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Chemical Nomenclature Pacific Union College Summer 2011

A good name is rather to be chosen than great riches, and loving favour rather than Ag or Au. Proverbs 22:1 (KJV)

In order to function in society we have to learn the names of many people: friends, teachers, employers, etc. At first some may be a little hard to remember or even to pronounce, but after memorizing them and getting to know the people to whom the names are attached, we can usually recall names with practically no effort. Similarly, a very important part of doing chemistry is learning the names (nomenclature) of the substances with which we work. After some study, you will notice some helpful patterns. Much of the work, however, will require "brute force" memorization. It can be a little painful at first, but if you persevere these names will become like familiar friends (well, maybe that's pushing it a little, but it will get easier). You may have already encountered many of these chemical names. This handout should serve as a review/reference as you continue working to become "fluent" in chemical nomenclature. You will be tested on the names and symbols of the selected elements, selected ions, and compound types described in this handout. (See example exam on p. 7.) Correct spelling is required. "F", for instance, stands for fl uorine, not fl ourine. ELEMENTS (selected from the periodic table below): H / hydrogen, He / helium, Li / lithium, Be / beryllium, B / boron, C / carbon, N / nitrogen, O / oxygen, F / fluorine, Ne / neon, Na / sodium, Mg / magnesium, Al / aluminum, Si / silicon, P / phosphorus, S / sulfur, Cl / chlorine, Ar / argon, K / potassium, Ca / calcium, Sc / scandium, Ti / titanium, V / vanadium, Cr / chromium, Mn / manganese, Fe / iron, Co / cobalt, Ni / nickel, Cu / copper, Zn / zinc, Ga / gallium, Ge / germanium, As / arsenic, Se / selenium, Br / bromine, Kr / krypton, Rb / rubidium, Sr / strontium, Y / yttrium, Zr / zirconium, Mo / molybdenum, Pd / palladium, Ag / silver, Cd / cadmium, In / indium, Sn / tin, Sb / antimony, Te / tellurium, I / iodine, Xe / xenon, Cs / cesium, Ba / barium, La / lanthanum, W / tungsten, Pt / platinum, Au / gold, Hg / mercury, Pb / lead, Bi / bismuth, Rn / radon, Ra / radium, Ac / actinium, Th / Thorium, U / uranium, Pu / plutonium, Am / americium, Cf / californium, Sg / seaborgium

H
hydrogen

Periodic Table of the Elements


Be
beryllium magnesium

He
helium

Li
lithium sodium

B
boron

C
carbon

N
nitrogen

O
oxygen

F
fluorine

Ne
neon

10

Capitalize only the first letter of an element symbol. 11 12 Capitalization is Na Mg not necessary for element (or compound) names when they are written out.

