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READINGANDINTERPRETINGCONSTRUCTIONDRAWINGS

Reading and Interpreting Construction Drawings, Course #403 Presented by:

PDH Enterprises, LLC PO Box 942 Morrisville, NC 27560 (919)208-5296 www.PDHSite.com

Course Author: J.N. Ramaswamy, Ph.D., P.E.


CopyrightJ.N.Ramaswamy,Ph.D.,P.E.www.pdhsite.com

READINGANDINTERPRETINGCONSTRUCTIONDRAWINGS By J.N.Ramaswamy,Ph.D.,P.E.

TABLEOFCONTENTS Page I. Introduction..1 II. ReadingMeasuringTools.3 III. LinesandSymbols.5 IV. OrthographicDrawings.12 V. ScaleReadingandDimensioning18 VI. PlotDrawings23 VII. FoundationDrawings.28 VIII. FramingDrawings.35

IX. PlumbingDrawings..42 X. HVACDrawings46 XI. ElectricalDrawings48 XII. WeldingDrawings.54 LISTOFFIGURES II.1.MeasuringTape3 II.2.RelationshipbetweenInchandMillimeter4 III.1.CommonLines5 III.2.DimensionandExtensionLines6 III.3.BreakLines7 III.4.SectionCuttingLines7 III.5.SectionLines8 III.6.ListofSymbols911 IV.1.ProjectionofOrthographicViews12

IV.2.ObjectwithinaGlassCube.13 IV.3.BlockwithaNotch13 IV.4.OrthographicViewoftheNotchedBlock13 IV.5.SectionalView16 IV.6.DetailsofaCornice17 V.1.ArchitectsScale19 V.2.EngineersScale20 V.3.DimensioningMasonryWalls21 V.4.DimensioningWindowsinMasonryandFrameBuildings21 VI.1.ContourLineswithElevationandGeneralPlotLayout24 VI.2.ContourswithSection..25 VI.3.ContourLineswithDecreasingElevationsTowardtheMiddle25 VI.4.ContourLineswithIncreasingElevationsTowardtheMiddle26 VI.5.ContourLineswithOriginalandFinishedGrade26 VI.6.CommonTopographicSymbols27 VII.1.Footing28 VII.2.WallandFootingPartialFoundationPlan29 VII.3.FoundationWellSection30 VII.4.SectionandPlanofAugerCastPile31 VII.5.SteelHPileFoundation32 VII.6.MonolithicSlabfoundation33 VII.7.SlabfloorWithinFoundationWalls33 VII.8.ThickenedSlabbelowLoadbearingWalls34 VIII.1.FloorFramingComponents35 VIII.2.AdditionalFloorFramingMembers36 VIII.3.DimensioningofExteriorWall37 VIII.4.PlatformFraming38 VIII.5.BalloonFraming38 VIII.6.WallFrameComponents39 VIII.7.LoadbearingPartitions40 VIII.8.ATypicalDoorSchedule40 VIII.9.CommonRoofStyles41 VIII.10.CommonRoofFramingTerms41 IX.1.CommonPlumbingSymbols43 IX.2.WaterDistributionSystem(Isometricview)44 X.1.AirConditioningSymbols46 XI.1.CommonSymbolsonElectricalPlan48 XI.2.TypicalControlWiringDiagram49

XI.3.OnLineDiagram50 XI.4.PanelSchedule51 XI.5.EquipmentSchedule52 XII.1.BasicWeldingSymbol54 XII.2.BasicWeldsymbols55 XII.3.WeldDimensions55 XII.4.ContourSymbols56 XII.5.GrooveSymbols57 XII.6.SpotWeldSymbols57 XII.7.WeldallAroundSymbols58 XII.8.FieldWeldSymbol58 XII.9.MeltthroughSymbol58

I. INTRODUCTION Constructiondrawingsareusedtocommunicatethearchitecturalandengineeringdesignofa constructionproject.Therearetwotypesofconstructiondrawings:(1)Pictorialdrawingsand (2)Orthographicprojections.Pictorialdrawingsarecalledrenderingsandareusedfor presentationsandarenotintendedtoshowconstructiondetails.Orthographicprojectionsare usedinconstructionprojectsandshowdifferentviewsofthesubjectsuchasabuilding.Each viewistakenfromadifferentreferencepointandallowsallthedetailsofastructure.The viewsusedinconstructiondrawingsarethetop,front,side,andback.Thetopviewiscalleda plandrawing.Front.Side,andbackviewsarecalledelevations.Aviewoftheinteriorofthe buildingiscalledsectionorinteriorelevation.Readingconstructiondrawingsisthe gatheringofinformationfromadrawing.Itinvolvestwoprincipalelements:visualizationand interpretation.Visualizationistheabilitytocreateamentalimageofabuildingfromasetof workingdrawings.Astudyofdrawingreadingprinciplesandlearningtosketchwillhelpone visualizeconstructiondrawings.Interpretationistheabilitytounderstandlines,symbols, dimensions,notes,andotherinformationontheworkingdrawings. I.1.Typeofdrawings Drawingsareusuallyarrangedintheapproximateorderofconstruction.Asetofdrawings consistsof:Civil(C1,C2,etc),Structural(S1,S2,etc),Architectural(A1,A2,etc),Electrical (E1,E2,etc),Mechanical(M1,M2,etc),andPlumbing(P1,P2,etc). Civilengineeringdrawings(C)includeplotorsiteplans,utilities,easements,grading,and landscapedetails.Thesiteplancanalsoincludecontourlines,walks,driveways,propertylines, buildingsetbacks,andutilitylocations. Structuraldrawings(S)includefoundation,structuralsteel,buildingsupportsystem,androof framingsystemalongwithsectionsanddetails. Architecturaldrawings(A)includefloorplans,elevations,buildingsections,doorandwindow schedules,androomfinishes.Thefloorplanisanimportantdrawingbecauseitprovidesthe mostimportantinformationandactsasareferenceforthelocationofadditionalsectionsand details.Thefloorplanshowsfloorfinishes,walls,doors,stairways,fireplaces,builtincabinets,

andmechanicalequipment.Elevationsareviewsoftheexteriorfeaturesofthebuilding. Usuallyaminimumoffourelevationdrawingsisneededtoshowthedesignofallsidesofthe structure.Sectionsareviewsshowingthebuildingasifitwerecutapart.Theyshowwalls, stairsandotherdetailsnotclearlyshowninotherdrawings.Sectionstakenthroughtheshort dimensionofabuildingareknownastransversesections.Thosetakenthroughthelong dimensionareknownaslongitudinalsections.Detaildrawingsarepreparedforcomplex buildingcomponentsandunusualconstructionsuchasanarch,acornice,astructuralsteel connectionoraretainingwall.Schedulesarelistsofmaterialsneededintheconstruction process.Aschedulenormallyliststheitem,anidentificationmark,size,numberrequired,and anyotherusefulinformation.Differenttypeofschedulesinclude:doorschedules,window schedules,lightingfixtureschedules,androomfinishschedules. TheElectricaldrawings(E)includetheelectricalwiring,lightingplan,reflectedceilingplan,and panelschedules. TheMechanicaldrawings(M)includeheating,ventilating,andairconditioning(HVAC)plans, plumbingplans,sprinklersystems,andscheduleforpipeandfittings,HVACequipment,and plumbingfixtures. Theplumbingplan(P)showsthelayoutforthehotandcoldwatersystems,thesewage disposalsystem,andthelocationofplumbingfixtures. Structuralframingplans(S)maybeincludedinasetofplansfortheframingoftheroof,floors, andvariouselevationorwallsections.

