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Measurement of speed and time Experiment No.

Introduction:

Theoretical Background: A tachometer is an instrument designed to measure the rotation speed of an object, such as a gauge in an automobile that measures the revolutions per minute (RPMs) of the engine's crankshaft. The word is derived from the Greek words tachos, meaning "speed," and metron, meaning "to measure." This device traditionally is laid out with a dial, a needle that indicates the current reading and markings that indicate safe and dangerous levels. Digital tachometers have become more common, however, and they give numerical readings instead of using dials and needles.

Tachometers or rev counters on cars, aircraft, and other vehicles show the rate of rotation of the engine's crankshaft, and typically have markings indicating a safe range of rotation speeds. This can assist the driver in selecting appropriate throttle and gear settings for the driving conditions. Prolonged use at high speeds may cause inadequate lubrication, overheating (exceeding capability of the cooling system), exceeding speed capability of sub-parts of the engine (for example spring retracted valves) thus causing excessive wear or permanent damage or failure of engines. This is more applicable to manual transmissions than to automatics. On

analogue tachometers, speeds above maximum safe operating speed are typically indicated by an area of the gauge marked in red, giving rise to the expression of "redlining" an engine revving the engine up to the maximum safe limit. The red zone is superfluous on most modern cars, since their engines typically have a rev limiter which electronically limits engine speed to prevent damage. Diesel engines with traditional mechanical injector systems have an integral governor which prevents over-speeding the engine, so the tachometers in vehicles and machinery fitted with such engines sometimes lack a redline. In vehicles such as tractors and trucks, the tachometer often has other markings, usually a green arc showing the speed range in which the engine produces maximum torque, which is of prime interest to operators of such vehicles. Tractors fitted with a power take off (PTO) system have tachometers showing the engine speed needed to rotate the PTO at the standardised speed required by most PTO-driven implements. In many countries, tractors are required to have a speedometer for use on a road. To save fitting a second dial, the vehicle's tachometer is often marked with a second scale in units of speed. This scale is only accurate in a certain gear, but since many tractors only have one gear that is practical for use on-road, this is sufficient. Tractors with multiple 'road gears' often have tachometers with more than one speed scale. Aircraft tachometers have a green arc showing the engine's designed cruising speed range.

Tachometers are used to estimate traffic speed and volume (flow). A vehicle is equipped with the sensor and conducts "tach runs" which record the traffic data. These data are a substitute or complement to loop detector data. To get statistically significant results requires a high number of runs, and bias is introduced by the time of day, day of week, and the season. However, because of the expense, spacing (a lower density of loop detectors diminishes data accuracy), and relatively low reliability of loop detectors (often 30% or more are out of service at any given time), tach runs remain a common practice. Types of Tachometer Tachometers in Packaging Operations

Tachometers are used in packaging operations where several different functions immediately follow each other and each requires a change in speed. The tachometers works in tandem with a controller to keep each stage of the process in sync. The importance of this control is evident in observing any conveyor line type packaging operation. Voltage-Based Tachometers

Tachometers that use voltage to determine speed include the DC generator tachometer and the drag cup tachometer. The basis of their operation is simple: The amount of voltage produced relies solely on how fast they turn. These types of tachometers are also capable of providing the rotation direction along with the speed, which is essential to provide the

necessary feedback signals. A simple voltmeter is commonly used to provide this important information. Frequency-Type Tachometers

The frequency-type tachometer calculates the number of pulses produced by a rotating field tachometer, toothed rotor tachometer or photocell tachometer. They require more highly developed digital circuitry than voltage based tachometers to complete the calculation process and produce an accurate rpm value. The rotating field and the toothed rotor tachometers generate a waveform; the photocell type utilizes a rotating disk with windows that let light in through each window while the disk spins. This process ultimately produces a pulse in the photocell when light strikes it.

Procedure:

Discussion and Results: LATHE CZ300 Digital reading = 170 rpm Hand Reading Trial 1 2 3 4 5 Average: 174.2 rpm % error: 174.2-170/174.2 X 100 = 2.41% D1 = 52.04 mm D2 = 161 mm D3 = 52.04mm D4 = 63mm Rpm 174 175 174 174 174

D5 = 46.08 mm D1N1 = D2 N2 N 2 = N 1D 1 / D 2

D6= 63 mm

N2 = 56. 30663355 rpm N 3 = N 1D 1 / D 3 N3 = 174.2 rpm N4 = N5 N5 = 238 .16 rpm N 6 = D 5N 5 / D 6 N6 = 176.782 rpm

LATHE C6240B1 DIGITAL READING Actual Reading (RPM) 30 130 160 225 700 MILLING MACHINE Digital Reading: Big = 478.6 rpm Hand Reading Trial 1 2 3 4 5 RPM 1793 1790 1789 1789 1900 % error Small = 1786 rpm Digital Reading (RPM) 32 136 163 230.5 703 % error

Average RPM : 1812.2

Conclusion:

References : http://www.engr.uidaho.edu/thompson/courses/ME330/labs/TachometerCalibration.html http://www.aeroshop.eu/tachometer-l9119.html http://www.ehow.com/about_5632629_types-tachometers.html#ixzz2XipVJ1LY


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tachometer