Al
aluminum

13

Si
silicon

14

P
phosphorus

15

S
sulfur

16

Cl
chlorine

17

Ar
argon

18

K
potassium

19

Ca
calcium

20

Sc
scandium

21

Ti
titanium

22

V
vanadium

23

Cr
chromium

24

Mn
manganese

25

Fe
iron

26

Co
cobalt

27

Ni
nickel

28

Cu
copper

29

Zn
zinc

30

Ga
gallium

31

Ge
germanium

32

As
arsenic

33

Se
selenium

34

Br
bromine

35

Kr
krypton

36

Rb
rubidium

37

Sr
strontium

38

Y
yttrium

39

Zr
zirconium

40

Nb Mo
niobium molybdenum

41

42

Tc
technetium

43

Ru
ruthenium

44

Rh
rhodium

45

Pd
palladium

46

Ag
silver

47

Cd
cadmium

48

In
indium

49

Sn
tin

50

Sb
antimony

51

Te
tellurium

52

53

Xe
xenon

54

iodine

Cs
cesium

55

Ba
barium

56

Lu
lutetium

71

Hf
hafnium

72

Ta
tantalum

73

W
tungsten

74

Re
rhenium

75

Os
osmium

76

Ir
iridium

77

Pt
platinum

78

Au
gold

79

Hg
mercury

80

Tl
thallium

81

Pb
lead

82

Bi
bismuth

83

Po
polonium

84

At
astatine

85

Rn
radon

86

Fr
francium

87

Ra
radium

88

Lr
lawrencium

103

Rf
rutherfordium

104

Db
dubnium

105

Sg
seaborgium

106

Bh
bohrium

107

Hs
hassium

108

Mt
meitnerium

108

Ds
darmstadtium

110

Rg Uub Uut Uuq Uup Uuh


roentgenium ununbium ununtrium ununquadium ununpentium ununhexium

111

112

113

114

115

116

La
lanthanum

57

Ce
cerium

58

Pr
praseodymium

59

Nd Pm Sm Eu
neodymium promethium samarium europium

60

61

62

63

Gd
gadolinium

64

Tb
terbium

65

Dy
dysprosium

66

Ho
holmium

67

Er
erbium

68

Tm Yb
thulium ytterbium

69

70

Ac
actinium

89

Th
thorium

90

Pa
protactinium

91

U
uranium

92

Np
neptunium

93

Pu Am Cm Bk
plutonium americium curium berkelium

94

95

96

97

Cf
californium

98

Es
einsteinium

99

Fm Md No
fermium mendelevium nobelium

100

101

102

See http://www.webelements.com/ for a (free) printable periodic table with interactive information regarding the elements and their compounds. DIATOMIC/POLYATOMIC ELEMENTS : Some elements occur in discreet groups of atoms (molecules). Those coming in pairs are particularly important. We call these in diatomic elements : H2, Nneutral. Cl2, Br I2.groups Others P4 and 2, O2, F2,When 2, and Atoms elements are electrically atoms or oflike atoms loseS8 come in larger groups. Carbon, silicon and metals come in aggregates of huge numbers of bonded (connected) atoms. negative electrons, they become positively charged. Gaining electrons makes them CATIONS: (positively charged ions) negatively charged.

Monatomic cations main group cations H+ Li


+ +

Polyatomic cations H3O+ NH4+ PH Mg


2+ + 4

hydronium* ammonium* phosphonium

hydrogen* lithium sodium potassium rubidium cesium silver


+

Na K+

magnesium calcium strontium barium zinc cadmium

Al

3+

aluminum gallium indium The hydronium ion is just a water molecule with an attached H+. The ammonium ion is just an ammonia molecule with an attached H+.
*

Ca2+ Sr2+ Ba
2+

Ga3+ In3+

Rb+ Cs

transition metal cations Ag+ Zn2+ Cd2+

The cations above involve elements that usually form only one type of ion. We say that the elements have only one "oxidation state" or "oxidation number". The cations below involve elements that form more than one type of ion. Here, Roman numerals in parentheses follow the ion name to distinguish between multiple oxidation states (i.e., to tell which charge it has). Cu+ Hg22+ copper(I)
cuprous
*

Cu2+ Hg2+ Cr2+ Mn


2+

copper(II)
cupric
*

mercury(I)
mercurous

mercury(II)
mercuric

For this class, do not use Roman numerals with elements that have only one oxidation state. For example, on your exams, dont indicate Na+ is as sodium(I). Cr3+
3+

chromium(II)
chromous

chromium(III)
chromic

manganese(II) Mn
manganous

manganese(III)
manganic

Dont forget parentheses. For instance, dont write iron(II) as iron II.

Fe

2+

iron(II)
ferrous

Fe

3+

iron(III)
ferric

Co2+ Ni Au
+ 2+

cobalt(II)
cobaltous

Co3+ Ni
3+

cobalt(III)
cobaltic

nickel(II)
nickelous

nickel(III)
nickelic

gold(I)
aurous

Au Ge2+ Sn2+ Pb2+ germanium(II)


germanous

3+

gold(III)
auric

The "-ous" / "-ic" endings are an alternate (older and less precise) means to indicate lower and higher oxidation states, respectively. These names are still encountered even though the Roman numerals system (the "Stock System") is preferred.
*

Ge4+ Sn4+ Pb4+ As3+ arsenic(III)

germanium(IV)
germanic

tin(II)
stannous

tin(IV)
stannic

lead(II)
plumbous

lead(IV)
plumbic

This is only a partial list of ions/oxidation states. For arsenious example, iron(IV), iron (V), and iron(VI) exist, but they Sb3+ antimony(III) are rare. Manganese (IV) is common (as in MnO2) but is antimonous not included in nomenclature exams. We will test only 3+ Bi bismuth(III) over oxidation states listed above. For more bismuthous complete information, consult advanced inorganic chemistry textbooks. Also, some periodic tables include extensive oxidation number information. The periodic table below is a helpful memorization tool for the charges on monatomic ions.

