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Environment Module PT 2013

BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS
Extinction is the gravest aspect of the biodiversity crisis and it is irreversible. Although Extinction is a natural process, human impacts have elevated the rate of extinction by several thousand times the natural rate. Mass extinctions of this magnitude have only occurred five times in the history of our planet; the last brought the end of the dinosaur age. In the recent times, unsustainable consumption in many northern countries and crushing poverty in the tropics are destroying wild nature. In a world where conservation budgets are insufficient given the number of species threatened with extinction, identifying conservation priorities is crucial. In this regard, a British ecologist Norman Myers defined the biodiversity hotspot concept in 1988 to address the dilemma that conservationists face: what areas are the most immediately important for conserving biodiversity? The biodiversity hotspots make up the high numbers of endemic species, however their combined area of remaining habitat covers only 2.3 percent of the Earth's land surface. Each hotspot faces extreme threats and has already lost at least 70 percent of its original natural vegetation. Over 50 percent of the worlds plant species and 42 percent of all terrestrial vertebrate species are endemic to these 34 biodiversity hotspots. Hotspot Definition: Conservation International adopted Myers hotspots as its institutional blueprint and made the decision to undertake a reassessment of the hotspots concept. Later it introduced quantitative thresholds for the designation of biodiversity hotspots. To qualify as a hotspot, a region must meet two strict criteria: It must contain at least 1,500 species of vascular plants (> 0.5 percent of the worlds total) as endemics, and It has to have lost at least 70 percent of its original habitat. Hotspots Revisited: Hotspot Revisited is an analysis with the aims of not to rework the entire hotspots concept; rather, to revisit the status of the existing hotspots, refine their boundaries, update the information associated with them and, most importantly, consider a number of potential new hotspots. A major finding of this updated analysis is that six previously overlooked areas qualify for hotspot status. These are the Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands of northern Mexico and the southwestern United States, southern Africas Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany region, the Horn of Africa, the Irano-Anatolian region, the Mountains of Central Asia, and Japan. In addition, two hotspots have been subdivided, as data are now sufficient to show that they contain quite distinctive biotas. The original Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal Forests hotspot has been partitioned, such that the Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa stand alone as a separate hotspot (now extending into southeastern Somalia and southern Mozambique), while the Eastern Arc Mountains have been grouped with the mountains of the Southern Rift, Albertine Rift and Ethiopian Highlands to form the Eastern Afromontane Hotspot. Similarly, the Himalaya and Indo Burma regions are now listed as separate hotspots, with the former extending further to the west into Pakistan and the northeast Afghanistan than did the Himalayan portion of the original Indo-Burma Hotspot. The final change revealed in this reassessment of the hotspots is truly terrifying. Less than a decade ago, the islands of eastern Melanesia, while known to be extremely endemic -rich, still held largely intact habitat. Since then, rampant logging and establishment of oil palm plantations have devastated these islands, leaving only 30 percent of their forests remaining, a situation mirroring the fate of Indonesias forests a decade ago. Finally, delineating hotspots is by no means an exact science. It requires a line that might be easily discernible or rather vague on the ground must be drawn to represent a transition between two habitats. The map of Ecoregions developed by the World Wildlife Fund-U.S. is now the most widely used system for such bioregional classification. In total, this updated analysis reveals the existence of 34 biodiversity hotspots, each holding at least 1,500 endemic plant species, and having lost at least 70 percent of its original habitat extent. Overall, the 34 hotspots once covered 15.7 percent of the Earth's land surface. In all, 86 percent of the hotspots' habitat has already been destroyed, such that the intact remnants of the hotspots now cover only 2.3 percent of the Earths land surface. Between them, the hotspots hold at least 150,000 plant species as endemics, 50 percent of the world's total. The total number of terrestrial vertebrates endemic to the hotspots is 11,980, representing 42 percent of all terrestrial vertebrate species. Reptiles and amphibians, are more prone to hotspot endemism than are the more wide -ranging mammals and birds, but the overall similarity between taxonomic groups is remarkable. Overall, 22,022 terrestrial vertebrate species call the hotspots home, 77 percent of the world's total. The current analysis also includes the first assessment of inland fishes across all hotspots. Although most current statistics are likely underestimates because almost 200 freshwater fish species are discovered each year the hotspots already hold 29 percent of the world's freshwater fish species as endemics, with 55 percent of species occurring. Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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While the 34 hotspots clearly hold astounding levels of species endemism, this is not sufficient to describe the extent to which they represent the history of life. This is important because it could be argued that measures of biodiversity at higher taxonomic levels than the species better represent evolutionary potential, ecological diversity, and the range of options for future human use. In the current analysis, we therefore measure hotspot endemism at the higher taxonomic levels of genera and families, and find an extremely high concentration of biodiversity at these levels, even compared to what we would expect based on their levels of species endemism. Three major conclusions of this analysis are: 1. The amount of biodiversity contained in the hotspots is extremely high. More than half of the planet's species are endemic to only 16 percent of its land area. Based on the evidence from terrestrial vertebrates, it seems that the overall number of species occurring in the hotspots is much greater approaching four-fifths. If we consider only the extent of remaining habitat 2.3 percent of the planet's land surface these numbers are even more remarkable. 2. The hotspots provide us with the real measure of the conservation challenge. Unless we succeed in conserving this small fraction of the planets land area, we will lose more than half of our natural heritage. Threats to Hotspots: Habitat destruction is a pervasive threat affecting hotspots and is already causing extinctions in many areas. Accelerating anthropogenic climate change will undoubtedly magnify the effects of habitat destruction and fragmentation. Predatory invasive species have already had a devastating impact on the island hotspots, where species evolved in the absence of animals such as cats and rats. Introduction of exotic plant species into hotspots, particularly those of Mediterranean-type vegetation, is also having massive ecosystem effects. Direct exploitation of species for food, medicine, and the pet trade is a serious threat to all hotspots, particularly in the Guinean Forests of West Africa and several Asian hotspots. Another grave concern is the severe decline of amphibians worldwide, the cause of which remains unknown. The most direct measure of this threat can be derived from assessments of conservation status of species. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, compiled by the Species Survival Commission of IUCN-The World Conservation Union, classifies species that have a high probability of extinction in the medium-term future as Critically Endangered, Endangered, or Vulnerable. For mammals, birds, and amphibians, the three groups of species for which assessments of distribution and conservation status have been conducted. The IUCN Global Reptile Assessment is currently underway, and equivalent data for threatened reptile species should be available in a few years time. Human Population and Hotspots: The relationship between people and biodiversity is not simply one where more people lead to greater impacts on biodiversity. Human population density among hotspots varies widely, from four people per km (in the Succulent Karoo) to as much as 336 people per km (in Japan). Of course, much of our understanding of human-biodiversity interactions lies not in human density but rather in human activity. A good example of this is the Cerrado, with a population density of only 13 persons per km, but which has suffered considerable habitat loss due to the expansion of commercial agriculture.

World Biodiversity Hotspots


Continent Africa Hotspot Region Cape Floristic Region Coastal Forests Of Eastern Africa Eastern Afromontane Guinean Forests Of Western Africa Horn Of Africa Madagascar & The Indian Ocean Islands Characteristic Evergreen fire-dependent shrublands characterize the landscape of the Cape Floristic Region. Though tiny and fragmented, the forest remnants that make up the Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa contain remarkable levels of biodiversity. The mountains of the Eastern Afromontane hotspot are scattered along the eastern edge of Africa, from Saudi Arabia in the north to Zimbabwe in the south. The lowland forests of West Africa are home to more than a quarter of Africas mammals, including more than 20 species of primates. The arid Horn of Africa has been a renowned source of biological resources for thousands of years. Madagascar and its neighboring island groups have an astounding total of eight plant families, four bird families, and five primate families that

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live nowhere else on Earth. MaputalandPondoland-Albany Succulent Karoo Asia-Pacific East Melanesian Islands Himalaya Indo-Burma Japan Mountains Southwest China New Caledonia New Zealand Philippines Polynesia-Micronesia Southwest Australia Sundaland Wallacea Western Ghats & Sri Lanka Europe Central Asia & Caucasus Irano-Anatolian Mediterranean Basin Mountains Of Central Asia California Floristic Province Caribbean Islands Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mesoamerica Of

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Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany, which stretches along the east coast of southern Africa below the Great Escarpment, is an important center of plant endemism. The Succulent Karoo of South Africa and Namibia boasts the richest succulent flora on earth, as well as remarkable endemism in plants. Once largely intact, the 1,600 East Melanesian Islands are now a hotspot due, sadly, to accelerating levels of habitat loss. The Himalaya Hotspot is home to the worlds highest mountains, including Mt. Everest. Encompassing more than 2 million km of tropical Asia, Indo-Burma is still revealing its biological treasures. The islands that make up the Japanese Archipelago stretch from the humid subtropics in the south to the boreal zone in the north, resulting in a wide variety of climates and ecosystems. With dramatic variations in climate and topography, the Mountains of Southwest China support a wide array of habitats including the most endemic-rich temperate flora in the world. An island the size of New Jersey in the South Pacific Ocean, New Caledonia is the home of no less than five endemic plant families. A mountainous archipelago once dominated by temperate rainforests, New Zealand harbors extraordinary levels of endemic species. More than 7,100 islands fall within the borders of the Philippines hotspot, identified as one of the worlds biologically richest countries. Comprising 4,500 islands stretched across the southern Pacific Ocean, the Polynesia-Micronesia hotspot is the epicenter of the current global extinction crisis. The forest, woodlands, shrublands, and heath of Southwest Australia are characterized by high endemism among plants and reptiles. The spectacular flora and fauna of the Sundaland Hotspot are succumbing to the explosive growth of industrial forestry in these islands. The flora and fauna of Wallacea are so varied that every island in this hotspot needs secure protected areas to preserve the regions biodiversity. Faced with tremendous population pressure, the forests of the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka have been dramatically impacted by the demands for timber and agricultural land. The deserts, savannas, arid woodlands, and forests that comprise the Caucasus hotspot contain a large number of endemic plant species. Forming a natural barrier between the Mediterranean Basin and the dry plateaus of Western Asia, the mountains and basins that make up the Irano-Anatolian Hotspot contain many centers of local endemism. The flora of the Mediterranean Basin is dramatic. Its 22,500 endemic vascular plant species are more than four times the number found in all the rest of Europe. Comprising two of Asias major mountain ranges, the Mountains of Central Asia were known to early Persians as the roof of the world. The California Floristic Province is a zone of Mediterranean-type climate and has the high levels of plant endemism characteristic of these regions. The Caribbean Islands support exceptionally diverse ecosystems, ranging from montane cloud forests to cactus scrublands, which have been devastated by deforestation and encroachment. Encompassing Mexicos main mountain chains, and isolated mountaintop islands in Baja California and the southern United States, the Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands is an area of rugged mountainous terrain, high relief, and deep canyons. The Mesoamerican forests are the third largest among the worlds hotspots. Their spectacular endemic species include quetzals, howler

North & Central America

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South America Atlantic Forest Cerrado Chilean Winter Rainfall-Valdivian Forest Tropical Andes Tumbes-ChocMagdalena

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monkeys, and 17,000 plant species. The Atlantic Forest of tropical South America boasts 20,000 plant species, 40 percent of which are endemic. The Cerrado region of Brazil, comprising 21 percent of the country, is the most extensive woodland-savanna in South America. A virtual continental island bounded by the Pacific Ocean, the Andes Mountains, and the Atacama Desert, the Chilean Winter RainfallValdivian Forests harbors richly endemic flora and fauna. The richest and most diverse region on Earth, the Tropical Andes region contains about 5 percent of all vascular plant species in less than 1 percent of the worlds land area. Tumbes-Choc-Magdalena is bordered by two other hotspots: Mesoamerica to the north, and the Tropical Andes to the east.

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Environment Module PT 2013

BIODIVERSITY
Biological diversity - or biodiversity - is the term given to the variety of life on Earth and the natural patterns it forms. The biodiversity we see today is the fruit of billions of years of evolution, shaped by natural processes and, increasingly, by the influence of humans. It forms the web of life of which we are an integral part and upon which we so fully depend. This diversity is often understood in terms of the wide variety of plants, animals and microorganisms. So far, about 1.75 million species have been identified, mostly small creatures such as insects. Scientists reckon that there are actually about 13 million species, though estimates range from three to 100 million. Biodiversity also includes genetic differences within each species - for example, between varieties of crops and breeds of livestock. Chromosomes, genes, and DNA-the building blocks of life-determine the uniqueness of each individual and each species. Yet another aspect of biodiversity is the variety of ecosystems such as those that occur in deserts, forests, wetlands, mountains, lakes, rivers, and agricultural landscapes. In each ecosystem, living creatures, including humans, form a community, interacting with one another and with the air, water, and soil around them. It is the combination of life forms and their interactions with each other and with the rest of the environment that has made Earth a uniquely habitable place for humans. Biodiversity provides a large number of goods and services that sustain our lives. The value of biodiversity: Protecting biodiversity is in our self-interest. Biological resources are the pillars upon which we build civilizations. Nature's products support such diverse industries as agriculture, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, pulp and paper, horticulture, construction and waste treatment. The loss of biodiversity threatens our food supplies, opportunities for recreation and tourism, and sources of wood, medicines and energy. It also interferes with essential ecological functions. Time after time we have rushed back to nature's cupboard for cures to illnesses or for infusions of tough genes from wild plants to save our crops from pest outbreaks. The vast array of interactions among the various components of biodiversity makes the planet habitable for all species, including humans. Our personal health, and the health of our economy and human society, depends on the continuous supply of various ecological services that would be extremely costly or impossible to replace. These natural services are so varied as to be almost infinite. For example, it would be impractical to replace, to any large extent, services such as pest control performed by various creatures feeding on one another, or pollination performed by insects and birds going about their everyday business. "Goods and Services"provided by ecosystems: Provision of food, fuel and fibre Provision of shelter and building materials Purification of air and water Detoxification and decomposition of wastes Stabilization and moderation of the Earth's climate Moderation of floods, droughts, temperature extremes and the forces of wind Generation and renewal of soil fertility, including nutrient cycling Pollination of plants, including many crops Control of pests and diseases Maintenance of genetic resources as key inputs to crop varieties and livestock breeds, medicines, and other products Cultural and aesthetic benefits Ability to adapt to change Biodiversity under threat When most people think of the dangers besetting the natural world, they think of the threat to other creatures. Declines in the numbers of such charismatic animals as pandas, tigers, elephants, whales, and various species of birds, have drawn world attention to the problem of species at risk. Species have been disappearing at 50 -100 times the natural rate, and this is predicted to rise dramatically. Based on current trends, an estimated 34,000 plant and 5,200 animal species - including one in eight of the world's bird species - face extinction. For thousands of years we have been developing a vast array of domesticated plants and animals important for food. But this treasure house is shrinking as modern commercial agriculture focuses on relatively few crop varieties. And, about 30% of breeds of the main farm animal species are currently at high risk of extinction. While the loss of individual species catches our attention, it is the fragmentation, degradation, and outright loss of forests, wetlands, coral reefs, and other ecosystems that poses the gravest threat to biological diversity. Forests are home to much of the known terrestrial biodiversity, but about 45 per cent of the Earth's original forests are gone, cleared mostly during the past century. Despite some regrowth, the