II. READINGMEASURINGTOOLS Toolsusedinconstructionindustryare:framingsquares,benchrules,steelrules,andtapes.In thecustomary(alsocalledEnglish)measurementsystem,thedistancesaredividedintofeet, inches,andfractionsofaninch.Theruleusedwiththissystemiscalledfractionalrule.In metricsystem,thedivisionsareinmeters,centimeters,andmillimeters.Thisruleiscalled metricrule. II.1.FractionalruleThisruleisdividedinto16ths.SeeFigureII.1.Inthisfigure,theinchis dividedinto16parts.Thus,eachsmalldivisionis1/16thofaninch.

FigureII.1.MeasuringTape

II.2.MetricruleThebasicunitoflinearmeasureinthemetricsystemisthemeter(m).Other linearunitsareeitherfractionsormultiplesofameter.Themostcommonunitsarethe following: UnitAbbreviationEqualto Millimetermm1/1000thm Centimetercm1/100thm Kilometerkm1000m

Metricdimensionsarebettertoworkbecausetheycanbeaddedorsubtractedmoreeasily thanEnglishunits.However,thecustomarysystemisusedalmostexclusivelyinthiscountry. Therelationshipbetweenthecustomaryandthemetricsystemsisgivenbelow: 1inch=25.4millimeters 1foot=304.8millimeters 1yard(3feet)=914.4millimeter 39.37inches=1meter FigureII.2illustratestheaboverelationship.

FigureII.2RelationshipbetweenInchandMillimeter

III. LINESANDSYMBOLS III.1.LinesSeveraltypesoflinesareusedinconstructiondrawings.Theseareknownas alphabetlines.Alllinesaredrawninthesamecolor.Somevaryinwidth.Somearesolid, othersareacombinationofbrokenlines.Eachconveysadifferentmeaning.FigureIII.1 illustratessomecommonlinesandareexplainedbelow:

FigureIII.1.CommonLines PropertylineThepropertylineisanextraheavylinemadeupoflongdashesand alternatingwithtwoshortdashes. BorderlineBorderlinesarelocatedneartheedgeofthesheetofthedrawing paper.Theyarealsousedtoseparatethevariousportionsofthedrawingsuchas thetitleblock,notes,andtherevisionblock. ObjectlineObjectlinesrepresentthemainoutlineofthefeaturesoftheobject, building,orwalk.Theobjectlineisaheavy,continuouslineshowingalledgesand surfaces.

HiddenlineHiddenlinesaremediumweightandarecomposedofshortdashes. Theydefineedgesandsurfacesthatarenotvisibleinaparticularview.Onemust lookforanotherviewinthesetofdrawingstofindwheretheseedgesoccur. Hiddenlinesareomittediftheydonotclarifythedrawings. Equipment,andfixtures.Thecenterlineisalsousedtoindicateafinishedfloorline. Thelineislightinweightandcomposedofalternatinglongandshortdashes. DimensioningandextensionlinesDimensionandextensionlinesarethinlines thatindicatetheextentanddirectionofdimensions.SeeFigureIII.2foran illustration.

FigureIII.2DimensionandExtensionLines Dimensionlinesextendthelengthofthedistancebeingmeasured.Amarking devicesuchasanarrow,dotortickmark,isplacedattheendofthedimensionline.

Extensionlinesaredrawnperpendiculartothedimensionlinetospecifythe featuresbetweenwhichthedimensionapplies. BreaklinesBreaklinesareusedtoindicatethatanobjectcontinuesbutisnot shownonthedrawingortoindicatethattheobjectsfulllengthisnotshownto savespace.SeeFigureIII.3foranillustration.

Figure3.3BreakLines SectioncuttinglinesSectioncuttinglinesareusedwithsectionalviews.SeeFigure III.4foranexample.

FigureIII.4SectionCuttingLines Asectioncuttinglinemarksthepartofthedrawingbeingcuttocreatea sectionalview.Arrowsontheendofthelineindicatethedirectionfromwhichthe sectionisbeingviewed.Ifthesectionalviewisonanotherdrawing,thedrawing numberisincludedwiththesectionidentification. SectionlinesandrenderingSectionlines,alsocalledcrosshatchlinesarethin lines,usuallydrawnata450angle.SeeFigureIII.5foranexample.

FigureIII.5SectionLines

(Theyareusedinasectionalviewtoshowmaterialthathasbeencutbythe cuttingplaneline.
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III.2.SymbolsAnumberofsymbolsarecommonlyusedonconstructiondrawings.These symbolsrepresentbuildingmaterialsandfixtures.Normally,symbolsareidentifiedinalegend whichisalistofsymbolsandtheircorrespondingmeanings.FigureIII.6,showninthenext threepages,exhibitsthedifferentsymbols.

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FigureIII.6ListofSymbols

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FigureIII.6ListofSymbols

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IV. ORTHOGRAPHICDRAWINGS Nearlyalldrawingsusedonaconstructionprojectareorthographicdrawings.Theyare preferredbecausemoredetailscanbeshown.Thesedrawingsarecreatedusing orthographicprojection,aprocessbywhichanobjectorstructureisdescribedusingvarious views.Eachviewdefinesoneface,orside,oftheobject.Theviewsofanorthographic drawingareprojectedatarightangle(900)toeachother.Thebestwaytovisualizethisis bycuttingandunfoldingacardboardboxasshowninFigureIV.1.

FigureIV.1ProjectionofOrthographicViews Thefrontviewremainsinposition.Thefouradjoiningviewsrevolve900aroundthefolds bringingthemintothesameplaneasthefrontview.Therearviewisshownnexttotheleft sideview,butitcouldbeshowninseveralalternatepositions,asindicated.Ifanobjectis placedinsideaglasscubeandviewedthroughanyofthecubessixsides,onlyonefaceof theobjectcanbeseen.Eachviewthroughasideofthecubewouldcreateone orthographicviewasshowninFigureIV.2.

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IV.1.Creatingorthographicdrawings

