corrugated waveguide

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corrugated waveguide

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G. H. Bryant, M.Sc, Ph.D., A.lnst.P. Abstract It is possible to determine the nature of the modes which propagate in corrugated, cylindrical waveguides, by imposing a nonisotropic, surface-reactance, boundary condition at the corrugated walls. Such a condition, in ignoring periodic effects, implies corrugated gaps much less than a wavelength separated by even smaller fins, and leads to simplified expressions for the fields in the waveguide. Two types of propagation occur: fast waves, characterised by low electric-field intensity at the walls, and slow waves by strong electric field at the walls. Both types are hybrid in nature, and degenerate to combinations of TE and TM modes when the corrugation slot depths are equivalent to multiples of half a wavelength. The dominant mode is a slow wave, with a cutoff equal to that of the dominant mode in a similar, uncorrugated waveguide. Mode charts, which distinguish the fast- and slow-wave regions as a function of normalised frequency and slot depths, may be used to design waveguides suitable for either fast or slow waves, and for matching such guides to uncorrugated launching sections.

List of principal symbols n* = electric Hertzian potential ax = unit vector in xdirection An, Bn, Cn, Dn = field amplitude coefficients a = transverse (y) propagation constant in square waveguide fin,m = hybrid-mode propagation constant in square waveguide ]8n = transverse (x) propagation constant in square waveguide fi'n = hybrid-mode propagation constant in cylindrical waveguide a = inner dimension of square waveguide, or radius of cylindrical waveguide co = angular frequency of wave fx0 = permeability of free space e0 = permittivity of free space E = electric field H = magnetic field n, m = mode order numbers, n integral, m nonintegral h = slot depth

ocf = Joe

A = wavelength K = h\a for both square and cylindrical waveguide b = outer radius (to bottom of slots) in cylindrical waveguide J'n(x) = Bessel function of first kind and order n Yn(x) = Neumann function of order n )'n(x), Y'Jix) = first differentials of J (JC) and Yn(x) kc = transverse propagation constant in cylindrical waveguide k0 = free-space propagation constant K = magnetic Hertzian potential

1

between waves propagating on a corrugated infinite plane conducting surface, and those in a waveguide with one wall corrugated. Hurd6 has shown that, for a plane corrugated surface with slot depths less than a quarter wavelength, a surface wave propagates. Alternate slow-wave stop and pass bands are separated by intervals of A/4. Cullen7 has discussed the launching of surface waves on a plane corrugated surface, and Barlow8 has proposed the use of screened surface waves for long-distance communication. However, Wait9 has pointed out that, in the latter case, simultaneous transmission of fast waveguide modes is possible. It is shown in this paper, that both fast and slow waves occur in a square waveguide, corrugated on all four walls. Both wave types are hybrid in nature, but return to combinations of normal uncorrugated waveguide modes when the slots are a half-wavelength deep. In the surface-wave stopbands, fast modes may exist alone, whereas both types often exist together in the passbands. Thus, surface waves in general rarely propagate alone, though fast waves may do so under some circumstances. The lowest-frequency, surfacewave passband may sometimes be below the cutoff of the fast wave, and the wave can then be called dominant. The paper takes the following order. A theoretical analysis of square cross-section corrugated waveguide is presented, followed by .a brief theoretical description of circular crosssection corrugated waveguide. A comparison of the two waveguide types is followed by a description of experiments to confirm the square-guide theory. It should be noted that Minnett and Thomas10 have analysed the cylindrical-waveguide case, and have confirmed their results experimentally. The theory is given here merely to illustrate the differences between the two cases.

Square waveguides

2.1

Hybrid modes

Introduction

Waveguides with transversely corrugated walls have been used for many years in linear accelerators,1 and more recently as feeds for low-noise aerials.2 There are many published analyses of the fields in cylindrical corrugated waveguides; those on linear accelerators tend to stress the slow-wave properties of modes with axial electric fields, while those on feeds stress the fast hybrid modes, which have similar transverse electric and magnetic field variations. Square and rectangular corrugated guides have received less attention, mainly because of the difficulty in satisfying boundary conditions when all four walls are corrugated.3 The case when only one wall is corrugated, and slow waves propagate, is well understood.4-5 There are similarities

Paper 5723 E, first received 20th June and in revised form 19th September 1968 Dr. Bryant is with Plessey Radar Ltd., Newport Road, Cowes, IOW, England