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world's total forests are still shrinking rapidly, particularly in the tropics. Up to 10 per cent of coral reefs - among the richest ecosystems - have been destroyed, and one third of the remainder face collapse over the next 10 to 20 years. Coastal mangroves, a vital nursery habitat for countless species, are also vulnerable, with half already gone. Global atmospheric changes, such as ozone depletion and climate change, only add to the stress. A thinner ozone layer lets more ultraviolet-B radiation reach the Earth's surface where it damages living tissue. Global warming is already changing habitats and the distribution of species. Scientists warn that even a one-degree increase in the average global temperature, if it comes rapidly, will push many species over the brink. Our food production systems could also be seriously disrupted. The loss of biodiversity often reduces the productivity of ecosystems, thereby shrinking nature's basket of goods and services, from which we constantly draw. It destabilizes ecosystems, and weakens their ability to deal with natural disasters such as floods, droughts, and hurricanes, and with human-caused stresses, such as pollution and climate change. Already, we are spending huge sums in response to flood and storm damage exacerbated by deforestation; such damage is expected to increase due to global warming. The reduction in biodiversity also hurts us in other ways. Our cultural identity is deeply rooted in our biological environment. Plants and animals are symbols of our world, preserved in flags, sculptures, and other images that define us and our societies. We draw inspiration just from looking at nature's beauty and power. While loss of species has always occurred as a natural phenomenon, the pace of extinction has accelerated dramatically as a result of human activity. Ecosystems are being fragmented or eliminated, and innumerable species are in decline or already extinct. We are creating the greatest extinction crisis since the natural disaster that wiped out the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. These extinctions are irreversible and, given our dependence on food crops, medicines and other biological resources, pose a threat to our own well-being. It is reckless if not downright dangerous to keep chipping away at our life support system. It is unethical to drive other forms of life to extinction, and thereby deprive present and future generations of options for their survival and development. AN AGREEMENT FOR ACTION In 1972, the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm) resolved to establish the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Governments signed a number of regional and international agreements to tackle specific issues, such as protecting wetlands and regulating the international trade in endangered species. These agreements, along with controls on toxic chemicals and pollution, have helped to slow the tide of destruction but have not reversed it. For example, an international ban and restrictions on the taking and selling of certain animals and plants have helped to reduce over-harvesting and poaching. In addition, many endangered species survive in zoos and botanical gardens, and key ecosystems are preserved through the adoption of protective measures. However, these are stopgap actions. The long-term viability of species and ecosystems depends on their being free to evolve in natural conditions. This means that humans have to learn how to use biological resources in a way that minimizes their depletion. The challenge is to find economic policies that motivate conservation and sustainable use by creating financial incentives for those who would otherwise over-use or damage the resource. In 1987, the World Commission on Environment and Development (the Brundtland Commission) concluded that economic development must become less ecologically destructive. In its landmark report, Our Common Future, it said that: "Humanity has the ability to make development sustainable-to ensure that it meets needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". It also called for "a new era of environmentally sound economic development". THE CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY: The Earth's biological resources are vital to humanity's economic and social development. As a result, there is a growing recognition that biological diversity is a global asset of tremendous value to present and future generations. At the same time, the threat to species and ecosystems has never been so great as it is today. Species extinction caused by human activities continues at an alarming rate. In response, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) convened the Ad Hoc Working Group of Experts on Biological Diversity in November 1988 to explore the need for an international convention on biological diversity. It emphasised upon the need to share costs and benefits between developed and developing countries" as well as "ways and means to support innovation by local people". And finally the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (the ad hoc working group/committee), culminated on 22 May 1992 with the Nairobi Conference for the Adoption of the Agreed Text of the Convention on Biological Diversity. The Convention was opened for signature on 5 June 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (the Rio "Earth Summit") and remained open for signature until 4 June 1993, by which time it had Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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received 168 signatures. The Convention entered into force on 29 December 1993, which was 90 days after the 30th ratification. It has 3 main objectives: 1. The conservation of biological diversity 2. The sustainable use of the components of biological diversity 3. The fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resource The first session of the Conference of the Parties was scheduled for 28 November 9 December 1994 in the Bahamas. The Convention on Biological Diversity was inspired by the world community's growing commitment to sustainable development. It represents a dramatic step forward in the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources. The Convention is comprehensive in its goals, and deals with an issue so vital to humanity's future, that it stands as a landmark in international law. It recognizes -for the first time-that the conservation of biological diversity is "a common concern of humankind" and is an integral part of the development process. The agreement covers all ecosystems, species, and genetic resources. It links traditional conservation efforts to the economic goal of using biological resources sustainably. It sets principles for the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources, notably those destined for commercial use. It also covers the rapidly expanding field of biotechnology, addressing technology development and transfer, benefit-sharing and biosafety. Importantly, the Convention is legally binding; countries that join it are obliged to implement its provisions. The Convention reminds decision-makers that natural resources are not infinite and sets out a new philosophy for the 21st century, that of sustainable use. While past conservation efforts were aimed at protecting particular species and habitats, the Convention recognizes that ecosystems, species and genes must be used for the benefit of humans. However, this should be done in a way and at a rate that does not lead to the long-term decline of biological diversity. The Convention also offers decision-makers guidance based on the precautionary principle that where there is a threat of significant reduction or loss of biological diversity, lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing measures to avoid or minimize such a threat. The Convention acknowledges that substantial investments are required to conserve biological diversity. It argues, however, that conservation will bring us significant environmental, economic and social benefits in return. Some of the many issues dealt with under the Convention include: Measures and incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. Regulated access to genetic resources. Access to and transfer of technology, including biotechnology. Technical and scientific cooperation. Impact assessment. Education and public awareness. Provision of financial resources. National reporting on efforts to implement treaty commitments. NATIONAL ACTION As an international treaty, the Convention on Biological Diversity identifies common problems, sets overall goals and policies and general obligations, and organizes technical and financial cooperation. However, the responsibility for achieving its goals rests largely with the countries themselves. Private companies, landowners, fishermen, and farmers take most of the actions that affect biodiversity. Governments need to provide the critical role of leadership, particularly by setting rules that guide the use of natural resources, and by protecting biodiversity where they have direct control over the land and water. Under the Convention, governments undertake to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity. They are required to develop national biodiversity strategies and action plans, and to integrate these into broader national plans for environment and development. This is particularly important for such sectors as forestry, agriculture, fisheries, energy, transportation and urban planning. Other treaty commitments include: Identifying and monitoring the important components of biological diversity that need to be conserved and used sustainably. Establishing protected areas to conserve biological diversity while promoting environmentally sound development around these areas. Rehabilitating and restoring degraded ecosystems and promoting the recovery of threatened species in collaboration with local residents. Respecting, preserving and maintaining traditional knowledge of the sustainable use of biological diversity with the involvement of indigenous peoples and local communities. Preventing the introduction of, controlling, and eradicating alien species that could threaten ecosystems, habitats or species. Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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Controlling the risks posed by organisms modified by biotechnology. Promoting public participation, particularly when it comes to assessing the environmental impacts of development projects that threaten biological diversity. Educating people and raising awareness about the importance of biological diversity and the need to conserve it. Reporting on how each country is meeting its biodiversity goals. Surveys One of the first steps towards a successful national biodiversity strategy is to conduct surveys to find out what biodiversity exists, its value and importance, and what is endangered. On the basis of these survey results, governments can set measurable targets for conservation and sustainable use. National strategies and programmes need to be developed or adapted to meet these targets. Conservation and sustainable use The conservation of each country's biological diversity can be achieved in various ways. "In -situ" conservation - the primary means of conservation - focuses on conserving genes, species, and ecosystems in their natural surroundings, for example by establishing protected areas, rehabilitating degraded ecosystems, and adopting legislation to protect threatened species. "Ex-situ" conservation uses zoos, botanical gardens and gene banks to conserve species. Promoting the sustainable use of biodiversity will be of growing importance for maintaining biodiversity in the years and decades to come. Under the Convention, the "ecosystem approach to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity" is being used as a framework for action, in which all the goods and services provided by the biodiversity in ecosystems are considered. The Convention is promoting activities to ensure that everyone benefits from such goods and services in an equitable way. Reporting Each government that joins the Convention is to report on what it has done to implement the accord, and how effective this is in meeting the objectives of the Convention. These reports are submitted to the Conference of the Parties (COP) - the governing body that brings together all countries that have ratified the Convention. The reports can be viewed by the citizens of all nations. The Convention secretariat works with national governments to help strengthen reporting and to make the reports of various countries more consistent and comparable, so that the world community can get a clearer picture of the big trends. Part of that work involves developing indicators for measuring trends in biodiversity, particularly the effects of human actions and decisions on the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. The national reports, particularly when seen together, are one of the key tools for tracking progress in meeting the Convention's objectives INTERNATIONAL ACTION The Convention's success depends on the combined efforts of the world's nations. The responsibility to implement the Convention lies with the individual countries and, to a large extent, compliance will depend on informed self -interest and peer pressure from other countries and from public opinion. The Convention has created a global forum-actually a series of meetings-where governments, non-governmental organizations, academics, the private sector and other interested groups or individuals share ideas and compare strategies. The Convention's ultimate authority is the Conference of the Parties (COP), consisting of all governments (and regional economic integration organizations) that have ratified the treaty. This governing body reviews progress under the Convention, identifies new priorities, and sets work plans for members. The COP can also make amendments to the Convention, create expert advisory bodies, review progress reports by member nations, and collaborate with other international organizations and agreements. The Conference of the Parties can rely on expertise and support from several other bodies that are established by the Convention: The Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA). The SBSTTA is a committee composed of experts from member governments competent in relevant fields. It plays a key role in making recommendations to the COP on scientific and technical issues. The Clearing House Mechanism. This Internet-based network promotes technical and scientific cooperation and the exchange of information. The Secretariat. Based in Montreal, it is linked to United Nations Environment Programme. Its main functions are to organize meetings, draft documents, assist member governments in the implementation of the programme of work, coordinate with other international organizations, and collect and disseminate information. In addition, the COP establishes ad hoc committees or mechanisms as it sees fit. For example, it created a Working Group on Biosafety that met from 1996 to 1999 and a Working Group on the knowledge of indigenous and local communities. Thematic programmes and "cross-cutting" issues Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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The Convention's members regularly share ideas on best practices and policies for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity with an ecosystem approach. They look at how to deal with biodiversity concerns during development planning, how to promote transboundary cooperation, and how to involve indigenous peoples and local communities in ecosystem management. The Conference of the Parties has launched a number of thematic programmes covering the biodiversity of inland waters, forests, marine and coastal areas, drylands, and agricultural lands. Cross-cutting issues are also addressed on matters such as the control of alien invasive species, strengthening the capacity of member countries in taxonomy, and the development of indicators of biodiversity loss. Financial and technical support When the Convention was adopted, developing countries emphasized that their ability to take national actions to achieve global biodiversity benefits would depend on financial and technical assistance. Thus, bilateral and multilateral support for capacity building and for investing in projects and programmes is essential for enabling developing countries to meet the Convention's objectives. Convention-related activities by developing countries are eligible for support from the financial mechanism of the Convention: the Global Environment Facility (GEF). GEF projects, supported by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the World Bank, help forge international cooperation and finance actions to address four critical threats to the global environment: biodiversity loss, climate change, depletion of the ozone layer and degradation of international waters. By the end of 1999, the GEF had contributed nearly $ 1 billion for biodiversity projects in more than 120 countries. The Biosafety Protocol Since the domestication of the first crops and farm animals, we have altered their genetic makeup through selective breeding and cross-fertilization. The results have been greater agricultural productivity and improved human nutrition. In recent years, advances in biotechnology techniques have enabled us to cross the species barrier by transferring genes from one species to another. We now have transgenic plants, such as tomatoes and strawberries that have been modified using a gene from a cold water fish to protect the plants from frost. Some varieties of potato and corn have received genes from a bacterium that enables them to produce their own insecticide, thus reducing the need to spray chemical insecticides. Other plants have been modified to tolerate herbicides sprayed to kill weeds. Living Modified Organisms (LMOs) -- often known as genetically modified organisms (GMOs) -- are becoming part of an increasing number of products, including foods and food additives, beverages, drugs, adhesives, and fuels. Agricultural and pharmaceutical LMOs have rapidly become a multi-billion-dollar global industry. Biotechnology is being promoted as a better way to grow crops and produce medicines, but it has raised concerns about potential side effects on human health and the environment, including risks to biological diversity. In some countries, genetically altered agricultural products have been sold without much debate, while in others, there have been vocal protests against their use, particularly when they are sold without being identified as genetically modified. In response to these concerns, governments negotiated a subsidiary agreement to the Convention to address the potential risks posed by cross-border trade and accidental releases of LMOs. Adopted in January 2000, the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety allows governments to signal whether or not they are willing to accept imports of agricultural commodities that include LMOs by communicating their decision to the world community via a Biosafety Clearing House, a mechanism set up to facilitate the exchange of information on and experience with LMOs. In addition, commodities that may contain LMOs are to be clearly labeled as such when being exported. Stricter Advanced Informed Agreement procedures will apply to seeds, live fish, and other LMOs that are to be intentionally introduced into the environment. In these cases, the exporter must provide detailed information to each importing country in advance of the first shipment, and the importer must then authorize the shipment. The aim is to ensure that recipient countries have both the opportunity and the capacity to assess risks involving the products of modern biotechnology. The Protocol will enter into force after it has been ratified by 50 governments. Sharing the benefits of genetic resources. An important part of the biodiversity debate involves access to and sharing of the benefits arising out of the commercial and other utilization of genetic material, such as pharmaceutical products. Most of the world's biodiversity is found in developing countries, which consider it a resource for fueling their economic and social development. Historically, plant genetic resources were collected for commercial use outside their region of origin or as inputs in plant breeding. Foreign bioprospectors have searched for natural substances to develop new commercial products, such drugs. Often, the products would be sold and protected by patents or other intellectual property rights, without fair benefits to the source countries. The treaty recognizes national sovereignty over all genetic resources, and provides that access to valuable biological resources be carried out on "mutually agreed terms" and subject to the "prior informed consent" of the country of origin. When a microorganism, plant, or animal is used for a commercial application, the country from which it came Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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has the right to benefit. Such benefits can include cash, samples of what is collected, the participation or training of national researchers, the transfer of biotechnology equipment and know-how, and shares of any profits from the use of the resources. Work has begun to translate this concept into reality and there are already examples of benefit-sharing arrangements. At least a dozen countries have established controls over access to their genetic resources, and an equal number of nations are developing such controls. Through the Convention, countries meet to develop common policies on these matters. Traditional knowledge The Convention also recognizes the close and traditional dependence of indigenous and local communities on biological resources and the need to ensure that these communities share in the benefits arising from the use of their traditional knowledge and practices relating to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. Member governments have undertaken "to respect, preserve and maintain" such knowledge and practices, to promote their wider application with the approval and involvement of the communities concerned, and to encourage the equitable sharing of the benefits derived from their utilization. CHALLENGES: Some of the major challenges to implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity and promoting sustainable development are: Meeting the increasing demand for biological resources caused by population growth and increased consumption, while considering the long-term consequences of our actions Increasing our capacity to document and understand biodiversity, its value, and threats to it. Building adequate expertise and experience in biodiversity planning. Improving policies, legislation, guidelines, and fiscal measures for regulating the use of biodiversity. Adopting incentives to promote more sustainable forms of biodiversity use. Promoting trade rules and practices that foster sustainable use of biodiversity. Strengthening coordination within governments, and between governments and stakeholders. Securing adequate financial resources for conservation and sustainable use, from both national and international sources. Making better use of technology. Building political support for the changes necessary to ensure biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. Improving education and public awareness about the value of biodiversity

THE CARTAGENA PROTOCOL ON BIOSAFETY The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an international treaty governing the movements of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology from one country to another. It was adopted on 29 January 2000 as a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity and entered into force on 11 September 2003. On 29 January 2000, the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity adopted a supplementary agreement to the Convention known as the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. The Protocol seeks to protect biological diversity from the potential risks posed by living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology. It establishes anadvance informed agreement (AIA) procedure for ensuring that countries are provided with the information necessary to make informed decisions before agreeing to the import of such organisms into their territory. The Protocol contains reference to a precautionary approach and reaffirms the precaution language in Principle 15 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. The Protocol also establishes a Biosafety Clearing-House to facilitate the exchange of information on living modified organisms and to assist countries in the implementation of the Protocol. Objective In accordance with the precautionary approach contained in Principle 15 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, the objective of this Protocol is to contribute to ensuring an adequate level of protection in the field of the safe transfer, handling and use of living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health, and specifically focusing on transboundary movements.

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General Provisions 1. Each Party shall take necessary and appropriate legal, administrative and other measures to implement its obligations under this Protocol. 2.The Parties shall ensure that the development, handling, transport, use, transfer and release of any living modified organisms are undertaken in a manner that prevents or reduces the risks to biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health. 3.Nothing in this Protocol shall affect in any way the sovereignty of States over their territorial sea established in accordance with international law, and the sovereign rights and the jurisdiction which States have in their exclusive economic zones and their continental shelves in accordance with international law, and the exercise by ships and aircraft of all States of navigational rights and freedoms as provided for in international law and as reflected in relevant international instruments. 4.Nothing in this Protocol shall be interpreted as restricting the right of a Party to take action that is more protective of the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity than that called for in this Protocol, provided that such action is consistent with the objective and the provisions of this Protocol and is in accordance with that Party's other obligations under international law. 5.The Parties are encouraged to take into account, as appropriate, available expertise, instruments and work undertaken in international forums with competence in the area of risks to human health Scope This Protocol shall apply to the transboundary movement, transit, handling and use of all living modified organisms that may have adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health

Procedure for Living Modified Organisms Intended for Direct Use as Food or Feed, Or For Processing 1.A Party that makes a final decision regarding domestic use, including placing on the market, of a living modified organism that may be subject to transboundary movement for direct use as food or feed, or for processing shall, within fifteen days of making that decision, inform the Parties through the Biosafety ClearingHouse. This information shall contain, at a minimum, the information specified in Annex II. The Party shall provide a copy of the information, in writing, to the national focal point of each Party that informs the Secretariat in advance that it does not have access to the Biosafety Clearing-House. This provision shall not apply to decisions regarding field trials. 2.The Party making a decision under paragraph 1 above, shall ensure that there is a legal requirement for the accuracy of information provided by the applicant. 3.Any Party may request additional information from the authority identified in paragraph (b) of Annex II. 4.A Party may take a decision on the import of living modified organisms intended for direct use as food or feed, or for processing, under its domestic regulatory framework that is consistent with the objective of this Protocol. 5.Each Party shall make available to the Biosafety Clearing-House copies of any national laws, regulations and guidelines applicable to the import of living modified organisms intended for direct use as food or feed, or for processing, if available. 6.A developing country Party or a Party with an economy in transition may, in the absence of the domestic regulatory framework referred to in paragraph 4 above, and in exercise of its domestic jurisdiction, declare through the Biosafety Clearing-House that its decision prior to the first import of a living modified organism intended for direct use as food or feed, or for processing, on which information has been provided under paragraph 1 above, will be taken according to the following: (a)A risk assessment undertaken in accordance with Annex III; and (b)A decision made within a predictable timeframe, not exceeding two hundred and seventy days. 7.Failure by a Party to communicate its decision according to paragraph 6 above, shall not imply its consent or refusal to the import of a living modified organism intended for direct use as food or feed, or for processing, unless otherwise specified by the Party. 8.Lack of scientific certainty due to insufficient relevant scientific information and knowledge regarding the extent of the potential adverse effects of a living modified organism on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity in the Party of import, taking also into account risks to human health, shall not prevent that Party from taking a decision, as appropriate, with regard to the import of that living modified organism intended Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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for direct use as food or feed, or for processing, in order to avoid or minimize such potential adverse effects. 9.A Party may indicate its needs for financial and technical assistance and capacity-building with respect to living modified organisms intended for direct use as food or feed, or for processing. Parties shall cooperate to meet these needs in accordance with Articles 22 and 28 Unintentional Transboundary Movements and Emergency Measures 1.Each Party shall take appropriate measures to notify affected or potentially affected States, the Biosafety Clearing-House and, where appropriate, relevant international organizations, when it knows of an occurrence under its jurisdiction resulting in a release that leads, or may lead, to an unintentional transboundary movement of a living modified organism that is likely to have significant adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health in such States. The notification shall be provided as soon as the Party knows of the above situation. 2.Each Party shall, no later than the date of entry into force of this Protocol for it, make available to the Biosafety Clearing-House the relevant details setting out its point of contact for the purposes of receiving notifications under this Article. 3.Any notification arising from paragraph 1 above, should include: (a)Available relevant information on the estimated quantities and relevant characteristics and/or traits of the living modified organism; (b)Information on the circumstances and estimated date of the release, and on the use of the living modified organism in the originating Party; (c)Any available information about the possible adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health, as well as available information about possible risk management measures; (d)Any other relevant information; and (e)A point of contact for further information. 4.In order to minimize any significant adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health, each Party, under whose jurisdiction the release of the living modified organism referred to in paragraph 1 above, occurs, shall immediately consult the affected or potentially affected States to enable them to determine appropriate responses and initiate necessary action, including emergency measures.

Handling, Transport, Packaging and Identification 1.In order to avoid adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health, each Party shall take necessary measures to require that living modified organisms that are subject to intentional transboundary movement within the scope of this Protocol are handled, packaged and transported under conditions of safety, taking into consideration relevant international rules and standards. 2.Each Party shall take measures to require that documentation accompanying: (a)Living modified organisms that are intended for direct use as food or feed, or for processing, clearly identifies that they "may contain" living modified organisms and are not intended for intentional introduction into the environment, as well as a contact point for further information. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol shall take a decision on the detailed requirements for this purpose, including specification of their identity and any unique identification, no later than two years after the date of entry into force of this Protocol; (b) Living modified organisms that are destined for contained use clearly identifies them as living modified organisms; and specifies any requirements for the safe handling, storage, transport and use, the contact point for further information, including the name and address of the individual and institution to whom the living modified organisms are consigned; and (c) Living modified organisms that are intended for intentional introduction into the environment of the Party of import and any other living modified organisms within the scope of the Protocol, clearly identifies them as living modified organisms; specifies the identity and relevant traits and/or characteristics, any requirements for the safe handling, storage, transport and use, the contact point for further information and, as appropriate, the name and address of the importer and exporter; and contains a declaration that the movement is in conformity with the requirements of this Protocol applicable to the exporter. Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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3. The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol shall consider the need for and modalities of developing standards with regard to identification, handling, packaging and transport practices, in consultation with other relevant international bodies Competent National Authorities and National Focal Points 1. Each Party shall designate one national focal point to be responsible on its behalf for liaison with the Secretariat. Each Party shall also designate one or more competent national authorities, which shall be responsible for performing the administrative functions required by this Protocol and which shall be authorized to act on its behalf with respect to those functions. A Party may designate a single entity to fulfil the functions of both focal point and competent national authority. 2. Each Party shall, no later than the date of entry into force of this Protocol for it, notify the Secretariat of the names and addresses of its focal point and its competent national authority or authorities. Where a Party designates more than one competent national authority, it shall convey to the Secretariat, with its notification thereof, relevant information on the respective responsibilities of those authorities. Where applicable, such information shall, at a minimum, specify which competent authority is responsible for which type of living modified organism. Each Party shall forthwith notify the Secretariat of any changes in the designation of its national focal point or in the name and address or responsibilities of its competent national authority or authorities. 3. The Secretariat shall forthwith inform the Parties of the notifications it receives under paragraph 2 above, and shall also make such information available through the Biosafety Clearing-House. Information Sharing and the Biosafety Clearing-House 1. A Biosafety Clearing-House is hereby established as part of the clearing-house mechanism under Article 18, paragraph 3, of the Convention, in order to: (a) Facilitate the exchange of scientific, technical, environmental and legal information on, and experience with, living modified organisms; and (b) Assist Parties to implement the Protocol, taking into account the special needs of developing country Parties, in particular the least developed and small island developing States among them, and countries with economies in transition as well as countries that are centres of origin and centres of genetic diversity. 2. The Biosafety Clearing-House shall serve as a means through which information is made available for the purposes of paragraph 1 above. It shall provide access to information made available by the Parties relevant to the implementation of the Protocol. It shall also provide access, where possible, to other international biosafety information exchange mechanisms. 3. Without prejudice to the protection of confidential information, each Party shall make available to the Biosafety Clearing-House any information required to be made available to the Biosafety Clearing-House under this Protocol, and: (a) Any existing laws, regulations and guidelines for implementation of the Protocol, as well as information required by the Parties for the advance informed agreement procedure; (b) Any bilateral, regional and multilateral agreements and arrangements; (c) Summaries of its risk assessments or environmental reviews of living modified organisms generated by its regulatory process, and carried out in accordance with Article 15, including, where appropriate, relevant information regarding products thereof, namely, processed materials that are of living modified organism origin, containing detectable novel combinations of replicable genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology; (d) Its final decisions regarding the importation or release of living modified organisms; and (e) Reports submitted by it pursuant to Article 33, including those on implementation of the advance informed agreement procedure. 4. The modalities of the operation of the Biosafety Clearing-House, including reports on its activities, shall be considered and decided upon by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol at its first meeting, and kept under review thereafter. Illegal Transboundary Movements 1. Each Party shall adopt appropriate domestic measures aimed at preventing and, if appropriate, penalizing Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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transboundary movements of living modified organisms carried out in contravention of its domestic measures to implement this Protocol. Such movements shall be deemed illegal transboundary movements. 2. In the case of an illegal transboundary movement, the affected Party may request the Party of origin to dispose, at its own expense, of the living modified organism in question by repatriation or destruction, as appropriate. 3. Each Party shall make available to the Biosafety Clearing-House information concerning cases of illegal transboundary movements pertaining to it. Socio-Economic Considerations 1. The Parties, in reaching a decision on import under this Protocol or under its domestic measures implementing the Protocol, may take into account, consistent with their international obligations, socio-economic considerations arising from the impact of living modified organisms on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, especially with regard to the value of biological diversity to indigenous and local communities. 2. The Parties are encouraged to cooperate on research and information exchange on any socio-economic impacts of living modified organisms, especially on indigenous and local communities. Liability and Redress The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Protocol shall, at its first meeting, adopt a process with respect to the appropriate elaboration of international rules and procedures in the field of liability and redress for damage resulting from transboundary movements of living modified organisms, analysing and taking due account of the ongoing processes in international law on these matters, and shall endeavour to complete this process within four years. The Biosafety Clearing House: The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety established a BCH as part of the Clearing-House Mechanism (CHM) of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), in order to: a. Facilitate the exchange of scientific, technical, environmental and legal information on, and experience with, living modified organisms; and b. Assist Parties to implement the Protocol, taking into account the special needs of developing country Parties, in particular the least developed and small island developing States among them, and countries with economies in transition as well as countries that are centres of origin and centres of genetic diversity. The BCH fulfills its mandate by providing a dynamic platform where information is registered through the Management Centre and where it can be easily searched and retrieved. Currently, the primary sources of guidance on the functioning and implementation of the BCH are found in the Modalities of Operation of the BCH and the Multi-year Program of Work for the Operation of the BCH