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FigureIV.2showsanobjectwithinaglasscube.Thecubehassixsidesandiftheobjectis viewedthroughanyofthesides,onlyonefaceoftheobjectwouldbeseen.Eachview throughthesideofthecubewouldcreateoneorthographicview.FigureIV.3showsablock withanotchcutintoonecorner.TheorthographicdrawingoftheblockisshowninFigure IV.4.Referringtothisfiguretheprocedurelistedbelowisfollowedforcreatingan orthographicdrawing. 1. Beginbydrawingthefrontview.Allviewsshouldbedrawntoscale.Selectthe objectspositionsothatmostofthefeaturesarelocatedonthefront,side,andtop. 2. Ateveryedgeandfeatureshownonthefrontview,perpendicularprojectorsare drawnintheverticalandhorizontaldirections.Theseconstructionlinesaredrawn lightly,anderasedwhenthedrawingiscomplete. 3. Drawthetopandsideviews.Theprojectionlinesconnectcommonfeatures betweenviews. 4. Fromthefrontedgeofthetopview,drawahorizontalprojectionline.Drawa verticalprojectionlinefromthefrontedgeofthesideview. 5. Attheintersectionoftheselines,drawalineata450angle.Projectionlinesfor featurescommontothetopandsideviewswillintersectatthisline. IV.2.ConstructiondrawingsForconstructiondrawings,differentviewsofthebuildingsuchas floorplansandelevationsareobtainedusingorthographicprojection. IV.2.1.PlanviewsThetopviewofthebuildingiscalledaplanview.Planviewsaretakenat differentlevelsthroughoutthebuilding.Incomplicatedbuildings,eachfloormayrequire multipleplanviewstoillustrateallconstructiondetails. IV.2.1.1.FloorplanThefloorplanshowsthelayoutofthebuildingandshowswalls,doors, windows,rooms,andstairs.Otheritemssuchasplumbingandelectricalcanalsobeshownif spaceisavailable.Floorplansaredrawnusuallytoscale1/48or1/4=10.Aseparate drawingismadeforeachfloorincludingthebasement. IV.2.1.2.FoundationplanThefoundationplanissimilartothefloorplan,exceptitshowsthe foundationofthebuildingandincludesbasement,foundationwalls,slabs,piers,andfootings. IV.2.1.3.FramingplanFramingplanshowsthelayoutofthestructuralmemberssupportinga floororroof.Aframingplanisoftenincludedforeachfloor.Ifthereisroom,detaildrawings oftheconnectionsbetweenmembersmaybeincluded.

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IV.2.1.4.ElectricalplanElectricalplanincludeslocationofreceptacles,switches,andfixtures. Anothertypeofelectricalplan,thereflectedceilingplanincludesceilingmountedlight fixtures. IV2.1.5.PlumbingplanTheplumbingplanshowsheatingandcirculatingequipment,supply andwastesystems,plumbingfixtures,andthespotwherethewaterpipeentersthebuilding. IV.2.1.5.MechanicalplanAmechanicalplanshowstheheating,ventilating,andair conditioningsystem(HVAC)andanymechanicalequipmentandsystemslocatedinthe building. IV.2.2.ElevationsElevationsareorthographic,exteriorviewsofabuildingandshowfeatures suchasthestyleofthebuilding,doors,windows,chimneys,andmoldings.Elevationsare designatedasFront,Right,Left,andRear.Theymaybealsoidentifiedbytheplan directionthattheelevationfacessuchasEastelevationandWestelevationetc.Interior elevationsmaybeprovidedtoshowtheconstructionofaparticularinteriorwallorarea.The basementorfoundationwallsandfootingsareshownwithhiddenlinesonelevations. IV.2.3.SectionsBesidestheplansandelevations,itmaybenecessarytoshowtheinsideof awall,cabinet,orroofstructuretoclarifyconstructionprocedures.Whenthedrawingisan imaginarycutthroughawallorotherfeature,itisknownassectionalvieworsection. Sectionsareprovidedforwalls,cabinets,chimneys,stairs,andotherfeatureswhose constructionisnotshownclearlyontheplanorelevation.FigureIV.5,shownbelow,isan exampleofasectionalviewshowingconstructiondetails.

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FigureIV.5SectionalView

IV.2.4.DetailsDuetothescaleatwhichconstructiondrawingsareusuallymade,certain featuresarenotclearlyshownontheplan,elevation,orsectionalviews.Thesefeatureswill requirealargescaleillustrationtoprovideinformationnecessaryforconstruction.Inthese situationsadetaileddrawingisused.Detailsaredrawnatalargerscalethanplans,elevations, andsectionsandusuallytakeprecedenceoverdrawingsshowninlessdetail.FigureIV.6isan exampleforadetaildrawing.Detaildrawingsmaybeplacedonthesamesheetastheplanor elevationviewsoronaseparatesheetandreferencedbydetailandsheetnumber.

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FigureIV.6DetailsofaCornice

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V. SCALEREADINGANDDIMENSIONING Constructiondrawingsaredrawntoareducedscale(smallerthanactualsize).Thescaleof aparticularplan,elevation,ordetailisindicatedonthesheeteitherinthetitleblockor beneaththedrawingitself.Onadrawing,thescaleisdefinedinthefollowingmanner: SCALE:=10.Thismeansthatalengthonthescaledrawingisequaltoalengthof onefootinreality. V.1.ArchitectsscaleInadditiontoreferringtotherelativesizeatwhichadrawinghas beenmade,thetermscalealsoreferstotheinstrument(ruler)usedtomeasuredistances onadrawing.Themostcommonscaleusedinthiscountryisthearchitectsscale;the engineersscaleisalsoused.Bothmeasureincustomaryunits.Thearchitectsscalecanbe usedtomeasuredistancesonadrawingbymatchingthedrawingscaletotheappropriate scalelistedontheinstrument.Architectsandengineersscalesareavailableinboththree sided(triangular)andflatforms(twosided).Typicalscalesfoundonathreesided architectsscalearelistedonthefollowingtable. ScaleSmallesttickmark 3/323 3/162 1/82 1/41 3/81/2 3/41/4 1/21/4 11/8 11/16 31/16 Thescalemostcommonlyusedforfloorplansinthecustomarymeasurementsystemis

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1/4=10or1/48size(therearefortyeight1/4"unitsin1).Thisiscommonlyreferredto asquarterscale.Normallyscalesfordetaildrawingsrangefrom1/2=10tofullsize. WhenmeasuringadistancewithanarchitectsscalethemethodshowninFigureV.1must beused. 0mark 67 0760

FigureV.1ArchitectsScale Placethescaleonthedrawingsuchthatoneendofthelineispastthe0markintotheparts ofafootandinchesarea.Next,aligntheotherendofthelinewiththenearestfootmark. Notetheinchesandfractionsbeyondthe0mark,andaddthatmeasurementtothe indicatednumberoffeettofindthedistancerepresentedbytheline.Aproperlyprepared drawingwillincludeallneededdimensions.Scalingadrawingformeasurementsnot providedmustbedonecarefully. V.2.EngineersscaleTheengineersscaleistypicallyusedoncivildrawingssuchasthe siteplansandhighwayprojects.Engineersscalesarereferredtoinwholenumbersandare relatedtosomanyfeetperinch.A20scalewouldbenotedas1=20thismeansevery inchonthedrawingequals20feetinreality.Thepurposeoftheengineersscaleistobe abletolayoutlargerareasofaprojectandgettheprojectononedrawing.Typicalscales foundonathreesidedengineersscaleare: 1=10(alsocanrepresent100,1000oreven10,000) 1=20(200,200020,000) 1=30(300,300030,000) 1=40(400,400040,000) 1=50(500,500050,000) 1=60(600,600060,000)
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FigureV.2showsthemeasurementofalineusingengineersscaleof1=10.

FigureV.2EngineersScale V.3.MetricsystemThemetricsystemofmeasurementhasseenlittleuseinthiscountry primarilybecausemetricconstructionstandardshavenotbeenestablished.Oncemetric standardshavebeenadoptedandmetricmodularmaterialsbecomeavailable,metric dimensioningwillbeused.Themetricscalecloselyrepresentingthecustomaryquarter inchscale(1/48)sizeisthe1:50scale(1/50size)inwhichatwocentimeterlengthonthe drawingequalsaonemeter(100cm)lengthontheactualobject. V.4.DimensioningtechniqueAdimensionlinecanterminateinanarrowhead,dot,ortick mark.Thedimensionscanbewrittenabove,below,orwithinthedimensionline.Any dimensionthatcanbeneededduringconstructionshouldbeincludedonthedrawing. Unnecessarydimensionsshouldnotbeincluded. V.4.1.DimensioningfloorplansThedimensionsonthefloorplanmustbecorrectbecause otherdrawingswillusefloorplanastheirbasis.Dimensionsofwalls,windows,anddoors areincluded.Whendimensioningwalls,differenttypesofwallsaredimensioned differently.MasonrywallsdimensionedtotheirexteriorsurfaceasinFigureV.3

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FigureV.3DimensioningMasonryWalls Dimensionsofexteriorwallsofframeandbrickveneerbuildingsusuallystartattheexterior surfaceofthestudwallasinFigureV.4.