The waveguide shown in Fig. 1 has transverse corrugations in all walls, with slot depth h and inside dimension a (to the inner corrugation edges) in both x and y directions. The only fixed boundary condition assumed is that an electric field tangential and parallel to the inner corrugation edge at x all, or y = a/2 is zero. All other fields match fields in the slots at the boundary. Fields in the slots are assumed to be due to those TE modes which can propagate and reflect at the bottom of the slot, evanescent modes in the slot being assumed to have negligible effect. If the corrugation depth is equal to A/4, the waveguide boundary approaches a condition of infinite impedance, transverse to the slots. Thus, Ez will be a maximum at the guide edge and tangential Ey (or Ex) will be zero. The electric and magnetic fields form orthogonal loops with sinusoidal distributions in x and y directions, respectively. Such a distribution is given by a magnetic Hertzian potential

TC V

(0

203

It is conceivable that hybrid modes, generated by a combination of two 2-directed Hertzians, would give correct solutions, but an application of the boundary conditions leads to zero

electric and magnetic fields given by eqn. 3 must equal fields generated in the corrugation slots at the boundary y = a/2. The slots contain an infinity of modes, but the only propa-

y -y y

- X

I

+X

^iwinnmmro::

Z

y=0

E

Cy

H

My

*

"

___.__J__T_

a Dimensions b Fields in guide and slots

transverse electric fields in the waveguide. Thus, eqn. 1 is the correct potential, and would occur in practice if the guide were excited by a normal waveguide with transverse electric modes and Ex = 0. The tangential boundary condition reduces Ey to zero at the H wall (x = a/2). Thus, a Hertzian vector nx implies that corrugations in this wall have no effect, i.e. there appears to be a metal boundary at x = a/2. Only when the wave is circularly or elliptically polarised, and therefore generated by two Hertzians TC^. and ny, do all the corrugations affect propagation. In choosing the form of nx, space harmonics due to the periodic nature of the corrugations are ignored, and the boundary is treated as a medium with a variable, nonisotropic surface reactance.

2.1.1 Symmetric hybrid modes

gating one is the dominant TE0imode, which reflects at the outer metal wall, thus producing a standing wave in the slot. Following previous authors, only the propagating mode is considered important. Experimental results justify this assumption. Hence, thefieldsin the slots are Ez = -J 2 B n sin Pn(a/1 + h-y) cos

Mx=-PnItBn

a

n

= <*x 2

n

n COS ay COS

TXTT

- ?V(cor

n = I , 3, 5, . . .

It is seen that Ey reduces to zero at x = a/2. Hz is thus maintained by currents running in the corrugation edges, and parallel to them, since no fields propagate in these slots. As indicated below, there are good reasons for ignoring evanescent modes in the slots. TZX leads to the following fields11 in the waveguide region:

a

2

Ev in the waveguide is assumed to terminate on the teeth of the corrugations, and this implies a gap which is narrow compared to the wavelength. The boundary condition for Hz is met by wall currents parallel to the corrugation edges, and Hx is continuous across the gaps. Equating Ez and Hx at the boundary y = a/1 gives

r>

,

Pn

cot pnh=

. . . .

(6)

a < * < 2 ,

a

2

< y <

A

Ez = jOJfJL0a 2

n s m a>" C O S

Ey = Ex = 0

The H-wall boundary condition is that of a metal surface, because of the form of TTX. Solutions of the above equation exist for real and imaginary a. For real a, a hybrid waveguide mode propagates, and this is characterised by a tapered Ey which, if a = n/a, is cosinusoidal, being zero at the guide inner boundary, a is found to vary in a range 0 to 1-nla, so that the hybrid mode varies from a normal TE field configuration, to a condition where the electric field is reversed at the wall.

2.1.2 Asymmetric hybrid modes

= X nAn sin ay sin *;>' - < W ) a

n

A

Hybrid modes may be asymmetric in the x or y direction, or both. Approxiate forms for nx are

J

LT

O7 X^

n7TX

Hx = pl 2J An cos ay cos

n

<

a

(7)

2 _ Ql _

a2

which is symmetric in the y direction and asymmetric in x; or (4) x = 2 An sin ay cos *X'-IW)

n a n = 1, 3, 5, (8) PROC. IEE, Vol. 116, No. 2, FEBRUARY 1969

where PI = kl

: A ig.