As5+ Sb5+ Bi
5+

arsenic(V)
arsenic

antimony(V)
antimonic

bismuth(V)
bismuthic

+1,(-1)

He
+3

0 0 0 0 0 0

Li Na
+1 +1

+1

Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra
+2

C Si
+2,+4

N P
+3,+5

O S Se Te Po
-2

-2

-1 -1 -1 -1

Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn

+2 +2 +2 +2

Al Sc Y Lu Lr La Ac Ti Zr Hf Rf Ce Th V
+2,+3

+3 +3 +3

Cl Br I
-1

Cr

+2,+3

Mn Tc Re Bh

+2,+3

Fe

+2,+3

Co

+2,+3

Ni

+1,+2

Cu Ag
+1

Zn Cd
+1,+2 +2

+2

Ga In
+1,+3

Ge Sn

As

Rb Cs Fr
+1

+1 +1

Nb Mo Ta Db Pr Pa W Sg

Ru Os Hs

Rh Ir Mt

Pd Pt Ds Gd

+2,+4 +2,+4

+3,+5

Sb Bi

+1,+3

Au

Hg

Tl

Pb

+3,+5

At

Rg Uub Uut Uuq Uup Uuh Tb Dy Cf Ho Es Er Tm Yb

Nd Pm Sm Eu U Np

Pu Am Cm Bk

Fm Md No

Remember, this is only a partial list of oxidation states. We will test over only the oxidation states listed above.

ANIONS: (negatively charged ions) HFhydride (note hydrogen can either lose or gain an electron) fluoride

ClBrIO2-

chloride bromide iodide O2O22superoxide S2S22sulfide persulfide oxide peroxide Oxide (O2- ) is seen more often than peroxide (O22- ) which, in turn, is seen more often than superoxide (O 2- ).

OHNO3NO2CNOCNSCN-

hydroxide1 (The "1" here is a footnote, not part of the name. See the footnotes below.) nitrate2 nitrite2 cyanide1 cyanate2 thiocyanate3 CNOfulminate

consider putting nitride and carbide back in with provisos

also, make note that C4H10 is not acceptable for CH3CH2CH2CH3 and CH3OH is necessary (not CH4O) for methanol, etc. C2H3O2 acetate (sometimes written CH3CO 2 know it both ways)
HCO3- hydrogen carbonate4 HC2O4- hydrogen oxalate HShydrogen sulfide HSO4- hydrogen sulfate HSO3- hydrogen sulfite CO32- carbonate C2O42- oxalate S2SO42SO32S2O32S2O22sulfide sulfate sulfite thiosulfate thiosulfite PO43PO33AsO43AsO33phosphate phosphite arsenate arsenite SiO 44 - orthosilicate

H2PO4- dihydrogen phosphate MnO4- permanganate B(OH) borate Al(OH)4- aluminate BF4tetrafluoroborate
4

HPO42- hydrogen phosphate

CrO42- chromate Cr2O72- dichromate Fe(CN)63perbromate bromate bromite hypobromite IO4IO2IOperiodate IO3iodate iodite hypoiodite ferricyanide Fe(CN)64- ferrocyanide

ClO4ClO3ClO2ClO-

perchlorate2 chlorate2 chlorite2 hypochlorite2

BrO4BrO3BrO2BrO-

Footnotes: (emphasizing nomenclature patterns that you should not miss) 1. 2. 3. 4. With the exception of hydroxide and cyanide, "-ide" is the ending for a monatomic anion. The "-ate" ending usually indicates oxygen content. An ion with an "-ite" ending always has one less oxygen than an ion with an "-ate" ending (and the same charge). "Per---ate" ions have one more oxygen than "-ate" ions and "hypo--ite" ions have one less oxygen than "-ite" ions. "Per" means "full" and "hypo" means "below". "thio-" compounds have a sulfur atom replacing an oxygen atom. The hydrogen-containing ions such as hydrogen carbonate, hydrogen sulfate, etc., are also known by the common names "bicarbonate", "bisulfate", etc. Since hydrogen has a 1+ charge (H+), the "hydrogen-" or "bi-" ions always have one less negative charge than the corresponding anions without the hydrogen.