FigureV.4DimensioningWindowsinMasonryandFrameBuildings Interiorwallsareusuallydimensionedtothecenterorsideofpartitions.Windowanddoor openingsarelocatedbytheircenterlinesforframeconstruction.Formasonry construction,theseopeningsaredimensionedtotheedgesofthemasonrysurface openings. V.4.2.DimensioningelevationsDimensionsprovidedonelevationdrawingsarethose relatedtotheverticalplane.Footingthickness,depthoffootingbelowgrade,floorand ceilingheights,windowanddoorheights,andchimneyheightareprovidedonelevation


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drawings.Inadditiontoverticaldimensions,informationisprovidedthroughnoteson gradeinformation,materials,andspecialdetails.Roofslopeisusuallygivenonadrawingas aslopetriangle.Thisdiagramrepresentstheratiobetweenrise(changeinelevationfrom toptobottomofroof)andrun(onehalftheentirespanofthebuilding).Atypicalslope wouldbe4:12or4unitsofrisefor12unitsofrun.

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VI. PLOTDRAWINGS VI.1.FeaturesofplotdrawingsAplotdrawingisusuallycalledaplotplanorasiteplan.It isaviewfromabovethepropertythatshowsthelocationofthebuildingonthelot.Many featuresasshownbelowmaybeshownontheplotplan: Lotandblocknumberoraddress. Bearing(direction)andlengthofpropertylines. Northarrow. Dimensionsoffront,rear,andsideyards. Locationofotheraccessorybuildings(carport,garage,etc). Locationofwalks,drives,fences,andpatios. Locationofeasementsetbacks. Locationofutilities(gas,electric,water,andsewage). Elevationsatthevariouslocations. Treesandshrubstoberetained. Gradesandtopographyofthesite.

VI.1.1.NortharrowThenortharrowindicatesthenorthdirectionandwillhelptovisualize thestructure.Ifthewallsofthebuildingarenotparalleltothecompassdirections,aplan northmaybedesignated.Theplannorthwillbeslightlydifferentfromthetruenorth.A plannorthisprovidedsothatthereisareferencedirectionalignedwiththebuilding. VI.1.2.PropertylinesLinesoutliningthebuildingplotarecalledpropertylines.Thelength andbearing(direction)ofeachpropertylineisidentifiedontheplotplan.Bearingis expressedasdegreeseastorwestornorthorsouthandgivenindegrees,minutes,and seconds.(Aminuteis1/60thofadegree,asecondis1/60thofaminute).Whenthe propertylineisacurveinsteadofastraightline,itisidentifiedbyaradius,lengthofcurve, anditsangleoftangency.

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VI.1.3.ContourlinesContourlinesarelinesthatidentifythegroundelevation.Allpoints alongacontourlineareatthesameelevation.Theelevationofthelineislisted.SeeFigure VI.1.

FigureVI.1ContourLineswith ElevationandGeneralPlotLayout Theintervalbetweencontourlines(thechangeintheverticaldistance)canbeany convenientdistancesuchas1,5,or10.Iftheintervalistoosmall,therewillbetoomany contourlinesandthedrawingwillbecomecrowdedandhardtointerpret.Iftheintervalis toolarge,somedetailwillbelost.Contourlinesthatarefarapartindicateagradualslope ofthelandandlinesthatareclosetogetherindicateadeepslope.SeeFigureVI.2.

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FigureVI.2ContourwithSection FigureVI.3indicatesthetopographyandsectionasapondorvalleywiththenumbers decreasingtowardthemiddle.

FigureVI.3ContourLineswithDecreasing ElevationsTowardtheMiddle

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FigureVI.4ContourLineswithIncreasing ElevationsTowardtheMiddle FigureVI.4showsthesameconfigurationwiththeelevationnumbersincreasingtowardthe middle,indicatingahillinplan.Contourlinesarelong,freehanddashedlines.Whenitis desiredtoshowboththeoriginalgradeandafinishgradeofcontour,theoriginalisshown inshortdashedlines,thefinishgradeinsolidlinesSeeFigureVI.5.

FigureVI.5ContourLineswithOriginal andFinishedGrade Theelevationsonaparticularplotarereferencedtoalocalpermanentmarkerofknown elevation,suchasasurveymarkerplate,afirehydrant,oramanholecover. VI.1.4.TopographicfeaturesThetopography(locationandelevationoffeatures)isoften displayedontheplotplan.Topographicfeaturesincludenaturalobjectssuchastreesor shrubs,andhumanmadeobjects.FigureVI.6illustratescommontopographicalsymbols

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usedonplans.Plotplansshouldalsoincludealistofsymbolsusedtoidentifyfeatures. Thislistiscalledalegend.

FigureVI.6CommonTopographicSymbols VI.1.5.BuildinglocationAnoutlineofthestructureisshownontheplotplan.Oftenthe elevationofthefirstfloorisalsoincluded.Thedistancesfromthepropertylinestothe buildingareshown.Mostlocalbuildingcodesspecifyaminimumdistancebetweenthe buildingandthepropertylines.Thisdistanceiscalledasetbackdistance.Thisdistance canalsobeshownontheplotplan.Theconnectionsbetweenthemainutilitylinesandthe buildingareshownontheplotplan.Undergroundpipesandcablesareshownasdashed lines.Theselinesareidentifiedonthedrawingusingabbreviationsdefinedinthelegend.

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VII. FOUNDATIONDRAWINGS Oncethebuildinghasbeenlocatedontheplotandtherequiredsiteclearanceandexcavation iscomplete,workstartsontheconcretefootingsandfoundationwalls.Thedetailsof constructionforthefootingsandfoundationwallsforthebuildingarefoundonthefoundation plan(orbasementplan). VII.1.FootingsFootingsarethefeetuponwhichtheentirebuildingrests.SeeFigureVII.1

FigureVII.1Footing Thesizesofthefootingsareshownonthefoundationplanoronadetailofthefoundation plan.Therearemanytypesoffoundationsystemsasshownbelow: Footingsandwalls. Gradebeams. Augercastpiles. Caissons. SteelHpiles.

Footingsarealsorequiredundercolumns.Thesefootingsareusuallywiderandthickerthan thoseforfoundationwallsbecausethecolumnloadsareconcentratedononespot.Fireplace
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chimneysandsimilarconcentrationsofweightalsorequirelargerfootings.Footingsmustrest onundisturbedsoilbelowthefrostline,thedeepestpointtowhichthegroundwillfreezeina givenlocation.Thelocalbuildingcodewillgivethedepthofthefrostline,andhowfarbelowit thebottomsofthefootingsmustbeplaced.Whenapouredconcretefoundationwallistobe erectedonthefooting,thedrawingmaycallforakeywaytobecastinthefootingtoanchor thewallasshowninFigureVII.1.Onthefoundationplan,footingsareshownashiddenlinesas showninFigureVII.2

FigureVII.2Wall&FootingPartialFoundationPlan Thewidthofthefootingunderthefoundationwallsandcolumnsisshown.Reinforcingrods areshownasdotsinsectionalviews.Onelevationdrawings,theserodsareshownaslong dashedlines. VII.2.FoundationwallsFoundationwallsarethebaseofthebuilding.Theytransferthe weightofthebuildingtothefootingsandtothegroundbelow.Foundationwallsandcolumns areshownassolidlinesonthefoundationplanandashiddenlinesinelevationviews.A foundationwallsectionisshowninFigureVII.3.