204

^ .

sin

sin

MTX

.,..,

,,

...

hybrid modes (HEnOT) may propagate, where, as before, // is an integer, m is not an integer, and m defines the value of a. As a/A is varied, there are passbands for surface waves given by solutions to the equations (9)

#i = 2, 4, 6, . . .

which is asymmetric in both axes. If the boundary conditions are treated as shown above, eqns. 7 and 9 yield the characteristic equation for a: (10) whereas eqn. 8 still yields eqn. 6. Thus, modes symmetrical along the x axis are characterised by odd n, and those asymmetrical along the x axis by even n. The cutoff conditions in eqn. 4, and the characteristic eqns. 6 and 10, restrict a to ranges centred on rrnrja, where, again, odd and even m pertain to symmetric and asymmetric modes, respectively. The m defining a is, in general, not integral, but solutions are bounded either side of integral values. Only for integral m is the mode a balanced hybrid, with equal E- and H-plane configurations. Hybrid surface waves Eqns. 6 and 10 have solutions for imaginary a, which are associated with waveguide slow surface waves of the type discussed by Elliott. Ey in the waveguide varies as cosh ay or sinh ay, and thus, for large a, it is strongly attached to the corrugated wall, being a minimum at the guide centre. In a waveguide, the slot impedance is a function of the uncorrugated waveguide propagation constant j8n, which can be zero at cutoff, implying infinite slot depth. Thus, a careful examination is necessary if it is desired to launch a well matched, fast, hybrid mode, free of surface waves. If a hybrid-mode waveguide is to be fed from an uncorrugated waveguide, a good match can be obtained provided the hybrid fields are identical to those of the TE 0l mode, and no surface wave is set up. It will be shown that, if at the point of launch a = 0 and fixh = TT, the surface reactance is zero, and the above conditions are met. 2.3 General solution of characteristic equations It is instructive to find the limits of hybrid surface waves and fast hybrid waves for a range of waveguide sizes. In a waveguide of dimension a ~ 5A, say, a large number of 2.2

cot = & tanh

(symmetric y) (asymmetric y)

(11) (12)

where a = ja and fi2m = $ + (a') 2 from eqn. 4. There are also passbands for hybrid modes given by eqns. 4, 6 and 10. Eqns. 11 and 12 may be solved on a computer, but a graphical solution is more instructive, and sufficiently accurate, for comparison with experimental results. Thus eqns. 6 and 11, for modes symmetric in y, may be written: 2K cot KIT n2\

(13)

. . . . (14) and eqns. 10 and 12 for modes asymmetric in x may be written

2

KIT

Hd -

-n2\ /

^ 1/2

aa/2 tanh a'a/2 a'a/2

(a imaginary)

. . . . (16) where K = A/a, the normalised slot depth. Solutions, obtained by graphical methods, are shown in the form of Brillouin diagrams for the normalised slot depth K = 0-892 and 0-3, and n = 1, in Figs. 2 and 3, respectively. The normal uncorrugated waveguide mode is shown as a dotted line. Considering first the curves for K = 0-892, it is seen that the dominant mode is a slow surface wave, with low-frequency cutoff determined by the H 10 mode, which propagates in the

/Pll a

CM J:

t

nT

O-4

O-6

r

a/A

\

E|8>V

/ /

It

O-8

IO

1-2

1-35

Fig. 2 Normalised Brillouin (a> fi)plot for HE\ \ mode in square corrugated waveguide

01, = hybrid-mode wavenumber 3i = TEin mode wavenumber K = h/a = 0-892

205

slots at y = a/2, i.e. at 4(a/A)2 = 1, and high-frequency cutoff at j8(/i = 7r/2. This occurs because imaginary a is possible only when the left-hand side of eqn. 14 is positive, and /?|/z = TT/2 is a root of this expression. The fast wave has a cutoff just above the dominant-mode passband, and becomes a slow wave at j8,/i = IT, when the slot depth is equal to half a H10mode guide wavelength. It should be noted that, at fl\h = TT, the hybrid-mode characteristic crosses the

normal waveguide curve; in fact, the wave is indistinguishable from it, since the slots, at a depth of Ag/2, have zero input impedance, giving the appearance of a metal wall at y =F all. A slow surface wave exists between fi{h = n and 3TT/2, but is not dominant throughout this range since the hybrid fast mode propagates in part of the range. The pattern repeats as fi{h increases by intervals of A/2. The variation of aa as a function of a/A is shown in Fig. 4.

J

cut off o a o *>

<i o

o ~E O O ro

1* *

/I /o

/ /

/

/ /

i /

/ ' /

/ / / /

1*1

1

1 **

/ /

r2

O-4

O6

O-8

IO

a/A

1-2

1-4

16

Fig. 3 Normalised Brillouin (cy /5) plot for HE\\ mode in square waveguide

3n. Pi as in Fig. 2

K = hja = 0 - 3

10

l

1

slow wove

o/

K \

/

1-2 a/A

206

Fig. 4 Normalised transverse propagation constant aa. versus a/A for square corrugated waveguide with hi a = 0-892 PROC. ZEE, Vol. 116, No. 2, FEBRUARY 1969

o ca

Thus, a (or a') changes from 0 to oo in the dominant slowwave passband, and is finite for the fast hybrid mode, except at fi\h = IT, when it is zero; it may sometimes be double-valued in the surface-wave passbands. When K = 0-3, and the slots are not so deep, Fig. 3 illustrates the fact that the cutoff of the fast hybrid mode

77, reduces Ez from a maximum to zero and changes Ey from a cosinusoidal to a linear distribution, in the y direction.