THE NAGOYA PROTOCOL ON ACCESS AND BENEFIT-SHARING The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an international agreement which aims at sharing the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources in a fair and equitable way, including by appropriate access to genetic resources and by appropriate transfer of relevant technologies, taking into account all rights over those resources and to technologies, and by appropriate funding, thereby contributing to the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of its components. It was adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity at its tenth meeting on 29 October 2010 in Nagoya, Japan. The Nagoya Protocol will enter into force 90 days after the date of deposit of the fiftieth instrument of ratification. The fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources is one of the three objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity. What is the Nagoya Protocol and what is its objective? The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization (ABS) to the Convention on Biological Diversity is a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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Biological Diversity. It provides a transparent legal framework for the effective implementation of one of the three objectives of the CBD: the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources. The Nagoya Protocol on ABS was adopted on 29 October 2010 in Nagoya, Japan and will enter into force 90 days after the fiftieth instrument of ratification. Its objective is the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources, thereby contributing to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. Why is the Nagoya Protocol important? The Nagoya Protocol will create greater legal certainty and transparency for both providers and users of genetic resources by: Establishing more predictable conditions for access to genetic resources. Helping to ensure benefit-sharing when genetic resources leave the contracting party providing the genetic resources By helping to ensure benefit-sharing, the Nagoya Protocol creates incentives to conserve and sustainably use genetic resources, and therefore enhances the contribution of biodiversity to development and human well-being. What does the Nagoya Protocol cover? The Nagoya Protocol applies to genetic resources that are covered by the CBD, and to the benefits arising from their utilization. The Nagoya Protocol also covers traditional knowledge (TK) associated with genetic resources that are covered by the CBD and the benefits arising from its utilization. What are the core obligations of the Nagoya Protocol with respect to genetic resources? The Nagoya Protocol sets out core obligations for its contracting Parties to take measures in relation to access to genetic resources, benefit-sharing and compliance. Access obligations Domestic-level access measures are to: Create legal certainty, clarity and transparency Provide fair and non-arbitrary rules and procedures Establish clear rules and procedures for prior informed consent and mutually agreed terms Provide for issuance of a permit or equivalent when access is granted Create conditions to promote and encourage research contributing to biodiversity conservation and sustainable use Pay due regard to cases of present or imminent emergencies that threaten human, animal or plant health Consider the importance of genetic resources for food and agriculture for food security Benefit-sharing obligations Domestic-level benefit-sharing measures are to provide for the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources with the contracting party providing genetic resources. Utilization includes research and development on the genetic or biochemical composition of genetic resources, as well as subsequent applications and commercialization. Sharing is subject to mutually agreed terms. Benefits may be monetary or non -monetary such as royalties and the sharing of research results. Compliance obligations Specific obligations to support compliance with the domestic legislation or regulatory requirements of the contracting party providing genetic resources, and contractual obligations reflected in mutually agreed terms, are a significant innovation of the Nagoya Protocol. Contracting Parties are to: Take measures providing that genetic resources utilized within their jurisdiction have been accessed in accordance with prior informed consent, and that mutually agreed terms have been established, as required by another contracting party Cooperate in cases of alleged violation of another contracting partys requirements Encourage contractual provisions on dispute resolution in mutually agreed terms Ensure an opportunity is available to seek recourse under their legal systems when disputes arise from mutually agreed terms Take measures regarding access to justice Take measures to monitor the utilization of genetic resources after they leave a country including by designating effective checkpoints at any stage of the value-chain: research, development, innovation, pre-commercialization or commercialization Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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How does the Nagoya Protocol address traditional knowledge associated with genetic resources and genetic resources held by indigenous and local communities? The Nagoya Protocol addresses traditional knowledge associated with genetic resources with provisions on access, benefit-sharing and compliance. It also addresses genetic resources where indigenous and local communities have the established right to grant access to them. Contracting Parties are to take measures to ensure these communities prior informed consent, and fair and equitable benefit-sharing, keeping in mind community laws and procedures as well as customary use and exchange. Tools and mechanisms to assist implementation The Nagoya Protocols success will require effective implementation at the domestic level. A range of tools and mechanisms provided by the Nagoya Protocol will assist contracting Parties including: Establishing national focal points (NFPs) and competent national authorities (CNAs) to serve as contact points for information, grant access or cooperate on issues of compliance An Access and Benefit-sharing Clearing-House to share information, such as domestic regulatory ABS requirements or information on NFPs and CNAs Capacity-building to support key aspects of implementation. Based on a countrys self -assessment of national needs and priorities, this can include capacity to o Develop domestic ABS legislation to implement the Nagoya Protocol o Negotiate MAT o Develop in-country research capability and institutions Awareness-raising Technology Transfer Targeted financial support for capacity-building and development initiatives through the Nagoya Protocols financial mechanism, the Global Environment Facility (GEF)

STRATEGIC PLAN 2011-2020 and AICHI BIODIVERSITY TARGETS I. RATIONALE

The rationale for the new plan is that biological diversity underpins ecosystem functioning and the provision of ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It provides for food security, human health, the provision of clean air and water; it contributes to local livelihoods, and economic development, and is essential for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, including poverty reduction. The conclusions of the third edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook (published in 2010) have contributed to the formulation of these elements. The third edition analyzes future biodiversity scenarios and reviews possible actions that might be taken to reduce future loss. II. VISION

The vision for the new plan is: "Living in Harmony with Nature" where "By 2050, biodiversity is valued, conserved, restored and wisely used, maintaining ecosystem services, sustaining a healthy plant and delivering benefits essential for all people." III. MISSION

The mission of the new plan is to "take effective and urgent action to halt the loss of biodiversity in order to ensure that by 2020 ecosystems are resilient and continue to provide essential services, thereby securing the planet's variety of life, and contributing to human well-being, and poverty eradication. To ensure this, pressures on biodiversity are reduced, ecosystems are restored, biological resources are sustainably used and benefits arising out of utilization of genetic resources are shared in a fair and equitable manner; adequate financial resources are provided, capacities are enhanced, biodiversity issues and values mainstreamed, appropriate policies are effectively implemented, and decision-making is based on sound science and the precautionary approach." IV. STRATEGIC GOALS AND THE AICHI BIODIVERSITY TARGET Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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Strategic Goal A: Address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss by mainstreaming biodiversity across government and society Target 1 By 2020, at the latest, people are aware of the values of biodiversity and the steps they can take to conserve and use it sustainably. Target 2 By 2020, at the latest, biodiversity values have been integrated into national and local development and poverty reduction strategies and planning processes and are being incorporated into national accounting, as appropriate, and reporting systems. Target 3 By 2020, at the latest, incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity are eliminated, phased out or reformed in order to minimize or avoid negative impacts, and positive incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are developed and applied, consistent and in harmony with the Convention and other relevant international obligations, taking into account national socio economic conditions. Target 4 By 2020, at the latest, Governments, business and stakeholders at all levels have taken steps to achieve or have implemented plans for sustainable production and consumption and have kept the impacts of use of natural resources well within safe ecological limits. Strategic Goal B: Reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity and promote sustainable use Target 5 By 2020, the rate of loss of all natural habitats, including forests, is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero, and degradation and fragmentation is significantly reduced. Target 6 By 2020 all fish and invertebrate stocks and aquatic plants are managed and harvested sustainably, legally and applying ecosystem based approaches, so that overfishing is avoided, recovery plans and measures are in place for all depleted species, fisheries have no significant adverse impacts on threatened species and vulnerable ecosystems and the impacts of fisheries on stocks, species and ecosystems are within safe ecological limits. Target 7 By 2020 areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity. Target 8 By 2020, pollution, including from excess nutrients, has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity. Target 9 By 2020, invasive alien species and pathways are identified and prioritized, priority species are controlled or eradicated, and measures are in place to manage pathways to prevent their introduction and establishment. Target 10 By 2015, the multiple anthropogenic pressures on coral reefs, and other vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate change or ocean acidification are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning. Strategic Goal C: To improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity Target 11 By 2020, at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes. Target 12 By 2020 the extinction of known threatened species has been prevented and their conservation status, particularly of those most in decline, has been improved and sustained.

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Target 13 By 2020, the genetic diversity of cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives, including other socio-economically as well as culturally valuable species, is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity. Strategic Goal D: Enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services Target 14 By 2020, ecosystems that provide essential services, including services related to water, and contribute to health, livelihoods and well-being, are restored and safeguarded, taking into account the needs of women, indigenous and local communities, and the poor and vulnerable. Target 15 By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks has been enhanced, through conservation and restoration, including restoration of at least 15 per cent of degraded ecosystems, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation and to combating desertification. Target 16 By 2015, the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization is in force and operational, consistent with national legislation. Strategic Goal E: Enhance implementation through participatory planning, knowledge management and capacity building Target 17 By 2015 each Party has developed, adopted as a policy instrument, and has commenced implementing an effective, participatory and updated national biodiversity strategy and action plan. Target 18 By 2020, the traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, and their customary use of biological resources, are respected, subject to national legislation and relevant international obligations, and fully integrated and reflected in the implementation of the Convention with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities, at all relevant levels. Target 19 By 2020, knowledge, the science base and technologies relating to biodiversity, its values, functioning, status and trends, and the consequences of its loss, are improved, widely shared and transferred, and applied. Target 20 By 2020, at the latest, the mobilization of financial resources for effectively implementing the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 from all sources, and in accordance with the consolidated and agreed process in the Strategy for Resource Mobilization, should increase substantially from the current levels. This target will be subject to changes contingent to resource needs assessments to be developed and reported by Parties.

V. IMPLEMENTATION, MONITORING, REVIEW AND EVALUATION Means for implementation: The Strategic Plan will be implemented primarily through activities at the national or subnational level, with supporting action at the regional and global levels. The means of implementation for this Strategic Plan will include provision of financial resources in accordance with respective obligations under the Convention, taking into account Article 20 of the Convention. Programmes of work: The thematic programmes of work of the Convention include: biodiversity of inland waters, marine and coastal biodiversity, agricultural biodiversity, forest biodiversity, biodiversity of dry and sub -humid lands, mountain biodiversity and island biodiversity. Together with the various cross -cutting issues, they provide detailed guidance on implementation of the Strategic Plan, and could also contribute to development and poverty reduction. Broadening political support: for this Strategic Plan and the objectives of the Convention is necessary, for example, by working to ensure that Heads of State and Government and the parliamentarians of all Parties understand the value of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Partnerships: Partnerships at all levels are required for effective implementation of the Strategic Plan, to leverage actions at the scale necessary, to garner the ownership necessary to ensure mainstreaming of biodiversity across Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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sectors of government, society and the economy and to find synergies with national implementation of multilateral environmental agreements. Reporting by Parties: Parties will inform the Conference of the Parties of the national targets or commitments and policy instruments they adopt to implement the Strategic Plan, as well as any milestones towards these targets, and report on progress towards these targets and milestones, including through their fifth and sixth national reports. Review by the Conference of the Parties: The Conference of the Parties, with the support of other Convention bodies, in particular the Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on Review of Implementation of the Convention, will keep under review implementation of this Strategic Plan, and support effective implementation by Parties ensuring that new guidance is informed by the experience of Parties in implementing the Convention, in line with the principle of adaptive management through active learning. VI. SUPPORT MECHANISMS Capacity-building for effective national action Clearing-house mechanism and technology transfer Financial resources Partnerships and initiatives to enhance cooperation Support mechanisms for research, monitoring and assessment

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BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY ACT, 2002


In pursuance to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), India had enacted the Biological Diversity Act in 2002 following a widespread consultative process over a period of eight years. The Biological Rules were notified thereafter in 2004.The Act gives effect to the provision of the CBD. It also addresses access to biological resources and associated traditional knowledge to ensure equitable sharing of benefits arising out of their use to the country and its people, thereby contributing to achieving the third objective of the CBD. India is one of the first few countries to have enacted such legislation. The Act is to be implemented through a three-tiered institutional structure: National Biodiversity Authority (NBA), State Biodiversity Boards (SBBs) and Biodiversity Management Committees (BMCs). Main Provisions The NBA deals with all matters relating to requests for access by foreign individuals, institutions or companies, and transfer of results of research to any foreigner. While granting approvals, NBA imposes conditions which secure equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the use of biological resources and associated knowledge. These benefits could include monetary gains; grant of joint ownership of Intellectual property Rights (IPRs), transfer of technology, association of Indian scientists in research and development, setting up of venture capital funds etc. Further, NBAs approval is also required before seeking any IPR based on biological material and associated knowledge obtained from India. The NBA also has power to oppose grant of IPRs in any other country on biological resources or associated knowledge obtained or derived from India. The State Biodiversity Boards (SBBs), constituted by the State Governments, deal with all matters relating to access by Indians for commercial purposes. The Indian industry is required to provide prior intimation to the concerned SBB about the use of biological resources. The SBB has the power to restrict any such activity which violates the objectives of conservation, sustainable use and equitable sharing of benefits. The institutions of self- government are required to set up Biodiversity Management Committees (BMCs) in their respective areas for conservation, sustainable use, documentation of biodiversity and chronicling of knowledge relating to biodiversity. The NBA and SBBs are required to consult the concerned BMCs on matters relating to use op biological resources and associated knowledge within their respective jurisdictions. This mandatory consultation of BMCs by NBA and SBBs ensures formulization of prior informed consent by the communities through involvement of BMCs in decision making process. The BMCs may also levy collection fee for collecting biological resource from their respective areas. The legislation provides for exemptions : to local people and community for free access to use biological resources within India; to growers and cultivators of biodiversity , and vaidsand hakims to use biological resources; through notification by Central Government of normally traded commodities as not to adversely affect trade of these items; for collaborative research through government sponsored or government approved institutions subject to overall guidelines and approval of the Central Government; and to value added products. Example of Violation of Bio-Diversity Act The National Biodiversity Authority has recommended in principle to initiate legal action against alleged violators for violation of various provisions of the Biological Diversity Act, 2002. The National Biodiversity Authority received a complaint from Environment Support Group (ESG), Bangalore alleging biopiracy by M/s Monsanto/ Mahyco and its collaborators in the development of Bt. Brinjal. Based on this, the Authority with the help of Karnataka State Biodiversity Board began investigating this allegation. Information and inputs from those institutions and agencies involved in the development of the said Bt. Brinjal material were procured and legal assessment of this information was undertaken considering the elements and extent of violation of the provisions of the Biological Diversity Act. NATIONAL BIODIVERSITY AUTHORITY The National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) was established in 2003 to implement Indias Biological Diversity Act (2002). The NBA is a Statutory, Autonomous Body and it performs facilitative, regulatory and advisory function for the Government of India on issues of conservation, sustainable use of biological resources and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the use of biological resources. The Biological Diversity Act (2002) mandates implementation of the Act through decentralized system with the NBA focusing on advising the Central Government on matters relating to the conservation of biodiversity, sustainable use of its components and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilization of biological resources; and advising the State Governments in the selection of areas of biodiversity importance to be notified under Sub-Section (1) of Section 37 as heritage sites and measures for the management of such heritage sites; The State Biodiversity Boards (SBBs) focus on advising the State Governments, subject to any guidelines issued by the Central Government, on matters relating to the conservation of biodiversity, sustainable use of its components and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of biological resources; Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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The SSBs also regulate, by granting of approvals or otherwise requests for commercial utilization or bio-survey and bio-utilization of any biological resource by Indians. The local level Biodiversity Management Committees (BMCs) are responsible for promoting conservation, sustainable use and documentation of biological diversity including preservation of habitats, conservation of land races, folk varieties and cultivars, domesticated stocks and breeds of animals and microorganisms and chronicling of knowledge relating to biological diversity. The NBA with its headquarters in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, delivers its mandate through a structure that comprises of the Authority, Secretariat, SBBs, BMCs and Expert Committees. Since its establishment, NBA has supported creation of SBBs in 28 States and, facilitated establishment of around 31,574 BMCs UNEP-GEF AND MOEF PROJECT: on Strengthening the implementation of the Biological Diversity Act and Rules with focus on its Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS)Provisions National Biodiversity Authority, India is currently implementing the first National Project on Access and Benefit Sharing under the UNEP GEF MoEF Project on Strengthening the Implementation of the Biological Diversity Act, 2002 and Rules, 2004, with focus on its Access and Benefit Sharing Provisions. The GEF project on ABS is the first ever global project - a programmme to access genetic resources, assess their economic value and share the benefits arising out of them among the local people. This project is implemented in the 5 states of India namely Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, West Bengal, Himachal Pradesh and Sikkim and it is funded by Global Environmental Facility (GEF) and Government of India. The executing organisation includes National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) in collaboration with 5 SBBs, UNEP-Division of Environmental Law and Conventions (UNEP/DELC), United Nations University Institute of Advanced studies (UNU-IAS). The main components of the project include: 1. Identification of biodiversity with potential for ABS and their valuation in selected ecosystems such as forest, agriculture and wetlands. 2. Development of tools, methodologies, guidelines, frameworks for implementing ABS provisions of the Biological Diversity Act. 3. Piloting agreements on ABS 4. Implementation of policy and regulatory frameworks relating to ABS provisions at national level and thereby contribute to international ABS policy issues. 5. Capacity building for strengthening implementation of the ABS provisions of the BD Act. 6. Increase public awareness and education programmes This project is being implemented in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, West Bengal, Himachal Pradesh and Sikkim by NBA in collaboration with the 5 State Biodiversity Boards, UNEP-Division of Environmental Law and Conventions (DELC), United Nations University - Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU-IAS) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). To Develop Standardized economic valuation Methods for valuing biodiversity in the selected ecosystem Developing database on biological resources to tap ABS potential in Project States Assessing and quantifying the economic value of biological diversity present at local, state and national levels using appropriate methodologies Determining benefit sharing and informing national decision makers on prioritizing conservation action Developing legal tools, methodologies, guidelines and frameworks for ABS mechanism Capacity Building for stakeholders in decision-making process Piloting ABS agreements in Project States Promotion and strengthening of biodiversity funds at national, state and local levels Strategizing public awareness programs and facilitating level playing for public, NGOs, private sector etc., on ABS

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Environment Module PT 2013

CITES
CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. Need for CITES: Annually, international wildlife trade is estimated to be worth billions of dollars and to include hundreds of millions of plant and animal specimens. The trade is diverse, ranging from live animals and plants to a vast array of wildlife products derived from them, including food products, exotic leather goods, wooden musical instruments, timber, tourist curios and medicines. Levels of exploitation of some animal and plant species are high and the trade in them, together with other factors, such as habitat loss, is capable of heavily depleting their populations and even bringing some species close to extinction. Many wildlife species in trade are not endangered, but the existence of an agreement to ensure the sustainability of the trade is important in order to safeguard these resources for the future. Because the trade in wild animals and plants crosses borders between countries, the effort to regulate it requires international cooperation to safeguard certain species from over-exploitation. CITES was conceived in the spirit of such cooperation. Today, it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 30,000 species of animals and plants, whether they are traded as live specimens, fur coats or dried herbs. Establishment: CITES was drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of IUCN (The World Conservation Union). The text of the Convention was finally agreed at a meeting of representatives of 80 countries in Washington, D.C., the United States of America, on 3 March 1973, and on 1 July 1975 CITES entered in force. CITES is an international agreement to which States (countries) adhere voluntarily. States that have agreed to be bound by the Convention ('joined' CITES) are known as Parties. Although CITES is legally binding on the Parties in other words they have to implement the Convention it does not take the place of national laws. Rather it provides a framework to be respected by each Party, which has to adopt its own domestic legislation to ensure that CITES is implemented at the national level. For many years CITES has been among the conservation agreements with the largest membership, with now 178 Parties. Working: CITES works by subjecting international trade in specimens of selected species to certain controls. All import, export, re-export and introduction from the sea of species covered by the Convention has to be authorized through a licensing system. Each Party to the Convention must designate one or more Management Authorities in charge of administering that licensing system and one or more Scientific Authorities to advise them on the effects of trade on the status of the species. The species covered by CITES are listed in three Appendices, according to the degree of protection they need. Appendices I and II Appendix I includes species threatened with extinction. Trade in specimens of these species is permitted only in exceptional circumstances. Appendix II includes species not necessarily threatened with extinction, but in which trade must be controlled in order to avoid utilization incompatible with their survival. The Conference of the Parties (CoP), which is the supreme decision -making body of the Convention and comprises all its member States, has agreed in a Resolution on a set of biological and trade c riteria to help determine whether a species should be included in Appendices I or II. Appendix III This Appendix contains species that are protected in at least one country, which has asked other CITES Parties for assistance in controlling the trade. Changes to Appendix III follow a distinct procedure from changes to Appendices I and II, as each Partys is entitled to make unilateral amendments to it. A specimen of a CITES-listed species may be imported into or exported (or re-exported) from a State party to the Convention only if the appropriate document has been obtained and presented for clearance at the port of entry or exit. There is some variation of the requirements from one country to another and it is always necessary to check on the national laws that may be stricter, but the basic conditions that apply for Appendices I and II are described below. Anyone planning to import or export/re-export specimens of a CITES species should contact the national CITES Management Authorities of the countries of import and export/re-export for information on the rules that apply. When a specimen of a CITES-listed species is transferred between a country that is a Party to CITES and a country that is not, the country that is a Party may accept documentation equivalent to the permits and certificates described above. Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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Conference of the Parties: The Parties (member States) to CITES are collectively referred to as the Conference of the Parties. Every two to three years, the Conference of the Parties meets to review the implementation of the Convention. These meetings last for about two weeks and are usually hosted by one of the Parties. The meetings are often referred to as CoPs. They provide the occasion for the Parties to: review progress in the conservation of species included in the Appendices; consider (and where appropriate adopt) proposals to amend the lists of species in Appendices I and II; consider discussion documents and reports from the Parties, the permanent committees, the Secretariat and working groups; recommend measures to improve the effectiveness of the Convention; and make provisions (including the adoption of a budget) necessary to allow the Secretariat to function effectively. Meetings of the Conference of the Parties CoP15 CoP14 CoP13 CoP12 CoP11 CoP10 CoP9 CoP8 CoP7 CoP6 CoP5 CoP4 CoP3 CoP2 CoP1 Doha (Qatar), 13-25 March 2010 The Hague (the Netherlands), 3-15 June 2007 Bangkok (Thailand), 2-14 October 2004 Santiago (Chile), 3-15 November 2002 Gigiri (Kenya), 10-20 April 2000 Harare (Zimbabwe), 9-20 June 1997 Fort Lauderdale (United States of America), 7-18 November 1994 Kyoto (Japan), 2-13 March 1992 Lausanne (Switzerland), 9-20 October 1989 Ottawa (Canada), 12-24 July 1987 Buenos Aires (Argentina), 22 April - 3 May 1985 Gaborone (Botswana), 19-30 April 1983 New Delhi (India), 25 February - 8 March 1981 San Jos (Costa Rica), 19-30 March 1979 Bern (Switzerland), 2-6 November 1976

