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Table of contents

Construction and use of the Preterit* (Past ...Simple) Regular and Irregular Verbs The Present Perfect Differences between Present Perfect and ...Preterit* (Past Simple) Unit 1 Present The Present Perfect Continuous The verb to be and contractions For /Since / Ago The verb to have Present Simple 'Ever' / 'Never' The negative form verb to be, Present Expressions with the Present Perfect ...Simple Tags- short answers verb to be, Present The Preterit Continuous* (Past ...Continuous) ...Simple The Present Simple vs. Present Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous The Present Continuous Used To The Affirmative Imperative The Negative Imperative Unit 3 Future Verbs without a continuous form Verbs without a continuous form: exceptions The Near Future be + -ing* (Present ...Continuous for Future) Always + Present Continuous The Future Will Future Continuous Will be doing The Future Will + To be going to Future Perfect Will have done The Future with be + Infinitive

Unit 2 Present Perfect and Past

*This is the title of the grammar point in the online software.

Unit 4 Modals

Can ability and likelihood Can perception and knowledge Can, could, to be able to Should and Ought to: advice Should and Ought to: probability Must and have to Using must for obligation Strong probability using must Absence of necessity May and Might Shall Would like: expressing wishes Modal Auxiliaries Near certainty in the past: ...must have/ cant have

Unit 5 Questions

Questions without interrogative words Interrogative Words How long... Past Interrogatives Question Tags Which / What How long..(for)/ Since when' Short Questions Definite and Indefinite Articles The Plural Names of Countries: Capitals Countable and Uncountable Nouns Exclamations with what a Construction of Compound Nouns The use and omission of the Definite articles with geographical names Nouns without singular forms Negation of the indefinite article

Unit 6 Articles and Nouns

Unit 7 Pronouns and Determiners

Subject Pronouns Object Pronouns Possessive Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns No / None The Possessive More uses of the Possessive The Indefinite Possessive Use of Pronoun one Demonstrative Pronouns Here/ There Some and Any How much / How many As much as / As many as Some / Any: singular or plural? Eitheror Either. or / Neither .nor Everybody / Nobody Everybody / Somebody / Nobody Each other / One another Different meanings of all A little / A bit Use of both

Unit 8 Relative Clauses and Dependent Clauses

Relative Pronouns and Adverbs That and Dependent Clauses When that may be left out To hope + Dependent Clause Possessive Adjectives Too / Too Much Placement of Enough Also / As well / Too Adverbs of Time / Frequency The Adverb that Yet / Not yet Still / Yet Compound Adjectives Adjectives ending in ing and ed Adjectives ending in ing The Past Participle as an adjective Adverbs of Degree Adverbs and Adjectives Uses of so The placement of even Even though / Even if Quite / Quite a few

Unit 9 Adjectives and Adverbs

Unit 10 Comparatives and Superlatives

Unit 13 Gerunds and Infinitives

Comparing equals using as..as Regular and Irregular Comparatives Regular and Irregular Superlatives The more . . . the more A use of the comparative Prepositions of Time Prepositions of Place Final Prepositions Verbs + prepositions Conjunctions Use of so to express a goal So that + may or can Similarity: like and as

Unit 11 Prepositions

Gerunds and Infinitives Use of be used to Use of get used to Verbs: Reactions and Preferences Verb + Infinitive Clause Verbs expressing a wish to act Expressions followed by the gerund Verbs introducing a second action

Unit 14 Conditionals

Unit 12 Conjunctions

Present Conditional* and Sequence ...of Tenses with if* (Zero, First, Second) The Perfect Conditional* (Third Conditional) The Perfect Conditional using should

Unit 15 Subjunctive and Wishes


Present Subjunctive Past Subjunctive Wishes and Regrets

Unit 16 Passive

The Passive Voice The Impersonal Structure

Unit 17 Reported speech

The Sequence of Tenses* (Reported ...Speech)


*This is the title of the grammar point in the online software.
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Unit 18 Phrasal Verbs

The Main Postpositions* (Common phrasal ...verbs) Phrasal Verbs

Unit 20 Other

Unit 19 Expressions

To get + Adjective To look forward to Kind of followed by a noun To be likely To be left / To have left For the sake of Expressions with to have Baseball Expressions To be at stake Expressions of Increase

There is/are Time Have or make without to To let When / while + Present How + Adjective or Adverb Had better / Would rather Expressions of Preference Words ending in ever Whether Emphatic 'do Verbs expressing impressions ...and feelings I am told

*This is the title of the grammar point in the online software.


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1
GRAMMAR BOOK

The verb to be and contractions

Present

The verb to be expresses existence, action, or occurrence.


Conjugation of to be Contraction of to be

I am Im I am a student. You are Youre Im a student. He /She /It is Hes / Shes / Its We are Were He is my brother. They are Theyre Hes my brother.

Use + examples ( as a stative verb)

Negative to be

I am not You are not He /She /It is not We are not

Im not Youre not or You arent Hes / Shes / Its not or He / She / It isnt Were not or We arent

Negative contraction to be

Question
Am I? Is he/ she/ it? Are we / you / they?

They are not Theyre not or They arent

The verb to have


The verb to have
I You He /She / It We They

The verb to have is used to express possession, ownership, qualities or characteristics.


I dont have Do + I + have? You dont have you He/ She/ It doesnt have we We dont have they They dont have Does + he + have? she it

Negative to have

Question

Examples

I have 2 brothers. He has 2 brothers.

Examples

I dont have 2 brothers. He doesnt have 2 brothers.

Examples

Do you have 2 brothers? Does he have 2 brothers?

eClass English

Present Simple

We use the present simple for: things that are true in general things that happen sometimes or all the time to describe regular actions, events or habits

I work I dont work Do + I + work? You work You dont work you He /She / It works He / She /It doesnt work we We work We dont work they They work They dont work Does + he + work? she it

Present simple affirmative

Present simple negative

Present simple question

Examples

I work everyday. He works everyday.

I dont work everyday. He doesnt work everyday.

Examples

Do you work everyday? Does he work everyday?

Examples

Third person (He / She / It)


Spelling

You must always add an s to the verb.


Verbs ending in: s / sh / ch pass : passes add es Verbs ending in : y study : studies add ies Except when the verb is preceded by a vowel. finish : finishes try : tries play : plays

Also

do : does

go : goes

GRAMMAR BOOK

The Negative Form


Structure The verb to be

The negative form of the verb to be expresses the nonexistence, nonaction, or non occurrence of an action.
Examples
I You He /She /It We They Add : not or nt to contractions am are is are are not not not not not (arent) (isnt)

Present Simple

They are not my friends. He is not my brother. I You He / She /It We They dont work. dont work. doesnt work. dont work. dont work.

Add : do not (I, you, we, they) or dont does not (he, she, it) or doesnt

I dont play football on the weekends. He doesnt go to university.

Tags short answers


Am I a teacher? Are you a teacher? Is he a teacher? Is she a teacher? Are we teachers? Are they teachers?

When we answer a question with yes or no, it is usually followed by a tag which is a repetition of the verb to be or an auxiliary.
The verb to be
Yes, you are. Yes, I am. Yes, he is. Yes, she is. Yes, we are. Yes, they are. Yes, you do. Yes, I do. Yes, he does. Yes, she does. Yes, we do. Yes, they do. No, youre not. / you arent. No, Im not. No, hes not. / he isnt. No, shes not. / she isnt. No, were not. / we arent. No, theyre not. / they arent. No, you dont. No, I dont. No, he doesnt. No, she doesnt. No, we dont. No, they dont.

Present Simple

Do I like football? Do you like football? Does he like football? Does she like football? Do we like football? Do they like football?
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eClass English

The Present Simple and Present Continuous


The Present Simple

The present simple describes a present condition, regular or general action; the present continuous describes the action that is currently taking place.
Use Examples
- Regular actions or events - When talking in general - Facts - Often used with adverbs of frequency sometimes, often, always, never etc. I always eat eggs for breakfast. He often has English class. Banks lend money to make profits.

The Present Continuous

- The action is not happening . at the time of speaking. - Now

Catherine wants to work in Italy, so she is learning Italian. (but perhaps she isnt learning exactly at the time of speaking) He is having English class at the moment. Banks are lending more money (these days) to encourage businesses to expand.

- For temporary situations

Im eating.

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GRAMMAR BOOK

The Present Continuous Present continuous:

something is happening now / at the moment / currently Past Now Future Im working. Hes playing football. Theyre watching television.

Structure + Examples
I am He/she/it is We/you/they are

The verb to be + verb ing


(not) (not) (not)

verb-ing verb-ing verb-ing

I am working. Chris is writing a letter. Were having dinner.

Question:

What are you doing now? What is he doing now?

Im eating.

We are running.

It is raining.

Spelling

Verbs that end in e drop the e , add ing Make making, write writing, come coming, dance dancing Verbs that end in ie change to ying Lie lying, die dying, tie tying

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eClass English

The Affirmative Imperative


Sit down.

You can use the imperative form to give an order, a warning or advice.

Affirmative Imperative

you (singular + plural) Infinitive without to I, he, she, we, they Let + object pronoun + infinitive without to Let + noun phrase + infinitive without to

Structure

Examples

Be Quiet! Walk down the street Let me check in the dictionary. Let Mark sit there. Lets (us) go to the beach. Let them do what they want.

The negative imperative form is used to give an order, warning or the advice to NOT perform a specific action.
Negative Imperative
you (singular + plural) I, he, she, we, they

The Negative Imperative

Structure

Do not (dont) + Infinitive without to Do not (dont) let + object pronoun + infinitive without to Do not (dont) let + noun phrase + infinitive without to

Examples

Dont be quiet! Dont walk down the street Dont let me fall asleep. Dont let the children fall asleep.

