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Installation Audits & Commissioning Gensets

Field Recommendations

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007

COMMISSIONING OBJECTIVES
Insure proper installation of equipment Engine/driven equipment Peripheral support equipment Controls Coordinate various disciplines Contractors Supplier reps Electrical Mechanical Develop standardized documentation and reporting Insure contractual obligations are met Follow up on non conformance issues Complete performance testing as required Reduce warranty costs, eliminate rework Assure customer satisfaction Provide training on product and cross training Manage all aspects of commissioning process (including scheduling/invoicing)

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Successful commissioning starts in the office


Know the Package
Obtain TMI data far major components, including performance specs Know the scope of project supply

Tooling
Genset specific, plus basic Diagnostic

Literature
Operation and Maintenance Manual Specifications, Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting, Disassembly and Assembly, Schematic, Troubleshooting Any relevant Special Instructions Installation and Initial Start-up Procedure Alignment Check SIS for latest EN, TIB and/or Service letters

Systems Evaluation
Air Intake and Ventilation System Cooling System Starting System Exhaust and Crankcase Ventilation System Fuel and Lubrication System Mounting and Alignment Generator Safety, including Serviceability Monitoring System

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Use A&I guides for reference


- Electric Power A&I, all included - Air Intake Systems - Alignment - Control Systems - Diesel - Control Systems & Ignition - Gas - Cooling Systems - Crankcase Ventilation - Diesel Fuels & Fuel Systems - EMCP3 - Engine Room Design Considerations - Engine Room Ventilation - EPG Intro, Applications & Engine Selection (Sizing) LEBE1924 LEBW4969 LEBW4975 LEBW4981 LEBW4982 LEBW4978 LEBW4958 LEBW4976 LEBE5255 LEBW4994 LEBW4971 LEBE5294 - Exhaust Systems - Gas Engine Emissions - Gaseous Fuel Systems - Gaseous Fuels LEBW4970 LEBW4984 LEBW5336 LEBW4977

- Generation Systems (includes LEBE5293 packaging info) - Governors - Gas & Diesel - Lubrication Systems - Mounting - Noise - Piping System Basic Information - Starting Systems - Vibration LEBW4979 LEBW4957 LEBW4974 LEBW4973 LEBW4991 LEBW4980 LEBW4972

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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When to Use Multiple Engines


N + 1 Requirements Redundancy Service Flexibility Distribution Voltage/Current Limit Lowest Installed Combination Significant Load Variation at Specific Times High Starting/Low Rated Power Requirements

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Paralleling Operation
Isoc - Load Share (2301A Load Share) Equal Share at Isoc Speed 0-100% Operating Range Isoc- Droop 1 Base Load at Isoc 1 Swing Load w/ Droop 0-100% Operating Range Possible; typically requires outside control Droop - Droop Equal Share at Droop Speed 0-100% Operating Range Synchronization Paralleling Unit To Bus Requires Same Frequency, Phase Rotation, and In Phase Automatic Devices Perform Function Manual Synchronizing Lights Synchronizing Meters Remember about kVAR sharing

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Load Control
Load Prioritization - ATS Control System Load Acceptance Order Load Shedding Order Unit Starting Order Unit Shut Down Order Synchronization Order

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Generator Selection Considerations


Load Profile
Load List = Load Profile? Sized for Worst Case? Linear Loads - Motors, Lighting Non-linear Loads - Up to 60% of Rating, Remainder 40% Linear without De-rate Harmonic Content Generator Heating Generator Temperature Rise Generator Pitch Insulation System Voltage - Number of Leads

Generator vs Engine Size


KVA vs KW Requirements bkW = (ekW / Gen Eff. ) + Fan Demand SKVA Voltage Dip - Generator Transient Load Changes Frequency Dip - Engine Voltage Dip - Generator

Generator spec

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Load Balance
3 Phase Generator 3 Phase Balance Loads L - L Loads L - N Loads Balance Phases with Similar Loads

Size is Determined by Highest Phase Current and % Unbalance

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Harmonics The third harmonic gets the most attention because it is the closest harmonic and is also synchronized with H1 in a three phase machine. When a three phase alternator is directly grounded there is no impedance to restrict the circulation of currents. By reducing the pole pitch the third harmonic can be eliminated.
1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 0

Pitch = (throw-1) x #poles # of slots


0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Load Steps
Load Stepping - Prioritization
Reduces Transients Load Shedding Scheme

Load Step Type


Block Load Motor Load Transformer

Transient Response Factors Load Step Type Genset Package Configuration Generator Configuration System Interaction

Multi-Unit Timing
First to Rated First Load Step Parallel Second Load Step First to Rated Parallel One Large Load Step