2.4 Mode charts

The propagation characteristics are more easily understood by means of the mode charts, which are shown in

-.

cut off H30

o ax. "o"

U

ii 4

a\J

?,

ax

\ ol ca|

*=i

111

3

Of */

1

.

Si

1 1-5

1-7

Fig. 5 Normalised transverse propagation constant ax versus a/A for square corrugated waveguide with h\a = 0-3

moves inside the dominant surface-wave passband. In the limit, as A"-^0, all modes collapse onto the curve for a normal waveguide propagating the H0imode. Fig. 5 illustrates the variation of aa. with a/A, showing that a = -n\a at /3(/i = TT/2. This implies a cosine taper in both E and H fields in the corrugated waveguide. This condition may be called the true hybrid case, since the boundary conditions at y = a/2 for Ey are identical to those at x = "o/2 for Hx. Raising the frequency, so that jS,/j changes from TT/2 to

Figs. 6-7. The loci indicate values of K and a/X at which ^{h = (TT/2). Fig. 6 is for the HE,, mode, and shows the cutoff of the H,0mode in the slots at a/X = 0-5. Thus, shaded areas represent regions of surface waves, and the unshaded areas represent regions where pure fast-wave propagation occurs. Except in cases where the lowest-frequency surface wave, i.e. that existing in the shaded area bounded by H 10 cutoff and the locus of points for which j8,/i = 7r/2, is dominant, slow surface waves and fast waveguide waves may

O-9

Ol

a/A

Fig. 6

Mode chart of a/h against a/A for HE\ \ mode in square corrugated waveguide

The shaded areas are regions where surface waves may exist Dotted loci: zero reactance, full loci: infinite reactance

207

exist in the shaded areas. Along the solid loci, a = TT/G, and along the dotted loci a = 0. Similar mode charts are shown for HEW| modes in Figs. la-d. A flared corrugated waveguide, terminated by a large

mode, shows that surface waves from the higher modes fall in the pure fast hybrid regions of lower-order modes. Channels formed by higher values of fi{h are even more obscured by surface-wave regions from higher modes. Thus,

o-5

6-5

Fig. 7

a HE 3 , b HE 31 c HE 7 , d HE 91 Shaded areas are regions where surface waves may exist Dotted loci: zero reactance, full loci: infinite reactance

radiating aperture, generates higher-order hybrid fast and slow waves. Thus, a superimposition of the charts in Figs. 6 and 7 indicates the mode possibilities for a given position in the flare, though it should be noted that only mode types HE,,, (n odd) are shown, i.e. those with symmetrical field variations in the x direction, coupled with the lowest-order symmetrical field variation in the y direction. The superimposition indicated in Fig. 8, by drawing only the first 'channels' formed by the loci j8nA = TT/2 and v for each

IO O-9

... !HE3,

there is a rich variety of modes generated in corrugated flares, and this may account for the noticeable lack of sidelobes in certain feeds using such flares. The lowest cutoffs for the HE,, and HE12modes are shown in Fig. 8, where it can be seen that, for K > 0-65, the lowest-frequency slow wave is dominant throughout its passband. Asymmetrical slot modes Hn0 ( even) generate hybrid waves HE,, i (n even), and these are illustrated in Fig. 9.

, H E 5I | HE 7 |

HE 9|

as

O-7 O-6 OS O-4 O-3 O2

1 ll

1 1 1 \\

\V

1 \

I

1 t

1 1

I

1 \

1 1

I

3 mode

1

\ \

\ \

'

\\\ \

1 \

k

\

1 \ \

I \

\ v

\ \

I t \ \ \ \ \ , \ \

s

\

1 I

1 1

I \

1

1

\ \

\ \ \ \ \ S

\

\ \ \

\

\ \

v

I

'

O Fig. 8

OS

1.5

2-5

a/A

35

45

208

Mode chart for symmetric hybrid modes, showing interaction of higher-order surface waves (shaded areas) on the HE] \ mode fast hybrid 'channel' PROC. IEE, Vol. 116, No. 2, FEBRUARY 1969

Similar arguments regarding surface-wave interference are seen to apply. The HE2J and HE22 cutoffs are indicated on this chart. The HE2i and HE12 could be used for azimuthal and elevation difference modes in an aerial feed.