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GRAMMAR BOOK

Verbs without a continuous form

Some verbs are never or hardly ever used in continuous forms. Many of these non-continuous verbs refer to states rather than actions. Mental and emotional states

To believe

To doubt To feel (= have an opinion) To imagine To know To (dis)like To love To hate To prefer To recognize To remember To see (= understand) To suppose To think (= have an opinion) To understand To want To wish To realize To appear To hear To look (=seem) To see To seem To smell To sound To taste To agree To deny To impress To please To satisfy To mean To disagree

Use of the senses

Communicating and causing reactions

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eClass English

Verbs without a continuous form: exceptions


When they express voluntary actions Expressing notions of belief, preference, feelings or an intellectual activity. .

Certain verbs which do not normally take the continuous form may take it in some cases.

Verbs of perception

To see To hear To feel To smell To taste Im seeing Lynn tomorrow. I see what you mean.

NOT Im seeing what you mean

Stative verbs

To think (to reflect) What are you thinking about?

NOT to think ( have an opinion)


What are you thinking of it? What do you think of it?

Always + Present Continuous


To express a repeated action which has an effect on the speaker. To talk about unexpected or unplanned events.

Always is normally used with the simple present. However, sometimes it is used with the present continuous in these situations:
Use
Youre always running late! Compare: When Alice comes to see me, I always meet her at the station. (a regular, planned arrangement) Im always meeting Mrs. Jones at the supermarket. (accidental, unplanned meeting)

Example

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2
begin break bring build buy catch come do drink eat
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GRAMMAR BOOK

Present Perfect and Past Simple


USE To talk about completed actions or finished events that happened at a specific time (yesterday, last year, etc.)

The Preterit (Past Simple)

I watched television yesterday.

For regular verbs add ed For regular verbs ending in y , drop the y , add ied I You He/she/it We They watched watched watched watched watched I You He/she/it We They didnt watch Did you watch? didnt watch he/she/it didnt watch didnt watch we didnt watch they

Regular Verbs:

Examples

I watched television last night.

I didnt watch television last night.

Did you watch television last night?

Irregular Verbs: There is no rule for the construction of irregular verbs in the past, therefore you must memorize them. Here are some important irregular verbs:
began broke brought built bought caught came did drank ate fall find fly forget get give go have hear know fell found flew forgot got gave went had heard knew leave lose make meet pay put read ring say see left lost made met paid put read(red) rang said saw sell sit sleep speak stand take tell think win write sold sat slept spoke stood took told thought won wrote

eClass English

Irregular Verbs

For the preterit (past simple) and past participle of regular verbs add -ed However, for irregular verbs there are no rules. You must memorize them.
Here are some common irregular verbs:

Verb

be begin catch choose do drink eat fall fly give have

Past Tense
was/were began caught chose did drank ate fell flew gave had

Past Participle
been begun caught chosen done drunk eaten fallen flown given had

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GRAMMAR BOOK

The Present Perfect


Structure
Have Has

The Present Perfect is used to indicate actions that happened in a unfinished period of time.
I/you/we/they have He/she/it has + + past participle past participle past participle.? past participle?

Past Participles
go have take eat drink sing gone had taken eaten drunk sung

I/you/they/we + he/she/it +

Uses

Shows there is a connection with now. An action in the past has a result now. Describes an action that started in the past and continues in the present. Shows that an action has recently happened. - (Just is used to show that something happened recently)

Examples

-Where is your key? (I cant find it now.)

I dont know. I have lost it.

-Is Sally here? No, she has gone to the mall. (She is at the mall now.) -I have tried to learn French, but havent succeeded. -I have always studied a lot in university. -Ouch! I have (just) cut my finger. -The road is closed. There has (just) been an accident. -I have (just) finished a great book!

They are at home. They are going out.

They have gone out. (=They are not at home now)

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eClass English

Differences between the Past Simple and the Present Perfect


Uses
Past Simple When the time period has finished Present Perfect When the time period has not finished Past Simple To indicate old information Present Perfect When giving recent news Past Simple When the time of the action is clear Present Perfect When the time of action is not specific Past Simple For For is used in the past simple when we want to indicate the period of time that the action occurred but has already finished. Present Perfect For and since are used when we want to indicate the period of time that the action has been occurring, though the action has not finished yet.

Examples

I saw three movies last week. (the action has finished in a specific time period in the past). I have seen three movies this week. (the week has not finished, so more actions in this time period may take place). Martin has crashed his car last year. Martin crashed his car again.

I saw that movie on Thursday. (specific day) I have already seen that movie. (no specific day or date of the action) I lived in Victoria for five years.

I have lived in Victoria for five years.

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GRAMMAR BOOK

The Present Perfect Continuous

We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until this moment in the present.

Structure

rb ing been + ve rb ing y have been + ve e h /t e /w u o y I/ has ing .? b r e He/she/it v + n g ? e bee I/you/they/w been + verb in Have he/she/it Has

Uses

Describes an action that has recently stopped and has a connection with now. Describes an action that has been repeated over a certain amount of time.

Examples

-Paul is very tired. He has been working hard. -Why are your clothes so dirty? What have you been doing? -I have been learning English for three years. -She has been playing basketball since she was 6 years old. -They have been traveling to Europe every summer since 1995. It is raining now. It began raining two hours ago and it is still raining. How long has it been raining? It has been raining for two hours. We often use the present perfect continuous in this way, especially with How long, for and sinceThe activity is still happening (as in the example) or has just stopped.

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eClass English

For / Since / Ago


For, since, ago = to say how long something has been happening.

For = a period of time Since = the start of a period Ago = expression of time + ago is usually used with the past tense

Use

Examples

two hours 20 minutes five days six months

a week 50 years a long time ages

I have been studying English for 3 years. 8 oclock Monday 12 May April 1977 Christmas lunchtime they were at school

I have been studying English since 2000. six weeks ago a long time ago two days ago I studied English 5 years ago.

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GRAMMAR BOOK

Ever Never

Ever = at some/any time up to now Never = not ever

Structure

Question Ever Used in present simple and present perfect Auxiliary + subject + ever + main verb Affirmative Ever Used with if or superlative Negative Negative Never + verb in affirmative

Examples

Do you ever play tennis? Have you ever been to Argentina? Shes the nicest person Ive ever met. (superlative) Visit the Eiffel Tower if you ever go to Paris. (if) I never drink and drive. Ive never been to Argentina.

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eClass English

Expressions with the Present Perfect Structure + Use

The Present Perfect is used to indicate unfinished past actions, past actions when the time is not specified, and when a past action is relevant now.
We can use these expressions with the present perfect: Today All day This week This year Already Just Yet Lately Recently In the last two months All my life So far Ever Never They refer to a period of time that is not yet over or is recent. We cannot use these expressions with the present perfect: Two months ago One year ago Last week Yesterday When I was a child They refer to a time in the past that is over.

Examples

Hes been in a bad mood all day. Ive visited my grandmother 2 times this week. Ive just started the class. I havent studied in the last two months. I havent heard about it so far.

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GRAMMAR BOOK

The Preterit Continuous (Past Continuous)


Preterit Continuous = to say that someone was in the middle of doing something at a certain time.

Sarah 4 Oclock

Sarah 6 Oclock

Its 6 oclock now. Sarah is at home. She is watching television. At 4 oclock she wasnt at home. She was playing tennis.

Positive
she/it was + verb ing

Negative
I/he/she/it was not (wasnt) + verb ing

Question
Was I/he/she/it + verb ing?

We/you/they were + verb -ing We/you/they were not (werent) + verb -ing Were we/you/they + verb-ing? It was raining. It wasnt raining. Was it raining?

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eClass English

The Past Perfect


Structure
I/we/they/you + had He/she/it + had

For actions that happened before related past events or times.


(=Id etc.) (= hed etc.) + past participle + past participle (gone, seen, finished etc.)

Use

1. To express an action completed before a given time in the past. 2. A state or action beginning in the past continuing until some later time in the past.

I had never seen a movie before then. They had been friends for ten years when he left.

Examples

10 9 8

11 12 1 7 6 5

3 4

Bye

10 9 8

11 12 1 7 6 5

3 4

Half an hour later Hello

Paul

Sarah

Sarah went to a party last week. Paul went to the party too, but they didnt see each other. Paul went home at 10:30 and Sarah arrived at 11 oclock. So: When Sarah arrived at the party, Paul wasnt there. He had gone home.

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GRAMMAR BOOK

The Past Perfect Continuous

The Past Perfect Continuous is used for actions that were unfinished when another action took place.

Structure

I/you/we/they He/she/it I/you/we/they He/she/it Had I/you/they/we he/she/it

had been had been had not been had not been been + been +

+ verb ing (studying, working, listening, etc.) + verb ing + verb-ing + verb-ing verb ing .? verb ing ? (sleeping, reading, eating, etc.) (helping, playing, talking, etc.)

To show that something started in the past and continued up until the moment that something else happened. To show cause and effect.

Uses

Examples

Mary had been talking with John for 15 minutes until Lindsey arrived. Jason was tired because he had been jogging.

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eClass English

Used To

Structure + Use

I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they + to be + used to + verb + ing+ object. Is used for expressing habits or things which you are comfortable with or accustomed to. For expressing a point in the process of becoming accustomed to something. For expressing actions that were habitual in the past and implies that the action no longer takes place. In this sense it is used as a modal auxiliary.

Examples
I am used to reading before going to sleep. I have gotten used to walking to work. I used to eat seafood, but now I prefer meat.

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GRAMMAR BOOK

Future
for the future (tomorrow / next week) for fixed future arrangements

The Near Future be + ing / Present Continuous for Future


Structure Use Examples

The present continuous for future indicates that a specific action will be taking place at a specific time in the future.
What are you doing tomorrow evening? I am staying at home.

To be + verb-ing I am You are He/she/it is We are They are (not) (not) (not) (not) (not) eating eating eating eating eating

Im playing tennis tomorrow

The Future Will

We use will for the future (tomorrow / next week etc.)


I/we/you/they will (ll) He/she/it will not (wont) Will I/we/you/they He/she/it be eat etc. win be? win? etc. eat?

Subject + will + infinitive (without to) Examples:


I will be at home tomorrow. Will you be at home this evening?

We use will when we make a decision in the moment of speaking.