Member countries: When the government of a State decides that it will be bound by the provisions of CITES, it can 'join' the Convention by making a formal declaration to this effect in writing to the Depositary Government, which is the Government of Switzerland. Once a document containing this declaration has been received by the Depositary, through the diplomatic channel, the Convention enters into force for the State concerned 90 days later. A State that is a Party to CITES may withdraw from the Convention at any time by a process of denunciation. This has happened only once in the history of the Convention with the United Arab Emirates acceding to the Convention on 21 November 1974 but withdrawing from it on 27 January 1988. However the United Arab Emirates became a Party to the Convention again on 9 May 1990. The CITES Secretariat: The CITES Secretariat is administered by UNEP and is located at Geneva, Switzerland (with John E. Scanlon as the Secretary-General). It has a pivotal role, fundamental to the Convention and its functions are playing a coordinating, advisory and servicing role in the working of the Convention; assisting with communication and monitoring the implementation of the Convention to ensure that its provisions are respected; arranging meetings of the Conference of the Parties and of the permanent Committees at regular

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intervals and servicing those meetings (i.e. organizing them, preparing and circula ting meeting documents, making necessary arrangements for delegates to attend the meetings, providing advice and support, etc.); providing assistance in the fields of legislation, enforcement, science and training; undertaking, under agreed programmes, occasional scientific and technical studies into issues affecting the implementation of the Convention; making recommendations regarding the implementation of the Convention; acting as the repository for the reports, sample permits and other information submi tted by the Parties; distributing information relevant to several or all Parties, for example, proposals to amend the Appendices, sample permits, information about enforcement problems, national legislation, reference material or news of a new Party; issuing new editions of Appendices I, II and III, whenever there is a change, as well as of the Resolutions and Decisionsadopted by the Conference of the Parties at its meetings, and information to assist identification of species listed in the Appendices; and preparing annual reports to the Parties on its own work and on the implementation of the Convention

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Environment Module PT 2013

CLIMATE CHANGE
THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the leading international body for the assessment of climate change. It was established by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in 1988 to provide the world with a clear scientific view on the current state of knowledge in climate change and its potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. In the same year, the UN General Assembly endorsed the action by WMO and UNEP in jointly establishing the IPCC. The IPCC is a scientific body under the auspices of the United Nations (UN). It reviews and assesses the most recent scientific, technical and socio-economic information produced worldwide relevant to the understanding of climate change. It does not conduct any research nor does it monitor climate related data or parameters. Thousands of scientists from all over the world contribute to the work of the IPCC on a voluntary basis. Review is an essential part of the IPCC process, to ensure an objective and complete assessment of current information. IPCC aims to reflect a range of views and expertise. The Secretariat coordinates all the IPCC work and liaises with Governments. It is supported by WMO and UNEP and hosted at WMO headquarters in Geneva. The IPCC is an intergovernmental body. It is open to all member countries of the United Nations (UN) and WMO. Currently 195 countries are members of the IPCC. Governments participate in the review process and the plenary Sessions, where main decisions about the IPCC work programme are taken and reports are accepted, adopted and approved. The IPCC Bureau Members, including the Chair, are also elected during the plenary Sessions. Because of its scientific and intergovernmental nature, the IPCC embodies a unique opportunity to provide rigorous and balanced scientific information to decision makers. By endorsing the IPCC reports, governments acknowledge the authority of their scientific content. The work of the organization is therefore policy-relevant and yet policy-neutral, never policy-prescriptive. History: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change was created in 1988. It was set up by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) to provide the governments of the world with a clear scientific view of what is happening to the world's climate. The initial task for the IPCC as outlined in the UN General Assembly Resolution 43/53 of 6 December 1988 was to prepare a comprehensive review and recommendations with respect to the state of knowledge of the science of climate change; social and economic impact of climate change, and possible response strategies and elements for inclusion in a possible future international convention on climate. Today the IPCC's role is also, as defined in Principles Governing IPCC Work, "...to assess on a comprehensive, objective, open and transparent basis the scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant to understanding the scientific basis of risk of human-induced climate change, its potential impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation. IPCC reports should be neutral with respect to policy, although they may need to deal objectively with scientific, technical and socio-economic factors relevant to the application of particular policies." The scientific evidence brought up by the first IPCC Assessment Report of 1990 unveiled the importance of climate change as a topic deserving a political platform among countries to tackle its consequences. It therefore played a decisive role in leading to the creation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the key international treaty to reduce global warming and cope with the consequences of climate change. Since then the IPCC has delivered on a regular basis the most comprehensive scientific reports about climate change produced worldwide, the Assessment Reports. It has also responded to the need of the UNFCCC for information on scientific and technical matters through Special Reports, Technical Papers and Methodology Reports. It has also produced methodologies and guidelines to help Parties to the UNFCCC prepare their national greenhouse gas inventories. The IPCC Second Assessment Report of 1995 provided important material drawn on by negotiators in the run-up to adoption of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997. The Third Assessment Report came out in 2001 and the Fourth in 2007. "Climate Change 2007" brought to the attention of the world the scientific understanding of the present changes in our climate and led to the organization being honoured with the Nobel Peace Prize at the end of that year. Along with regular comprehensive assessment reports, the IPCC has produced several Special Reports on various topics of growing interest, and many other papers and contributions to climate change science. The participation of the scientific community in the work of the IPCC has grown greatly, in terms of the number of authors and contributors involved in writing and reviewing the reports, geographical distribution of authors, and the topics covered by the reports. Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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The following document provides more information on the foundation of the IPCC, the evolution of the organization, and its work over time with respect to the Climate Convention. It also illustrates the development of knowledge on various aspects of climate change from 1990 (First Assessment Report) to 2007 (Fourth Assessment Report).In March 2010 UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and IPCC Chair RajendraPachauri requested the InterAcademy Council to undertake an independent review of IPCC processes and procedures. Following the recommendations made by the IAC in August 2010, the IPCC introduced several new procedures and strengthened existing ones at its Plenary Sessions between October 2010 and June 2012. Working: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is a huge and yet very tiny organization. Thousands of scientists from all over the world contribute to the work of the IPCC on a voluntary basis as authors, contributors and reviewers. None of them is paid by the IPCC. The work of the IPCC is guided by a set of principles and procedures. The Panel takes major decisions at Plenary Sessions of government representatives. A central IPCC Secretariat supports the work of the IPCC. The IPCC is currently organized in 3 Working Groups and a Task Force. They are assisted by Technical Support Units (TSUs), which are hosted and financially supported by the government of the developed country Co-Chair of that Working Group/Task Force. A TSU may also be established to support the IPCC Chair in preparing the Synthesis Report for an assessment report. The Working Group I deals with "The Physical Science Basis of Climate Change", Working Group II with "Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability" and Working Group III with "Mitigation of Climate Change". Working Groups also meet at the Plenary at the level of government representatives. The main objective of the Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories is to develop and refine a methodology for the calculation and reporting of national greenhouse gas emissions and removals. Besides the Working Groups and Task Force, further Task Groups and Steering Groups may be established for a limited or longer duration to consider a specific topic or question.

UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC) is an international environmental treaty negotiated at theUnited Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro from June 3 to 14, 1992. The objective of the treaty is to "stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system." The UNFCCC entered into force on 21 March 1994. Today, it has near-universal membership. The 195 countries that have ratified the Convention are called Parties to the Convention. The UNFCCC is a Rio Convention, one of three adopted at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992. Its sister Rio Conventions are the UN Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention to Combat Desertification. The three are intrinsically linked. It is in this context that the Joint Liaison Group was set up to boost cooperation among the three Conventions, with the ultimate aim of developing synergies in their activities on issues of mutual concern. It now also incorporates the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. Preventing dangerous human interference w ith the climate system is the ultimate aim of the UNFCCC. UNFCCC and Climate Change: In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable. By 1995, countries realized that emission reductions provisions in the Convention were inadequate. They launched negotiations to strengthen the global response to climate change, and, two years later, adopted the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol legally binds developed countries to emission reduction targets. The Protocols first commitment period started in 2008 and ended in 2012. The second commitment period began on 1 January 2013 and will end in 2020.There are now 195 Parties to the Convention and 191 Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. The UNFCCC secretariat supports all institutions involved in the international climate change negotiations, particularly the Conference of the Parties (COP), the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties (CMP), the subsidiary bodies (which advise the COP/CMP), and the COP/CMP Bureau (which deals mainly with procedural and organizational issues arising from the COP/CMP and also has technical functions).The question of what happens beyond 2020 was answered by Parties in Durban (2011). Climate change is a complex problem, which, although environmental in nature, has consequences for all spheres of existence on our planet. It either impacts on-- or is impacted by-- global issues, including poverty, economic development, population growth, sustainable development and resource management. It is not surprising, then, that solutions come from all disciplines and fields of research and development. At the very heart of the response to climate change, however, lies the need to reduce emissions. In 2010, governments agreed that emissions need to be reduced so that global temperature increases are limited to below 2 degrees Celsius. Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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Focus: 1. Adaptation: Adaptation refers to adjustments in ecological, social, or economic systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli and their effects or impacts. It refers to changes in processes, practices, and structures to moderate potential damages or to benefit from opportunities associated with climate change. Adaptation activities span five general components: observation; assessment of climate impacts and vulnerability; planning; implementation; and monitoring and evaluation of adaptation actions 2. Climate Finance: In accordance with the principle of common but differentiated responsibility and respective capabilities set out in the Convention, developed country Parties (Annex II Parties) are to provide financial resources to assist developing country Parties in implementing the objectives of the UNFCCC. It is important for all governments and stakeholders to understand and assess the financial needs developing countries have so that such countries can undertake activities to address climate change. Governments and all other stakeholders also need to understand the sources of this financing, in other words, how these financial resources will be mobilized. Equally significant is the way in which these resources are transferred to and accessed by developing countries. Developing countries need to know that financial resources are predictable, sustainable, and that the channels used allow them to utilize the resources directly without difficulty. For developed countries, it is important that developing countries are able to demonstrate their ability to effectively receive and utilize the resources. In addition, there needs to be full transparency in the way the resources are used for mitigation and adaptation activities. The effective measurement, reporting and verification of climate finance is key to building trust between Parties to the Convention, and also for external actors. 3. Mitigation: Societies can respond to climate change by reducing GHG emissions and enhancing sinks and reservoirs. The capacity to do so depends on socio-economic and environmental circumstances and the availability of information and technology. To this end, a wide variety of policies and instruments are available to governments to create the incentives for mitigation action. Mitigation is essential to meet the UNFCCC's objective of stabilizing GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Among others, the Convention: Requires all Parties, taking into account their responsibilities and capabilities, to formulate and implement programmes containing measures to mitigate climate change Also requires all Parties to develop and periodically update national inventories of GHG emissions and removals Commits all Parties to promote, and cooperate in, the development, application and diffusion of climate friendly technologies Requires developed countries to adopt national policies and measures to limit GHG emissions and protect and enhance sinks and reservoirs States that the extent to which developing countries will implement their commitments will depend on financial resources and transfer of technology The range of issues that are being addressed by Parties under the various Convention bodies, include:Action on mitigation: reducing emissions and enhancing sinks, Reporting on national implementation and MRV, and the Resources. 4. Technology: Development and transfer of technologies:Promoting and enhancing national and international cooperative action on the development and transfer of environmentally sound technologies to developing country Parties to the UNFCCC are critical means to support action on mitigation and adaptation now, up to and beyond 2012, in order to achieve the ultimate objective of the Convention. Technology Mechanism: The new Technology Mechanism established by the Cancun Agreements in December 2010 represents a step to move beyond the 'conventional' approach to technology transfer under the Convention in the past several years based essentially on capacity building and technology needs assessments to a more 'dynamic' arrangement geared towards fostering public-private partnerships; promoting innovation; catalyzing the use of technology road maps or action plans; mobilizing national, regional and international technology centres and network; and facilitating joint R&D activities. The Technology Mechanism consists of a Technology Executive Committee (TEC) and a Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN). Technology Executive Committee: The TEC facilitates the effective implementation of the Technology Mechanism, as the policy component of the Technology Mechanism, consistent with its functions. The TEC shall also further implement the technology transfer framework, with special attention to support an important ongoing effort by developing country Parties to identify and prioritize their technology needs through Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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the Technology Needs Assessments (TNAs) process supported under the Poznan strategic programme on technology transfer. Climate Technology Centre and Network: The CTCN facilitates the effective implementation of the Technology Mechanism, consistent with its functions. The TEC and CTCN are accountable to and operate under the guidance of the COP. The Technology Mechanism, once it becomes fully operational in 2012, will play a meaningful role in making a "real" difference as envisaged by the Cancun Agreements. Importantly, the Technology Mechanism must become an integrated and coherent entity which is both flexible in its design and operations and effective in carrying out its tasks to support the ultimate objective of the Convention. It would do this through accelerating international, regional and national technology development and transfer action that supports mitigation and adaptation on the ground at a scale that can make an impact on the global effort. Technology information clearing house: The technology information clearing house (TT:CLEAR) aims to provide information in support of ongoing technology transfer activities under the Convention as well as to enhance the generation and flow of, access to, reliable technical, economic, environmental and regulatory information relating to the development and transfer of environmentally sound technologies. The Clean Development Mechanism: The CDM allows emission-reduction projects in developing countries to earn certified emission reduction (CER) credits, each equivalent to one tonne of CO2. TheseCERs can be traded and sold, and used by industrialized countries to a meet a part of their emission reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol. The mechanism stimulates sustainable development and emission reductions, while giving industrialized countries some flexibility in how they meet their emission reduction limitation targets. The CDM is the main source of income for the UNFCCC Adaptation Fund, which was established to finance adaptation projects and programmes in developing country Parties to the Kyoto Protocol that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. The Adaptation Fund is financed by a 2% levy on CERs issued by the CDM.

KYOTO PROTOCOL The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which commits its Parties by setting internationally binding emission reduction targets. Recognizing that developed countries are principally responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere as a result of more than 150 years of industrial activity, the Protocol places a heavier burden on developed nations under the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities." The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005. The detailed rules for the implementation of the Protocol were adopted at COP 7 in Marrakesh, Morocco, in 2001, and are referred to as the "Marrakesh Accords." Its first commitment period started in 2008 and ended in 2012. Doha Amendment: In Doha, Qatar, on 8 December 2012, the "Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol" was adopted. The amendment includes: New commitments for Annex I Parties to the Kyoto Protocol who agreed to take on commitments in a second commitment period from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2020; A revised list of greenhouse gases (GHG) to be reported on by Parties in the second commitment period; and Amendments to several articles of the Kyoto Protocol which specifically referenced issues pertaining to the first commitment period and which needed to be updated for the second commitment period. On 21 December 2012, the amendment was circulated by the Secretary-General of the United Nations, acting in his capacity as Depositary, to all Parties to the Kyoto Protocol in accordance with Articles 20 and 21 of the Protocol. During the first commitment period, 37 industrialized countries and the European Community committed to reduce GHG emissions to an average of five percent against 1990 levels. During the second commitment period, Parties committed to reduce GHG emissions by at least 18 percent below 1990 levels in the eight -year period from 2013 to 2020; however, the composition of Parties in the second commitment period is different from the first. Kyoto Mechanism: Under the Protocol, countries must meet their targets primarily through national measures. However, the Protocol also offers them an additional means to meet their targets by way of three market -based mechanisms.The Kyoto mechanisms are: 1. International Emissions Trading 2. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) 3. Joint implementation (JI) Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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The mechanisms help to stimulate green investment and help Parties meet their emission targets in a cost effective way. Monitoring emission targets Under the Protocol, countries' actual emissions have to be monitored and precise records have to be kept of the trades carried out. Registry systems track and record transactions by Parties under the mechanisms. The UN Climate Change Secretariat, based in Bonn, Germany, keeps an international transaction log to verify that transactions are consistent with the rules of the Protocol.Reporting is done by Parties by submitting annual emission inventories and national reports under the Protocol at regular intervals.A compliance system ensures that Parties are meeting their commitments and helps them to meet their commitments if they have problems doing so. Adaptation The Kyoto Protocol, like the Convention, is also designed to assist countries in adapting to the adverse effects of climate change. It facilitates the development and deployment of technologies that can help increase resilience to the impacts of climate change.The Adaptation Fund was established to finance adaptation projects and programmes in developing countries that are Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. In the first commitment period, the Fund was financed mainly with a share of proceeds from CDM project activities. In Doha, in 2012, it was decided that for the second commitment period, international emissions trading and joint implementation would also provide the Adaptation Fund with a 2 percent share of proceeds. The road ahead The Kyoto Protocol is seen as an important first step towards a truly global emission reduction regime that will stabilize GHG emissions, and can provide the architecture for the future international agreement on climate change.In Durban, the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP) was established to develop a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention, applicable to all Parties. The ADP is to complete its work as early as possible, but no later than 2015, in order to adopt this protocol, legal instrument or agreed outcome with legal force at the twenty-first session of the Conference of the Parties and for it to come into effect and be implemented from 2020.

BALI ROAD MAP The Bali Road Map was adopted at the 13th Conference of the Parties and the 3rd Meeting of the Parties in December 2007 in Bali. The Road Map is a set of a forward-looking decisions that represent the work that needs to be done under various negotiating tracks that is essential to reaching a secure climate future. The Bali Road Map includes the Bali Action Plan, which charts the course for a new negotiating process designed to tackle climate change. The Bali Action Plan is a comprehensive process to enable the full, effective and sustained implementation of the Convention through long-term cooperative action, now, up to and beyond 2012, in order to reach an agreed outcome and adopt a decision. All Parties to the Convention were involved in crafting the Bali Road Map. The COP decided that the process would be conducted under a subsidiary body under the Convention, the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action (AWG-LCA). The Bali Action Plan is divided into five main categories: shared vision, mitigation, adaptation, technology and financing. The shared vision refers to a long-term vision for action on climate change, including a long-term goal for for emission reductions. The AWG-LCA subsequently split the work streams into components under those five parts. Working in parallel would be the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP) negotiations, which was established in Montreal in 2005. Until COP17 in Durban, the main focus of the negotiations under the KP had been to decide what to do when its first commitment period expired in 2012. A decision was reached in Durban to move into a second commitment period in 2013, with Annex I parties submitting their quantified emission reduction targets in May 2012, to be adopted at COP18 in Qatar in December 2012. The road to agreement The Bali Action Plan was highly ambitious. In terms of the time lines it spelled out, it may have been overly optimistic, and underestimated the complexity both of climate change as a problem and of crafting a global response to it. At COP15 in Copenhagen, the Conference of the Parties extended the AWG-LCA's mandate, enabling it to continue its work with the aim of presenting the outcome of this work at COP 16 in Cancun in 2010. COP15 advanced many key issues. It raised climate change policy to the highest political level; It advanced the negotiations on the infrastructure needed for well-functioning, global climate change cooperation; Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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Environment Module PT 2013

It produced the Copenhagen Accord. It was not adopted by all governments, but it advanced a number of key issues; and It committed developed countries to $30 billion fast-start financing (in 2010-2012) for adaptation and mitigation in developing countries, with priority given to the least developed countries. All of this momentum was built upon in Cancun in 2010, when governments drew up the Cancun Agreements, a set of significant decisions to respond to the long-term challenge of climate change collectively and comprehensively, now and over time. Countries decided to make their emission reduction pledges official, in what was the largest collective effort the world has ever seen to reduce emissions in a mutually accountable way. Click here for more information on mitigation under the Cancun Agreements. Parties then continued to work towards a post-2012 legally-binding agreement with the Cancun Agreements and Bali Road Map as their foundations, and the Convention and KP as their guides. At COP17 in Durban, they reached agreement on a second commitment period on the Kyoto Protocol and on a pathway and deadlines to drawing up and committing to a new, post -2020 mitigation framework under the Convention (see section on Durban Platform for Enhanced Action). All industrialised countries and 48 developing countries also affirmed their pledges up to 2020.