10 O-9 o 8

O7

O-6

3.1.2

n

. (18)

1 H 1 1

1

1

| |

HE 2 |

! 1

i

HE

4I

1 1

HE 81

1 1.1

1 II

i

ll \\ \\

ll

I 1 I 1 1 I \ \ \ \ \

\

1

II 1 1

II 1 .

1

1 \ \

11 \\N \ \\\

I I

\

1 I

1 \ \

R\ \

\ V

O2 Ol O5 IO

\ \ \w

1-5

N.

I \ \ \ \ \ \\ ^&

1 \ \

1 \ \ \ \ \ \ \

\ \

S

H E 2 | HE 22 cut off

2O

25

a/A

3O

4O

4 5

50

Fig. 9 Mode chart for asymmetric modes showing interaction of higher-order surface waves {shaded areas) on the HE2\ mode fast hybrid 'channel'

Circular waveguides

3.1

3.1.3

Hybrid modes

Introduction

E,. =

Corrugated waveguides with circular cross-section have been investigated, experimentally and theoretically, for use in linear accelerators,13-14 but a general classification into slow and fast waves has not been attempted. Minnett and Thomas10 used an open-ended circular waveguide with transverse corrugations and, at a single measured frequency, showed that the radiation pattern indicated equal E and H plane tapers. A theoretical and experimental analysis showed that the HEi ( mode was present, but no accbunt was( taken of surface waves. It is clear that, for circular guides, the fixed boundary condition of zero transverse electric field cannot be met in a simple way by reducing Ee to zero at all points. As in the case of a dielectric rod,12 hybrid mode solutions are found by combining separate E and Hmodes, with amplitude levels determined by the boundary conditions. Suitable vector potentials are discussed below (Fig. 10).

3.1.1 Transverse magnetic modes "z = z S An5,,{kcr) sin /i0^X

(17)

n V r J

(19)

n v f J '

He = - S {J AnSn{kcr) + J<ookcBX(kcr))cosn6

n \- r J

(P'\2 1,2 \Rn) K0

L-2 K c

f)(W \*V)

Thefieldsin a slot are assumed to be those due to propagating radial modes. Higher-order evanescent modes, though present, are not used in the theory, and, provided the slot width is a

Fig. 10 Corrugated circular waveguide showing geometrical axes PROC. IEE, Vol. 116, No. 2, FEBRUARY 1969

209

small fraction of a wavelength, the assumption is justified. Thus, d/dz = 0 and V2z + k\Ez = 0, giving

case of the square waveguide, real solutions are fast hybrid modes, and imaginary ones are hybrid surface waves.

3.2 Mode charts

= 0, Er = 0 Hr =

H% =

n

(21) 2 {Cnyn(kor) + DnY'n(kor)} cos nt

O O O v O O u 4> V O w O O v J> O v

Similar mode charts to those for square waveguides can be drawn by considering the field equations 24-25. Balanced hybrid conditions hold when both Ea and // e are zero at the corrugation inner edges. This condition is given by the zeros of the right-hand side of eqn. 26. When Ez is zero at the inner walls, normal, uncorrugated waveguide modes propagate, a condition indicated by the poles of eqn. 26. These poles and zeros correspond to the loci of finh in the square waveguide case. Further inspection of eqn. 26, using computed solutions, shows that surface waves propa Ov -Si O

Fig. 11

Mode chart for corrugated circular waveguide

Surface wave regions are to the left of the zero lines and the right of the poles lines. Complete pole and zero loci are shown for the HEn mode only. Higher modes (n = 2, 3, 4) are indicated by the loci of the first zero only

wall, and at the bottom of each slot r b. Thus, from eqn. 21:

^ Cnin(kob)

^ = o . . . (23)

gate in regions bounded at high frequency by the zeros, and at low frequency by the poles, of eqn. 26. At high-frequency cutoff, a surface-wave propagation constant tends to infinity, i.e. kca > oo. Asymptotic expansion of eqn. 26 shows that the poles satisfy this condition. Fig. 11 is a mode chart for n = 1, 2, 3 and 4, and shows that the surface waves associated with higher modes interfere with the pure, hybrid fast-mode propagation channels of lower modes to an even greater extent than in the squarewaveguide case. 4 Comparison of square and circular waveguides A detailed examination of the mode propagation constants in circular waveguides can be obtained by numerical solution of eqn. 26. However, greater physical insight is achieved by an examination of the dominant HEnmode. This mode has one sinusoidal variation in 6, and a single, transverse-field zero along a radial line. The field zeros for E$ and HQ occur at the inner corrugation edge, for a balanced hybrid fast wave. Thus, for the balanced condition, HQ in eqn. 19 is zero, which gives

= A - {Cnyn(koa) + DnY'n(koa)} .