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FigureVII.3FoundationWallSection Fireplacesandchimneysareshownonthefoundationplanwithappropriatedimensionsand necessarydetailsforconstruction. VII.3.AugercastpilesThistypeoffoundationisdrilledwitha1214steelaugertothe appropriatedesigndepth.Whilethedrillingshaftisbeingraisedoutofthehole,concreteis pumpeddowntheshafttofillupthecavity.Inanaugercastpilesystemonadrawingthereare severalaugercastpilesclusteredtogether.Theyaretoppedwithapilecaptomakethecluster workasatotalloadsystemasshowninFigureVII.4.

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FigureVII.4SectionandPlanofAugerCastPile AFrictionpile.BBearingpile VII.4.CaissonsCaissonsarealsodrilledtothedesigndepthandareusuallyfrom1872in diameter.Thedrillisthenremovedandthebottomofthecaissontestedforsoilloadcapacity. Aftertheholepassesinspection,asteelreinforcingcageisinstalled,andtheholeisfilledwith concrete. VII.5.SteelpilesAsteelpileisalongHshaped(Hpile)orround(pipepile)steelmemberthat ishammerdrivenintotheearth.Thepileisdriventoasuitablesupportstratumordrivento frictionresistanceofthesoil(thistypeofpileisreferredtoasafrictionpile).Onadrawingwith thistypeoffoundationsystem,severalsteelpilescanbeseenclusteredtogetherandtopped withapilecaptomaketheclusterworkastotalloadsystem.SeeFigureVII.5.
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FigureVII.5SteelHPileFoundation VII.6.SlabongradeAconcreteslabpouredatgroundleveliscalledslabongrade.Concrete slabsareusedasbothbasementfloorsandmainfloors.Floatingslabconstructionusesa monolithicslab(onecontinuousunit)asinFigureVII.6.

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FigureVII.6MonolithicSlabFoundation Anothermethodofproducingaslabflooristopourthefoundationwallstofloorheight.Then, theareawithinthewallsisfilledwithsoilandgravel.Finally,thefloorispouredwithinthe walls,separatedbyanexpansionjointasshowninFigureVII.7.

FigureVII.7SlabFloorwithinthefoundationWalls LoadbearingwallsoverslabfloorsrequireathickenedslabasinFigureVII.8.Theseareasare indicatedbyhiddenlinesandanote.

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FigureVII.8ThickenedSlabBelow LoadbearingWall VII.7.FoundationelevationsElevationsforafoundationaremarkedonthefoundationplan view.Dependingonthetypeoffoundation,theelevationswillbegivenforvariouspartsofthe system.Forwallfootings,thetopofthefootingisgivenandsometimesthebottomofthe footingwillalsobemarkedasanelevation.Foraugercastpiles,caissons,andsteelpiles,the topofthepilecapistheelevationgiven. VII.8.SlabreinforcementSteelreinforcingrodsorweldedwirefabricarecastintheconcrete whenaslabissubjectedtodryingshrinkage.Reinforcementisalsousedwhentheconcrete slabisexpectedtobesubjectedtotensionduetothesettlingofadirtfillorheavyload.A typicalnotespecifyingweldedwirefabricinaconcretefloorwouldreadas:#4@12o/cEW OVER4ABC. VII.9.WaterproofingfoundationsWaterproofingoffoundationwallsisneededinareaswhere soilandclimaticconditionsdemandprotectionfromundergroundwater.Residential waterproofingusuallyconsistsofmoppingtheoutsideofthefoundationwallwithtaror asphalt.Sometimesapolyethylenesheetisappliedoverthetar.Drawingsforafoundationto bewaterproofedwillhaveaheavyblacklineontheexteriorwallwithanoteindicating location.Alayerofcrushedrockorgravelislaidbelowthefloorarea.Thislayeristhen coveredwithaheavyplasticvaporbarriertokeepthedampnessinthegroundfrom transferringtotheslab.

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VIII. VIII.1.WoodframingWoodisthemostwidelyusedresidentialconstructionmaterialdue toitsavailabilityandaffordability.Woodhasproventobeadurable,dependablematerial forhouses.Themethodsofwoodframingarewidelyknown. VIII.2.FloorframesThebasiccomponentsofafloorframe,showninFigureVIII.1,are explainedbelow: FRAMINGDRAWINGS

FigureVIII.1FloorFrameComponents Sillplate:Thesillplateisaboardattachedtotopsurfaceofthefoundationwall.Anchor boltscastintheconcreteareusedfortheconnection.A2x6memberisoftenusedfor thesillplate. Header:Theheaderisnailedtothetopofthesillplateatitsexterioredge.Theheader ispositionedwithitslongercrosssectionaldimensionvertical.Theheaderisofthe samesizeasthejoistsattachedtoit. Joists:Theendsofthesefloorsupportbeamsrestonthesillplate,andarenailedtothe header.Joistsarenormallyspaced1216apart.Commonlumbersizesusedasjoists are2x8,2x10,and2x12.

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Subfloor:Thejoistsandheaderarecoveredwithsubflooring.Asheetmaterialsuchas plywoodisnormallyusedandthesubfloorisnailedtothejoists.Thefinishedfloorwill coverthesubfloor.FigureVIII.2showsadditionalfloorframingmembers.

FigureVIII.2AdditionalFloorFramingMembers Doubleheader:Whenanopeningthatdisruptstheframingpatternisneeded,adouble header,samesizeasthejoists,isinstalledperpendiculartothejoists. Doubletrimmer:Twojoistsarenailedtogethernexttoanopening. Tailjoist:Thesearejoistsinterruptedbyanopening.Theynormallyrunbetweenthe doubleheaderandthesillplate. Ledger:Aledgerisasmallpieceoflumber,suchas2x2,nailedtothesideofthedouble header,atitsbottomedge.Thispieceservesasaledgeonwhichthetailjoistsrest. Notchesmustbecutintothejoists. Bridging:Thesesmallmembersareconnectedbetweenthesidesoftheadjacentjoists. Bridgingprovideslateralstabilityforthejoistsandhelpstotransmitloadbetweenthe joists.Manytypesofbridgingareused:joistsizedmembers,crossed2x4s,orcrossed metalbars. Thefloorframingsystemisoftenshownonthefloorplan.Thesizesofthemembersaregiven. Joistswillbespecifiedinmannersimilarto2x12JOISTS16O.C.(oncenter),followedby markstoindicatedirectionofthespan. A2x12memberisusedforeachjoist.Thejoistsarespaced16fromoneanother.Joistsona planrepresentthejoistsabovethelevelshown.