CANCUN AGREEMENT The Cancun Agreements constituted a significant achievement for the UN climate process. They form the pillars of thelargest collective effort the world has ever seen to reduce emissions, in a mutually accountable way, with national plans captured formally at international level under the banner of the UNFCCC. The Cancun Agreements also included the most comprehensive package ever agreed by governments to help developing nations deal with climate change. It encompassed finance, technology and capacity-building support to help such countries meet urgent needs to adapt to climate change, and to speed up their plans to adopt sustainable paths to low emission economies that could also resist the negative impacts of climate change. What are the Cancun Agreements, in real terms? The Cancun Agreements were a set of significant decisions by the international community to address the long-term challenge of climate change collectively and comprehensively over time, and to take concrete action immediately to speed up the global response to it.The agreements, reached on December 11 in Cancun, Mexico, at the 2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference, represented key steps forward in capturing plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and to help developing nations protect themselves from climate impacts and build their own sustainable futures.The Cancun Agreements' main objectives cover: Mitigation Establish clear goals and a timely schedule for reducing human -generated greenhouse gas emissions over time to keep the global average temperature rise below two degrees; Encourage the participation of all countries in reducing these emissions, in accordance with each country's different responsibilities and capabilities to do so. Review progress made towards two-degree objective, and a review by 2015 on whether the objective needs to be strengthened in future, including the consideration of a 1.5C goal, on the basis of the best scientific knowledge available. Transparency of actions Ensure international transparency of the actions which are taken by countries, and ensure that global progress towards the 2C goal is reviewed in a timely way. Technology Mobilize the development and transfer of clean technology to boost efforts to address climate change, getting it to the right place at the right time and for the best effect on both adaptation and mitigation. Finance Mobilize and provide scaled-up funds in the short and long term to enable developing countries to take greater and effective action. Set up the Green Climate Fund to disburse $100 billion per year by 2020 to developing countries to assist them in mitigating climate change and adapting to its impacts. Adaptation Assist the particularly vulnerable people in the world to adapt to the inevitable impacts of climate change by taking a coordinated approach to adaptation. Forests Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

Aspire IAS

Environment Module PT 2013

Protect the world's forests, which are a major repository of carbon. Governments agreed to launch concrete action on forests in developing nations, which will increase going forward. The full financing options for the implementation of such mitigation actions in the forest area will be addressed during 2011. Capacity building Build up global capacity, especially in developing countries, to meet the overall challenge; Establish effective institutions and systems which will ensure these objectives are implemented successfully.

DURBAN OUTCOMES Turning point in the negotiations: The UN Climate Change Conference in Durban was a turning point in the climate change negotiations. In Durban, governments clearly recognized the need to draw up the blueprint for a fresh universal, legal agreement to deal with climate change beyond 2020, where all will play their part to the best of their ability and all will be able to reap the benefits of success together. In short, all governments committed in Durban to a comprehensive plan that would come closer over time to delivering the ultimate objective of the Climate Change Convention: to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that will prevent our dangerous interference with the climate system and at the same time will preserve the right to sustainable development. The challenge, then and now, is to push climate action forward as rapidly as possible, both inside and outside the climate change negotiations. The reality is that a looming gap remains between current national and international actions and intentions to reduce emissions and the actual level required to keep average global temperatures rising no more than two degrees above their pre-industrial level, above which science shows that there is a much higher risk of very serious climate impacts. Moreover, even if the two-degree scenario is met, developing countries, especially the poorest and most vulnerable, will still need much more support to adapt to the change that is already embedded in the global climate system. Road map for implementation The Durban outcomes looked to address these challenges in a more connected way by embodying a road map for implementation over a longer time horizon than has commonly been the case in the history of the Convention. On this map, four main areas of coordinated and complementary action and implementation, designed also to build and preserve trust among countries, were agreed: 1) Second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol The continuation of the current international legal system through a second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, under which developed countries commit to greenhouse gas cuts and which enshrines existing accounting rules and models of international cooperation that may inform future efforts. 2) Launch of new platform of negotiations The launch of a new platform of negotiations under the Convention to deliver a new and universal greenhouse gas reduction protocol, legal instrument or other outcome with legal force by 2015 for the period beyond 2020. This new negotiation critically includes finding ways to further raise the existing level of national and international action and stated ambition to bring greenhouse gas emissions down. 3) Conclusion in 2012 of existing broad-based stream of negotiations A decision to conclude within 2012 the work of the existing broad-based stream of negotiations that includes all member nations under the Convention. This includes work to make existing national emission reduction or emission limitation plans more transparent. It also encompasses the launch and long -term implementation of the comprehensive global support network that will deliver funding and technology to help developing countries build their own clean energy futures and construct societies and economies which are resilient to climate change 4) Global Review To scope out and then conduct a fresh global Review of the emerging climate challenge, based on the best available science and data, first to ensure whether a maximum two -degree rise is enough or whether an even lower 1.5 degree rise is required, and then to ensure that collective action is adequate to prevent the average global temperature rising beyond the agreed limit. The need for greater ambition It remains crucial that all levels of government - national, sub-national and local - take the bigger and bolder action that is required to keep the world on the right track to reduce emissions, to deal with existing climate change and to help smooth the way for an effective new global climate change agreement in 2015. Similarly, it will be critical for the business and technology sectors and for civil society to profit rapidly from the increasing number of opportunities being presented by the national and international climate response, while building environmentally sustainable and resilient societies worldwide. The Durban outcome recognized, in its spirit and intention, that smart government policy, smart business investment, and the demands of an informed citizenry, all motivated by an understanding of mutual self-interest, must go hand in hand in pursuit of the common goal. Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

Aspire IAS

Environment Module PT 2013

DOHA CLIMATE GATEWAY At the 2012 UN Climate Change Conference in Doha, Qatar (COP18/ CMP8), governments consolidated the gains of the last three years of international climate change negotiations and opened a gateway to necessary greater ambition and action on all levels. Among the many decisions taken, governments: Strengthened their resolve and set out a timetable to adopt a universal climate agreement by 2015, which will come into effect in 2020. Streamlined the negotiations, completing the work under the Bali Action Plan to concentrate on the new work towards a 2015 agreement under a single negotiating stream in the Ad hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP). Emphasized the need to increase their ambition to cut greenhouse gases (GHGs) and to help vulnerable countries to adapt. Launched a new commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol, thereby ensuring that this treaty's important legal and accounting models remain in place and underlining the principle that developed countries lead mandated action to cut greenhouse gas emissions. Made further progress towards establishing the financial and technology support and new institutions to enable clean energy investments and sustainable growth in developing countries. The Urgency to Act While there has been some success in climate change mitigation, global emissions of greenhouse gases continue to rise. International action under the UNFCCC must be guided by the best available science. Increasingly frequent and progressively more severe impacts of climate change make the need for urgent action abundantly clear. This is underscored by a growing number of reports, which have also provided options and solutions for the world to act effectively now to prevent much more serious climate change in the future. Most recent and upcoming reports include: The World Bank's " Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4C Warmer World Must Be Avoided", showing that the world is on track towards a 4 degrees Celsius temperature rise, should the currently inadequate level of ambition remain. UNEP's Emissions Gap Report 2012, which demonstrated that it is still possible to bridge the emissions gap by 2020. The World Economic Forum's Global Risks 2013 report, released early in 2013. This report outlines a survey of more than 1000 experts polled on how they expect 50 global risks to play out over the next ten years. The report cites rising greenhouse gas emissions as one of the five major risks the global economy faces, and calls runaway climate change an X-factor that multiplies and exacerbates all risk. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will release its Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) in 2013 and 2014. The assessment will provide governments with the latest science on physics and impacts of climate change, and the scale of ambition necessary to successfully tackle climate change. The first installment of AR5 on the science is due this September, and the second and third installments are scheduled for release in March/April 2014. Specific Outcomes of COP18/ CMP8 COP18/ CMP8 met the objectives set by governments for what needed to be achieved now. It produced many outcomes that moved the negotiations forward and advanced the international agenda. Timetable for the 2015 global climate change agreement and increasing ambition before 2020 So that the world has a chance to stay below an agreed maximum 2 degrees Celsius temperature rise, beyond which even more serious climate change impacts will occur, governments agreed to: Speedily work toward a universal climate change agreement covering all countries from 2020, to be adopted by 2015. Find ways to scale up efforts before 2020 beyond the existing pledges to curb emissions. Also in Doha, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon announced he would convene world leaders in 2014 to mobilize political will to help ensure the 2015 deadline is met. Work will intensify in 2013 to prepare the new agreement and to explore further ways to raise ambition. The first meeting of the ADP in 2013 (ADP 2) will take place in Bonn from 29 April to 3 May. Governments agreed to submit information, views and proposals on actions, initiatives and options to enhance ambition to the UNFCCC by 1 March, 2013. They invited observers to do the same and tasked the secretariat with analyzing the resulting mitigation benefits of planned actions. Amendment of the Kyoto Protocol The Kyoto Protocol, as the only existing and binding agreement under which developed countries undertake quantitative commitments to cut greenhouse gases, was amended so that it could seamlessly continue. Specifically: Governments decided on an 8-year second commitment period, which started on January 1st 2013. Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

Aspire IAS

Environment Module PT 2013

The legal requirements that will allow a smooth continuation of the Protocol were agreed, and the valuable accounting rules of the Protocol were preserved. Countries that are taking on further commitments under the Kyoto Protocol agreed to review their emission reduction commitments at the latest by 2014, with a view to increasing their respective levels of ambition. The Kyoto Protocol's Market Mechanisms the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Joint Implementation (JI) and International Emissions Trading (IET) will continue. Access to the mechanisms remains uninterrupted for all developed countries that have accepted targets for the second commitment period. A key element was added to the measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) framework for developed countries with the adoption of the tables for the biennial reports known as common tabular format, thereby strengthening transparency and the accountability regime. Surplus assigned amount units (AAUs) can be carried over without limit from the first to the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol by Parties included in Annex I that have a target for the second commitment period, but with restrictions on the use of these carried-over AAUs for the second commitment period and quantitative limits on how many of these units may be acquired from other Parties. Completion of new infrastructure In Doha, governments advanced the completion of new infrastructure to channel technology and finance to developing nations and move toward the full implementation of this infrastructure and support. Most importantly, they: Endorsed the selection of the Republic of Korea as the host of the Green Climate Fund (GCF) and the work plan of the Standing Committee on Finance. The GCF is expected to start its work in Songdo in the second half of 2013. Confirmed a UNEP-led consortium as host of the Climate Technology Center (CTC), for an initial term of five years. The CTC, along with its associated Network, is the implementing arm of the UNFCCC Technology Mechanism. Governments also agreed the constitution of the CTCN Advisory Board. Long-term climate finance Developed countries reiterated their commitment to deliver on promises to continue long term climate finance support to developing nations, with a view to mobilizing USD 100 billion annually from a variety of sources both for adaptation and mitigation by 2020. Developed country Parties were invited to submit before the next Conference information on their strategies for mobilizing scaled-up finance. The finance in the period between 2013 and 2015 should equal or exceed the average annual level with which countries provided funds during the 2010 to 2012 fast-start finance period (a total of USD 30 billion.) This is to ensure there is no gap in continued finance support while efforts are otherwise scaled up. Governments will continue a work programme on long-term finance during 2013 to identify pathways for mobilizing scaled-up finance to reach the 100 billion target by 2020. A high-level roundtable on finance is planned for COP19/ CMP9 in Warsaw so that ministers can provide general guidance. Review Governments launched a robust process to review the long-term temperature goal, which is to start in 2013 and conclude by 2015, aimed at providing a reality check on the advance of the climate change threat and the possible need to mobilize further action. Adaptation Governments identified ways to further strengthen the adaptive capacities of the most vulnerable through better planning. A pathway was established towards concrete institutional arrangements to provide the most vulnerable populations with better protection against loss and damage caused by slow onset events such as rising sea levels. Ways to implement National Adaptation Plans for least developed countries were agreed, including linking funding and other support. Support of developing country action Governments completed a registry to record developing country mitigation actions that seek recognition or financial support. The registry will be a flexible, dynamic web-based platform. A new work programme to build climate action capacity through education and training, public awareness and public participation in climate change decision-making was agreed. This is important to create a groundswell of support for embarking on a new climate change regime after 2020. New market mechanisms Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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Aspire IAS

Environment Module PT 2013

A work programme was agreed to further elaborate the new market-based mechanism under the UNFCCC, which also sets out possible elements for its operation. A work programme was also agreed to develop a framework for recognizing mechanisms established outside the UNFCCC such as nationally-administered or bilateral offset programmes and to consider their role in helping countries to meet their mitigation targets. Actions on forests Governments further clarified ways to measure deforestation, and to ensure that efforts to fight deforestation are supported. Economic diversification initiative Following a submission by Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, the COP took note of the readiness of these countries to put forward their current actions and plans in pursuit of economic diversification that have co-benefits in the form of emission reductions, adaptation to the impacts of climate change and response measures.

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Aspire IAS

Environment Module PT 2013

Desertification
One quarter of the earth's land is threatened by desertification, according to estimates by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The livelihoods of over 1 billion people in more than 100 countries are also jeopardized by desertification, as farming and grazing land becomes less productive. Desertification does not mean that deserts are steadily advancing or taking over neighbouring land. As defined by the UN Convention, desertification is a process of "land degradation in arid, semi -arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities". Patches of degraded land may develop hundreds of kilometres from the nearest desert. But these patches can expand and join together, creating desert -like conditions. Desertification contributes to other environmental crises, such as the loss of biodiversity and global warming.

United Nations Environment Programme The United Nations first addressed the issue on a global scale at the United Nations Conference on Desertification, held in Nairobi in 1977. The Conference produced the Plan of Action to Combat Desertification, a series of guidelines and recommendations to assist countries in developing action plans and to stimulate and coordinate assistance from the international community. Although the 1977 Plan of Action principles were valid, practical action fell short of expectations due to a lack of resources and coordination. As a result, the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janiero, Brazil, and popularly known as the "Earth Summit", called on the UN General Assembly to set up an Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee to prepare a legally binding instrument by June 1994. United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification Its Provisions and Priorities The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa, the Convention's full name, was established in 1994. UNCCD is the sole legally binding international agreement linking environment and development to sustainable land management. The Convention addresses specifically the arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas, known as the drylands, where some of the most vulnerable ecosystems and peoples can be found. It now has 193 country Parties to the Convention, making it truly global in reach. In 2013, Canada became the first country to withdraw from the convention. To help publicise the Convention, 2006 was declared "International Year of Deserts and Desertification" but debates have ensued regarding how effective the International Year was in practice. The stated objective of the Convention is "to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought in countries experiencing serious drought and/or desertification, particularly in Africa ...." To achieve this goal, the Convention calls for action involving international cooperation and a partnership approach. It focuses on improving land productivity, rehabilitation of land, conservation and sustainable management of land and water resources. Such action should also prevent the long-term consequences of desertification, including mass migration, species loss, climate change and the need for emergency assistance to populations in crisis. The Convention establishes a framework for national, sub regional and regional programmes to counter the degradation of drylands, including semi-arid grasslands and deserts. It calls on developed countries to: Actively support the efforts of affected developing country parties to the Convention; Provide "substantial financial resources" to assist affected developing country parties; Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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Environment Module PT 2013

Promote the mobilization of adequate, timely and predictable financial resources from all official and private sources; and Promote and facilitate access to appropriate technology, knowledge and know-how. Desertification-affected countries are obliged to: Give priority to combating desertification and drought by allocating adequate resources in accordance with capabilities; Establish strategies to combat desertification and drought; Address the underlying causes of the problem and pay special attention to relevant socio-economic factors; Promote awareness and the participation of local population in action to combat desertification and drought; and Provide an enabling environment through appropriate laws, policies and action programmes. At the Eighth Conference of the Parties in Madrid in September 2007, the UNCCD entered a new phase with the adoption of the 10-year strategic plan and framework to enhance the implementation of the Convention (The Strategy). The 10-Year Strategy of the UNCCD (2008-2018) that was adopted in 2007, i.e., Parties to the Convention further specified their goals: "to forge a global partnership to reverse and prevent desertification/land degradation and to mitigate the effects of drought in affected areas in order to support poverty reduction and environmental sustainability". Among the key topics in effectively fostering the implementation of the UNCCD and its ten -year Strategy are the following: Science - Scientific collaboration around agreed themes and support to impact monitoring Reporting review and assessment - Reporting under the UNCCD, including the performance review and assessment of implementation system (PRAIS) as well as best practices. Awareness Raising Active influencing of relevant international, national and local processes and actors to address desertification/land degradation and drought Thematic priorities - Identifying and taking action on interlinkages between desertification, land degradation and drought and selected key themes: biodiversity, climate change, food security, forests, gender and water. Synergies among the Rio Conventions - Joint activities by the secretariats of the three "sister Conventions" on biodiversity, climate change and desertification, land degradation and drought Capacity building - Online tools and information on capacity building Conference of the Parties The Conference of the Parties (COP) is established by the Convention as the supreme decision-making body, and it comprises all Parties to the Convention. The first five sessions of the COP were held annually from 1997 to 2001. Starting 2001 sessions are held on a biennial basis. The COP has two subsidiary bodies The Committee on Science and Technology (CST) was established under Article 24 of the Convention as a platform for scientific collaboration under the UNCCD. The Committee for the Review of the Implementation of the Convention (CRIC) was established at COP 5 in 2005. It is a standing subsidiary body to assist in regularly reviewing the implementation of the Convention. The ten-year Strategy to enhance the implementation of the Convention defines the focus areas of both subsidiary bodies for the period 2008-2018.

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Environment Module PT 2013

ECO SENSITIVE ZONES


The eco sensitive zones need to be declared in order to provide better sanctity to protected areas; as an additional tool to strengthen the buffers and corridors around the Protected Area network; and to check the negative impact of industrialization and unplanned development in and around Protected Areas. In this background the Indian Board for Wildlife in its XXI meeting held on 21st January 2002 under the Chairmanship of Honble Prime Minister had adopted a Wildlife Conservation Strategy-2002 in which one of the action point envisaged to notify lands falling within 10 km. of the boundaries of National Parks and Sanctuaries as Eco-fragile zones under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. After concern raised by the State Governments like Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan and Goa, over applicability of the 10 Kms range from the Protected Area boundary and informed that most of the human habitation and other areas including important cities in these States would come under the purview of eco-sensitive zone and will adversely affect the development, it has been decided that the delineation of eco-sensitive zones would have to be site specific and relate to regulation, rather than prohibition, of specific activities. The decision was communicated to all the State Governments for compliance. Conditions As per the MoEF guidelines, commercial mining; setting up of industries causing pollution; commercial use of firewood; use or production of any hazardous substance; establishment of hydroelectric projects; and discharge of effluents and solid waste in natural water bodies or terrestrial area are prohibited. Moreover, activities such as wood felling; setting up of sawmills, hotels or resorts; and night traffic in the zone would be restricted. Demarcation The Forest and Wildlife Department will work on demarcating ecologically sensitive zones around national parks and wildlife sanctuaries in the State as per directions of the Union Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF). The eco sensitive zones would be identified as per Section 3 of the Environment Protection Act as well as Rules 5 (1) of Environment Protection Rules. The State governments been asked to submit its proposal in this regard to the MoEF before February 15, 2013. If deadline is not kept The MoEF had said that if the States did not submit site-specific proposals by February 15, it would declare 10-km area around wildlife sanctuaries and national parks of a State as eco-sensitive zones. The State government could submit proposals of the zones demarcation either by following the guidelines of the MoEF, declaring up to 10-km area around the sanctuaries and national parks as eco sensitive, depending on the peculiarities of each protected area, or by adhering to the directions of the Central Empowered Committee of the Supreme Court. TIGER RESERVES AND BUFFER ZONES:Project Tiger Scheme has been under implementation since 1973 as
a Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Government of India. The main objective of Project Tiger is to ensure a viable population of tiger in India for scientific, economic, aesthetic, cultural and ecological values and to preserve for all time, areas of biological importance as a natural heritage for the benefit, education and enjoyment of the people. Initially, the Project started with 9 tiger reserves, covering an area of 16,339 sq.km., with a population of 268 tigers. At present there are 27 tiger reserves covering an area of 37761 sq.km., with a population of 1498 tigers. This amounts to almost 1.14% of the total geographical area of the country.Tiger Reserves are constituted on a 'core-buffer' strategy. The core area is kept free of biotic disturbances and forestry operations, where collection of minor forest produce, grazing, human disturbances are not allowed within. However, the buffer zone is managed as a multiple use area with twin objectives of providing habitat supplement to the spill over population of wild animals from the core conservation unit, and to provide site specific eco-developmental inputs to surrounding villages for relieving their impact on the core.