COMPOUNDS: Note, for example, the Ionic compounds (compounds composed of positive and negative ions, often metals and non-metals, formula electrons Ca(OH) "transferred")
2

is a shortcut way of showing OHCa


2+

OH-

Formulas: combine the ions (cation then anion) in numbers that ensure electrical neutrality. Names: combine the ion names (first cation, then anion) Examples: (see also practice exam below) These ions combine Na+ and ClK+ and ClO3Ca2+ and OHFe2+ and O2Fe3+ and O2NH4+ and CO32Mn3+ and Fe(CN)64K+ and O2K+ and O22K+ and O2Sn4+ and BF4Fe2+ and S22to form these compounds: NaCl KClO3 Ca(OH)2 FeO Fe2O3 (NH4)2CO3 Mn4[Fe(CN)6]3 K2O K2O2 KO2 Sn(BF4)4 FeS2 having these names: sodium chloride potassium chlorate calcium hydroxide (note how parentheses show two hydroxide ions). iron(II) oxide (ferrous oxide) iron(III) oxide (ferric oxide) ammonium carbonate manganese(III) ferrocyanide (manganic ferrocyanide) potassium oxide potassium peroxide potassium superoxide tin(IV) tetrafluoroborate (stannic tetrafluoroborate) iron(II) persulfide (not iron(IV) sulfide)

Note: The names are simply the first ion name followed by the second ion name. There is no use of numerical prefixes to show the number of ions in the formula. (Do not write "calcium dihydroxide" or "diiron trioxide".) Roman numerals never appear in the formulas, only the names. Further, use Roman numerals only in cases where there are more than one oxidation state (charge) for the positive ion. "Sodium(I) chloride", for instance, is not accepted in this class. Charges are not shown in compounds because they have been neutralized. Compound names are not capitalized unless they are used to start a sentence. Note (Exceptions): Metal-nonmetal compounds (ionic) are sometimes named using the di- tri- prefix system. TiO 2, for instance is called titanium dioxide as well as titanium (IV) oxide and FeS 2 is called iron disulfide as well as iron(II) persulfide. We will NOT use di- tri- etc., for metal non-metal compounds on our nomenclature exams. Hydrated compounds (hydrates) Some crystalline ionic compounds have water molecules associated with them in a definite ratio. These compounds are called "hydrates". The number of water molecules is indicated attached to the ionic formula with a "dot". The names of the hydrates are the ion compound name plus a hydrate term indicating how many water molecules are involved. MgSO47H2O magnesium sulfate heptahydrate CuSO45H2O copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate BaCl22H2O barium chloride dihydrate Na2CO310H2O sodium carbonate decahydrate ("washing soda") KAl(SO4)212H2O potassium aluminum sulfate dodecahydrate ("alum") The water of hydration can be driven away from the hydrated crystalline compound by heating. The resulting water-free ionic compounds look powdery instead of crystalline and are designated "anhydrous". Covalent compounds (generally compounds of non-metals only, electrons "shared") A. Acids (covalent compounds from which a H+ can be easily removed) 1. Binary acids (Gases) (Gases Dissolved in Water, i.e., Aqueous) HF hydrogen fluoride hydrofluoric acid HCl hydrogen chloride hydrochloric acid HBr hydrogen bromide hydrobromic acid HI hydrogen iodide hydroiodic acid H2S hydrogen sulfide hydrosulfuric acid HCN hydrogen cyanide hydrocyanic acid 2. Oxyacids

The aqueous form of a binary acid (such as hydrochloric acid) is the only time the prefix "hydro" is used. Do not use "hydro" in naming other types of compounds. NaHCO3, for example, is sodium hydrogen carbonate or sodium bicarbonate, but not "sodium hydrocarbonate".

(when the H+ ions are removed, an oxyanion, an -ate or -ite ion, remains)

HNO3 H2SO4 H3PO4 H3PO3

nitric acid sulfuric acid phosphoric acid phosphorous acid note:

(hydrogen ion + nitrate ion) (hydrogen + sulfate) (hydrogen + phosphate) (hydrogen + phosphite)

Oxyacids are always named as acids. There is no distinction between aqueous and gaseous form. H2SO4, for instance, should not be called dihydrogen sulfate, regardless of what form it is in.

"-ate" ions form "-ic" acids, "-ite" ions become "-ous" acids (hydrogen + nitrite) (hydrogen + sulfite) (hydrogen + perchlorate) (hydrogen + chlorate) (hydrogen + chlorite) (hydrogen + hypochlorite) HBrO4 HBrO3 HBrO2 HBrO perbromic acid bromic acid bromous acid hypobromous acid HIO3 HIO2 HIO HIO4 periodic

HNO2 nitrous acid H2SO3 sulfurous acid HClO4 perchloric acid acid HClO3 chloric acid HClO2 chlorous acid HClO hypochlorous acid note:

iodic acid iodous acid hypoiodous acid

"hypo" => one less oxygen than the "-ous" acid or the "-ite" ion, "per" => one more oxygen than the "-ic" acid or the "-ate" ion,

H3BO3 boric acid (this is an exception: B(OH)4- is borate ion, NOT BO3- as expected from the above pattern.) 3. Organic acids HC2H3O2 H2C2O4 acetic acid oxalic acid (or CH3CO2H) Note that many acids contain oxygen. The word "oxygen" itself was coined from words meaning "acid former". At that time it was thought (erroneously) that all acids contained oxygen.