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VIII.3.DimensioningfloorframesNormally,dimensionsforexteriorwallsaregiventothe outsideofthestudwallforframeandbrickveneerbuildings.SeeFigureVIII.3

FigureVIII.3Dimensioningof ExteriorWall Anotemaybeaddedtothedrawingtoread:exteriordimensionsaretooutsideofstuds; interiordimensionsaretocenterofstuds.Drawingsshouldbecheckedcarefullytoverifythe dimensioningpracticeused.Usuallyinteriorwallsofframeconstructionaredimensionedto theiredges,butsometimestotheircenterlines.Masonryinteriorwallsaredimensionedto theirfaces,withthewallthicknessalsodimensioned.Housesthathavesecondstoriessmaller thanthefirstarecalledoneandahalfstoryhouses.Thesehousesusuallyinvolvekneewalls (shortwallsjoinedbyaslopingceiling)anddormers.Splitlevelhouseshavefloorplansin whichthelevelsareseparatedbyhalfflightofstairs.Manyvariationsarecalledforinframing ofthistypeofstructure. VIII.4.WallframesTherearethreebasictypesoflightframeconstruction:platform,balloon, andparkandbeam. VIII.4.1.PlatformframingPlatformframing,alsoknownaswesternframing,isthemost widelyusedtype.Thefirstfloorisbuiltontopofthefoundation,soitresemblesaplatform whenthesubflooringiscomplete.Thefirstfloorandwallsectionsareraisedandasecond floorplatformisbuiltontopofthesewalls.Then,thesecondfloorwallsectionsareraisedand anotherplatformforthesecondstoryceilingisconstructed.Eachfloorisaseparateunitbuilt onthestructurebelow.SeeFigureVIII.4.

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FigureVIII.4PlatformFraming VIII.4.2.BalloonframingBalloonframingisnotusedtoanylargeextenttoday.Inthistypeof framing,thestudsextendunbrokenfromthefirstfloorsillplatetothetopplateofthehighest floor.Secondfloorjoistsrestonamembercalledaribbonwhichissetintothestuds.See FigureVIII.5.

FigureVIII.5BalloonFraming

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VIII.4.3.PlankandbeamframingThisframingconsistsofheavytimbermaterialforpostsin wallsectionsand2thickplankmaterialsupportingfloorandroofsections.Thestructural membersareplacedatwiderintervalsthaninothermethodsofframing.Thistypeofframing lendsitselftoextensiveuseofglassandexposedwoodsections. VariouscomponentsofawallframeareillustratedinFigureVIII.6andaredescribedbelow:

FigureVIII.6WallFrameComponents Soleplate:Thisservesasabaseforthewallframe.Thesoleplateisthesamesize memberasthestuds(normally2x4or2x6)andisnailedtothesubfloor. Studs:Studsaretheverticalmembersinthewallframe,runningfromthesoleplateto thetopplate.Studsarenormally2x4or2x6members. Header:Whensomestudsmustbeleftouttomakeroomforawindoworroom,a headerisusedtodistributetheweightofthebuildingaroundtheopening.Most commonwayofconstructingheadersistoruntwo2x4memberssidewaysandinsert a3/8spacer.Theheaderisnailedinplace. Trimmerstud:Astudisalwayslocatedoneithersideofaheader.Nexttothesestuds andbelowtheheader,trimmerstudsareplaced.Atrimmerstudextendsfromthe soleplatetothebottomoftheheader.Itisattachedtoboththestudatthesideand totheheader. Roughsill:Aroughsillispositionedtosupportawindow. Cripplestud:Cripplestudsareshortandextendbetweenthetopplateandtheheader orthesoleplateandroughsill.Theyaresimilartotrimmerstuds,butarenotpaired withanadjacentstud.
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Blocking:Blockingisusedtopreventthespreadofthefirefromfloortofloorthrough studandspaces. Topplate:Thetopplate(showninFigureVIII.6asadoubleplate)restsabovethestuds. Thenextlevelofjoistsorraftersissupportedbythetopplate. Interiorwallsthatcarrytheceilingorfloorloadfromabovearecalledloadbearingpartitions. Usuallytheyarelocatedoverabeamorbearingwall.SeeFigureVIII.7.

FigureVIII.7LoadbearingPartitions VIII.5.SchedulesDoorsandwindowschedulesgivethenumberandsizeofalldoorsand windowsinthebuilding.SeeFigureVIII.8foratypicaldoorschedule.

FigureVIII.8ATypicalDoorSchedule Unitslistedintheschedulearereferencedtotheplanviewwithaletterornumber.Some times,roughopeningsizeisprovidedintheschedule. VIII.6.SectionalviewsSectionalviewsofwallsaredrawntoalargerscaleandincludedonthe drawingstoclarifyconstructiondetails.Thesectionlocationsareidentifiedontheplanview withareferenceline.Fullsectionsarecutthroughwidthorlengthofabuilding.These


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sectionalviewsshowfeaturessuchasfloors,walls,andceilingsassections.Featuresbeyond thecuttingplaneareshownastheyappearintheinteriorofabuilding. VIII.7.RoofframesSketchesofvariousroofstylesfoundinhouseconstructionareshownin FigureVIII.9.Thestyleoftheroofismosteasilyidentifiedinelevationdrawings.

FigureVIII.9CommonRoofStyles FigureVIII.10illustratessomecommontermsusedinroofframing:

FigureVIII.10CommonRoofFramingTerms

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IX. PLUMBINGDRAWINGS Inmostresidences,plumbingconsistsofthewaterdistributionsystem,sewagedisposal system,andpipingneededforheatingandcoolingsystems.Sometimes,pipingdiagramsare unnecessary.Symbolsontheplandrawingslocatefixturessuchassinks,waterclosets,floor drains,andexteriorhosebibs.Theplumberinstallsthesysteminaccordancewiththe specificationsandlocalgovernmentcodes.Plumbersmustcoordinatetheirworkassignment withothercraftspeople,becauseplumbingtakesplaceduringthreedifferentstagesof construction: Initialstageprovidesfortheserviceentranceofthewatersupplyandsewerdraintothe buildingaremadepriortothepouringofthefoundation. Thenextstageistheroughinplumbing,whichincludesinstallingwatersupplypipes andsewagedrainpipes.Theroughinworkisperformedbeforetheslabispouredin slabongradeconstructionandbeforewallcoveringmaterialsareplacedonthewall framing. Thefinalstageisthefinishplumbing,whichincludestheinstallationandconnectionof fixturesafterthefloorandwallsarefinished. IX.1.WaterdistributionsystemThewaterdistributionsystemincludesthemainsupplyline tothebuildingfromthemunicipalwatermeter,individualwell,orothersourceofsupply.All pipesthattakewaterfromthemaintothevariousserviceoutlets(waterheaters,sinks,water closets,hosebibsetc.)arecalleddistributionpipes.Thedistributionsystemalsoincludesallof thecontrolvalves.Symbolsforplumbingfixturesarepictorialrepresentativesofthefixtures andtheyareshownontheplanviewsandoninteriorelevationviews.Themostcommonly usedsymbolsforplumbingareshowninFigureIX.1