Its cold in here. Ill close the window What would you like to order? Ill have the beef please.
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eClass English

The Future Continuous Will be doing


Structure
will + be + gerund This is used to say you will be in the middle of doing something. It is used to talk about complete actions in the future.

Use

The football games at 7:30 and ends at 9:15. At 8:15, Kevin will be watching the game. Q: If you see Sally, can you ask her to call me? A: Sure, Ill be seeing her this evening, so Ill tell her then.

Examples

The Future Will vs. To be going to


Will + infinitive I, you etc.+ will + verb (infinitive without to) I, you etc.+ will not (wont) + verb (infinitive without to)

Structure

Use

Indefinite future predictions

Next year I think I will go to New York.

Examples

When we make a decision in the Its cold in here. moment of speaking. Ill close the window

To be + going to + infinitive I am (not) going to + verb Future plans and intention I am going to meet Jill for lunch today. (infinitive without to) (Ive decided to do something, my intention is to do it) He is not going to finish the project on time.

We also use to be going to when there is evidence in the present that something is going to happen in the future. It is clear now that it is sure to happen.

Example:

There is a black cloud in the sky. Its going to rain.

Its going to rain.

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GRAMMAR BOOK

The Future Perfect Will have done


Will have + past participle To indicate that something will occur before another action in the future. I, you etc.+ will + have To show that something will + past participle continue up until another action in the future.

Structure

Use

Examples

You will have perfected your English by the time you come back from the USA. By Monday, Susan will have had my book for a month.

The Future with be + infinitive


Structure Use
To be + infinitive with to This is used to express the idea of the future in the following situations: A planned or agreed action Present: To be (present) + infinitive with to Past: To be (past) + infinitive with to (This is a planned or agreed action that was not done.) An action which should be done An imposed action / a strict order Instructions and directions for use To be + passive infinitive

Examples

Were to see them tomorrow. I was to become a priest. (but I didnt) Whats to be done? Youre not to read that letter. The medicine is to be taken twice a day.

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Can ability - to be able to do something. Example: He can carry the bag. Can likelihood / possibility Example: Sometimes when the weather is bad it can rain. ( It is possible that this happens.) It cant be true. (I certainly is not true, there is no possibility that it is true.)

Structure Use

Can ability and likelihood


Use

Modals

eClass English

Examples

g. 30 K

Structure Question

I / we / you / they he / she / it

+ can + cannot (cant) + verb

verb

Can + I / we / you / they he / she / it Example: Can you swim?

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GRAMMAR BOOK

Can - perception and knowledge


Can ability / knowledge - to know how to do something Example: I can play the guitar. Can perception - with verbs of perception such as to hear, to see, to feel. Example: I can see Sarah coming.

Use

Structure Question

I / we / you / they + he / she / it Can +

can + verb cannot (cant) + verb

I / we / you / they he / she / it

Example: Can you swim?

I can play the piano .

32

eClass English

Can, Could, To be able to

The modal can has the following form

languages. 5 k a e p s n I ca g very well. in s t n a c e H e piano. s sick. Can th y la p ld u o hild I c use I wa Present Cant en I was a c class yesterday beca h W ouldnt go to c I ld u Co blem. She ro p r u o y t u t t o n b Pas Could Catherine a help you. k s A to ight be able m to le b a e b To ith you later. ecause w t e e m Infinitive to b I will be able leave early . to le b a e b rk t to They won finish their homewo Will be able nt) be able to they have to o (w t o n Future l il W

33

GRAMMAR BOOK

Should and Ought to: advice


Use To give advice

Should / ought to =

It is a good thing to do; it is the right thing to do.

You shouldnt watch TV so much

Should not / ought not to =


It is not a good thing to do.

I, you, we, they + should (not) + infinitive without to he, she, it Examples: Its a good film. You should go and see it. Tom shouldnt go to bed so late. I, you, we, they + ought (not) to + infinitive without to he, she, it Examples: Carol ought to buy some new clothes. You ought not to eat so much. should or ought to + have + past participle = to express regret or reproach We should have gone to the mountains. They ought to have invited her.

Should and Ought to: probability


Structure
Should subject + should + To show something that is infinitive without to desirable or probable

Use

Example
The train should arrive soon.

Ought to subject + ought to + Implies an expectation or assumption infinitive without to


34

He is intelligent. He ought to pass the exam.

eClass English

Must and Have to


Must = a need or obligation to do something
Structure
I, you, we, they + must + infinitive without to He, she, it + must + infinitive without to

Example

You must wash your hands before eating.

Mustnt = an obligation to NOT do something. You must not do it. Must not
Structure
I, you, we, they + mustnt + infinitive without to He, she, it + mustnt + infinitive without to

Example

You mustnt smoke in the elevator.

NO

SM

OK

ING

Have to = a need or obligation to do something.


Structure
I, you, we, they + have to + infinitive without to

Example

You have to finish the assignment by tomorrow.

Dont have to Doesnt have to


Structure

= NO obligation to do something. It is optional.


You dont have to do the homework if you dont want to. ( You can either do it or not; it is optional)

I, you, we, they + dont have to + infinitive without to He, she, it + doesnt have to + infinitive without to

Example

35

GRAMMAR BOOK

Using must for obligation


Must = a need or obligation to do something.
I, you, we, they + must + infinitive without to He, she, it + must + infinitive without to You must wash your hands before eating.

Mustnt = an obligation NOT to do something.

I, you, we, they + mustnt + infinitive without to He, she, it + mustnt + infinitive without to

You mustnt walk on the grass.

Please keep off the grass

36

eClass English

Strong probability using must


Must = strong probability or near certainty.

Structure

Subject + must + verb (infinitive without to) Negative: Subject + cannot + verb (infinitive without to) Subject + cant + verb (infinitive without to)

Example

You must be Mr. Brown. My sister has told me all about you. You cant be Maggies mother; youre not old enough!

: The past form is ast participle must + have + p ainty in the past. rt e c r a e n s e s s It expre have gone out. t s u m e H : le p m Exa

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GRAMMAR BOOK

Absence of necessity

To say it is not necessary to do something or it is optional you can use neednt and dont have to. It shows an absence of necessity.

Structure

Subject + neednt + infinitive without to Subject + dont / doesnt need to + infinitive without to This expresses the opinion of the speaker. Subject + dont / doesnt have to + infinitive without to This can imply the speakers opinion or not.

Examples

You neednt bring your bike; its not that far. You dont need to bring your bike. You dont have to do your homework.

38

eClass English

May and Might

To say it is not necessary to do something or it is optional you can use neednt and dont have to. It shows an absence of necessity.
May I, you, etc. + may + verb (infinitive To say that something may not without to) is about 50% possible. Might I, you, etc. + might + verb (infinitive To say that something might not without to) is less than 50% possible.

Use

Examples
I may go to the cinema later. He may call her. He might have a meeting. He might know.

The uses of may and might above are to talk about the present or future. These other structures are also possible. may/might + be + verb ing to talk about present or future I may be working at that time. He might be having lunch. may/might + have + past participle to talk about uncertain events in the past

She may have been asleep. She might have left it in the shop.

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Shall

In British English, shall can be used for will to express the future. In American English, it is not often used. Use shall with I/ we I shall be late tomorrow. ( I will be late) Shall we go to the museum later?

Do NOT use shall with you/they/he/she/it


Tom will be late. (not Tom shall be)

Shall can express obligation.

This is stronger and more formal than other modals of obligation (must, have to). It is used in legal texts and official rules.

Examples: 1. The insurance holder shall pay back the full amount within three years. 2. Students shall not play loud music after 10PM.

Would like: expressing wishes


Would like expresses a wish or desire. Would like + infinitive Example: I would like to go to the movies. Would like + noun or noun phrase Example: I would like a drink. Interrogative would like Example: Would you like a coffee? more polite form of (do) want

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eClass English

Modal Auxiliaries
Modal

A modal auxiliary is a verb used with other verbs to express mood or tense. When a modal is used, the following verb is in the infinitive minus to form.
Can Ability Negative: cannot / cant Past: could Future: will be able to Permission Could Possible actions now or in the future. (to make suggestions) Permission May To say that something is about 50% possible. Permission Might To say that something is less than 50% possible. Must Obligation Negative: mustnt Deduction Negative: cant

Use

Example

He can play the piano.

Can I leave the room? When you go to New York you could stay with Jane. Could I open the window? I may go to the cinema later. May I open the window? He might have a meeting. You must go to the bank You mustnt go to the bank. Youve been travelling all day, you must be tired. Youve been sleeping all day, you cant be tired.

Could + have + past participle May + have + past participle Might + have + past participle

Possibility in the past. Something you could have done but did not do / did not attempt to do. To say that it is possible that something happened or was true in the past. To say that it is possible that something happened or was true in the past. BUT did not happen.

I could have studied Architecture in university. Pollys very late. She may have missed her train. You were stupid to try climbing up there. You might have killed yourself.

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Near certainty in the past: must have / cant have

When we are unsure of occurrences in the past, we can use these expressions to indicate an assumption of the event that probably took place in a past moment.

Structure

subject + must have + past participle Deduction Near certainty in the past Example: John wasnt in class yesterday. He must have been sick.
Structure

Use

subject + cant have + past participle A deduction about something that didnt happen in the past. Example: I saw John in the pub. He cant have been sick.

Use

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Questions

The Verb to be To be + subject Am I? Are you? Is he / she / it? Are we? Are they?

eClass English

Questions without interrogative words

Examples
Are you married? Is John a policeman?

Present Simple Do + subject + verb Does Do you / we / they? Does he / she / it? Does he study English? Do they have television?

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Interrogative Words

Interrogative words are used to ask very specific questions related to the person, place, reason, etc. that an action occurs.

Interrogative word

refers to people Who refers to people or things Which when there is a choice refers to things What refers to manner or means How asks about reason Why refers to location Where refers to time or date When refers to possession Whose

Use

Example

Who is he? Who do you know? Which do you prefer tea or coffe What sport do you play? anner) How do you spell your name? (m) How do you go to work? (means Why dont you like her? Where is the museum? When does the store open? When do you leave? Whose pen is this? e?