A buffer is like a thin layer of protection on all sides of the reserve. It is not inviolate like core area and human habitation won't be relocated. Those living in this zone will be given alternative livelihood options to reduce dependence on core forest produce. "These zones will be protected from major changes in land use. Unlike the core area, which is exclusive, the buffer zone will be inclusive but importance will be given to protection of wildlife".

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Environment Module PT 2013

NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE


On June 30, 2008, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh released Indias first National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) outlining existing and future policies and programs addressing climate mitigation and adaptation. The plan identifies eight core national missions running through 2017 and directs ministries to submit detailed implementation plans to the Prime Ministers Council on Climate Change by December 2008. Emphasizing the overriding priority of maintaining high economic growth rates to raise living standards, the plan identifies measures that promote our development objectives while also yielding co -benefits for addressing climate change effectively. It says these national measures would be more successful with assistance from developed countries, and pledges that Indias per capita greenhouse gas emissions will at no point exceed that of developed countries even as we pursue our development objectives. NATIONAL SOLAR MISSION: The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission aims to make India the global leader in solar energy by creating a policy environment which promotes the diffusion of solar technology across the country. It sets a target of deploying 20 GW of grid-connected solar power in India by 2022, using a three-phase approach. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy is responsible for the implementation of this mission. Mission Targets # Enabling policy framework for deployment of 20,000 MW of solar power by 2022. # Creating favourable conditions for developing solar manufacturing capabilities, particularly solar thermal indigenous production and market leadership. # Promoting programs for off-grid applications to achieve targets of 1000 MW by 2017 and 2000 MW by 2022. # Achieving total solar thermal collector area of 15 million sq.m by 2017 and 20 million sq.m by 2022. # Deploying 20 million solar lighting systems for rural areas by 2022 along with ramping up capacity of gridconnected solar power generation to 1000 MW within 3 years (by 2013) and an additional 3000 MW by 2017 through mandatory use of renewable purchase obligation by utilities backed with preferential tariffs. NATIONAL MISSION ON ENHANCED ENERGY EFFICIENCY The National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency aims to strengthen the energy efficiency market in India by fostering innovative business models in the sector and creating a regulatory and policy regime to achieve 98 MT CO2eq. savings by 2015. The Ministry of Power, in association with the Bureau of Energy Efficiency and the recently established Energy Efficiency Services Limited are responsible for the implementation of this mission. Mission Objectives # Increasing energy generation while ensuring minimal Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions through promoting energy efficiency using various incentives and measures NATIONAL MISSION ON SUSTAINABLE HABITAT The National Mission on Sustainable Habitat aims to promote sustainability of habitats through improvements in the energy efficiency of buildings, urban planning, improved waste management systems, and promoting public transport by making appropriate changes in the legal and regulatory framework. It also aims at improving the ability of habitats to adapt to climate change through improved resilience of infrastructure, community-based disaster management and advance warning systems for extreme weather events. The Union Ministry of Urban Development, along with state governments and urban local bodies, are responsible for the implementation of this mission. Mission Objectives # Exploiting the potential for mitigating climate change by reducing the demand for energy in the residential and commercial sectors through adoption of various energy efficiency and conservation measures, promoting greater use of renewable sources of energy and thereby reducing the dependence on a single source of energy and balancing mitigation strategies for climate change with adaptation strategies. # Adopting a comprehensive approach in management of water (including waste water) and municipal solid waste and using them to their fullest potential for energy generation along with adopting measures like recycling, reuse and composting. # Addressing the issue of mitigating climate change by taking appropriate actions with respect to the transport sector such as evolving integrated land use and transportation plans, achieving a modal shift from private to public mode of transportation, greater use of non-motorized transport, improved fuel efficiency and use of alternate fuels. Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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Environment Module PT 2013

# Evolving strategies for adaptation in terms of realignment and relocation, designing the standards and planning for roads, rail and other infrastructure to cope with warming and climate change. # Reorienting urban planning to address climate change (using both mitigation and adaptation strategies). # Improving the responsiveness of urban areas to disasters by strengthening community-based disaster management and providing better warning systems for extreme weather events. # Facilitating the adoption of technologies and Research and Development (R&D) which can lead to energy efficiency and reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. # Promoting sustainable urban development by ensuring the fullest possible use of sustainable transport for moving freight, public transport, cycling and walking, thereby reducing the need to travel in private vehicles, especially by car. # Promoting measures which improve the resilience of urban infrastructure and human systems to cope with vulnerability consistent with social cohesion and inclusion. # Conserving the natural resources key to the sustainability of human habitats, such as water, clean air, flora and fauna, thereby also recognizing the integrated nature of human and other systems. # Reflecting on (and thereby planning for) the development needs and interests of communities that are especially vulnerable to climate change. # Encouraging competitiveness and technological innovation in strategies focusing on mitigation and adaptation to climate change. # Developing a transparent, flexible, predictable, efficient and effective planning system that can produce the quality development needed to deliver sustainable development and secure sustainable communities through a well-designed framework provided by policies at the national, state and local level and a well-planned institutional framework for managing such development. # Encouraging community involvement in ensuring more sustainable patterns of development across urban centres in India. # Bringing together key stakeholders at the central, state, district and local levels for a coordinated and comprehensive response to vulnerabilities arising out of climate change. # Promoting and strengthening the efforts aimed at generating awareness related to climate change.

NATIONAL WATER MISSION The National Water Mission aims to address the challenges faced by the water sector in India. These include the increasing demand for water within the country, decline in quality and quantity of ground water and surface water and increasing incidences of floods and droughts. The mission employs integrated water resource development and management to promote water conservation, waste minimisation and equitable distribution of water across the country. The Ministry of Water Resources, along with its state-level counterparts are responsible for the implementation of this mission. Mission Objectives # Ensuring integrated water resource management for conservation of water, minimization of wastage and equitable distribution both across and within states. # Developing a framework for optimum water use through increase in water use efficiency by 20% through regulatory mechanisms with differential entitlements and pricing, taking the National Water Policy (NWP) into consideration. # Ensuring that a considerable share of water needs of urban areas is met through recycling of waste water. # Meeting water requirements of coastal cities (with inadequate alternative sources of water) through the adoption of new and appropriate technologies such as low-temperature desalination technologies allowing use of ocean water. # Revisiting NWP to ensure basin-level management strategies to deal with variability in rainfall and river flows due to climate change, including enhancement of storage both above and below ground, implementation of rainwater harvesting and establishment of equitable and efficient management structures. # Developing new regulatory structures to optimize efficiency of existing irrigation systems, to rehabilitate rundown systems and to expand irrigation to increase storage capacity. # Promotion of water-neutral and water-positive technologies through the design of a proper incentive structure combined with recharging of underground water sources and adoption of large-scale irrigation programme based on efficient methods of irrigation. NATIONAL MISSION FOR SUSTAINING THE HIMALAYAN ECOSYSTEM Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

Aspire IAS

Environment Module PT 2013

The National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem concentrates on understanding complex ecosystems and evolving suitable policy measures, building human and institutional capacity, creating a comprehensive database on the Himalayas , protecting traditional knowledge systems and developing regional cooperation with neighbouring countries with a view to safeguard the Himalayan region from the impacts of climate change in the long-term. The Department of Science and Technology is responsible for the implementation of this mission. Mission Objectives # Scientific assessment of the vulnerability of the Himalayan ecosystem to short and long term variability in the weather and climate in all its dimensions of physical, biological and socio-cultural aspects # Research for framing evidence-based policy measures to protect the fragile ecosystem # Time bound action programmes at the state level in the Indian Himalayan Region in order to sustain the ecological resilience and ensure the continued provision of key ecosystem services Mission Targets # Creation of a fund (of approximately Rs.1650 crores) for developing capacities for sustaining the Himalayan ecosystem to serve the activities envisaged in the NMSHE during the 11th and 12th plan periods # Establishment of a state-of-the-art National Center for Himalayan Glaciology, complete with a provision for supporting extra mural research in glaciology # Identification and networking of all knowledge institutions in the region which possess the institutional capacity for studies on Himalayan ecosystems # Derivation of codes of practices for knowledge coalition among networked knowledge institutions under various ministries as well as state governments and community-based organizations in thematic areas relating to the sustainability of the Himalayan ecosystems # Further strengthening of selected (approximately 12) knowledge institutions with resources, human resources, governance and communication facilities for promoting deeper engagement of these institutions # Establishment of about 10 new centers in existing institutions in areas of knowledge gaps complete with special mechanisms and tools to create knowledge capacity for sustaining Himalayan ecosystems, particularly in the areas of Himalayan glaciology, ecology and biodiversity mapping, traditional knowledge systems, forestry for biological carbon capture, ecotourism services and policy research for developmental planning of a fragile ecosystem # Standardization of data collection systems for interoperability and mapping of natural resource wealth systems and positioning of a coherent data sharing and exchange framework among the participating knowledge institutions # Identification and training of about 100 experts and specialists in areas relevant to sustaining the Himalayan ecosystem including about 25 glaciologists for research and development, and international training programmes # Positioning of a multi-centric training system for community-based organizations to relate laboratory findings to real field conditions and provide feedback to knowledge institutions on the likely changes in the Himalayan ecosystems # Annual status reports on the health of various sub-components of the Himalayan ecosystems # Training of at least 100 technical experts for carrying out environmental impact assessments on the Himalayan ecosystems for various human activities in the region # To conduct 25 programmes on capacity building for linking innovations from traditional and modern knowledge systems # Establishment of an observational network for monitoring and forewarning of changes in the ecosystems of the Himalayan region # Positioning of a framework for regional cooperation with neighbouring countries in the area of Himalayan glaciology # Bi-annual advisories to the Himalayan Sustainable Development Forum through state councils for climate change in the Indian Himalayan states for actions for implementation # Establishment of a synergistic mechanism with other national missions under the NAPCC NATIONAL MISSION FOR A GREEN INDIA The National Mission for a Green India primarily aims at improving forest cover on 10 million hectares of forest/nonforest land, enhancing ecosystem services and increasing carbon sequestration. The Ministry of Environment and Forests will be responsible for the implementation of the mission through State Forest Development Agencies, Joint Forest Management Committees and so on. Involvement of local communities is also seen as key to the protection of natural resources, and to the mission implementation. Mission Objectives Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

Aspire IAS

Environment Module PT 2013

# Increased forest/tree cover on 5 million hectares (ha) of forest/non- forest lands and improved quality of forest cover on another 5 million ha of non-forest/forest lands (a total of 10 million ha) # Improved ecosystem services including biodiversity, hydrological services, and carbon sequestration from the 10 million ha of forest/non-forest lands mentioned above # Increased forest-based livelihood income of about 3 million households, living in and around the forests # Enhanced annual CO2 sequestration by 50 to 60 million tonnes in the year 2020 Mission Targets # Improvement in the quality of forest cover and ecosystem services of forests /non-forests, (including moderately dense, open forests, degraded grassland and wetlands: 5 million ha) # Eco-restoration/afforestation of scrub, shifting cultivation areas, cold deserts, mangroves, ravines and abandoned mining areas (2 million ha) # Improvement in forest and tree cover in urban/peri-urban lands (0.20 million ha) # Improvement in forest and tree cover on marginal agricultural lands/fallows and other non-forest land under agro-forestry/social forestry (3 million ha) # Management of public forest/non-forests areas (taken up under the mission) by community institutions # Adoption of improved fuel wood-use efficiency and alternative energy devices by households in the project area # Diversification of forest-based livelihoods of about 3 million households living in and around forests NATIONAL MISSION FOR SUSTAINBLE AGRICULTURE The National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture aims to strengthen the resilience of agricultural practices and practitioners to climate change through a host of activities such as promoting biotechnology, alternative cropping patterns, pest management systems, promoting and credit and insurance systems for farmers. The Natural Resource Management Division of the Department for Agriculture and Cooperation is responsible for the implementation of this mission. Mission Objectives # To devise strategic plans at the agro-climatic zone level so that action plans are contextualised to regional scales in the areas of research and development (R&D), technology and practices, infrastructure and capacity building # To enhance agricultural productivity through customised interventions such as use of bio-technology to develop improved varieties of crops and livestock, promoting efficient irrigation systems, demonstration of appropriate technology, capacity building and skill development # To facilitate access to information and institutional support by expanding Automatic Weather Station networks to the panchayat level and linking them to existing insurance mechanisms including the Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme and the National Agriculture Insurance Scheme (NAIS), scaling the returns at that level # To promote laboratory to land research by creating model villages and model farm units in rainfed and dryland areas # To strategise long-term interventions for emission reduction from energy and non-energy uses by way of introduction of suitable crop varieties and farm practices, livestock and manure management # To realise the enormous potential of growth in dryland agriculture through the development of drought and pest resistant crop varieties, adopting resource-conserving technologies, providing institutional support to farmers and capacity building of stakeholders. Mission Targets The NMSA has identified 10 key dimensions for adaptation and mitigation: Mission Intervention #1 - Improved Crop Seeds, Livestock and Fish Culture # Promoting the use of biotechnology # Research and promotion of C4 pathways in C3 plants (higher carbon pathways in lower carbon plants) # Conserving indigenous genetic resources # Public-private partnerships (PPP) in R&D, management and dissemination of Improved varieties # Conserving agricultural heritage Mission Intervention #2 - Water Efficiency # Promoting water use efficiency in irrigation # R&D in the areas of energy efficient water systems # Developing mechanisms for integrated management of rainwater, surface and ground water # Policy instruments for PPPs # Strengthen local institutions in managing water allocation and utilisation Mission Intervention #3 - Pest Management # Efficient, safe and environmentally sound methods of pest management # Incentivising research, commercial production and marketing of bio-pesticides Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

Aspire IAS

Environment Module PT 2013

# Developing insect forecasting models # Decision and information support systems for pest and disease surveillance # Institutional mechanism for a quick response in case of disaster Mission Intervention #4 - Improved Farm Practices # Improved agronomic practices to reduce farm losses through improved soil treatment, increased water use efficiency, judicious use of chemicals, labour and energy and increased soil carbon storage # Conservation and precision farming # Knowledge management # Soil conservation, bio-fertilizer # Policy instruments for optimum land use Mission Intervention #5 - Nutrient Management # Strengthening services for promoting production and use of bio-fertilizers # Developing nutritional strategies for managing heat stress in dairy animals # Strengthening the capacity of existing soil testing labs # Quality standards and a quality control system for raising confidence among users Mission Intervention #6 - Agricultural Insurance # Developing various models for risk assessment # Designing user-friendly decision support systems to help assess risks and develop region specific contingency plans # Strengthening the existing risk cover mechanism under NAIS and the Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme # Implementing region-specific contingency plans based on vulnerability and risk scenarios Mission Intervention #7 - Credit Support # Developing new forms of credit assessment and risk management systems # Promoting microfinance # Developing mechanisms to enhance the flow of credit to critical infrastructure # Up-scaling the Kisan Credit Card Scheme # Designing customised credit policies and programmes to mitigate risks Mission Intervention #8 - Markets # To formulate market-aligned R&D programmes # Improving supply chain efficiency # Creation of new market infrastructure #Supporting community partnerships in developing food and forage banks # Strengthening access to quality and timely inputs by farmers for mitigating risks Mission Intervention #9 - Access to Information # Minimising information asymmetry through ICT-based systems # PPPs to develop technology based solutions for providing farmers with information on price discovery, commodity arrivals, mandi prices etc. # Building an ICT enabled knowledge management network # To create, manage and develop a National Resource Portal Mission Intervention #10 - Livelihood Diversification # Mitigating risks by supplementing income from off-farm activities # Crop diversification # Crop-livestock-fisheries farming system NATIONAL MISSION FOR STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE ON CLIMATE CHANGE The National Mission for Strategic Knowledge on Climate Change seeks to complement the remaining seven missions on climate change by identifying knowledge gaps, strengthening data collection and knowledge repositories, promoting data sharing and networking among knowledge institutes relevant to building strategic knowledge on climate change, and providing inputs for policy formulation. Creating centres of excellence and building international cooperation on science and technology is also part of its mandate. The Department of Science and Technology is in charge of the implementation of this mission. Mission Objectives # Formation of knowledge networks among the existing knowledge institutions engaged in research and development relating to climate science and facilitating data sharing and exchange through a suitable policy framework and institutional support # Establishment of global technology watch groups with institutional capacities to carry out research on risk minimised technology selection for developmental choices Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

Aspire IAS

Environment Module PT 2013

# Development of national capacity for modeling the regional impact of climate change on different ecological zones within the country for different seasons and living standards # Establishing research networks and encouraging research in the areas of climate change impacts on important socio-economic sectors like agriculture, health, natural ecosystems, bio-diversity, coastal zones, etc. # Generation and development of the conceptual and knowledge basis for defining sustainability of development pathways in the light of responsible climate change related actions # Providing an improved understanding and awareness of key climate processes and the resultant climate risks and associated consequences # To complement the efforts undertaken by other national missions, strengthen indigenous capacity for the development of appropriate technologies for responding to climate change through adaptation and mitigation and promote their utilisation by the government and societies for the sustainable growth of economies # Creating institutional capacity for research infrastructure including access to relevant data sets, computing and communication facilities, and awareness to improve the quality and sector specific scenarios of climate change over the Indian subcontinent # Ensuring the flow and generation of human resources through a variety of measures including incentives to attract young scientists to climate science # Building alliances and partnerships through global collaboration in research & technology development on climate change under international and bilateral science and technology (S&T) cooperation arrangements Mission Targets # At least 10 thematic knowledge networks with critical mass and strength # Total number of 10-12 technical reports as part of the implementation of sub-missions on the key areas # Regional and disaggregated climate models taking into account tropical physics and Indian monsoon-Himalayas interactions # 50 Chair professorships in climate change science and technology # About 200 specially trained climate change research professionals with specialisation in different areas of knowledge domain and expertise # At least three viable public-private partnerships in the areas of adaptation and mitigation technologies # Technology Watch Groups in the areas of climate change science, renewable energy, clean coal technology, carbon sequestration and storage, water shed management, precision agriculture, convergent technology options for housing and construction, transport, solar energy materials and devices, waste management and S&T policy for climate change research will be developed and positioned with a critical mass of expertise base # Mission deliverables would include enunciated technical goals of the NAPCC document enshrined within the strategic knowledge mission objectives # Thematic report on technology-policy interfaces in the areas of energy, per-capita emissions at various gross domestic product growth rates, agro- biotechnology directives # Development of S&T collaborations with countries like the United States of America, China, Japan and multilateral groups like the European Union on specific areas identified through internal prioritisation

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10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394

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Aspire IAS

Environment Module PT 2013

OZONE LAYER PROTECTION


Ozone: Ozone is a simple molecule made up of three atoms of oxygen (O3). It can be found naturally in the Earths atmosphere. However, ozone is very rare (averaging three molecules of ozone for every 10 million air molecules) and unevenly distributed, primarily in two regions of the Earths atmosphere. Approximately 90% of the ozone layer can be found 818 km (511 miles) above the Earths surface, extending up to about 50 km (30 miles). This region of the atmosphere is called the stratosphere and the ozone in it is commonly known as the ozone layer. The remaining ozone is found in the lower region of the atmosphere (the troposphere). Although ozone molecules in the stratosphere and the troposphere are identical, they have opposite effects on the planet. Stratospheric ozone (i.e. the ozone layer) plays a beneficial role by absorbing most of the biologically damaging ultraviolet sunlight (i.e., UV-B) and completely screening out lethal UV-C radiation. Increased exposure to UV-B and UV-C weakens the immune systems and causes increased occurrence of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers and eye cataracts, reduces plant yields, damages the oceans ecosystems, has adverse effects on animals and deteriorates plastic materials. Moreover, by absorbing ultraviolet radiation, the ozone layer helps regulate the Earths temperature. Indeed, it creates a source of heat, which forms the stratosphere itself (a region where the temperature rises as altitude increases). Conversely, at the Earths surface, ozone has severe toxic effects when it comes into contact with life forms. Ozone in the troposphere is the result of human activities and an important component of air pollution (the so-called photochemical smog). In sum, the dual role of ozone leads to two separate environmental issues: the increase of ozone in the troposphere and the decrease of ozone in the stratosphere. Ozone Layer Depletion: The ultraviolet B (UV-B) rays from sun could potentially have harmful effects on both plant and animal life on the earth. A thin scattering of ozone in the stratosphere however acts as an effective filtering device and blocks the incoming UV-B rays. Due to lack of knowledge about atmospheric chemistry and processes in relation to ozone layer, in the 20th century a significant emission of man-made chemicals, especially chlorine and bromine compounds, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, and a broad range of industrial chemicals that attack the ozone layer, been done. These man-made chemicals when reached stratosphere are broken into highly reactive forms of chlorine and bromine by the ultraviolet radiation and take part in a series of chain reactions leading to ozone depletion. These man-made chemicals are recognized as ozone depleting substances (ODS). The hole created due to destruction of ozone layer leads to increased penetration of ultraviolet radiation to the Earth surface. Increased UV-B radiation is expected to cause adverse health effects for instance, a 1% increase in stratospheric ozone depletion is estimated to result in a 0.6-0.8% rise in incidence of cataracts; incidence of skin cancer, especially among lightskinned populations, is likely to increase by 2% for every 1% reduction in stratospheric ozone depletion. Small increases in ultraviolet radiation diminish the productivity of important food crops and reduce levels of plankton in the ocean, adversely affecting marine food supplies. Due to the fact that CFCs can remain in the atmosphere for up to 100 years, continued accumulations of these chemicals pose on-going threats, even after their use has been discontinued. Main Ozone Depleting Substances Ozone Depleting Substance (ODS) Sources and Characteristics Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Low inflammability and low toxicity Used in refrigeration, air-conditioning sectors as refrigerants; in aerosols as propellants and solvents; as blowing agents in manufacturing of foam; and as cleaning agent Hydrochlorofluorocarbons Developed as substitutes for CFCs and have lower (HCFCs) ozone depleting potential, but still have potential to destroy ozone layer Used mainly in the same sectors as CFCs Halons These substances are 3 to 10 times more harmful than CFCs in their capacity to destroy ozone layer Carbon Tetrachloride; Used mainly in fire extinguishing equipment Methyl Chloroform Used mainly as solvent Methyl Bromide Higher ozone depleting potential than CFCs Used in agricultural pesticides and for fumigation of agricultural commodities Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