(24)

(25)

klBnin{kca) = C A

Elimination of An, Bn, Cn and Dn from eqns. 22-25 gives the following characteristic equation for kc: kQ rn(kca) kc }n{kca)

+

Jn(kob)Yn(koa)

yn(koa)Yn(kQb) - Jn(kob)Y'n(koa)

Jn(koa)Yn(kob)

. . . .

(26)

(27)

Eqn. 26 has solutions for real and imaginary kc. As in the 210

Eqn. 23 gives

i'n{kca) in{kca) (28)

4.1

Thus,

Zn

(29)

3n(kca) _ - kQakca 5'n(kca) n-\/(k0a)2 (kca)2

For the HEn mode n = 1, and, using the Bessel-recurrence relationship, gives Jo(M)'

koakca . . . . (31)

(32)

The matching of a corrugated waveguide to a plane waveguide depends on the mode type to be generated, i.e. surface or fast wave. It is essential to enter the corrugated section at a point where the fields in both guides are identical. This condition is met for zero slot depths or depths equal to multiples of half a wavelength. Thus the locus of j8,/i = n, and the first poles are suitable entrance points into a corrugated section in the square and circular cases, respectively. A tapered reduction in slot depth, i.e. decreased K, to a point on the locus Pth = n/2 (or the first zeros), may then be used to generate a balanced hybrid mode. On the other hand, launching of the dominant slow wave is best achieved by gradually increasing slot depths from zero, being careful not to cross the first zero locus, where the sudden transition from a high to zero wall field will cause a mismatch. Thus, for feed applications in which slow surface waves are to be avoided, slots near the throat of a horn should be deep, but should reduce in depth towards the aperture, thereby producing a tapered aperture illumination. Care has to be taken in selecting the entrance to the corrugations, at the locus of poles, to avoid surface-wave interference regions from higherorder modes, and the mode charts are particularly useful for this purpose. Experimental results with square waveguide The theoretical results of the preceding Sections were checked experimentally, using a corrugated waveguide with the dimensions shown in Fig. 12.

18 s.w.g.

A graphical solution gives kca = 1-84, which is the cutoff condition for a normal H H mode in uncorrugated, cylindrical waveguide. Remembering that eqn. 31 applies only on the locus of the first zeros in Fig. 11, it is seen that the cutoff condition in eqn. 32 applies only when X-> oo. Choosing ajX = 1, substituting in eqn. 30, and solving for kca, gives

rA

6-75"

U.A

O.

C B'

full section AA'

Fig.12

Experimental square corrugated waveguide kca = 2-1 for the HEn mode, a n d 4-8 for the HE^mode. Thus, it is seen that kca varies along the 'zero' locus, whereas act. is constant along the locus in the square-waveguide case. This arises essentially for the following reason. In circular waveguide, hybrid conditions are maintained by adding TE and TMmodes, each generated separately, and with amplitudes determined by the boundary conditions; in square waveguide, modes are generated by a single Hertzian, and are not mixtures of TE.and TM, although they return to such modes for certain corrugation depths. Turning now to the poles of eqn. 26, it is seen that along such loci Ez is zero at the corrugation inner edges. If Ez is zero everywhere, the mode degenerates to TE configurations, but otherwise it leads to combinations of TE and TM modes. The slots are equivalent to a depth of half a wavelength, and thus appear as short circuits, producing effects similar to uncorrugated waveguide. In the simplest case, i.e. E, = 0 everywhere and n = 1, the hybrid mode degenerates to the H n circular waveguide mode at the poles.

PROC. IEE, Vol. 116, No. 2, FEBRUARY 1969

Wavelengths were measured in the waveguide by following the position of a minimum on a standing-wave indicator, connected between the oscillator and short-circuited corrugated section, as the position of the short circuit was varied. Considerable difficulty was experienced in taking the measurements, owing to the large attenuation ofthe corrugated section. The attenuation in corrugated waveguide is expected to be higher than in plane guide, because of the large surface area; this attenuation was enhanced by the fact that the experimental guide comprised separate pieces for each slot, clamped together so that contacts at the edges were far from perfect. Attenuation varied in a range 10-50dB; it exceeded 30dB in the surface-wave regions, was 10-30dB for other regions, and about 15dB at the match point. The measured results are shown in Fig. 13. As can be seen from the theoretical curves in the Figure, both HEn a n c ' HE12 modes could propagate. Though the experimental results do not follow the theoretical curves over all ranges, the general shapes support the predicted type of variation. 211

Labelling the hatched areas from left to right, area 1 may be recognised as the dominant H E n surface wave, area 2 as H E n , area 3 as probably HE t2 and area 5 as HE n . The

dimension of the waveguide, whereas in Fig. 12 it is seen that only the inner edge of each slot meets this condition, the bottom extending into each corner. Thus the slot depth

i

i i

/ / / /

1

L // k /

i

V '

/ / /

1

X

.1

'1

N

VI V ' / /

.