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eClass English

How long

is used to ask questions about duration.


How long + to be How long + is/are + noun How long + present simple How long + do/does + subject + verb

How long

Structure

How long is your vacation? How long are the books? How long do you take to eat breakfast? How long does it take to get to work?

Example

Beginner level should only study the two structures above. Below are some examples of how long with other tenses.

How long + preterit (past simple) How long + present perfect How long + present perfect continuous

How long + did + subject + verb How long did you spend in Italy? How long + have / has + subject + past participle How long have you had that car?

Structure

Example

How long + have / has + How long have you been subject + been+ gerund studying English?

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GRAMMAR BOOK

Past Interrogatives

The verb to be
was were

Was / were + subject I? he? she? it? we? you? they?

Where was Ann yesterday? Was the weather good? Were they expensive?

The Preterit (Past Simple)


Did + subject + verb Did I What did you do yesterday? you Where did he go on holiday? he Did it rain on Saturday? she watch? it we they

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eClass English

Questions Tags
A positive sentence A negative sentence
Examples
The verb to be Youre a doctor, arent you? He is not here today, is he?

Question tags are mini-questions placed at the end of a sentence. A negative question tag A positive question tag

Present Continuous He is studying English, isnt he? Youre not meeting Jim, are you? Preterit/ Past Simple He went on vacation, didnt he? They didnt work yesterday, did they?

Present Simple They work together, dont they? She doesnt eat meat, does she?

Question tags can be formed for all tenses. Your teacher will give you examples for the tenses you have learned so far. The meaning of a question tag depends on how you say it. If your voice Goes down
Its a beautiful day, isnt it? Yes, lovely.
You arent really asking a question; you are only inviting the listener to agree with you. Example: Its a beautiful day, isnt it? Yes, lovely.

Goes up

You are asking a real question. Example: You didnt see Mary, did you? No, Im afraid not.

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Which / What

Which, What = both are used for choices. They are often used interchangeably.

What - a choice between or among things. (usually objects) Which a choice between or among a limited number of things/possibilities (usually objects and people)

What books do you prefer? What kind of services do you want? Which do you prefer: romance novels or science fiction? Which of these shirts is yours?

How long..(for) / Since when


Structure
How long + have/has + subject + been + verb -ing + for? We use for when we say a period of time. (two hours, a week, 20 minutes, six months etc.) Since when + have/has + subject + been+ verb ing We use since when we say the start of a period of time. (8 oclock, Monday, 12 May, 1990, lunchtime etc.) Q: Since when has it been snowing? A: It has been snowing since yesterday.

Examples

Q: How long have you been waiting for? A: I have been waiting for over an hour.

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eClass English

Short Questions

In informal everyday and professional situations, you may use short questions.

These are questions formed with incomplete sentences.

You can only use them when the context has been clearly established.

They ask for feedback, check understanding, ask for clarification, ask for advice / suggestions, make requests and verify agreement.

Here are some examples:


Short Questions
Any thoughts? Suggestions? Ideas? Any problems? Objections? Anything serious? Louder, please? Sorry?

Possible complete form


Do you have any thoughts on what I just said? Do you have any suggestions? Can you give me some ideas? Have you been having any problems? Does anyone have any objections to my proposal? Are the problems serious? Could you speak a bit louder, please? Sorry? I didnt hear what you said.

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Articles and Nouns

Definite and Indefinite Articles

An article is a word that is combined with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun. A definite article indicates that its noun is a particular one. An indefinite article indicates that its noun is not yet a particular one.
Language Use Example

The indefinite article A The definite article The

- one thing or person. - a noun in a general context. - a noun in a specific context.

He is a teacher.

He is the teacher.

Language

The indefinite article A The indefinite article An

is used before words that begin I am a man. with consonants. is used before words that begin This is an orange. with vowels (a,e,i,o,u) or vowels sounds Its an honor.

Use

Example

Exceptions:

an hour (h is not pronounced: an (h)our) a university (pronounced yuniversity) a European country (pronounced yeuropean)

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eClass English

The Plural

To make a noun plural add s

Plural rules Examples


a flower a book two flowers two books

For nouns ending in: s / sh / ch / x es For nouns ending in: y but ay / ey / oy For nouns ending in: f / fe ves ies ys

bus : buses dish : dishes box : boxes church : churches Also: potato : potatoes tomato: tomatoes

baby : babies party : parties day : days monkey: monkeys

shelf : shelves wife: wives man woman foot child person men women feet children people

Some nouns have irregular endings

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Names of Countries: Capitals


a university (pronounced yuniversity) a European country (pronounced yeuropean)

Names of countries have capital letters.

Hes a friend from France.

They live in Spain.

I am from the United States!

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eClass English

Countable and Uncountable Nouns a university (pronounced yuniversity)


A noun can be

countable
Countable nouns

or

uncountable
(a) car (a) man (a) house (an) idea I have a car. I have two cars. water rice money salt music I have money. I have some money.

You can use one/two/three etc. + countable nouns. (you can count them) Countable nouns can be singular or plural. Examples

Uncountable nouns

You cannot say one/two/three etc. Uncountable nouns only have one form. You cannot use a/ an + uncountable nouns. Uncountable nouns are always singular. Examples

Exclamations with what a


What a /an (+adjective) + singular countable noun What (+ adjective) + uncountable / plural noun What a rude man! What a nice dress! What beautiful weather! What lovely flowers!

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Construction of Compound Nouns


A compound noun = two nouns joined together.

One noun modifies the other.


Example: tooth, paste: toothpaste

Compound nouns can be written in these ways:

There are not many rules for joining compound nouns. You must check a dictionary for the correct form. 1. The two words are joined together. Example: tooth + paste = toothpaste | bed + room = bedroom 2. They are joined using a hyphen. Example: check-in 3. They appear as two separate words. Example: full moon Other Examples: ski boots, alarm clock , housework, great-grandfather

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eClass English

The use and omission of the

The We use the before plural nouns or uncountable nouns when we are thinking of one particular thing. No the When we are talking about things or people in general, we do not use the. No the The We do not use the with names of people, countries, continents, states, regions, islands, cities, mountains. But we do use the in names with Republic, Kingdom, States, oceans, seas, rivers and canals.

Use

Examples

Tom sat down on a chair. (perhaps one of many chairs) Tom sat on the chair nearest the door. (a particular chair) Im afraid of dogs. (not the dogs) Children learn a lot from playing. (children in general) I visited Europe last year. (not the Europe) I live in the USA. She is from the Republic of Ireland. The Atlantic Ocean is very big.

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Definite articles with geographical names



No the

Use

Singular name of a country, continent or region. Exceptions: the Sahara, the Congo, the South Pole.

Examples

France, Great Britain, Spain

The Plural name of a country.

The British Isles, the West Indies, the Philippines

The

But we do use the in names with Republic, Kingdom, States.

The United States, The Republic of Ireland, The United Kingdom

The

Abbreviations of countries, continents and regions.

The UK, the USA, the EU

No the

The names of streets, squares, monuments and parks. ( generally)

Carnaby Street, Hyde Park, Wesminister Abbey

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eClass English

Nouns without singular forms


Nouns referring to objects composed of 2 symmetrical parts

Some plural nouns have no singular forms.


Scissors, glasses, trousers, jeans, shorts, tights, pyjamas

When used as a countable noun, use pair of Some collective nouns Clothes, goods, people, cattle, police, savings

Negation of the indefinite article


Structure
With a singular countable noun: Not..a With plural countable nouns and uncountable nouns Notany

The negative form of the indefinite article is expressed like this:


Examples
I havent got a pen./ I dont have a pen. There arent any buses here. It doesnt require any equipment.

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Pronouns and Determiners


Subject Pronoun
I You (singular) He She It We You (plural) They

Subject Pronouns
s

Object Pronouns
Object Pronouns
(subject pronoun) I You He She It We They (object pronoun) me you him her it us them

Examples
Ann knows me. Ann knows you. Ann knows him. Ann knows her. Ann knows it. Ann knows us. Ann knows them.

Use
We use:

a verb + object pronoun

Its nice. I Iike it.

Theyre nice. I like them.

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eClass English

Possessive Pronouns
Mine Ours Yours His Hers Theirs

I my you your he his she her we our they their

(possessive pronoun) mine yours his hers ours theirs

We use my/your etc. + a noun My hands are cold. We use mine/yours etc. without a noun Is this book mine or yours? Possessive pronouns show possession and answer the question whose.

Reflexive Pronouns
I You He She It We You They

Reflexive Pronouns

myself yourself himself We use reflexive pronouns herself when the subject and object of a itself sentence are the same person ourselves or non-person. yourselves themselves

Use

Examples
I talk to myself when I am nervous. We blame ourselves for the results of the test. It saw itself in the mirror.

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No / None
No + noun None

No

When we want to exclude all possibilities. When no part of something is left. When none exists, not even a group of people or a small amount of something.

Use Use

- We have no bread. - There were no problems. - Do you have any more pie? No, sorry, I have none. - When she returned to the office, none of us recognized her with her new haircut.

Examples Examples

None

The Possessive
To show possession for people, countries, groups and institutions we use s
Examples: It is Johns birthday. (not the birthday of John) Its my mothers umbrella. Chiles economy is doing well.

friends and friends


My house Our house

My friends house = one friend (=his house or her house) (singular)

My friends house = 2 or more friends (= their house) (plural)

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eClass English

More uses of the Possessive


n also a c s e iv s s e The poss h dates, durations it be used wd . an distances ular noun g in s a to s We add postrophe () to a and an a n, for example: plural nou
Dates Durations Distances Sundays weather Tomorrows flight Next years budget Three weeks vacation A hundred miles drive

The Indefinite Possessive


Use
We cant usually put a possessive determiner + noun + of before another determiner and a noun. + possessive We can say my friend but not (s) a my friend. So we use these structures. determiner + noun + of + possessive (mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs)

Structure

Examples

I met a friend of Lucys. Have you heard this new idea of your bosss? ( a, this = determiners) Hows that brother of yours? Peter is a cousin of mine. ( a, that = determiners)

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Use of the pronoun one


The pronoun one or ones is used after an adjective to replace: a countable noun already expressed a noun that hasnt been expressed

These chocolates are nice Would you like one?