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FigureIX.1CommonPlumbingSymbols IX.2.DistributionpipingmaterialsPipingmaterialsusedforwaterdistributionincludecopper, galvanizedsteel,brass,andplastic.Copperandplasticarethemostcommon.Copperpiping shouldnotbeembeddedinconcreteslabs,masonrywalls,orfootings.Whenitisnecessaryfor thepipetogothroughaslaborawall,aplasticsleeveoralargerpipeshouldbeplaced betweenthecopperwaterpipeandconcrete.Thiswillpermitmovementduetoexpansionof thecopper.Galvanizedsteelpipehasgreatstrengthanddimensionalstability.Thegalvanized coatingprotectsthepipeagainstrusting.Brasspipeisusedforhighlycorrosivewater.This typeofpipewouldbeusedinsituationssuchascoastalareaswheresaltwaterisusedfor cooling,baths,orotherapplications.Plasticpipeisusedextensively.Threeofthemost commontypesareacrylonitrilebutadienestyrene(ABS),polyvinylchloride(PVC),and polybutylene.Plasticpipesandfittingsusesolventweldedjoints.FigureIX.2showsan isometricviewofthewaterdistributionsystem. IX.3.SewagedisposalsystemThesewagedisposalsystemisalsoknownasthe drain/waste/vent(DWV)system.Itincludesaverticalsoil(waste)stack,avent,andatrapfor eachfixture.Thewastestackcarriesthewastewatertothebuildingdrain,tothebuilding sewerlineoutsidethebuilding,andtothepublicsewerorseptictank.Atthebaseofeach stack,fittingscalledcleanouts(CO)areinstalledtoprovideaccesstocleanoutthecloggedline withaplumbersrodortape.Pipingcanbeshownonplanandelevationviews,butoftenan isometricdrawingofthesystemisprovided.
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FigureIX.2WaterDistributionSystem(IsometricView) IX.4.SewagepipingmaterialsSewagedisposalsystemscanbemadefrommanydifferent kindsofpipematerials.Castiron,copper,andplasticpipesareused.Castironpipehasgood strengthandresistancetocorrosion.Copperandplasticpipesareusedextensivelybecauseof easeofinstallation. IX.5.GasandfueloilsystemsSometimes,thepipingforgasoroilheatingsystemisincluded intheplumbingdrawing.Materialsmostcommonlyusedforgaspipingareblackwroughtiron,


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galvanizedsteel,oryellowbrass.Coppertubingisbannedbymostbuildingcodesbecauseit corrodeswhenexposedtosomegases.Blackwroughtironpipeisoftenrequiredbybuilding codesforpipingcombustiblegases,suchasnaturalgas. IX.6.PlumbingcodesModelcodessuchastheUniformPlumbingCodeandthelocal governmentcodecontrolallaspectsofplumbingwork.Theseincludethekindandsizesofpipe used,locationsoftrapsandcleanouts,plumbingfixturerequirements,ventingprovisions,and connectionstowatersupplyandsewerlines.Thesecodesalsospecifytheleaktestingtobe conductedonwatersupplylinesandwastelines.

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X. HVACDRAWINGS Heating,ventilating,andairconditioning(HVAC)systemsproducethemovementofairwithina building.Thisairmaybeheatedorcooled,thenmovedtoanotherlocationtochangetheair conditions.TheHVACsystemmakesaspacemorecomfortableforthepeopleoccupyingit. Thetreatmentinvolvescontrollingthetemperature,humidity(moistureintheair),andair cleanliness.Toaccomplishthedesiredairconditioninginabuilding,aheatingsystemanda coolingsystemareneeded. HVACplansaredrawnonthefloorplanofthestructure.Symbolsforheatingandcooling systemsareshowninFigureX.1.

FigureX.1AirconditioningSymbols X.1.HeatingsystemTherearethreetypesofheatingsystemsusedinnewconstruction: forcedair,hydronic(hotwater),andelectricradiantheating. X.1.1.ForcedairsystemInaforcedairsystem,theheatedairfromthefurnaceorheatpump chamberistransferredbymeansofamotordrivenfanthroughaseriesofductstoregistersor diffusersinthevariousrooms.Coolairisgatheredthroughregistersnearthefloorand


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returnedtotheheatingunitthroughductsandafilteringsystemtobereheatedandre circulated.Sourcesofheatforforcedairsystemsarenaturalgas,liquefiedpetroleumgas (LPG),oil,coal,orelectricity.Drawingsoftenspecifytheairflowrateatagivenpointincubic feetperminute(CFM). X.1.2.HydronicheatingsystemInahydronicheatingsystem,waterisheatedtoa temperatureof2000F(900C)inaboiler.Then,thehotwateriscirculatedbyapumpandpiping systemtoconvectorsinthespacestobeheated.Drawings,whenprovided,aresuperimposed overthefloorplanorgiveninanisometricdiagram. X.1.3.ElectricradiantheatingElectricradiantheatingisusuallyprovidedbywiresembedded intheceilings,walls,orfloorsandbaseboardsofthebuilding.Radiantheatisgivenoffbythe materials(suchasconcreteorplaster)thatarewarmedbyresistanceinducedinthewires embeddedinthem.Heatingsystemdrawingscanbesuperimposedoverthefloorplansona separatediagramprovidedwithappropriatenotes.Whendrawingsarenotprovided,the amountofheatrequiredforeachspaceisnotedonthefloorplan. X.2.CoolingsystemsCoolingsystemscanbegroupedasunitsystems(windoworwall mounted)andremotesystems(refrigerationequipmentlocatedawayfromtheareatobe conditioned).Athirdsystem,evaporativesystem,isusedinspecialcircumstances. X.2.1.UnitcoolingsystemsUnitcoolingsystemsareprovidedtocoolaroomandareinstalled inawindoworspaceprovidedinanexteriorwall.Verylittleconstructionisinstalledintheir installation. X.2.2.RemotecoolingsystemsRemotecoolingsystemshavethecondensingunitinaremote spaceawayfromtheareatobecooled.Theevaporatorisinthemainduct,whereafanforces airpastthecoolingcoilsandcirculatestheairtotheroomstobecooled. X.2.3.EvaporativecoolingsystemsEvaporativecoolingsystemsaremosteffectiveindry climateswheretherelativehumidityislow(20%orless).Thesystemfunctionsbymovingair rapidlyoverapadofloosefibersthatiskeptmoistbyawaterspraymist.Theairiscooledasit passesthroughthepad,andthencarriedthroughaductsystemtotherooms.Thesupplyduct layoutforanevaporativecoolingsystemissimilartothatofaforcedairsystem. X.3.AirfiltersMostheatingandcoolingsystemsprovideameansoffilteringtheairthatflows throughthesystem.Thefiltersusuallyhaveanadhesiveoroilcoatthatcollectlintanddust particles.Thesefiltersmaybedisposableorwashable.Anelectrostaticfilterisusuallya separateunitaddedtothesystem.Itisnotedontheheatingandcoolingplananddetailedin thespecifications.

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XI. ELECTRICALDRAWINGS XI.1.ElectricalplansAnelectricalplanshowsthelocationsofthedistributionpanel, receptacles,switches,andlights.Someofthemorecommonsymbolsusedonelectrical drawingsareshowninFigureXI.1.

FigureXI.1CommonSymbolsonElectricalPlan
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Alegendlistingthesymbolsisusuallyshownontheelectricalplan.Brokenlinesindicatewhich outletsandswitchesareconnected.However,thepathofthewiringisnotnecessarilywhere thelinesaredrawn.Theelectricalplanmayalsoshowthewireandconduitsizes.Thelines showthestartingandendingpointsoftheconduitrun.Again,thelinedoesnotshowtheexact locationwheretheconduitshouldbelocated. XI.2.WiringdiagramsAwiringdiagram,asshowninFigureXI.2,isusedwhenwiringdetails cannotbeshownclearlyontheplan.