(There are many more, but we'll save them for a later time.) B. Covalent compounds (non-metal/non-metal) not containing hydrogen

Here prefixes are used to indicate numbers of atoms: mono = 1, di = 2, tri = 3, tetra = 4, penta = 5, hexa = 6, hepta = 7, octa = 8, nona = 9, deca = 10, dodeca = 12 Selected examples: nitrogen monoxide (common name: nitric oxide) dinitrogen monoxide (common name: nitrous oxide) nitrogen dioxide dinitrogen tetroxide Note (Exceptions): Non-metal tetraphosphorus trisulfide compounds are sometimes named using the Stock system. In this system, NO is nitrogen(II) oxide, N2O is nitrogen(I) oxide, and NO 2 is nitrogen(IV) oxide, etc. We will COMMONLY USED NON-SYSTEMATIC NAMES YOU SHOULD KNOW: use the mono-, di-, tri- system, NOT the Stock system, for nonH2O water (not "dihydrogen monoxide") metal compounds in our H2O2 hydrogen peroxide (not "dihydrogen dioxide") nomenclature exams. NH3 ammonia (not "nitrogen trihydride") PH3 phosphine N2H4 hydrazine HCl/HNO3 aqua regia (a 1:3 mixture, by volume) Pure ammonia is a gas at room temperature. In KAl(SO4)212H2O alum (see hydrate section above) common use the gas is dissolved in water and is best called "aqueous ammonia" symbolized NH3(aq). You Notice that NH3 and N2H4 have may encounter aqueous ammonia, however, under hydrogen following nitrogen. This is an the name "ammonium hydroxide", with the formula exception to the usual rule of placing NH4OH. Probably most often you will see aqueous the less electronegative H first. ammonia simply called "ammonia". ORGANIC COMPOUND NOMENCLATURE: CO CO2 NF3 PCl3 PF5 SF6 S2F10 carbon monoxide carbon dioxide nitrogen trifluoride phosphorus trichloride phosphorus pentafluoride sulfur hexafluoride disulfur decafluoride NO N2O NO2 N2O4 P4S3

In addition to the two organic acids listed above, you will encounter several organic ( C-containing ) compounds in this course. For the most part, the systematic study of the nomenclature and molecular structure of organic compounds will be reserved for when you take a course concentrating in organic chemistry later on. For now, just learn those listed below. CH4 methane CH3CH3 ethane CH3CH2CH3 propane CH3CH2CH2CH3 butane CH3OH CH3CH2OH CH3 CHCH3 OH methyl alcohol ethyl alcohol isopropyl alcohol CCl4 CHCl3 C6H6 C6H12O6 carbon tetrachloride chloroform benzene glucose

organic compound types alkanes: hydrocarbons with only C-C (single) bonds alkenes: hydrocarbons with a C=C (double) bond alkynes: hydrocarbons with a CC (triple) bond Generalized organic structural formula nomenclature. (The material in this box wont be needed until second quarter. It is included here for completeness.) O O R-OH (alcohol) R-CH (aldehyde) R-C-R (ketone) R-NH2 (amine) (RCOH) (RCOR) O R-C-OH (carboxylic acid) O R-C-OR (ester) (RCOOR) O R-C-NH2 (amide) (RCONH2)

R-O-R (ether)

R-CN (nitrile)

(R = an attached group such as an alkyl group, CH3 (methyl), CH3CH2 (ethyl), etc.) Nomenclature exam study hints (in order of priority). 1. Learn element symbols/names. Recognize metals vs. non-metals. Learn diatomic elements. 2. Learn ion formulas/names. The charge on an ion is just as important as its letter symbol. Use the periodic table to help you organize the information to minimize "raw memorization". VERY IMPORTANT! Drill ion names and formulas until you recognize them instantly by sight. You might want to write the names and formulas on cards as a memorization aid. 3. Learn how to put the ions together into neutral ionic compounds and how to name those compounds. See the Ionic Compounds Practice Worksheet (Appendix A) for extra practice. 4. Learn the acids (H-compounds). 5. Learn the non-metal/non-metal compound naming system (di-, tri-, etc.). 6. Learn the miscellaneous compounds and organic compounds listed. 7. Eliminate common pitfalls. See the Avoiding Errors worksheet (Appendix B). 8. Try the practice exam (Appendix C). Check your work with the key (Appendix D). Focus on the parts you dont get right. "Do not fear, for I have redeemed you; I have called you by name, you are Mine." Isaiah 43:1 (NRSV)