Would you like one? = Would you like a chocolate? One = a /an (a chocolate / an apple etc.)

Which one do you want?

This one

One (singular) Which one? = which hat?


Which one do you want? The white ones

Ones (plural) Which ones? = which flowers?

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eClass English

Demonstrative Pronouns: This, That, These, Those


The demonstratives this, that, these, those show where an object or person is in relation to the speaker.

this This (singular) These (plural) That (singular) Those (plural)

that

these

those

Refers to an object or person near the speaker Examples: Is this Johns house? This is a nice surprise! Refers to an object or person further away Examples: Who owns that house? Thats nothing to do with me.

Position
a) Before a noun. b) Before the word one. c) Before an adjective + noun. d) Alone when the noun is understood.

Examples:
This car looks cleaner than that car. This one is more expensive. Do you remember that wonderful day in June? Ill never forget this.

Here / There
Here is used for something that is near to us. Here is the money (in my hand). There is used for something that is far from us. There is the bank, about 2 blocks away.
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Some / Any
Use some / any to describe an undetermined quantity. Use with both countable and uncountable nouns. Some: in positive sentences, offers and requests. I have got some money. Would you like some water? (offer) Can I have some bread? (request)
I have some money.
$

Any: in negative sentences and questions

I havent got any money. Do you have any information?


I dont have any money.

Any: to express total Feel free to ask questions at any time. permission, possibility, or restriction. Any of these designs are fine. Any: to express possibility or indifference.

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eClass English

A lot of, Much / Many

Use a lot of with mass and count nouns in positive sentences, negative sentences and questions. Use much with mass nouns in negative sentences and in questions. Use many with count nouns in negative sentences, positive sentences and in questions.

Ann has a lot of meetings. I have a lot of work to do. Ann doesnt have much time to see New York. How much coffee did you drink? I dont have many classes today. Did many people come to the party?

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How much / How many


How much/many = to ask questions about quantity How much + uncountable nouns How many + plural countable nouns How much money do you want? How much time do you have? How many friends do you have? How many books are there?

As much as / As many as
To compare two things that are the same. as much as Use with: singular, uncountable nouns not as much as as many as plural, countable nouns not as many as Examples: You have as much money as I do. (= the same amount) You dont have as much money as I do. There are as many parks in Santiago as there are in Buenos Aires. There arent as many parks in Santiago as there are in Buenos Aires.

We can use as much as + as many as without a noun also. Here the comparative refers to the previous clause or an implied or previously stated noun. Its twice as much as the rent. (=Its twice as much money as the rent)

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eClass English

Some / Any: singular or plural?


Some, any, none, all, most When they refer to a singular noun, the verb is singular. When they refer to a plural noun, the verb is plural. Examples: Some of the meal was really good. None of the presentation is interesting. Some of the books are quite funny. None of the stories are interesting.

Eitheror
A negative clause must never contain more than one negation. So, we use either after a negative verb. Either is always placed at the end of a clause. It means too / as well Im not happy. Im not happy either. (not Im not too)

Im not happy.

Im not happy either.

I cant cook. I cant cook either.

(not I cant too)

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Either. or / Neither .nor



Either.or

Use
A choice between 2 things

Example
I want either fruit juice or coffee. Either you come to class or you do the work at home. I can neither read nor write French. Shes neither nice nor helpful.

or Either
Neither..nor To exclude 2 things neither (not + either)

? ?

Everybody / Nobody

Everybody (everyone) (all the people)

singular

Everybody needs friends. All the people need friends.

Nobody (no one) (no people)

singular

Nobody is here. No people are here.

68

eClass English

Everybody / Somebody / Nobody with question tags

r verbs. la u g in s y b d e w o e plural. re foll a th y in d o is b o g n ta , y e d th o , b g me a question ta y b Everybody, soe d e w o ll fo re a However, if th y body needs ry e v E nt they? singular o d , s d n ie ) fr e n o ry Everybody (eve (all the people) body has to go e m o S singular dont they? , g in p p o h ) s e n o e Somebody (som know who) t n o d e w t u b n o ( a pers o y really knows, d d o b o N singular they? ) e n o o (n Nobody es Mike. (no people) k li y d o b o N : le p e form. Exam iv it s o p e th in rb Nobody + ve

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Each other / One another


Each other and one another can be used interchangeably. They show a reciprocal relationship between the subjects in the sentence.

John and Paul looked at each other. (= John looked at Paul / Paul looked at John)

Each other and one another can be used in the possessive. They took each others hands. We often meet at one anothers places. Formerly, it was said that each other was used for a relationship between two subjects whereas one another was used for a relationship between more than two subjects. Today, however, most do not observe this distinction. Maria and Jorge love each other. (Two subjects) The children are sitting opposite one another. (More than two subjects)

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eClass English

Different meanings of all

All = all of something limited. It is used with uncountable or plural countable nouns.

All + noun All (of) + the this/that/these/those (demonstrative) my/your etc. (possessive adjective)

All cities have the same problem. All the children at this school are tall. All these books are mine. I have spent all my money. Have you read these books? Ive read them all. Ive read all of them. The girls all left. We will all have some juice. They are all ready to go.

Personal Pronouns personal pronoun + all all of + personal pronoun with Subject Pronouns Subject (pronoun) + all + simple verb Subject (pronoun) + modal auxiliary / to be + all

With a singular countable noun = every Every student in the class passed the exam. Every country has a national flag.

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A little / A bit

A little / A bit = a small quantity

Structure
A little

Use with uncountable nouns. It can also replace the noun to avoid repetition. Use with uncountable nouns. Adverb of degree.

Use

We want a little fresh air. Do you want some coffee? A little, please. We want a bit of fresh air. Were a little busy today. This tooth aches a little.

Examples

A bit of A little

A little + adjective Verb + a little Little (negative connotation) A bit Use with countable nouns. Often replaces a little as an adverb.

I have little time to finish the report. Can you drive a bit slower?

A few Use with countable nouns. I have a few books I can lend you. It can also replace the noun to avoid How many science fiction novels repetition. do you have? Few A few. (negative connotation) Use with countable nouns. I am lonely. I have few friends.

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eClass English

Use of both

Both = two elements


With nouns With determiners Before a noun with a determiner (the, this, my, your, those etc.) both and both of are possible. With object pronouns (me, you, him, her, it, us, them) Use both of before the pronoun. Both can be put after object pronouns. With verbs Both goes after auxiliaries and before other verbs. I want both books. Both shirts are good. I want both (of) those books. Both (of) the books.

Both of them are my sisters. She has invited both of us. She has invited us both. We have both gone to the beach. We both want to go.

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Relative Pronouns and Adverbs

Relative Clauses and Dependent Clauses


The woman who lives next door is a doctor. relative clause A relative clause joins two sentences: I met a woman. She speaks two languages. she who I met a woman who speaks two languages.
WHO people I know a lot of people who live in London. THAT things or people The man that lives next door is very friendly. Barbara works for a company that makes computers. WHICH things Emma lives in a house which is 500 years old. WHOSE possession (instead of his/her/their etc.) A widow is a woman whose husband is dead. WHERE a place That is the hotel where Tom got married. WHOM people (but when it is the object of the verb in the relative clause) The woman whom I wanted to see was away on holiday. ( I wanted to see her)

Relative pronouns are used in relative clauses. A clause is part of a sentence. A relative clause tells us which person or thing the speaker means.

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eClass English

There are two types of relative clauses.


Defining Relative Clauses The woman who lives next door is a doctor. Non- defining Relative Clauses My brother Jim, who lives in London, is a doctor.

The relative clause tells you which person or thing The relative clause does not tell you which person the speaker means. or thing the speaker means. (We already know which thing or person is meant.) This is extra information about the person or thing. We do NOT use commas. We use commas.

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That and Dependent Clauses

A dependent clause cannot stand alone as a sentence. It is usually attached to an independent clause. When the main clause is in the preterit, the dependent clause (introduced by that or a relative pronoun) is also in the preterit. If it is in the present, then the dependent clause is in the present also. Reported Speech
When that is used in reported speech, the dependent clause should follow the rule of agreement. (see reported speech)

Relative Clauses (Omission of that)

That is used as a relative pronoun in relative clauses. When the relative pronoun is an object pronoun it can be omitted in a defining relative clause*.

*see relative pronouns and adverbs for an explanation on the difference between a defining and non-defining clauses.

Subject or Object Pronoun?


Subject Pronoun = the relative pronoun is followed by a verb. the apple that is laying on the table Object Pronoun = the relative pronoun is followed by a noun or pronoun. the apple (that) George laid on the table

Examples of when that can/ cannot be omitted.


We stayed at the hotel (that) Ann recommended. that + noun (Ann) = object pronoun. This is a defining relative clause. This morning I met somebody (that) I hadnt met for ages. that + pronoun (I) = object pronoun. This is a defining relative clause. Barbara works for a company that makes washing machines. that + verb (makes) = subject pronoun.

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eClass English

When that may be left out

That may be left out in the following situations:.

Reported speech After adjectives

After many reporting verbs that can be left out. Examples: said, thought, suggested However, that cannot be dropped after certain verbs Examples: replied, shouted, disagreed In that clauses after some adjectives, that can be left out.

James said (that) he was feeling better. James replied that he was feeling better. Im glad (that) youre all right. Come in quietly so (that) she doesnt hear you. I was having such a nice time (that) I didnt want to leave.