FigureXI.2TypicalControlWiringDiagram Wiringdiagramscorrespondtoaspecificpieceofequipment.Thetypesofwirerunning betweentheequipmentanditspowersource,sensors,gauges,andotherrelatedequipment areshown. XI.3.OnelinediagramsOnelinediagramsareschematicdrawingsasshowninFigureXI.3. Theyshowwhichpiecesofequipmentareconnectedelectricallyandwhatisusedtoconnect them.

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FigureXI.3OneLineDiagram XI.4.SchedulesTherearemanykindsofSchedulesusedwithelectricaldrawingsandthe followingthreearemostlyused. XI.4.1.PanelscheduleAlltheinformationassociatedwithacircuitbreakerbox(alsocalled lightingpanel,powerpanel,breakerpanel,ordistributionpanel)isincludedinthepanel scheduleasshowninFigureXI.4.Thevoltageenteringthebox,thenumberandsizeofthe breakers,andabriefdescriptionofthedevicesprotectedbythebreakersareincluded.

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FigureXI.4PanelSchedule XI.4.2.LightingscheduleInalightingschedule,thepermanentlymountedlightfixturesused intheprojectarelisted.Eachfixtureismarkedonthedrawingwithanidentifyingletterthat referencestheschedule.Thebrandoffixture,catalognumber,andpowerrequirementsare listed. XI.4.3.EquipmentscheduleAnequipmentschedule,asshowninFigureXI.5,issimilartoa lightingschedule.Itlistsequipmentinsteadoflightfixtures.Moredetailedwiringandpower informationisincludedintheequipmentschedule.

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FigureXI.5EquipmentSchedule XI.5.ElectricalcircuitsAcircuitisthepathofelectricityfromasource(distributionpanel) throughthecomponents(receptacles,lights)andbacktothesource.Circuitsarenumberedon thediagramandconnectedbyaheavyline,endinginanarrowthatindicatesthecircuitis connectedtothedistributionpanel.Electricityisbroughtintothebuildingbywayofthe serviceentrancethroughthemeterandontothedistributionpanel.Formostresidences,one distributionpanelissufficient.Therearebranchcircuitsasshownbelow: Generallightingcircuitsusedprimarilyforlightingandsmallportableappliancessuchas radios,TVsets,andvacuumcleaners. Generalappliancecircuitsusedforthoseoutletsalongthekitchencounterserving toasters,waffleirons,mixers,andotherappliances. Individualappliancecircuitsusedformajorappliancesthatrequirelargeamountsof electricity,suchasrangeovens,washers,dryers,andwaterheaters. Equipmentcircuitsthatfurnishpowertomotordrivenequipment.

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Dedicatedcircuitsforcomputersandotherspecialequipmentthatcannottolerate voltagefluctuationsorinterruptions. XI.6.Groundfaultcircuitinterrupters(GFCI)TheuseofaGFCIisdefinedintheNational ElectricalCodeandtheyareinstalledinareaswheremoisturemaybepresentorwherethe userofanelectricallypoweredtoolorappliancecouldcomeincontactwithagroundedmetal surface.TheuseofaGFCIisdefinedintheNationalElectricalCode(NEC).AGFCIwillopenthe circuitifacurrentleakageorfault(toground)occursinexcessof0.006amperes.These interruptionsoccurwhenthedifferenceincurrententeringandcurrentleavingthecircuitare notidentical.TheGFCIautomaticallysensesthefaultandturnsoffthepowerwithin25to30 milliseconds.Thesedevicesmustbeusedinthefollowingsituations: Inkitchenswherereceptaclesarewithin66ofthesink. Inbathrooms. Ingarageswheremoistureispresentorthereisdirectaccesstograde,unlessthe receptacleisnotreadilyaccessibleorisdedicatedtoafixedappliance,suchasafreezer. Forexteriorreceptacleswhereaccesstogradeispossible.

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XII. WELDINGDRAWINGS Weldingisoneoftheprincipalmeansoffasteningmembersinstructuralsteelwork.The AmericanWeldingSociety(AWS)hasdevelopedstandardproceduresforusingsymbolsto indicatethelocation,size,strength,geometry,anddetailsofaweld. XII.1.WeldingsymbolsThereisadifferencebetweenaweldsymbolandaweldingsymbol. Theweldsymbolindicatesthespecifictypeofweldwhiletheweldingsymbol,asinFigureXII.1, consistsoftheweldsymbolandthefollowingelements:

FigureXII.1BasicWeldingSymbol

Thereferencelineisthehorizontallineportionofaweldingsymbol.Ithasan arrowatoneendandatailattheother.Insomeinstances,thereferencelinemay bevertical. Anarrowisusedtoconnecttheweldingsymbolreferencelinetoonesideofthe jointtobewelded.Thisisconsideredasthearrowsideofthejoint.Theside oppositethearrowistermedtheothersideofthejoint. Notesareplacedwithinthetailtodesignatetheweldingspecification,process,or otherreference.

XII.2BasicweldsymbolsThebasicweldsymbolsforvarioustypesofweldsareshownin FigureXII.2.Ifthesymbolisabovethereferenceline,theweldisplacedonthearrowsideof thejoint.Ifthesymbolisbelowthereferenceline,theweldismadeontheothersideofthe joint.Ifbothsymbolsarepresent,theweldismadeonbothsidesofthejoint.

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FigureXII.2BasicWeldSymbols XII.3WelddimensionsThesearedrawnonthesamesideofthereferencelineastheweld symbol.SeeFigureXII.3(A).Whenthedimensionsarecoveredbyageneralnote,thewelding symbolneednotbedimensionedasinFigureXII.3(B).Whenbothweldshavethesame dimensions,oneorbothcanbedimensionedasinFigureXII.3(C).Thepitchofstaggered intermittentweldisshowntotherightoftheweldasinFigureXII.3(D).

FigureXII.3WeldDimensions
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XII.4.TypesofweldThefollowingaretheusualweldsinpractice: XII.4.1.FilletweldFilletweldistobeflat,orconvexfacedorconcavefaced,asinFigureXII.4. Theyareindicatedbyacontoursymbolnexttotheweldsymbol.

XII.4.2.GrooveweldThegrooveangleisshownonthesamesideofthereferencelineasthe weldsymbol.Thesize(depth)ofgrooveweldisshowntotheleftoftheweldsymbol.Theroot openingofagrooveweldisshowninsidetheweldsymbolasinFigureXII.5.

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XII.4.3.SpotweldThesearespecifiedbytheirdiameter,strengthinpounds,pitch(centerto center),andnumberofweldsasshowninFigureXII.6.

XII.4.4.AllaroundweldTheweldallaroundsymbol,asshowninFigureXII.7,indicatesthat theweldextendscompletelyaroundajoint.

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XII.4.5.FieldweldForthistypeofweld,asymbol,asshowninFigureXII.8,consistingofa smalllineandtriangleoriginatingattheintersectionofthereferencelineandarrowis provided.Thissymbolidentifiesweldstobemadeattheconstructionsite,ratherthaninthe assemblyshop.

XII.4.6.MeltthroughweldForthistypeofweld,asymbolindicateswhere100%jointor memberpenetrationisrequiredfromoneside.SeeFigureXII.9.Whentheseweldsaretobe finishedbymachineorsomeothermeans,acontoursymbolisadded.

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