Chemical Nomenclature Appendix A: Ionic Compounds Practice Worksheet

K+ F-

Ca2+

Fe2+

Ga3+

Co3+

Hg22+

NH4+

AsO

CrO

Explanatory Key 1. Correct name: nickel(II) chloride. Roman numerals should be in parentheses. 2. Correct name: calcium carbonate. Ionic compound names come from the names of the ions CaS that make up the compound. Memorize ions so that they 2can be recognized in compounds. calcium 3. Correct name: potassium nitrate. sulfide Potassium only gets a +1 charge so a Roman numeral is not used. Note: Expect to see a few exceptions to this rule in your chemical career. Our rule is the most common case, however, and we will use it in this class exclusively, including on nomenclature exams. 4. Correct name: nitric acid. Oxyacids always have acid names. Only binary acids (like HCl) can be named two different ways, depending whether they are gaseous or aqueous. 33 5. Correct name: calcium chloride. Ionic compound names involve only the names of the ions themselves. Do not use prefixes such as di-, tri-, etc., to indicate number of ions present. Note: There are common exceptions to this rule. TiO 2 and MnO2 are often called titanium dioxide and manganese dioxide. For 3 nomenclature exams, however, we will stick to the rule. 6. Correct name: phosphorus trichloride . Prefixes such as di-, tri-, etc., are to be used in non-acid covalent (i.e., non-metal-non-metal) compound names to 2indicate the number of atoms present. 4 7. Correct name: lithium fluoride . Fluoride is misspelled in the problem. 8. Correct formula: CuI2 . Roman numerals are used only in names. 9. Correct formula: FeCl3. 3 Charges are not left in compound formulas. 10. Correct formula: Ca(OH)2. Two OH-s are needed to balance Ca2+. 11. Correct formula: Al(OH)3. The compound has three hydroxides, not three 2 hydrogens. 12. Correct name: phosphorus pentachloride. The only time the word phosphorous (with the ou) is used is for H3PO3, phosphorous acid. 13. Correct name: phosphorous acid. (see 12) 14. Correct name: sodium chloride. 4 Capitalize only to start sentences or as a title, etc. 15. Correct name: sodium hydrogen sulfate (or sodium bisulfate) The prefix hydro is onlyfluoride, usedcobaltic for aqueous acids KEY KF (potassium fluoride) CaF (calcium fluoride) FeF (iron(II) fluoride, ferrous fluoride) GaF (gallium fluoride) CoF (cobalt(III) fluoride) Hg F binary (mercury(I) fluoride, mercurous fluoride) NH F(ammonium fluoride) [In all names where they appear, iron(II) can be replaced with ferrous, cobalt(III) with cobaltic, mercury(I) with mercurous. Both names have only been written out (like hydrochloric acid). only for the first line of answers in the above sheet.] K S (potassium sulfide) CaS (calcium sulfide) FeS (iron(II)sulfide) Ga S (gallium sulfide) Co S (cobalt(III) sulfide) Hg S (mercury(I) sulfide) 16. Fe(OH) Correct name: dichromate (NH ) S (ammonium sulfide) KOH (potassium hydroxide) Ca(OH) (calcium hydroxide) (iron(II) hydroxide)ammonium Ga(OH) (gallium hydroxide) Co(OH) (cobalt(III) hydroxide) Hg (OH) (mercury(I) hydroxide) NH OH (ammonium hydroxide) K AsO (potassium arsenite) Ca (AsO ) (calcium arsenate) Fe (AsO ) iron(II) arsenate GaAsO (gallium arsenate) CoAsO (cobalt(III) arsenate) ionic compounds with names only. cation (Hg ) (AsO ) (mercury(I) arsenate) (NH ) AsO (ammonium arsenate) KHCO (potassium Name bicarbonate, potassium hydrogen carbonate) [Inion all names where it appears,The bicarbonate can be replaced with hydrogen carbonate. Both names are only written out for the first example.) Ca(HCO ) (calcium bicarbonate) Fe(HCO ) (iron(II) bicarbonate) Ga(HCO ) (gallium bicarbonate) Co(HCO ) present is ammonium and the anion present is (cobalt(III) bicarbonate) Hg (HCO ) (mercury(I) bicarbonate) NH HCO (ammonium bicarbonate) K CrO (potassium chromate) CaCrO (calcium chromate) FeCrO (iron(II) chromate) Ga (CrO ) (gallium chromate) Co (CrO ) (cobalt(III) chromate) Hg CrO (mercury(I) chromate) (NH ) CrO (ammonium chromate) KNO not (potassium Ca(NO ) (calcium nitrate) dichromate. We do add nitrate) a di to indicate twoFe(NO ) iron(II) nitrate Ga(NO ) gallium nitrate Co(NO ) cobalt(III) nitrate Hg (NO ) (mercury(I) nitrate) NH NO (ammonium nitrate) KNO (potassium nitrite) Ca(NO ) (calcium 2- nitrite) Fe(NO ) iron(II) nitrite ammonium ions. Thepermanganate) name of Cr is dichromate 2O7) (calcium Ga(NO ) gallium nitrite Co(NO ) cobalt(III) nitrite Hg (NO ) (mercury(I) nitrite) NH NO (ammonium nitrite) KMnO (potassium Ca(MnO permanganate) Fe(MnO ) (iron(II) permanganate) Ga(MnO ) gallium permanganate Co(MnO ) (cobalt(III) permanganate) Hg (MnO ) mercury(I) permanganate NH MnO (ammonium permanganate) (even though there is just ion there). [Note: just because we put ions together on paper doesnt mean the compound is stable in real life. Nevertheless, this exercise is very useful to emphasize the mechanics of naming.] Chemical Nomenclature Appendix B: 217. Correct formula: CO3 Avoiding Errors The 2- charge was omitted. Ions always need charges.