Conjunctions That can be left out in an informal style in some common two-word conjunctions such as: so that suchthat now that providing that provided that supposing that considering that assuming that Relative structures Leave out the relative pronoun that when it is the object in a relative clause. *See that + dependent clauses

Look! There are the people (that) we met in Brighton

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To hope + Dependent Clause

Structuree
To hope + future mple To hope + present si (refers to the future)

Examples
She hopes hell come. any problems getting home. I hope you wont have all right. He hopes the traffic is too cold. I hope the water is not

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Adjectives and Adverbs


Possessive Adjectives
Possessive adjectives
(subject pronoun) I my You your He his She her It its We our They their

eClass English

A possessive adjective is used with a noun to indicate possession, ownership or close relationship.
Examples
We use: I like my job. You like your job. He likes his job She likes her job. It likes its food. (The dog) We like our jobs. They like their jobs.

Use
possessive adjective + a noun to show possession

my hat

our hats

your hat

her hat

their hats

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Too / Too much/ Too many


Too / too much / too many = More than you want, more than is good. This is a negative concept.

Structure

Too + adjective/adverb

The music is too loud.

Examples

Too much + uncountable nouns

There is too much sugar in my tea.

Too many + plural countable nouns

She has too many books.

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Placement of Enough
Enough = sufficient, adequate He cant reach the shelf. Hes not tall enough.
Structure
After adjectives and adverbs Before nouns and noun phrases After verbs (including past participles) Im not tall enough. You drive fast enough. There isnt enough time. He doesnt work enough. Ive eaten enough.

Examples

Also / As well / Too


Before a verb and after to be At the end of a sentence I also have a dog. I have a dog as well. She also studies English. She studies English as well. She is also tall. She is tall as well.

Also

As well

At the end of a clause or for emphasis (with commas) I have a dog too. I, too, have a dog. She studies English too. She, too, studies English. She is tall too. She, too, is tall. We are Chinese too. We, too, are Chinese.

Too

We are also Chinese. We are Chinese as well.

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Adverbs

An adverb modifies a verb. It helps to tell how, when or where the action took place.
To make an adverb: Adjective + ly Examples: Accidently Quickly Angrily Safely Badly

Exceptions and Irregular adverbs: These are some words that are adjectives and adverbs: hard, fast, late, early Good (adjective) well (adverb) Your English is very good. You speak English very well. Spelling Rules -If the adjective ends in /y/ add ily Easy Easily, Heavy Heavily -If the adjective ends in /e/, we keep /e/ before the /ly/ Polite Politely, Extreme Extremely -If the adjective end in /le/, we do not keep the /e/ before the /ly/ Simply Simply, Terrible Terribly

Adverbs of Time / Frequency


How often do you go to the mall? I sometimes go to the mall.
never seldom/rarely sometimes* often usually aways 0% Before a verb 20%

Adverbs of time or frequency are adverbs that tell us how often we do something.

40%

60%

80%

100%

Adverb placement

Examples

I never go to the mall. I always play basketball on the weekends. She often practices English.

After verb to be
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I am always tired. She is usually late for English class. *Sometimes can also go before the subject.

eClass English

The Adverb that


that as an adverb

Structure

That + adjective/ adverb

To intensify the meaning of the adjective/ adverb

Use

Example

Are you that afraid? I had no idea I was that far from home.

Adverbs of Manner
Examples: The train stopped suddenly. I opened the door slowly.

Adverbs of manner tell us how something happens or how somebody does something. They are usually placed after the main verb or after the object.

Be careful with the differences between adjectives and adverbs:

Adjective

-Sue is very quiet. -It was a bad game. (Describes the game which is a noun) -I am nervous.

-Sue speaks very quietly. (Not speaks very quiet) -Our team played badly. (Describes how the team played) -I waited nervously.

Adverb

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Yet / Not yet

Yet = until now

Bill will be here soon.

Wheres Bill? Hes very late.

Twenty minutes ago they were waiting for Bill.

They are still waiting for Bill. Bill hasnt come yet. Examples Where is Diane? She isnt here yet. Are you ready to go yet? No, not yet..

Use Yet Use in negative sentences and questions Yet is usually at the end of a sentence.

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eClass English

Still / Yet

Still = something is the same as before

THE RAIN HASNT STOPPED

An hour ago it was raining. It is still raining now. Example: I had a lot to eat but Im still hungry. (= I was hungry before and Im hungry now)

Yet = until now


Bill will be here soon. Wheres Bill. Hes very late.

Twenty minutes ago they were waiting for Bill.

They are still waiting for Bill. Bill hasnt come yet. Examples Where is Diane? She isnt here yet. Are you ready to go yet? Not yet.
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Use Yet Use in negative sentences and questions Yet is usually at the end of a sentence.

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Compound Adjectives

A compound adjective is formed when two or more adjectives work together to modify the same noun. The second part of the compound adjective may be: An adjective A present participle A past participle A noun + ed Irregular (Do not follow the structures above) ice-cold heartbreaking well-deserved old-fashioned second-hand
HEART BREAKING

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eClass English

Adjectives ending in ing and ed


Ending in ing
Subject + verb to be + adjective + ing

Use

When the adjective ends in ing, it means that the particular person or thing causes a particular effect. When the adjective ends in ed, it means that the particular person or thing experiences a particular effect.

I hate snakes. Theyre terrifying.

Examples

Ending in ed

Subject + verb to be + adjective + ed

Use

Snakes terrify me. I am always terrified when I see one.

Examples

Adjectives ending in ing

Some adjectives are made by adding ing to the verb.


Examples: Disgust Bore Interest Depress Surprise disgusting boring interesting depressing surprising

Adjectives ending in ing Tells you about the situation Examples: My job is boring. The news was shocking. It was surprising that he passed the exam.

Adjectives ending in ed Tells you how somebody feels. Examples: Im bored with my job. We were shocked when we heard the news. Everyone was surprised that he passed the exam.

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The past participle as an adjective


Regular Verbs add ed or d Examples: worked, finished, boiled Irregular Verbs No general rules

Some past participles can be used as adjectives.

break write fall give take fly swim

Some common irregular past participles


broken written fallen given taken flown swum

drive eat forget see know drink throw

driven eaten forgotten seen known drunk thrown

Examples: That is a broken cup. We are visiting the forgotten city of the Incas.

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eClass English

Adverbs of Degree

Describe the strength or intensity of something that happens. Many adverbs are gradable, which means we can intensify them. They answer these questions: How much ..? or How little...?
Highest Intensity totally completely entirely thoroughly absolutely definitely positively +++ almost very extremely really quite practically ++ somewhat somehow fairly rather kind of Lowest Intensity hardly scarcely barely

+ slightly a bit a little

Use / Structure

Place the adverb before the adjective or adverb they are modifying Place the adverb before the main verb Examples: Im really enjoying working on this project. The exam was fairly easy. He has barely worked this year.

Example

The water was extremely cold. She has almost finished.

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Adverbs and Adjectives

Adverbs are used to modify nouns, verbs, adjectives or other adverbs. This way we can indicate how things are done. Refer to the chart below for examples:

Adverb

Adjective

Other uses
) deeply (feeling ) directly (=soonm) hardly (=seldove) highly (figuratitly) lately (=recen lly) mostly (=usuast) nearly (=almo prettily ) shortly (=soon

good difficult public deep direct hard high late most near pretty short

, little, y rl u o h t, s fa r, , early, fa , straight, aily, enough d , much ly th n o m re , a w s lo e v , ti long g adjec arly, e The followina y , ly s k rb e e e v w d a s also used d ication) if o m t u o h it formation in (w a tr x e e iv g lso used to r adverbs). adverbs are tia r othe (o s e v c je d a t abou

well with difficulty publicly deep (place) direct hard high (place) late most near pretty (=rather) short

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eClass English

Uses of so

Structure + Examples
So + adjective or adverb = an exclamation Youre so kind! Dont be so sensitive! that clauses sothat It was so cold that we stopped playing. (not It was very cold that we stopped playing) He was driving so fast that he went through a red light. Substitute word So can be used in some structures instead of repeating an adjective or adverb. The weather is stormy and will remain so over the weekend. We thank you for flying with us and hope youll do so again.

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The placement of even

Use

We use even to say that something is surprising or unusual.

Example Tina loves watching television. She has a TV set in every room of the house, even the bathroom.

Use

We can use even + a comparative (cheaper / more expensive) Example I got up very early, but John got up even earlier.

Position of even
Even + nominal group* / pronoun + verb Even my sister will be there. Even you can come. Auxiliary + even + verb I dont even know you. I have even invited John. *A nominal group typically comprises a noun surrounded by other words that all in some way characterize that noun.

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eClass English

Even though / Even if


Structure Use

Even if and even though mean basically the same thing: although. They have the following distinct meanings:
Even though Concession. Describes a reality that seems to contradict main clause. Even if Something hypothetical or theoretical. A contradiction of some hypotheses. All conditional forms can be used. Even though youre my friend, I cant trust you. Even though she tried her best, she fell twice. Even if you were my friend, I wouldnt trust you. He wont transfer to Africa, even if they double his salary.

Examples

Quite / Quite a few


Use
Quite = less than very but more than a little Quite goes before a/an Its quite cold. Youd better put a coat on. Quite a nice day. (not a quite nice day)

Examples

Quite a few = modifies plural nouns to indicate large quantities. Example: I have quite a few letters for you. Quite also means completely. Example: Are you sure? Yes, quite sure. (= completely sure) With theses adjectives, quite means completely: sure right true clear different incredible amazing certain wrong safe obvious unnecessary extraordinary impossible

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Comparatives and Superlatives

Comparing equals using asas


Structure Use
as + adjective / adverb + as To compare two people or things according to a common trait. Examples My brother is as tall as my dad. Im as old as you are.

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eClass English

Regular and Irregular Comparatives S


Im 93. Im 92.

40
KG
old older heavy

50
KG
heavier

Comparatives are used to compare two things. You can use sentences with than, or you can use a conjunction like but.
1 syllable adjectives old add -er older My brother is older than my sister. English is easier than Russian. Helen is more beautiful than Jane.

