain
-K-
Torque
Constant
3
Position
Control Gain
Position
Command
1
6e-4s+2e-2
Mechanical
Load
s
1
-K-
Back-EMF
Constant
1
0.011s+10
Armature
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James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 29
MOTOR POSI TI ON CONTROL
Single-Loop (Cascade) Control
Uses only the position measurements for feedback.
Proportional position control
Estimate velocity from position measurement. This amounts to
proportional-plus-derivative (PD) control.
More elaborate control scheme may include estimation of both the
velocity and armature current and uses measured position and
estimated velocity and current as feedback.
Motor + Load
Power
Amplifier
Position
Controller
+

Position
Command
Motor +
Load
Power
Amplifier
Position
Controller
+

Position
Command
Velocity
Estimation
Velocity
Controller
James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 30
MOTOR POSI TI ON CONTROL
Velocity Estimation
Filter analog position signal through analog differentiator
Approximate differentiation with difference calculation
Backward Difference:
Tustin (Bilinear) Approximation:
Counting time (clock pulses) elapsed between two consecutive
encoder pulses.
All approximations introduce additional error (mostly as phase lag)
in velocity measurement that limit the achievable bandwidth.
All difference base approximation are noisy in nature. Need
additional filtering, which introduce even more phase lag.
I k =
P
I
=
1
I
( P k _
Cucnt
Poston
- P k - 1
Pcous
Poston
)
I k =
2
I
P k _
Cucnt
Poston
- P k - 1
Pcous
Poston
- I k - 1
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James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 31
LI NEAR MOTORS
Rotary-to-linear converters, such as lead-screw and belt-and-
pulley, have losses and dynamic effect that will need to address in
addition to motor control.
Direct production of linear force/motion can be accomplished
using linear motor technology (un-warp a rotary motor):
Can produce smoother motion than rotary motor plus converters.
Motor needs to be as long as the motion path.
No load inertia matching characteristics no gearbox.
Most of the motor does not participate in force generation.
System stiffness needs to be generated through control.
Commutation
Brushes
Power Brushes
Head (Table)
N S
Channel
(Guide way)
James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 32
BRUSHLESS DC (BLDC) MOTORS
Permanent magnet on rotor (usually the outer case) and three
phase coil excitation on stator.
Use rotor angular position feedback to electronically commutate
the coil (phase) currents.
Uses three-phase DC signals and requires three channels of power
amplification.
Excitation is a function of rotor position. On-off excitation switching
needs discrete point measurement.
Hall effect sensors are usually used.
Non-excited coil back-emf can also be used.
Shaft (Rotor)
Angle
I
1
I
2
I
3
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James A. Mynderse ME588 DC Motors 33
BLDC MOTOR
Pros
No Brushes
Less maintenance
Less electrical noise
Can use higher voltages
Cons
Require Additional Components
More electronics
Rotor position sensor
Higher Torque Ripple
Can be reduced by using sinusoidal excitation.
Requires linear or PWM amplifier with higher precision rotor
position measurement.
Can be reduced by adding for commutation points.
Not practical needs too much more electronics.