OH

HCO

NO

NO

MnO

4 2

3 2

3 2

2 3

3 2

4 3

3 2

3 2

3 3

3 3

3 2

4 3

4 3

4 2 3

3 2

3 2

3 2 2 3

3 3

3 2

2 2

2 2

2 3

2 2

4 2

4 2

4 3

4 3

4 2

Find what is WRONG with the compounds or names below. Check your answers in the box at the right. 1. The name for NiCl 2 written as nickel II chloride. 2. The name for CaCO3 written as calcium carbon trioxide. 3. The name for KNO3 written as potassium(I) nitrate. 4. The name for HNO3 written as hydrogen nitrate. 5. The name for CaCl2 written as calcium dichloride. 6. The name for PCl3 written as phosphorus chloride. 7. The name for LiF written as lithium flouride. 8. The formula for cupric iodide written as Cu(II)I2. 9. The formula for iron(III) chloride written as Fe3+Cl3- . 10. The formula for calcium hydroxide written as CaOH. 11. The formula for aluminum hydroxide written as AlOH3. 12. The name for PCl5 written as phosphorous pentachloride. 13. The name for H3PO3 written as phosphorus acid. 14. The name for NaCl written as Sodium chloride. 15. The name for NaHSO4 written as sodium hydrosulfate. 16. The name for (NH4)2Cr2O7 written as diammonium chromate 17. The formula for carbonate ion written as CO3

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Chemical Nomenclature Appendix C: Practice Exam

CHEM 111 F20xx Pacific Union College Nomenclature Exam

Name_____________________
Study suggestion: Photocopy this page, take the exam, then compare with the answer key (back of this page). Repeat as necessary.

A good name is rather to be chosen than great riches, and loving favour rather than Ag or Au. Proverbs 22:1 (KJV) Give correct formula (2 pts each) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. zinc iodide ___________________ 26. Give correct name (2 pts. each) CH3OH_____________________ Ca(MnO4)2_________________ BaO ____________________

silver nitrate ___________________ 27. copper(II)oxide ___________________ 28. sodium dichromate__________________ 29. carbon tetrachloride_______________ 30. germanium(II)sulfide_______________ 31. phosphorous acid___________________ 32. hydronium ion ___________________ 33. 34.