'

,'i

ij

1 /y 1 \7 1 i; i\ /;

'' tr

11 /

r *'

/

1

/

I

r

j

1

1

1 1 1

i

i

7 tf

w

a

i i i i

1

/> /,' I!

1

Fig. 13

10

wa x IO*' in sec'

Comparison of experimental and theoretical results for waveguide with dimensions given in Fig. 12

Experimental err.or shown by a hatched area measured X theoretical \B, HEn theoretical XB, HE12

small area, 4, is probably spurious, arising from fields in the corners of the corrugated waveguide. The regions of fast and slow waves are clearly apparent in the recorded measurements. The discrepancy between theory and experiment could have two causes: namely, the corrugation gap length and gap/fin ratio, and the effects of fields in the four corners of the waveguide. Reference to Fig. 12 indicates that corrugation spacings varied from 4 to 2 corrugations per wavelength over the frequency range, with a gap/fin ratio of 10. Thus the phase change per slot is rather large, and the assumption of uniform impedance at the surface is not well approximated. The theory assumes that a slot extends transversely across the inner

at the corners is A/2 times the depth elsewhere, and a mixture of diagonal and normal modes, with different phase velocities, is possible. These may well explain the disagreement between theory and experiment. The shaded regions indicate the spread in the measurements; this was due mainly to the large wavelength changes arising from small frequency changes. The errors show that a frequency resetting accuracy better than 1. in 200 is required, and this could just be achieved. The standing-wave ratio at the transition to corrugated waveguide, is plotted in Fig. 14, where, owing to synchronism with the ordinary waveguide mode, the best match occurs at point O in Fig. 13.

OB

o-6

O-4

O-2 434

497

5-58

7-45

769

Fig. 14

212

V.S.W.R. at input to experimental square corrugated waveguide terminated in a matched load PROC. IEE, Vol. 116, No. 2, FEBRUARY 1969

Conclusion

8

1 2 3

References

WALKINSHAW, w.: 'Theoretical design of linear-accelerators for electrons', Proc. Phys. Soc, 1948, 61, pp. 246-254 SUMMONS, A. j . , and KAY, A. F. : 'The scalar feeda high performance feed for large paraboloid reflectors', IEE Conf. Publ. 21, pp.213-217 KAY, A. F.: 'The scalar feed', TRG sci. rep. 5, Appendix Al, 1964, prepared for contract number AF19(604)-8057, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Office of Aerospace Research, Bedford, Mass., USA GOLDSTEIN, H. : 'The theory of corrugated transmission lines and waveguides', Radiation Laboratory report 494, 1944 ELLIOTT, R. s.: 'On the theory of corrugated plane surfaces', IRE Trans., 1954, AP-2, pp. 71-81 HURD, R. A. : 'The propagation of an electromagnetic wave along an infinite corrugated surface', Can. J. Phys., 1954, 32, pp. 727-734 CULLEN. A. L. : 'The excitation of plane surface waves', Proc. IEE, 1954, 101, Pt. 4, pp. 225-234 BARLOW, H. E. M. : 'Screened surface waves and some possible applications', ibid., 1965, 112, (3), pp. 477-482 WAIT, j . R. : 'On the theory of shielded surface waves', IEEE Trans., 1967, MTT-15, pp. 410-414 MiNNETT, H. c , and THOMAS, B. MACA. : 'A method of synthesizing radiation patterns with axial symmetry', ibid., 1966, AP-14, pp. 654-656 COLLIN, R. E.: 'Field theory of guided waves'(McGraw-Hill, 1960), p. 170

CLARRICOATS, P. J. B., and OLINER, A. A.: Transverse-network

A theory has been presented for square and circular corrugated waveguide. The complicated mode structure in such waveguides, particularly when guide dimensions are large, may be visualised by means of the mode charts in Figs.-8, 9 and 11, which define regions of slow and fast waves. A comparison of square and circular guides shows that, while the mode charts are similar, there are fundamental differences in operation, owing to the manner in which the tangential electric field is reduced to zero at the corrugation edges. The mode charts indicate that bandwidth, both as regards matching and the reduction of spurious modes, is likely to be more limited in circular waveguides. The application of these waveguides to feed horns for aerials depends on the use of the mode charts, and will be dealt with in a later paper.