Aspire IAS

Environment Module PT 2013

INTERNATIONAL EFFORTS: The Vienna Convention on the Protection of the Ozone Layerand the Montreal Protocol onSubstancesthatDepletetheOzoneLayerarethefirstinternationalagreementsinthehistoryofmankindtoaddressa truly global crisis. The ozonelayershieldstheEarthanditsinhabitantsfromharmfuldosesofultravioletlight.However,sincetheearly1930shumankind hasreleasedintotheatmosphereincreasingquantitiesofchemicalsthat,while extremely versatile, safe and profitable, will gradually destroytheozone layer. Historic Perspective: In 1974 scientists published their first scientific hypotheses that chemicals we produced could harm the stratospheric ozone layer. The ozone layer protects the earth against excessive ultraviolet radiation, which could cause damage and mutations in human, plant, and animal cells. The scientists found that the chlorofluorocarbon gases (CFCs), which were widely used and viewed as posing no harm, could migrate to the stratosphere, remain intact for decades to centuries, and by releasing chlorine, break down the ozone layer. In 1977 the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) concluded a World Plan of Action on the Ozone Layer, which called for intensive international research and monitoring of the ozone layer, and in 1981, UNEPs Governing Council authorized UNEP to draft a global framework convention on stratospheric ozone protection. The Vienna Convention, concluded in 1985, laiddownthebasic principlesandstructureoftheregime,callingforacoordinatedinternationalefforttoresearchthecausesofozonelayerdepletion. It is a framework agreement in which States agree to cooperate in relevant research and scientific assessments of the ozone problem, to exchange information, and to adopt appropriate measures to prevent activities that harm the ozone layer. The obligations are general and contain no specific limits on chemicals that deplete the ozone layer. During the Vienna Convention negotiations, countries discussed a possible protocol that would provide specific targets for certain chemicals, but no consensus was reached. The UNEP regional seas agreements had provided a precedent in which States negotiated a framework convention and at least one protocol, which countries were required to ratify at the time they joined the convention. The Vienna Convention went forward on its own, however, and was opened for signature in March, 1985. A working group under UNEP began negotiations on a protocol, and the Montreal Protocol was concluded in September, 1987, only nine months after the formal diplomatic negotiations opened in December, 1986. It went into effect on January 1, 1989. A State must be party to the Vienna Convention in order to become a party to the Montreal Protocol. The Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol established the precedent in UNEP for completing a framework agreement, followed later by one or more Protocols. This precedent has been used frequently since then, as in the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer: The Vienna Convention was in itself an unprecedented accomplishment, being the international communitys first formal effort to deal with an environmental problem before incontrovertible proof of its existence could be produced. Under this, the signatory states merely agreed to cooperate by means of systematic observations, research and information exchange in order to better understand and assess the effects of human activities on the ozone layer and to take appropriate measures to protect human health and the environment against adverse effects resulting or likely to result from human activities which modify or are likely to modify the ozone layer The Convention did not specify how to reach the goal. There was no mention of any substances that might harm the ozone layer, and CFCs only appeared towards the end of the annex to the agreement, where they were generically mentioned as chemicals that should be monitored. The main thrust of the Convention was to lay down a framework to encourage cooperation among States through research and exchange of information on the phenomenon. As a framework treaty, it set forth general principles and institutional structures - a Conference of the Parties to meet regularly, a Secretariat to act as a clearinghouse for information, and a procedure to amend the Convention - but it did not contain substantive emission reduction provisions, or list proscribed substances, control procedures or rules on liability. The Preamble: The Parties to this Convention, Aware of the potentially harmful impact on human health and the environment through modification of the ozone layer, Recalling the pertinent provisions of the Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, and in particular principle 21, which provides that "States have, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law, the sovereign right to exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental policies, and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction", Taking into account the circumstances and particular requirements of developing countries, Mindful of the work and studies proceeding within both international and national organizations and, in particular, of the World Plan of Action on the Ozone Layer of the United Nations Environment Programme, Mindful also of the Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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Environment Module PT 2013

precautionary measures for the protection of the ozone layer which have already been taken at the national and international levels, Aware that measures to protect the ozone layer from modifications due to human activities require international cooperation and action, and should be based on relevant scientific and technical considerations, Aware also of the need for further research and systematic observations to further develop scientific knowledge of the ozone layer and possible adverse effects resulting from its modification, Determined to protect human health and the environment against adverse effects resulting from modifications of the ozone layer. Montreal Protocol: The Montreal Protocol (Protocol) is the center-piece of the international regime for the protection of the ozone layer, for it enshrines the fundamental principles states should follow to curb ozone-depletion, and sets up its pivotal structures and procedures. First, the Protocol contained a list of targeted substances, along with agreed cuts and timetables. In particular, it called for a cut to 1986 levels of production and consumption of some CFCs by mid-1999 and a freeze on production and consumption of certain halons (used primarily in fire extinguishers) to 1986 levels. Moreover, the Protocol banned trade in ODS with non-parties. In this way, it created a disincentive for free riders, discouraged relocation of ODS production facilities to non-parties, and created an incentive (particularly for developing countries) to join. Second, the Protocol was endowed with a mechanism to constantly review control measures on the basis of evolving scientific, environmental, technical and economic information, through a process of adjustments and amendments. Without this feature, the Montreal Protocol would inevitably have been left behind by rapid advancements in science and study of the ozone layer, condemning it to irrelevance. Third, in Article 5, the Montreal Protocol introduced the principle of common-but-differentiated responsibilities. Recognizing that developing countries had hitherto contributed only in minimal part to ozone depletion, but, at the same time that their potential CFC and halon use was enormous, developed countries agreed to grant developing countries preferential treatment. Article 5 States (i.e. developing countries, defined as those countries whose consumption of controlled substances was less than 0.3 kg per capita upon entry into force of the Protocol) could benefit from less strict phasing-out schedules and a ten-year delay in compliance with CFC and halon elimination. In addition, they were allowed to increase consumption during this period, as long as the 0.3 kg per capita calculation was not exceeded and base levels were calculated by using either the 0.3 kg per capita limit or the average of the annual consumption of the country for the years 19951997, whichever was lower. Finally, developed countries (i.e. NonArticle 5 States) agreed to help developing countries phase-out ODS through aid, credits, guarantees and technology transfers. Amendments to Montreal Protocol: There have been four Amendments to the Protocol: the London, Copenhagen, Montreal, and Beijing Amendments. The 1990 London Amendment provided for an Interim Multilateral Fund to provide assistance to qualifying developing countries, for noncompliance procedures, for the addition of new chemicals to the list of controlled chemicals, and for other miscellaneous changes. Parties treated the London Amendments as a package, which countries had to accept or reject in whole. This was a critical decision for the effectiveness of the Protocol, because it meant that parties could not agree to add certain chemicals, but not accept the new funding mechanism for developing countries, or vice versa. In the 1992 Copenhagen Amendments, parties made the Interim Multilateral Fund permanent and put additional chemicals under control, including methyl bromide and the HCFCs. The 1997 Montreal Amendment obligated countries to establish and implement a licensing system for the import and export of new, used, recycled and reclaimed controlled substances, and to control trade in the banned substances by parties not in compliance with the Protocol. The 1999 Beijing Amendment provided for a basic domestic needs exception for certain controlled chemicals and added bromochloromethane to the list of controlled substances. Since the Protocol went into effect, adjustments have also been made to the timetable for phasing out listed chemicals. For example, in 1990, States parties agreed to phase out those CFCs listed in 1987 by the year 2000 and to phase out halons except for certain essential uses. Since the ozone depleting substances regulated under the Protocol are also potent greenhouse gases, the Protocol has contributed to mitigating climate change. However, the ban on CFCs has led to some substitution of HCFCs for these chemicals; HCFCs are controlled but not banned under the Protocol. This lessens to some extent the Protocols effect on climate change. One of the most significant innovations of the Protocol is the process established to address problems of noncompliance. Parties established an Implementation Committee to review annual reports from parties and developed a suite of measures that could be used in case of noncompliance, including technical assistance to enable the country to comply. Conclusion: Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

Aspire IAS

Environment Module PT 2013

The Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol have been quite successful as of 2009 in addressing the global problem of stratospheric ozone layer depletion. However, problems have arisen in implementing the Protocol, especially in the illegal trade in controlled substances, in the management of the large stockpiles of controlled substances, and in the elimination of certain substances, such as methyl bromide, carbon tetrachloride, and the HCFCs.

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Aspire IAS

Environment Module PT 2013

POLLUTION
Pollution is the addition to the ecosystem of something which has a detrimental effect on it. One of the most important causes of pollution is the high rate of energy usage by modern, growing populations. Actually it is the process of making the environment. i.e. the land, water and air dirty by adding harmful substances/contaminants to it. Pollution causes imbalance in the environment. This imbalance has threatened the very survival of life. Now, it has become a threat to the whole world. In case of India, nearly 35 percent of India's total land area is subject to serious environmental pollution. Initially, human activities in the name of industrialisation and consequent urbanization are the one which has formed the ground to the present day pollution problems. Nowadays, Environmental pollution is a serious problem of not just the industrialized societies, but also of the rural societies. The industrial development and the Green Revolution have adversely affected the environment. Human beings have converted the life supporting systems of the entire living world into their own resources and have vastly disturbed the natural ecological balance. Serious degradation and depletion have been caused through overuse, misuse and mismanagement of resources to meet the human greed. Initially, air pollution is the most dangerous form of pollution. Land and water pollution have worsened the situation. Now, in combination, it all causes several types of harmful disease. Therefore, pollution must be controlled for our survival. Types of Pollution: Different kinds of pollution are found. In this section we will discuss: 1. Air Pollution 2. Water Pollution 3. Land Pollution 4. Noise Pollution AIR POLLUTION Pure air is colourless and odourless. But various pollutants from natural and man-made sources are entering the atmosphere daily and these disturb the dynamic equilibrium in the atmosphere. This leads to air pollution when the normal properties of air are upset and both man and environment suffer. Thus, air pollution is the accumulation in the atmosphere of substances that, in sufficient concentrations, endanger human health or produce other measured effects on living matter and other materials. Among the major sources of pollution are power and heat generation, the burning of solid wastes, industrial processes, and, especially, transportation. The six major types of pollutants are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, particulates, sulphur dioxide, and photochemical oxidants. Sources: Natural sources of air pollution are: Volcanic activity, vegetation decay, forest fires emitting carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and hydrogen sulphide and tiny particles of solids or liquids sprayed from the seas and land by wind. Man-made sources are: Gases, mists, particulates and aerosols emitted by industries and other chemical and biological processes used by man. Primary Pollutants: There are five primary pollutants which together contribute more than 90 per cent of global air pollution: 1. Carbon monoxide, CO 2. Nitrogen oxides, NOX 3. Hydrocarbons, HC 4. Sulphur oxides, SOX 5. Particulates Transportation accounts for about 46 per cent of the total pollutants produced per year and hence remains the principal source of air pollution. Carbon monoxide is the major industrial pollutant, with a tonnage matching that of all other pollutants together. However, particulate pollutants, though minor, are the most dangerous among the primary pollutants (100 times more harmful than carbon monoxide). 1. Carbon Monoxide, CO It is a colourless, odourless and tasteless gas which is injurious to our health. Each year 350 million tons of CO (275 million tons from human sources and 75 million tons from natural sources) are emitted all over the world. Transportation accounts for 70 per cent of CO emission. Part of Carbon monoxide is lost in the atmosphere. The major sink is soil micro-organisms. Control of CO Pollution:The petroleum and diesel-fed automobiles account for major share of carbon monoxide emission. Hence efforts for carbon monoxide pollution control are mainly aimed at automobiles. Use of catalytic converters in the internal combustion engines of automobiles helps in cleaning up the exhaust emissions. Such converters built into the automobile engines promote oxidation-reduction cycles and ensure complete combustion of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons. 2. Nitrogen Oxides, NOX Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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Environment Module PT 2013

It consists of mixed oxides, nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide (NO and NO2 respectively) the former is a colourless and odourless gas but the latter (NO2) has a reddish brown colour and pungent smell. 3. Hydrocarbons and Photochemical Smog Natural processes, particularly trees, emit large quantities of hydrocarbons in air. Methane, CH4 is a major hydrocarbon. It is generated in large quantities by bacteria formed by anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in water, sediments and soil. Domestic animals (cattle, buffaloes, etc.) contribute about 85 million tons of methane to the atmosphere each year. Automobiles are significant sources of hydrocarbons. 4. Sulphur Dioxide, SO2 Sulphur dioxide is a colourless gas with a pungent odour. It is produced from the combustion of any sulphur-bearing material. Man-made sourcescoal-fired power stations and other industries contribute about 33 per cent of SOX pollution while natural sources, viz. volcanoes provide about 67 per cent of SOX pollution. The product, sulphuric acid is formed on aerosol (fine particle suspended in air as in smoke, fog, mist, etc.) droplet. Sulphuric acid is one of the constituents of acid rain. In winter sulphur oxides from thermal power plants along with other gases leads to smog formation, e.g. London smog. This is known as reducing smog in contrast with photochemical smog which is known as oxidising smog (consisting of hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and ozone). London smog (1952) is well-known for its disastrous effect. Heavy smog (SO2) conditions prevailed in London for five days which killed about 4,000 people. The causes of death were bronchitis, pneumonia, and other respiratory troubles particularly among aged people. Thermal power plants, major sources of man-made SOX pollution, are normally constructed with tall chimneys to disperse the emissions over a wide area. This reduces the local problem but creates problems for far away areas through acid rains. 5. Particulate Small solid particles and liquid droplets are collectively termed particulates. They originate both from natural and man-made sources. Every year natural sources discharge 8002,000 million tons and man-made sources 200500 million tons of particulates. Among man-made sources, fly ash from thermal power plants deserves mention. Soot Soot particles originate from fuel combustion and consist of highly condensed product of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)roughly 100 condensed aromatic rings. The hydrogen content of soot is 13 per cent and oxygen content 510 percent due to partial surface oxidation. Due to large surface area, soot acts as a carrier for toxic organics, e.g. benzo-a -pyrene and toxic trace metals, e.g. beryllium, cadmium, chromium, manganese, nickel, vanadium, etc. A soot particle has an average size 0.120 m . The finer particles (< 3 m ) are the worst causes of lungs damage due to their ability to penetrate deep in our respiratory tract and thence in lungs where they remain for years and cause all sorts of diseases such an cough, bronchitis, asthma, and finally cancer. Particulates cause increased corrosion of metals which assume serious dimensions in industrial and urban areas. They are responsible for damage to buildings, sculptures, paintings, etc. Particulates play key roles in the atmosphere. They reduce visibility by scattering and absorption of solar radiation. They influence the climate through the formation of cloud, rain and snow by acting as nuclei upon which water can condense into raindrops. Atmospheric particulate levels can be correlated with the extent of precipitation over cities and suburbs. Efffects: Acid Rain: It has been described above that much of nitrogen oxides, NOX and sulphur oxides, SOX entering the atmosphere are transformed into nitric acid and sulphuric acid respectively. These combine with hydrogen chloride, HCl from HCl emissions (both by man-made and natural sources) and generate acidic precipitation, known as acid rain. Acid rain is a major environmental issue as it badly damages the environment. It damages buildings and structural materials of marble, limestones, slate and mortar. These materials become structurally weak as calcium carbonate reacts with sulphuric acid to form soluble sulphate, which is leached out by rain water. Effects on Human Health: Human respiratory system has a number of mechanisms for protection from air pollution. Bigger particles (> 10 m) can be trapped by the hairs and sticky mucus in the lining of the nose. Smaller particles can reach tracheobronchial system and there get trapped in mucus. They are sent back to throat by beating of hair like cilia from where they can be removed by spitting or swallowing. Years of exposure to air pollutants (including cigarette smoke) adversely affect these natural defences and can result in lung cancer, asthma, chronic bronchitis and emphysema (damage to air sacs leading to loss of lung elasticity and acute shortness of breath). Suspended particulates can cause damage to lung tissues and diseases like asthma, bronchitis and cancer especially when they bring with them cancer causing or toxic pollutants attached on their surface. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) causes constriction of respiratory passage and can cause bronchitis like conditions. In the presence of suspended particulates, SO2 can form acid sulphate particles, which can Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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go deep into the lungs and affect them severely. Oxides of nitrogen especially NO2 can irritate the lungs and cause conditions like chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Carbon monoxide (CO) reaches lungs and combines with haemoglobin of blood to form carboxy-haemoglobin. CO has affinity for haemoglobin 210 times more than oxygen. Haemoglobin is, therefore, unable to transport oxygen to various parts of the body. This causes suffocation. Long exposure to CO may cause dizziness, unconsciousness and even death. Many other air pollutants like benzene (from unleaded petrol), formaldehyde and particulates like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) toxic metals and dioxins (from burning of polythene) can cause mutations, reproductive problems or even cancer. Effects on Biosphere: Air pollutants are present largely in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The ground air, l 100 metres high, is very much polluted in urban and industrial areas. Some pollutants are absorbed on vegetation, buildings and water surfaces. The primary pollutants discharged into the atmosphere, undergo chemical changes in presence of water vapour, oxygen and solar ultra-violet radiation and produce secondary pollutants. These pollutants (secondary) have harmful effects on soil, vegetation, crops, animals, men and materials. Plants are affected both by gaseous pollutants and by particulates deposited on soil. Acid rain over a period of time tends to reduce the soil pH and renders it acidic and less fertile. Moreover, deposition of toxic metals on soil in industrial areas makes the soil unsuitable for growth of plants. Some plants are very sensitive to traces of toxic metals as the latter inhibit the action of some plant enzymes. Particulates such as dust and soot are deposited on plant leaves and block the stomata. This restricts the absorption of carbon dioxide and hence reduces the rate of photosynthesis as well as rate of transpiration. The overall result is retarded growth of plants and decreased yield of crops. Ozone and peroxyacylnitrate (PAN) (in photochemical smog) are oxidising agents which attack plants by oxidising their sulphydril ( SH) groups of proteins into disulphides. This leads to inhibition of individual enzyme activity. They also affect photosynthesis by plants. Cattle are affected by air pollution, particularly under smog conditions. They develop breathing troubles, loss of appetite and show low milk yield while many of them die. Man has become the victim of air pollution. Thousands of chemicals pose the problems of health hazards during manufacture and handling. Some extremely hazardous substances in the atmosphere are: Acrylonitrile, Arsenic, Asbestos, Benzene, Beryllium, Cadmium, Chlorinated solvents, Chlorofluorocarbons, Chromate, Coke oven emissions, Ethylene oxide, Lead, Mercury, Ozone, Sulphur dioxide, Vinyl chloride, Toxic waste disposal emissions and leachates (washings), etc. Air Pollution and Meteorology Meteorology is based on the physical parameters such as temperature, wind, moisture, and movement of air masses in the atmosphere. It is also affected by the chemical properties of the atmosphere and the chemical reactions going on in the atmosphere. The air pollutants get dispersed in the atmosphere depending on the patterns of air circulation. In this context temperature inversion plays an important role. It occurs when a warm air mass moves above a cold air mass resulting in air stagnation of the latter (cold air) in which air pollutants get trapped. The air above the ground becomes polluted. This happens when warm air blows over a mountain range and over cool air on the other side of the range. Human activities are partly responsible for changing the meteorology of the earth. Like: 1. Deforestation and loss of forest cover; 2. Shifting of surface water and ground water in large amounts; 3. Release of heat from power plants; 4. Emission of particles and trace gases into the atmosphere; 5. Release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere by combustion of fossil fuels; 6. Emission from transport system into the lower and upper atmosphere. Control Measures Although individual people can help to combat air pollution in their own immediate environment, efficient control can be best achieved by legislation. Some commonly enforced control measures include Establishment of more smokeless zones. Control over the kinds of fuel used in cars, aeroplanes, power stations, etc. Siting of industries after proper Environmental Impact. Assessment studies. Using low sulphur coal in industries. Removing sulphur from coal (by washing or with the help of bacteria). Removing NOxduring the combustion process. Removing particulate from stack exhaust gases by employing electrostatic precipitators, bag-house filters, cyclone separators, scrubbers etc. Vehicular pollution can be checked by regular tune-up of engines ; replacement of more polluting old vehicles; installing catalytic converters ; by engine modification to have fuel efficient (lean) mixtures to reduce CO and hydrocarbon emissions; and slow and cooler burning of fuels to reduce NOxemission. Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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Using mass transport system, bicycles etc. Shifting to less polluting fuels (hydrogen gas). Using non-conventional sources of energy. Using biological filters and bio-scrubbers. Planting more trees.