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Caterpillar EP SpecSizer, LERX5475

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Load Step Type


Transformers
High Inrush Current, Are Not Include in Sizing Engine Magnetizing Current - Typical Less Than 20 Cycles

Block Load
Instantaneous load acceptance/rejection Typical 1.0 pf or 0.8 pf Actual load conditions typically do not represent pure block loads

Motor loads
Dependent on motor starting technique Typical high SKVA requirement and low HP requirement at time = zero

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Genset Package Configuration


Engine Mounted Radiator Fan Demand Transient Response Dependent on Acceleration bkW Fan Demand Reduces Acceleration bkW Added System Inertia Air System Design Change in Boost Pressure Small / Low Inertia Turbochargers - Best Large / High Inertia Turbochargers - Worst System Trade - Off Fuel Consumption vs. Response

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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BMEP Load Steps


Load acceptance capability dependent on BMEP Load Step
ISO 8528-5, rated BMEP determines % Block Load requirement Higher ratings reduce transient performance The higher the engine BMEP and efficiency the worse its ability to pickup load At best gas engines are half as good as diesel. Lean burn, low gas pressure are worst

EDS 74.2 Block Loading Transient Different Transient Classes,


Gas Engine - G1 Diesel Engine - G2

ISO 8528-5 Recovery time (sec)

Frequency Voltage Class 1 Class 2 Class 1 Class 2 10 5 -10% -20% +12% 10 -25% +35% 6 -20% +25%

Stepped load increase -15% Gas engines -25% 100% load decrease +18%

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Generator Configuration & Transient response


Volts / Hertz
% Regulated Voltage Dip = Frequency Dip

2 Volts / Hertz
2x% Regulated Voltage Dip = %Frequency Dip

Example: 10% Freq. Dip = 10% Voltage Dip = .90 Voltage = .81 Power Tight Voltage Longer Response Time

Example: 10% Freq. Dip = 20% Voltage Dip = .80 Voltage = .64 Power More Voltage Dip Faster Response Time

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Ten Second Start Non-Paralleled Gensets


Cranking Batteries need to be properly sized, cells in good condition, and fully charged
Short Battery Cables, may need Battery heaters

Combustion Air must be minimum 21C


Warm Air Intake Until Engine is up to Rated Speed, louvers.

Jacket Water Temp must be minimum 32C Jacket Water Heaters

Good Fuel Supply Includes supply & return


lines, Fuel heaters.

Properly sized Generator rotating inertia Generator Start Signal time delay minimized Switchgear Breaker close time delay minimize

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Enclosures Rotating Electrical Machines


Most Common International Protection Codes IP21 IP22 IP23 IP44 IP54 IP55 IP56

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Selecting the correct enclosure


Clean and well ventilated machine room IP 21-23 is perfectly suited 90% of all generators installed are IP21-23 Humid and salt laden environment Evaluate the quality of the filtration and ventilation system of the power house. IP23 could be appropriate. Space heater is mandatory. Check load schedule, an under loaded machine is a risk.

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Humid an Salt laden environment


A filtered unit will eliminate solid contaminants. IP44S.

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled (CACA)

IP 54 & IP 55 Fan driven secondary air circuit. Power ratings from 500 ekW to 15 000 ekW Offshore-Petroleum applications

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Totally Enclosed Water Cooled (CACW)

- IP 54 & IP 55 - Single or Double Tube Construction - Primarily for Marine Applications

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Commissioning Field Check Lists


Customer Data Engine data Generator data Environment, Ambient conditions Safety Serviceability Customer orientation Full load data Statement of completion

Engine Start-up checklist: Governor & Fuel system information Cooling system: Lubrication system: Exhaust system Mounting Vibration levels Batteries Jacket water heaters Crankcase ventilation Protection system accuracy & functional tests. ECM Configuration settings ECM Monitoring settings

Genset Start-up Check list EMCP Configuration settings VR Configuration settings Rating information Generator name plate information Electrical Megohmmeter test Grounding, cabling Mechanical Bearings, air gaps Switch gear/parallel operation Enclosure, Utily Grade, etc. Application & load information

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Examples
Room Ventilation Engine Air Intake Radiator Mounting

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Examples
Cables routing, Generator ventilation, Site safety

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Examples

Cooling pump side load

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Examples

Exhaust routing

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Examples

Exhaust bellow misalignment

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Examples

Air Intake misalignment

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Examples

JW heater pump misinstall

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Examples
Batteries cables Overloading on CB bars

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Examples

By pass line connection

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Examples
Mounting isolators not set

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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Running with open doors will overheat the generator due to air recirculation

EAME/CIS TC Conference EP/Petroleum - Malaga, October 2007


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