FeCl3 ____________________ Pb(ClO4)4_________________ AlBr3 ____________________ HC2H3O2___________________ NiCO3 ____________________ Hg2F2 ____________________ HgI2 ____________________ Mg(IO2)2__________________ Na2HPO4___________________ ZnCrO4____________________ CuOH ____________________ HCl(aq)__________________ Fe(CN)63-_________________ SiO44- ____________________ SF6 ____________________

potassium thiosulfate_____________

iron(II) dihydrogen phosphate______ 35. ammonium cyanate _______________ 36.

cobalt(III) nitrite _______________ 37. methane ___________________ 38. _______________ 39.

sodium phosphate

tin(IV) chloride___________________ 40. sulfuric acid _______________ 41.

cadmium acetate____________________ 42. carbon monoxide __________________ dinitrogen pentoxide______________ 43. 44.

AuHSO4____________________ ClO- ____________________ Ni2(SO4)3__________________ 11

chromium(II) thiosulfite___________ 45. manganese(III) thiocyanate_________ 46.

22. 23. 24.

potassium ferrocyanide_____________ 47. arsenic(V) bicarbonate_____________ 48. phosphite ion __________________ 49.

SnF2 _____________________ HNO3 _____________________ Sr3(PO4)2__________________ Li2O2_____________________ Key Name_____________________

Chemical Nomenclature Appendix D: Practice Exam Key 50. 25. ethane ____________________ Study Suggestion: Make up more practice exams using other compound possibilities. CHEM 111 F20xx Pacific Union College Nomenclature Exam

A good name is rather to be chosen than great riches, and loving favour rather than Ag or Au. Proverbs 22:1 (KJV) Give correct formula (2 pts each)
ZnI2

Give correct name (2 pts. each)


methyl alcohol

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 12

zinc iodide

___________________ 26.
AgNO3

CH3OH_____________________
calcium permanganate

silver nitrate ___________________ 27. copper(II)oxide ___________________ 28. sodium dichromate__________________ 29. carbon tetrachloride_______________ 30. germanium(II) sulfide______________ 31. phosphorous acid__________________ hydronium ion
H3 O + K2 S2 O 3 H3PO3 GeS CCl4 Na2Cr2O7 CuO

Ca(MnO4)2_________________ BaO ____________________


iron(III) chloride, ferric chloride lead(IV) perchlorate, barium oxide

FeCl3 ____________________
plumbic perchlorate Pb(ClO4)4 ___________________ aluminum bromide acetic acid

AlBr3 ____________________ HC2H3O2___________________ NiCO3 ____________________ Hg2F2 ____________________ HgI2 ____________________


magnesium iodite sodium hydrogen phosphate, nickel(II) carbonate, nickelous carbonate mercury(I) fluoride, mercurous fluoride

32.

___________________ 33.
Fe(H2PO4)2

potassium thiosulfate_____________ iron(II)dihydrogen phosphate_____ ammonium cyanate


NH4OCN Co(NO 2)3 CH4

34. 35.

mercury(II) iodide, mercuric iodide

_______________ 36.

Mg(IO2)2__________________
sodium biphosphate Na2HPO4___________________ zinc chromate ZnCrO4____________________

cobalt(III) nitrite _______________ 37. methane ___________________ 38. _______________ 39.


SnCl4 H2SO4 Na3PO4

sodium phosphate

CuOH ____________________ HCl(aq)__________________


hydrochloric acid ferricyanide ion

copper(I) hydroxide, cuprous hydroxide

tin(IV) chloride___________________ 40. sulfuric acid _______________ 41.


Cd(C2H3O2)2 CO

Fe(CN)63-__________________ SiO44- ____________________


sulfur hexafluoride orthosilicate ion

cadmium acetate____________________ 42. carbon monoxide __________________ 43.

SF6

____________________ gold(I) hydrogen sulfate, gold(I) bisulfate,


aurous hydrogen sulfate, aurous bisulfate

19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

dinitrogen pentoxide______________
CrS2O2 Mn(SCN)3

N2 O 5

44.

AuHSO4_____________________ ClO- ____________________ Ni2(SO4)3__________________


tin(II) fluoride, stannous nitric acid nickel(III) sulfate, nickelic sulfate hypochlorite ion

chromium(II) thiosulfite___________ 45. manganese(III) thiocyanate_________ 46. potassium ferrocyanide_____________ 47. arsenic(V) bicarbonate_____________ 48. phosphite ion ethane __________________ 49. ____________________ 50.
CH3CH3 PO33As(HCO3)5 K4Fe(CN)6

fluoride SnF2 _____________________

HNO3 _____________________ Sr3(PO4)2__________________ Li2O2 _____________________


lithium peroxide strontium phosphate

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