Environment Module PT 2013

WATER POLLUTION Water pollution is the introduction into fresh or ocean waters of chemical, physical, or biological material that degrades the quality of the water and affects the organisms living in it. This process ranges from simple addition of dissolved or suspended solids to discharge of the most insidious and persistent toxic pollutants (such as pesticides, heavy metals, and non-degradable, bio-accumulative, chemical compounds). It means that any change in the dynamic equilibrium in aquatic ecosystem (water body/biosphere/atmosphere) disturbs the normal function and properties of pure water and gives rise to the phenomenon of water pollution. The symptoms of water pollution of any water body/ground water are: Bad taste of drinking water, Offensive smells from lakes, rivers and ocean beaches, Unchecked growth of aquatic weeds in water bodies (eutrophication), Dead fish floating on water surface in river, lake, etc. Oil and grease floating on water surface. Water Pollutants The large number of water pollutants are broadly classified under the categories: 1. Organic pollutants, 2. Inorganic pollutants, 3. Sediments, 4. Radioactive materials, and 5. Thermal pollutants. Organic Pollutants These include domestic sewage, pesticides, synthetic organic compounds, plant nutrients (from agricultural run-off), oil, wastes from food processing plants, paper mills and tanneries, etc. These reduce dissolved oxygen (D.O.) in water. Dissolved oxygen (D.O.) is essential for aquatic life, the optimum level being 46 ppm (parts per million). Decrease in D.O. value is an indicator of water pollution. The organic pollutants consume D.O. through the action of bacteria present in water. Sewage and agricultural run-off provide plant nutrients in water giving rise to the biological process known as eutrophication. Large input of fertiliser and nutrients from these sources leads to enormous growth of aquatic weeds which gradually cover the entire waterbody (algal bloom). This disturbs the normal uses of water as the water body loses its D.O. and ends up in a deep pool of water where fish cannot survive. Oil pollution of the seas has increased over the years, due to increased traffic of oil tankers in the seas causing oil spill and also due to oil losses during off-shore drilling. Oil pollution reduces light transmission through surface water and hence reduces photosynthesis by marine plants, decreases D.O. in water causing damage to marine life (plants, fish, etc.) and also contaminates sea food which enters the human food chain. Pesticides have been largely used for killing pests and insects harmful for crops and thereby boosting the crop production. At present there are more than 10,000 different pesticides in use. They include insecticides (for killing insects), e.g. DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), herbicides (for killing weeds and undesirable vegetation) and fungicides (for killing fungi and checking plant disease). It has been found that pesticide residues contaminate crops and then enter the food chain of birds, mammals and human beings. The persistent pesticide, viz., DDT (which is not degraded in the environment) accumulates in food chain, getting magnified in each step from sea weed to fish and then to man by about ten thousand times. Inorganic Pollutants This group consists of inorganic salts, mineral acids, metals, trace elements, detergents, etc. Acid mine drainage: Coal mines, particularly those which have been abandoned, discharge acid (sulphuric acid) and also ferric hydroxide into local streams through seepage. The acid on entering the waterbody destroys its aquatic life (plants, fish, etc.). Sediments Soil erosion, as a matter of natural process, generates sediments in water. Soil erosion is enhanced 5 10 times due to agricultural and 100 times due to construction activities. Bottom sediments in aquatic bodies (streams, lakes, estuaries, oceans) are important reservoirs of inorganic and organic matter, particularly trace metals, e.g. chromium, copper, nickel, manganese and molybdenum. Radioactive Materials Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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Radioactive pollution is caused by mining and processing of radioactive ores to produce radioactive substances, use of radioactive materials in nuclear power plants, use of radioactive isotopes in medical, industrial and research institutes and nuclear tests. The discharge of radioactive wastes into water and sewer systems is likely to create problems in future. Thermal Pollutants Coal-fired or nuclear fuel-fired thermal power plants are sources of thermal pollution. The hot water from these plants is dumped as waste into nearby lake or river where its temperature rises by about 10 C. This has harmful effect on aquatic life in the water body whose D.O. is reduced and as a result, fish kill is quite common. Ground Water Pollution/Arsenic Contamination Ground water is relatively free from surface contamination as it is located more than about 50 ft. below the land surface and the surface water gets filtered or screened by the underlying layers of soil, sand and stone pieces. But even then it gets contaminated due to leaching of minerals below the earths surface. An important case is that of Arsenic (As)contamination of ground water. This arises from excessive pumping of ground water by shallow tube wells for irrigation in Punjab, Haryana and some West Bengal districts along the Hooghly river course. In this process air (oxygen) is injected into ground water bed which leaches the overlying mineral, iron pyrites (iron, arsenic, sulphide), oxidises it and releases arsenic into ground water. Effects of Water Pollution Following are some important effects of various types of water pollutants: Oxygen demanding wastes: Organic matter which reaches water bodies is decomposed by micro-organisms present in water. For this degradation oxygen dissolved in water is consumed. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is the amount of oxygen dissolved in a given quantity of water at a particular temperature and atmospheric pressure. Amount of dissolved oxygen depends on aeration, photosynthetic activity in water, respiration of animals and plants and ambient temperature. The saturation value of DO varies from 8-15 mg/L. For active fish species (trout and Salmon) 5-8 mg/L of DO is required whereas less desirable species like carp can survive at 3.0 mg/L of DO. Lower DO may be harmful to animals especially fish population. Oxygen depletion (deoxygenation) helps in release of phosphates from bottom sediments and causes eutrophication. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Compounds (Nutrients): Addition of compounds containing nitrogen and phosphorus helps in the growth of algae and other plants which when die and decay consume oxygen of water. Under anaerobic conditions foul smelling gases are produced. Excess growth or decomposition of plant material will change the concentration of CO2 which will further change pH of water. Changes in pH, oxygen and temperature will change many physico-chemical characteristics of water. Pathogens: Many wastewaters especially sewage contain many pathogenic (disease causing) and non-pathogenic micro-organisms and many viruses. Water borne diseases like cholera, dysentery, typhoid, jaundice etc. are spread by water contaminated with sewage. Toxic Compounds: Pollutants such as heavy metals, pesticides, cyanides and many other organic and inorganic compounds are harmful to aquatic organisms. The demand of DO increases with addition of biodegradable organic matter which is expressed as biological oxygen demand (BOD). BOD is defined as the amount of DO required to aerobically decompose biodegradable organic matter of a given volume of water over a period of 5 days at 20C. More BOD values of any water sample are associated with poor water quality. The non-biodegradable toxic compounds biomagnify in the food chain and cause toxic effects at various levels of food chain. Some of these substances like pesticides, methyl mercury etc. Move into the bodies of organisms from the medium in which these organisms live. Substances like DDT are not water soluble and have affinity for body lipids. These substances tend to accumulate in the organisms body. This process is called bioaccumulation. The concentration of these toxic substances builds up at successive levels of food chain. This process is called biomagnification. Toxic substances polluting the water ultimately affect human health. Some heavy metals like lead, mercury and cadmium cause various types of diseases. Mercury dumped into water is transformed into water soluble methyl mercury by bacterial action. Methyl mercury accumulates in fish. In 1953, people in Japan suffered from numbness of body parts, vision and hearing problems and abnormal mental behaviour. This disease called Minamata disease occurred due to consumption of methyl mercury contaminated fish caught from Minamata bay in Japan. The disease claimed 50 lives and permanently paralysed over 700 persons. Pollution by heavy metal cadmium had caused the disease called Itai-itai in the people of Japan. The disease was caused by cadmium contaminated rice. The rice fields were irrigated with effluents of zinc smelters and drainage water from mines. In this disease bones, liver, kidney, lungs, pancreas and thyroid are affected. Arsenic pollution of ground water in Punjab, Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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Haryana and some districts of West Bengal is causing various types of abnormalities. Nitrate when present in excess in drinking water causes blue baby syndrome or methaemoglobinemia. The disease develops when a part of haemoglobin is converted into non-functional oxidized form. Nitrate in stomach partly gets changed into nitrites which can produce cancer-causing products in the stomach. Excess of fluoride in drinking water causes defects in teeth and bones called fluorosis. Pesticides in drinking water ultimately reach humans and are known to cause various health problems. DDT, aldrin, dieldrin etc. have therefore, been banned. Recently, in some Southern states, people suffered from various abnormalities due to consumption of endosulphan contaminated cashew nuts. Control of Water Pollution For controlling water pollution from point sources, treatment of wastewaters is essential before being discharged. Parameters which are considered for reduction in such water are- Total solids, biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrates and phosphates, oil and grease, toxic metals etc. Wastewaters should be properly treated by primary and secondary treatments to reduce the BOD, COD levels upto the permissible levels for discharge. Advanced treatment for removal of nitrates and phosphates will prevent eutrophication. Before the discharge of wastewater, it should be disinfected to kill the disease-causing organisms like bacteria. Proper chlorination should be done to prevent the formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons or disinfection should be done by ozone or ultraviolet radiations. It is easy to reduce water pollution from point sources by legislation. However, due to absence of defined strategies it becomes difficult to prevent water pollution from non-point sources. The following points may help in reducing water pollution from non-point sources. 1. Judicious use of agrochemicals like pesticides and fertilizers which will reduce their surface run-off and leaching. Avoid use of these on sloped lands. 2. Use of nitrogen fixing plants to supplement the use of fertilizers. 3. Adopting integrated pest management to reduce reliance on pesticides. 4. Prevent run-off of manure. Divert such run-off to basin for settlement. The nutrient rich water can be used as fertilizer in the fields. 5. Separate drainage of sewage and rain water should be provided to prevent overflow of sewage with rainwater. 6. Planting trees would reduce pollution by sediments and will also prevent soil erosion.

LAND POLLUTION Land pollution is the degradation of the Earth's land surface through misuse of the soil by poor agricultural practices, mineral exploitation, industrial waste dumping, and indiscriminate disposal of urban wastes. It includes visible waste and litter as well as pollution of the soil itself. Hence it can also be called as Soil pollution in broad. Soil is the upper layer of the earth crust which is formed by weathering of rocks. Organic matter in the soil makes it suitable for living organisms. Dumping of various types of materials especially domestic and industrial wastes causes soil pollution. Causes: 1. Domestic wastes include garbage, rubbish material like glass, plastics, metallic cans, paper, fibres, cloth rags, containers, paints, varnishes etc. Leachates from dumping sites and sewage tanks are harmful and toxic, which pollute the soil. 2. Industrial wastes are the effluents discharged from chemical industries, paper and pulp mills, tanneries, textile mills, steel industries, distilleries, refineries, pesticides and fertilizer industries, pharmaceutical industries, food processing industries, cement industries, thermal and nuclear power plants, mining industries etc. Thermal power plants generate a large quantity of Fly ash. Huge quantities of these wastes are dumped on soils, thus contaminating them. 3. Industrial wastes also contain some organic and inorganic compounds that are refractory and nonbiodegradable. Industrial sludge may contain various salts, toxic substances, metals like mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic etc. Agrochemicals released with the wastes of pesticide and fertilizer factories or during agricultural practices also reach the soil and pollute it. 4. Pesticides are used to kill pests that damage crops. These pesticides ultimately reach the soil and persist there for a long time. Pesticides which are persistent in nature are chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides e.g. DDT, HCH, endrin, lindane, heptachlor, endosulfan etc. Residues of these pesticides in the soils have long term effects especially under the temperate conditions. 5. Soil also receives excreta from animals and humans. The sewage sludge contains many pathogenic organisms, bacteria, viruses and intestinal worms which cause pollution in the soil. Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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6. The sources of radioactive substances in soil are explosion of radioactive devices, radioactive wastes discharged from industries and laboratories, aerial fall out etc. Isotopes of radium, uranium, thorium, strontium, iodine, caesium and of many other elements reach the soil and persist there for a long time and keep on emitting radiations. Effects: Sewage and industrial effluents which pollute the soil ultimately affect human health. Various types of chemicals like acids, alkalis, pesticides, insecticides, weedicides, fungicides, heavy metals etc. in the industrial discharges affect soil fertility by causing changes in physical, chemical and biological properties. Some of the persistent toxic chemicals inhibit the non-target organisms, soil flora and fauna and reduce soil productivity. These chemicals accumulate in food chain and ultimately affect human health. Indiscriminate use of pesticides specially is a matter of concern. Sewage sludge has many types of pathogenic bacteria, viruses and intestinal worms which may cause various types of diseases. Decomposing organic matter in soil also produces toxic vapours. Radioactive fallout on vegetation is the source of radio-isotopes which enter the food chain in the grazing animals. Some of these radio isotopes replace essential elements in the body and cause abnormalities e.g. strontium-90 instead of calcium gets deposited in the bones and tissues. The bones become brittle and prone to fracture. Radioisotopes which attach with the clay become a source of radiations in the environment. Nitrogen and phosphorus from the fertilizers in soil reach nearby water bodies with agricultural run-off and cause eutrophication. Chemicals or their degradation products from soil may percolate and contaminate ground-water resources. Control Measures: The following measures can be used to control land pollution: 1. Effluents should be properly treated before discharging them on the soil. 2. Solid wastes should be properly collected and disposed off by appropriate method. 3. From the wastes, recovery of useful products should be done. 4. Biodegradable organic waste should be used for generation of biogas. 5. Cattle dung should be used for methane generation. Nightsoil (human faeces) can also be used in the biogas plant to produce inflammable methane gas. 6. Anti-litter campaigns can educate people against littering. 7. Organic waste can be dumped in places far from residential areas. 8. Inorganic materials such as metals, glass and plastic, but also paper, can be reclaimed and recycled. 9. Microbial degradation of biodegradable substances is also one of the scientific approaches for reducing soil pollution.

NOISE POLLUTION: Noise is part of our environment. With progress in industrialisation, the noise level has been rising continuously. In the 19th century the development of the steam engines, petrol engine and machines in factories resulted in increasingly noisy environment. In the 20th century this was further accelerated by introduction of diesel engine, jet engines, turboprop, high tech machineries, construction site machineries and automobile traffic. Noise has been recognised as one of the dimensions of pollution which brings about degradation of the environment and creates health and communication hazards. Sound and Human Acoustics Sound consists of wave motion in an elastic medium such as air, water or solids (e.g. metals, plastics, wood, bricks, etc.). Sound waves travel through the medium from the source to the recipient or listener. The rate of the oscillation of the medium is known as the frequency of the sound, the unit being Hertz (Hz) or cycles per second. The frequency is a measure of the pitch of the sound received by the listener. High frequencies mean high pitched sounds which are more irritating to the individual than low frequencies. The second parameter of sound in sound pressure which is measured in Newtons per sq. metre (N/m2). The third parameter on sound is its intensity, expressed in watts per sq. metre, i.e. the quantum of sound energy that flows through unit area of the medium in unit time. The human ear receives sound waves which set up oscillations in the ear drum (tympanic membrane). These oscillations cause movement of three small bones in the middle ear behind the ear drum. These then pass through the fluid in the inner ear to the auditory nerve and finally transmitted to the brain. The oscillations or sound are intensified and interpreted in the brain, which can select sounds into different categoriesspeech, music, noises, etc. The sensitivity of the ear varies from person to person. With ageing, people lose hearing power gradually. A young person, 18 years old, with normal hearing, has audio range between 20 Hz and 20,000 Hz. The audio sense is sharpest in the frequency rage 20008500 Hz. Noise Measurement Units Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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Sound pressure and sound intensity are two important parameters of noise. The common scientific acoustic unit is the Decibel (dB). It is not an absolute physical unit like volt, metre, etc. but is a ratio, expressed in logarithmic scale relative to a reference sound pressure level. Noise meters have been designed for noise measurement from low to high frequencies, characteristic of human ear capacity. These meters record the dB scale for routine measurement of general noise levels. Noise Classification There are broadly three categories of noise like Transport noise, Occupational noise, and Neighbourhood noise. Transport Noise Transport noise can be further sub-divided into 1. Road Traffic Noise Traffic noise is increasing over the years with increase in the number of road vehicles. Traffic speed is the major cause of noise. The noise volume is enhanced with increase in traffic speed. Modern highways and traffic system encourage higher speeds. In general, on urban roads there are distinct traffic peaks in the morning and evening as people travel to and fro workplaces. Heavy diesel-engined trucks are the noisiest vehicles on roads at present. The permissible noise levels for cities are prescribed by the Central Pollution Control Board, India. 2. Aircraft Noise The noise levels have peak values when aircrafts fly low and overhead or take off and land at airports. The noise limits prescribed take-offs on average are about 110 - 115 PNdB (1 PN dB = dB scale + 13) during day and 100 - 105 PNdB during night. 3. Rail Traffic It is less of a nuisance as compared to the previous types of traffic noise. Occupational Noise Industrial workers are exposed to noisy working environment for 48 hours a week (8 hrs. a day for 6 days a week). Millions of workers suffer from progressive hearing damage and become prone to accidents under their working conditions. Their working efficiency is also affected. Effects: The human ear drum is struck by noise in the form of airborne mechanical energy. While the tolerable conversation level is 65 dB at a distance of 1 metre, 125 dB gives the sensation of pain in the ear and 150 dB might be a killer. High intensity noise for continuous periods is the major cause for ear damage. If a noise level exceeding 90 dB in the midfrequency range reaches the ear for more than a few minutes, then the sensitivity of the ear is reduced. Noise pollution can cause pathological or psychological disorders. High frequencies or ultrasonic sound above the audible range can affect the semi-circular canals of the inner ear and make one suffer from nausea and dizziness. Mid-audible frequencies can lead to resonance in the skull and thereby affect the brain and nervous system. Moderate vibration can also cause pain, numbness and cyanosis (blue colouration) of fingers while severe vibration results damage to bones and joints in the bands with swelling and stiffness. In industrial and other establishments the general impact of noise pollution is lower efficiency, reduced work rate and higher potential for accidents and injuries. In residential areas even low frequency noise of 5060 dB at night disturbs sleep, particularly among the aged people, causing adverse effect on health. Children, exposed to excessive noise, show signs of behavioural disorder which in later age develop into destructive nature and neurotic disorders in the adult. Excessive noise is one of the major factors for chronic exhaustion and tension in our daily lives. This may explain why more and more people tend to become addicted to alcohol, tobacco and drugs. Noise pollution has also impact on travel of migratory birds from winter to tropical climate. Thus the increase of noise pollution in Calcutta and construction of high-rise buildings near Alipur Zoological garden have led to decline in the number migratory birds from Siberian region. In this age many people work and live in environment where the noise level is not hazardous. But over the years they suffer from progressive hearing loss and psychological hazards. Control of Noise Pollution Noise pollution is closely related to increase in industrialisation and urbanisation. It cannot be entirely eliminated but it can be kept at a safe level through adoption of some measures: 1. Control of noise intensity at the source itself; 2. Noise absorption measures placed between the noise source and the recipient; 3. Use of protective measures by the recipient so that the ear drums is saved. The common noise generation sources are: generators (for power supply), water pumps, loud speakers, cassette playing shops, blowing of air horns in motor vehicles, landing and take-off by aeroplanes, noise of machines in factories, etc. The specific laws in this respect should be strictly enforced. This must be backed by public awareness and vigilance. Aspire IAS 10/70 ORN NDelhi 60 - 9999801394 www.aspireias.com

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Environment Module PT 2013

PROTECTED NATURAL HABITATS


National parks and wildlife sanctuaries are protected natural habitats, declared by the government of a country according to the regulations from the IUCN (The World Conservation Union) to preserve the wildlife through conservation of ecosystems. The restriction levels vary within these two categories but, the principal objective of declaring protected areas is the conservation of nature Wildlife Sanctuary A wildlife sanctuary is a declared protected area, where very limited human activity is allowed. The ownership of this type of protected area could lie in the hands of either a government or in any private organization or person, provided the regulations are governed by the government. Inside a wildlife sanctuary, the hunting of animals is completely prohibited. Additionally, the trees cannot be cut down for any purpose; especially the clearing of the forest for agriculture is completely banned. However, it is not physically fenced to restrict the public from entering and roaming inside a wildlife sanctuary for research, educational, inspirational, and recreational purposes. The general public could use it up to a certain extent so that the sanctuary is useful for them also. People can collect firewood, fruits, medicinal plantsetc in small scale from a wild life sanctuary. National Park National park was first introduced in 1969, by the IUCN as a mean of a protected area with a definition. However, in the 19th century, some western naturalists and explorers have put forward the ideas of preserving ecosystems in order to conserve wildlife without active human interference. A national park has a defined boundary, through which no person can get into the park without an approval. Only an approved person can enter into a national park, either via paying a visitor ticket or an approved letter from the governing body (mostly the government). The visitors can only observe the park inside a vehicle that routes through defined trails and they cannot get out the vehicle for any reason unless there is an approved place for visitors. Photographs are allowed but research and educational work can only be done with a prior permission. The park cannot be used for any reason viz. firewood, timber, fruitsetc. With all these regulations, the national parks are established to conserve the natural habitats of the wild fauna and flora with a minimum human interference.

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