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

12

Acknowledgments

These investigations followed some initial suggestions of Dr. K. Milne, who is gratefully thanked for his support and interest during all stages of the work. The interesting discussions with Prof. P. J. B. Clarricoats are gratefully acknowledged. Thanks are due to M. Prouten for painstaking experimental work. Finally, the author wishes to thank the directors of Plessey Radar Ltd. for permission to publish the paper.

representation for inhomogeneously filled circular waveguide', Proc. IEE, 1965, 112, (5), pp. 883-894

13 SAXON, c , JARVIS, T. R., and WHITE, I.: 'Angular-dependent modes

14 DAVIES, J. B., and GOLDSMITH, B. J.: Philips Res. Rep., 1968, 23,

pp. 121-248

ELECTRONICS, HIGH-POWER AND LOW-POWER

W. T. Johnson, B.Sc.Eng., C.Eng., F.I.E.E. The title of this address is based on the traditional dichotomy which still lingers in the Naval Service between high-power and low-power electrical work, but it applies also to a real distinction between the rates of progress of electronics in these fields since the early 1880s, and is shown both in the 20 years following de Forest's introduction of the grid in 1908 and in the 20 years since the arrival of the transistor in 1948. It seems to have been the success of valves in providing extremely sensitive receivers which reduced the need for high transmitter power and enabled transmitting valves to compete with spark and Poulsen-arc systems. Nevertheless, up to the Second World War, electronic equipment was not acceptable in the direct control of heavy electrical equipment. The first real breakthrough was the use in naval gunnery of a.c. thermionic servo amplifiers to control the split-field windings of Ward Leonard metadyne generators for the accurate drive of gun mountings. They were accepted because of the high performance they made possible, but they represented a heavy maintenance problem, and spare amplifiers, with valve heaters alight, were held in immediate readiness. The transistor, in 1948, began to change all this, extending the use of printed circuits and culminating in the microelectronic integrated circuit, which raised electronics to the stage at which, instead of being too unreliable, it is being considered as a possible solution to problems of unreliability in conventional electrical equipment. Mostly, however, devices of low power level are being considered in these applications to high-power equipment. Almost the only exception is the mercury-arc rectifier, which started in the 1880s, reached the megawatt range for railway electrification in the 1920s, and will pass the 1000MW stage in the 1620MW d.c. link in the Canadian Nelson River scheme. The current Admiralty development work on a phaseproportionate rectifier scheme, if successful, may make possible the use of 18-pulse 3-phase rectification in the comparatively low-power a.c. generating systems in ships, drawing Abstract 5757 of Address delivered at Bristol, 7th October 1968 Mr. Johnson is with the Ship Department, UK Ministry of Defence (Navy), Somerset, England PROC. IEE, Vol. 116, No. 2, FEBRUARY 1969 13 E6 nearly sinusoidal currents from each phase of the supply and minimising waveform distortion. The scheme uses secondary windings arranged so that, at the instant each diode conducts, it is fed with current equal to the peak current in a phase, at 1 -5 times the peak phase voltage. The transformation ratios are such that the instantaneous currents in each primary winding are those which would flow with a balanced 3-phase resistive load. Another current Admiralty development is a brushless generator in which a fully controlled thyristor bridge replaces the conventional rotating diodes. One advantage is that, whereas the conventional brushless generator control loop includes the exciter field time constant as well as that of the generator, only the latter is included in the thyristor loop. Stability is assured and closer regulation is possible. A shipborne telephone is under development in which the automatic switching system is divided between the telephone instrument and the local junction boxes, which are linked by a multicore trunk cable loop. Microelectronic selector switches for each telephone continuously search the trunk lines under the control of a 10kHz clock pulse. When a 4-digit number is dialled by pushbuttons, it is stored in binary form in a microelectronic unit in the telephone instrument, while the associated selector switch seizes the first free trunk line. This switches on the m.o.s.f.e.t.s connecting every free telephone to that line. The stored digits are transmitted round the trunk line in 16ms, and seize the one telephone coded to receive that number. The remaining telephones are freed, and cycling continues until another call is made. It was the inclusion of human operators in the tight electronic loop of gunnery systems which forged the link between electrical engineers and cybernetics, and it is very much to be hoped that the IEE will be able to continue and strengthen the leadership which was taken in this field, so that regulations or codes of practice sponsored wholly, or in part, by the IEE may gain the same acceptance in the wider field of control systems as have the IEE Wiring Regulations on land, and the IEE Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of Ships in the marine world. 213

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