2 syllable adjectives ending in y add -ier easy easier 2 or more syllables beautiful add more (before the adjective) more beautiful

Spelling Rules
Example:

Words with one syllable ending with a vowel and a consonant at the end. (Double the consonant.)

hot

hotter

big

bigger

fat

fatter

Irregular Comparatives

good better bad worse far farther/further much/many more little less

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Regular and Irregular Superlatives

Box A is bigger than Box B. Box A is bigger than all the other boxes. Box A is the biggest box.

Superlatives are used to compare more than two things. Superlative sentences usually use the, because there is only one superlative.
1 syllable adjectives old 2 syllable adjectives ending in y easy 2 or more syllables beautiful add the -est the oldest add the -iest the easiest add the most (before the adjective) the most beautiful Helen is the most beautiful in her family. English is the easiest language to learn. My brother is the oldest of my siblings.

Spelling Rules
Example: hot hottest good bad far much/many little
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Words with one syllable ending with a vowel and a consonant at the end double the consonant. big biggest the best the worst the farthest/ the furthest the most the least fat fattest

Irregular Superlatives

eClass English

The more . . . the more


Structure
the + comparative..............., the + comparative Parallel progression: we use comparatives with the....the.... to say things change or vary together. Examples The younger you are, the easier it is to learn a language. The more I learn, the more I know. The older I get, the happier I am.

A use of the comparative


Structure
the + comparative The younger generation (as opposed to the older generation) This class is for the more intelligent students (as opposed to the slower students)

Examples

Use

Sometimes a comparative may express an opposition between 2 elements without actually stating both elements (the second element is implied)

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GRAMMAR BOOK

Prepositions
Time

Prepositions of Time
Preposition
At

A preposition of time connects words in a sentence showing the relationship of a noun and the moment/day/time/date of the action. Use
I start work at 9 oclock. I go to bed at midnight. The shops close at 5.30.

Example

On

Days of the week Specific dates New Years Day etc.

I have class on Tuesdays. My birthday is on May 25th. I go home on Christmas Day.

In

MT W TFSS
1 8 15 22 29 2 3 9 10 16 17 May 23 24 30 31 4 11 18 25 5 12 19 26 6 13 20 27 7 14 21 28

Months Seasons Years

My birthday is in June. I take vacation in the summer. I was born in 1980.

By

To show ending date or period.

I need to finish the report by Friday. It will be ready by the summer.

Fixed expressions:

in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening But on Monday morning, on Tuesday afternoon etc. At the weekend (British) / On the weekend (American) At night At the moment

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eClass English

Prepositions of Place

A preposition of place connects words in a sentence showing the relationship of a noun and the location/area/position/surface of an object. At General location Precise point in larger space
at the corner at the bus stop at the door at the front desk

In Inside of a place Country, city, district something is located in


in the garden in London in France in a car

On Surface

on the wall on the ceiling on the door on a page

Here are some prepositions of place.

on

above

over

in front of

beside

behind

under

below

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Final Preposition
A final preposition is a word which comes after the verb and requests the results between the action performed and the subject or object of the sentence.
Verb + preposition
Some verbs are commonly followed by a preposition in order to indicate a common action. Examples: Listen to Look at Look for (search for, try to find) Look after (take care of) Talk about Talk to Worry about Pay for Depend on Complain about Go to Go for Go on Go in

In some structures we put the preposition at the end of the sentence:


Interrogative questions (when the question word is the object of the preposition) Relative clauses (when the relative pronoun is the object of the preposition) Infinitive clauses What are you looking at? What kind of music do you like to listen to? This is the house that I am talking about. Thats what Im worried about. Ive got lots of music to listen to. She has nothing to complain about.

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And Yet

Conjunctions
Examples:
Karen sent in her applications and waited by the phone for a response. Kevin heard the weather report and packed his camping gear. Juan is brilliant, and Sandra has a pleasant personality. Melipilla is a beautiful town and suffers from severe pollution. Use your credit cards frequently, and youll soon find yourself deep in debt. My lazy friend Charlie failed the math test and that didnt surprise anyone. She is a simple, yet very intelligent woman.

eClass English

Conjunctions

A conjunction is a word that joins the words in a sentence to each other in order to send a logical message. It literally connects parts of a sentence.
Frequently Used Conjunctions:
- To suggest that one idea is chronologically sequential to another. -To suggest that one idea is the result of another. - To suggest that one idea is in contrast to another. -To suggest an element of surprise. -To suggest that one clause is dependent upon another, conditionally. -To suggest a kind of comment on the first clause. -To suggest addition, more of something. -Despite, even though -To indicate that something can eventually occur.

The story is unbelievable, yet supposedly its all true. They may yet win the game.

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Nor

-Used with neither for negative sentences. -Used with other negative expressions.

He is neither young nor ambitious. That is not what I meant, nor should you misinterpret my statement. Joey lost his job last year, but he still seems able to live quite comfortably. The students never studied for the test, but used their notes to work on the assignment in class. Everybody but Mark is trying out for the team.

But

- To suggest a contrast that is unexpected based on the first clause. - To suggest in an affirmative sense what the first part of the sentence implied in a negative way. - To use with the meaning of with the exception of.

Or

- To suggest that only one possibility can be achieved, excluding one or the other. - To suggest the inclusive combination of alternatives. - To suggest a refinement of the first clause. - To suggest a restatement or correction of the first part of the sentence. - To suggest a negative condition. - To suggest a negative alternative without the use of an imperative.

You can study hard for this exam or you can fail. (= only one of these things can happen) We can broil chicken on the grill tonight, or we can eat hamburgers. Smart English is the best language center in the country, or so it seems to most students at the UAI. There are no rattlesnakes in this canyon, or so our guide tells us. Either you participate in class or get a 1.0 grade for class participation. They must like her style or they wouldnt keep asking her to design the uniforms each year. John thought he had a good chance to get the job, for his father was on the companys board of trustees.

For

Though used as a preposition, we can use for as a conjunctive when we introduce the reason for the preceding clause.

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So
- To connect two independent clauses together with a comma. - To indicate as well or in addition. Steve has always been nervous in large gatherings, so it is no surprise that he avoids crowds when he is at the beach. John is not the only Olympic athlete in his family, so are his uncle, sister, and his aunt Sally.

- At the beginning of a sentence, so will act as a So, the sheriff promptly removed the child kind of summing up device or transition, and when it from the custody of his parents. does, it is often set off from the rest of the sentence with a comma.

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Use of so to express a goal


Examples: Im saving money so I can travel in the summer. She gave him more time so he could finish the assignment.

So that + may or can


Structure

Objectives are expressed using so that followed by:


Example

Present simple May / might can / could Will / would

Hell take a taxi so that he arrives on time. He stayed after school so that he could help me with my homework. I wrote it in my daily planner so that I wouldnt forget.

In an informal style, that is often dropped. Example: Ive come early so I can talk to you.

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eClass English

Similarity: like and as


Use
We can use like or as to say that things are similar.

Structure

Like - is similar to a preposition Like + noun / pronoun We can use like to give examples As - is a conjunction As + clause (subject + verb) As comes before nouns designating tittles and functions

Example
You look like your sister. He ran like the wind. Shes good at scientific subjects, like chemistry.

They did as they promised. He worked as a taxi driver.

s but Like and as can both be used as preposition Like = similar to As = in the position of, in the form of

have different meanings.

ny Compare: pany. As the manager, she has to make ma As Brenda Casey is the manager of a com important decisions. nager) (As the manager = in her position as the ma (Brenda Casey), she also has to er nag ma the Like er. nag ma nt ista ass the Like Mary Stone is make important decisions. (Like the manager = similar to the manager)

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Gerunds and Infinitives

Gerunds and Infinitives

The infinitive (to + verb) is used: To say why you do something I go to the gym to get some exercise. To say why something exists Heres an example to help you. After too and enough Its too cold to go swimming. The gerund (verb ending in ing) is used: After prepositions (see below) Hes made a lot of friends by joining the tennis club. As non-count nouns Climbing is safer than it looks

PREPOSITIONS: after before by for on

despite without since

If verbs are followed by another verb, that verb is either in the infinitive or the gerund form. Verbs Followed by an Infinitive She agreed to speak before the game. agree consent hope aim continue hurry appear dare intend arrange decide leap ask deserve leave attempt expect long be able fail mean beg forget neglect begin get offer bother happen ought care have plan choose hesitate prefer prepare proceed promise propose refuse remember say shoot stop strive swear threaten try use wait want wish

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eClass English

Verbs Followed by an Object and an Infinitive Everyone expected her to win. advise choose have order send allow command hire pay teach ask dare instruct permit tell beg direct invite persuade urge bring encourage lead prepare want build expect leave promise warn buy forbid let remind challenge force motivate require Note: Some of these verbs are included in the list above and may be used without an object. Verbs Followed by a Gerund They enjoyed working on the boat. admit delay advise deny appreciate enjoy avoid escape cant help excuse complete finish consider forbid

get through have imagine mind miss permit postpone

practice quit recall report resent resist resume

risk spend (time) suggest tolerate waste (time)

Verbs Followed by a Preposition and a Gerund We concentrated on doing well. admit to depend on approve of disapprove of argue about discourage from believe in dream about care about feel like complain about forget about concentrate on insist on confess to plan on Expressions followed by the gerund Its no good Its not worth Its a waste of time Cant stand Cant help Verbs followed by either an infinitive or a gerund begin love continue like

prevent (someone) from refrain from succeed in talk about think about worry about

Its no use Cant bear

dislike hate

prefer start

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We use get used to to say that an action or situation becomes less strange or new. We can use the expression in present simple, interrogative and present continuous forms. Structure: get used to + noun or gerund It took them a long time to get used Have you got used to driving to the new office. on the left side of the road yet? She is getting used to waking up early for her new job.

Get used to

We use the expression be used to to say that we have already become familiar with something/someone which was in the past new or strange. We can use the expression in the present simple, negative and affirmative sentences, in question form and when the object involves a verb, we use the gerund form. Structure: subject + be + used to + object. Mary is used to horses. Kurt is not used to horses. Are you used to horses? We are used to taking the bus.

