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GEOGRAPHICAL surrounded by water, almost flat bounded by Gaul (present day France) on the northwest; Ionian Sea and

the Mediterranean Sea on the south; on the west by the Tyrrhenian Sea, the Ligurian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea
strategic commanding position, conquer several countries: Africa, portion of Europe (except the Goths, present-day Germany), Western Asia

2. GEOLOGICAL marble, stone were used, much like the Greeks, with the addition of terra-cotta, travertine (a hard limestone from Tivoli), tufa, peperino, sand, and gravel. cement was invented by the Romans with the use of pozzolana, a porous volcanic ash 3. CLIMATIC South almost tropical; North temperate; Central sunny diversity of architectural features 4. RELIGIOUS lesser veneration of gods, and more veneration of Emperor a part of the constitution of the state adapted the Greek gods and goddesses but changed the names and attributes to their 5. SOCIAL because of homage to emperors, Romans went out of Italy to conquer countries and established the Roman Empire (including Greece and Egypt) revealed in the architectural manifestation of characteristics in these structures: > thermae: bathing (exchange of information, etc.) > circus: races > amphitheater: gladiatorial contests > basilica: justice court, law court > dwelling houses 6. HISTORICAL conquest of several countries led to construction of structures marking the Romans victory. II. DEVELOPMENT OF ROMAN ARCHITECTURE Etruscan Architecture Etruscans initial architecture developed; influenced the development of Roman architecture; pioneer people of Italy Features: 1. radiating arch 2. Tuscan column added to the orders of architecture 3. Atrium type of house plan

4. Temples usually faced the south; square in plan; cella - stone room inside the temple corresponds naos for the Greeks 5. Tombs underground; stimulating of interior of the contemporary house Roman Architecture Characteristics: 1. vastness 2. magnificence

3. ostentation showiness to impress people 4. ornateness

Features: 1. adapted the columnar and trabeated system of Greeks 2. Developed the arch and vault of the Etruscans a. Barrel vault semi-circular, wagon-headed b. Roman cross vault intersection of two barrel vaults c. Cupola or dome 3. Column used largely as decorative features but were also used constructively in temple columnades and basilicas fake columns 4. Introduction of Composite Order and developed the Tuscan temples 5. Introduction of multi-storey structures (e.g. Colosseum) 6. Aside from the introduction of cement, use of several stone & concrete wall facings a. Opus quadratum has rectangular blocks with or without mortar joints but frequently secured with dowels or clamps b. Opus incertum has small stones laid in a loose pattern roughly assembled to polygonal work c. Opus reticulatum has a rectangular net like stone work d. Opus testaceum wall facing with bricks, triangular on plan e. Opus mixtum consisted of alternation of courses of brickwork and small squared stone blocks 7. Introduction of buttresses because of large span of the buildings; counteracts the weight of the roof; used for reinforcement 8. Marble mosaics treated in different patterns; used on walls, floors, and vaults 9. Effective use of floor plans 10. Structure has more than one purpose (i.e. Pantheon both a temple and tomb) III. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER A. PLANS not just temples but other types of public buildings, introduction of type of structure B. WALLS made of stone and cement; introduces 5 types of wall facings: opus quadratum, reticulatum, incertum, testaceum, and mixtum C. OPENINGS colonnades were used internally and externally and often superimposed; doorways were both square and semi-circular headed and windows were generally semicircular headed D. ROOF introduced the vault and the dome

E. COLUMNS used 5 orders: Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian (favorite of the Romans), and Composite F. MOULDINGS usually parts of circles in profile and are often covered with carvings G. ORNAMENTAL most important form of ornament were the mosaics; mural paintings are also used by the Romans, done in different types such as fresco, tempera, varnish, and caustic painting IV. EXAMPLES OF ROMAN STRUCTURES 1. Forum central open space corresponding to the Greek agora; used as meeting place, market or rendezvous for political demonstrations 2. Temples a. Rectangular temples combination of Tuscan and Greek types but differ in several ways b. Circular or polygonal temples introduced by Etruscans 3. Basilicas halls of justice and commercial exchanges a link from the classical to the Christian architecture 4. Thermae palatial public bath; elevated on platforms and underneath are the furnaces or hypocaust Main parts: 1. Main building a. Tepidarium warm rooms/lounge b. Calidarium hot room c. Sudatorium hottest room d. Frigidarium cooling room; usually provided with a piscina (swimming pool) 5. Theaters made possible because of the use of cement 6. Amphitheater used for gladiatorial contests, mortal combats, also used for naval exhibitions Colloseum, Rome: chief example 7. Circus place for horse and chariot racing; typical plan consists of a long circular-ended arena with a dividing wall called spina running down the middle of the arena in a slightly oblique direction at one end of the field 8. Tombs Roman practice of cremation burial and interment, sarcophagus and urns are found in the same chamber Classifications: a. Coemeteria b. Monumental tomb similar to mausoleum of the Greeks c. Pyramidal tomb shaped in the form of Egyptian pyramids d. Temple-shaped tomb e. Sculptured memorials minor tombs in various forms and are richly ornate f. Memorial monuments 9. Triumphal Arches erected for victories of generals and emperors for campaigns outside Italy

piers faced with Corinthian or Composite Order adorned with statuary & bas-reliefs relating into victorious campaigns and were usually surrounded by an attic storey for the dedicating inscription 10. Aqueducts used to carry water supply to all parts of Roman towns and cities a. Specus channels/pipes where water passes, supported by arches 11. Insulae kind of apartment building

Roman Architecture = Greek Archittecture + improvement refinement

Reference: 1. Dean Parungaos module 2. Roman Architecture Influences and other articles: http://www.oldandsold.com/articles22/architecture-24.shtml 3. equation for Roman Architecture by Maam Ving de Ocampo