Be used to

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eClass English

Verbs: Reactions and Preferences

Some verbs that express reactions and preferences are followed by a verb in the gerund (verb ending in ing). Some are followed by a verb in the infinitive (to + verb) or a gerund.
Followed by the gerund To enjoy To mind To resent To object to To miss Cannot stand They enjoy dancing very much. I miss going to my English class.

Followed by gerund or infinitive

To like To love To dislike To hate To loathe To prefer Cannot bear I love eating. I love to eat.

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Verb + Infinitive Clause


verb + object + infinitive
Examples: He wants John to rent a car. They dont allow people to smoke.

Verbs that express a command, wish, preference and prohibition follow this structure. Verbs: allow, command, forbid, hate, instruct, like, love, need, oblige, recommend, want

Many of these verbs can also be used in the passive structure.

Subject + passive verb + infinitive


Examples: We were advised to come early. We were instructed to put down our pens.

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Verbs expressing a wish to act

Verbs expressing a wish to act may be followed by infinitives (to + verb) or gerunds (verbs ending in ing).

To intend Infinitive or gerund* *A gerund with this verb


is only used in British English.

He intends to go to New York. He intends going to new York.* What did he propose doing? What did he propose to do? I am trying to do this exercise.

To propose Infinitive or gerund To try (attempt to do, make an effort to ) Infinitive

To try Gerund (do something as an experiment or test) To agree To consent Infinitive Infinitive

I wouldnt try rafting; it is very dangerous.

He agreed to help her. She consented to go with her.

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Verb + Preposition at / to
Verb + at
Look / have a look / stare / glance AT. Laugh / smile AT Aim / point AT -Why are you looking at me? -I was laughing at his joke.

Verb + to
Talk / speak TO Listen TO Write TO Invite (somebody) TO Explain (something) TO (someone) Apologize TO (someone) -Can I speak to Jane please? -I invited 200 people to my wedding. -I need to apologize to my friend because I shouted at her yesterday.

Some verbs can be followed by at or to, but there is a difference in meaning.

Shout AT somebody when you are angry Shout TO somebody so that they can hear you Throw something AT somebody/something in order to hit them Throw something TO somebody for somebody to catch

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Zero First Second (present)

Conditionals

Conditionals
Structure Examples Uses

eClass English

Zero, First, and Second Conditionals (Sequence of tenses with if)* * For construction of the present conditional, see second in table below. For sequence of tenses with if see zero, first, second and third below.

Conditionals are used to talk about possibility.


Conditional

If + subject + present simple , subject + present simple If water boils, it reaches 100 degrees. If + subject+ present simple, subject + will + infinitive without to If the weather is good, I will go to the beach. If + subject + past simple, subject + would + infinitive without to

Used to describe something that is generally or always true.

Used to describe a situation that is likely.

Used to describe a situation that is not likely.

If I won a million pounds, I would buy a house. Describes a hypothetical situation in the present.

Third If + subject + past perfect, subject + (perfect) would + have + past participle If I had won the lottery, I would have bought a car.

Used to describe a hypothetical situation in the past. It describes a situation that is impossible.

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The Perfect Conditional / Third Conditional


If + subject + past perfect, subject + would + have + past participle If I had seen you, I would have said hello. Describes hypothetical situations in the past. These situations are in the past and therefore they are impossible and never happened. Example: Last month Gary was in hospital for an operation. Liz didnt know this, so she didnt go to visit him. They met a few days ago. Liz said: If I had known you were in hospital, I would have gone to visit you. What Liz said is hypothetical because the real situation is that she didnt know he was in hospital.

The Perfect Conditional using should


Structure
Should + have + past participle

Use
Regret or reproach (to blame someone) (unfulfilled) expectation or assumption regarding the past

Example
I should have studied harder. (regret) You should have gotten up earlier. (reproach) You should have received my e-mail. I sent it half an hour ago.

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FORM USE

Present Subjunctive

Subjunctive and Wishes

eClass English

Use the simple form of the verb. The simple form is the infinitive without the to. The simple form of the verb to go is go. The Subjunctive is only noticeable in certain forms and tenses. The Subjunctive is used to emphasize urgency or importance. It is used after certain expressions (see below). Examples: I suggest that he study. Is it essential that we be there? Don recommended that you join the committee.
NOTICE:

The Subjunctive is only noticeable in certain forms and tenses. In the examples below, the Subjunctive is not noticeable in the you-form of the verb, but it is noticeable in the he/sheform of the verb.
Examples:
YOU-FORM OF TRY: You try to study often. SUBJUNCTIVE FORM OF TRY LOOKS THE SAME: It is important that you try to study often. HE-FORM OF TRY: He tries to study often. SUBJUNCTIVE FORM OF TRY IS NOTICEABLE: It is important that he try to study often.

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Verbs Followed by the Subjunctive

The Subjunctive is used after the following verbs: to advise (that) to ask (that) to command (that) to demand (that) to desire (that) to insist (that) to propose (that) to recommend (that) to request (that) to suggest (that) to urge (that) Dr. Smith asked that Mark submit his research paper before the end of the month. Donna requested Frank come to the party. The teacher insists that her students be on time.

Examples

Expressions Followed by the Subjunctive

The Subjunctive is used after the following expressions: It is best (that) It is crucial (that) It is desirable (that) It is essential (that) It is imperative (that) It is important (that) It is recommended (that) It is urgent (that) It is vital (that) It is a good idea (that) It is a bad idea (that) It is crucial that you be there before Tom arrives. It is important she attend the meeting. It is recommended that he take a gallon of water with him if he wants to hike to the bottom of the Grand Canyon.

Examples

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Negative Forms of Subjunctive

The Subjunctive can be used in negative, continuous and passive forms. Examples: The boss insisted that Sam not be at the meeting. The company asked that employees not accept personal phone calls during business hours. I suggest that you not take the job without renegotiating the salary.

The Past Subjunctive


Past Forms of the Subjunctive
The past tense of the subjunctive has the same forms as the indicative. Present: The President requests that they stop the invasion. Past: The President requested that they stop the invasion. However, we usually use the subjunctive were instead of was after if and other words with similar meanings. (was is often used informally in speech) Examples He wishes he were a better student. If I were seven feet tall, Id be a great basketball player.* *This is also a second conditional. See below. The past subjunctive is commonly used with these expressions if only, I wish, suppose, as if. Examples If only I had more money. I wish I were thinner. Suppose she were married. Its not as if I were ugly. Note: Some sentences combine a past subjunctive with a conditional. In this example, part 1 is a subjunctive and part 2 a conditional. If only I had more money, I would buy a new car. 1 2

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Wishes and Regrets


Wish = To show you want a situation to be different Regret = To feel sorrow or remorse for something you did/did not do.

Wishes in the present To make wishes about the present, use the past tense. For the verb to be, use were. Situation: My sister is untidy. Wish: I wish she were tidier. Wishes in the past (regret) To make wishes about the past, use the past perfect. Situation: I didnt go on a vacation this year. Wish: I wish I had gone on a vacation this year. Wishes about ability To make wishes about ability use could. Situation: I cant play a musical instrument. Wish: I wish I could play a musical instrument. Wishes about habit and free will To make wishes about habit and free will use would. Situation: He sings in the office. Wish: I wish he wouldnt sing in the office. (In this sentence you are stressing the fact he wants to sing and makes a habit of it.)

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Tense

The Passive Voice

Passives

eClass English

Passive Voice = To be + past participle


The passive exists in every tense. We use an active verb to say what the subject does. We use a passive verb to say what happens to the subject. When we use the passive, who or what causes the action is often unknown or unimportant. If we want to say who does or what causes the action, we use by

Present Simple Present Continuous Past Simple Past Continuous Future simple will To be going to future Present Perfect Past Perfect

He cleans the room. He is cleaning the room. He cleaned the room. He was cleaning the room. He will clean the room He is going to clean the room. He has cleaned the room. He had cleaned the room.

Active

The room is cleaned by him. The room is being cleaned by him. The room was cleaned by him. The room was being cleaned by him. The room will be cleaned by him. The room is going to be cleaned by him. The room has been cleaned by him. The room had been cleaned by him.

Passive

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The Impersonal Structure

An impersonal structure is used to talk about people in general. Here are some different ways to form an impersonal structure.
Passive form without the agent The personal pronouns we, you, they People (plural meaning) Somebody/someone (singular meaning) We are expected at 7pm. (Somebody expects us) We drive on the left side of the road. (the speaker is included in the group of people in question) You drink a lot of tea in Britain. (the listener is included) They are very friendly in Ireland. (neither the speaker nor listener is included) People in Ireland are very friendly. Someone is on the phone for you.

Other Impersonal Structures:


gerund + object + to be conjugated + (adverb of frequency) + adjective It + to be conjugated + (adverb of frequency) + adjective + infinitive Reading English newspapers is often difficult. Playing tennis is excellent exercise. It is sometimes exciting to walk in the pouring rain. It was strange to say that Russian is easier than English.

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Reported Speech
Im feeling ill.

eClass English

The Sequence of Tenses / Reported Speech

Reported Speech is used to communicate what someone else said, but without using the exact words.

You want to tell someone else what Tom said. There are 2 ways of doing this: 1. You can repeat Toms words (direct speech) Tom said, Im feeling ill 2. You can use reported speech. Tom said that he was feeling ill. Reported speech: -The main sentence of the verb is usually in the past tense. (said, told) -The rest of the sentence is usually in a past tense too. (each tense goes a step back in time) -That is optional. Here are the changes in tense (sequence of tenses) in reported speech: Direct speech She said I watch TV every day. She said I am watching. She said I watched TV. She said I have watched TV. She said I will watch TV. She said I am going to watch TV. She said I can watch TV. She said I may watch TV. She said I must watch TV. She said I should watch TV. She said I ought to watch TV. She said Watch TV. Reported speech She said (that) she watched TV every day. She said she was watching TV. She said she had watched TV. She said she had watched TV. She said she would watch TV. She said she was going to watch TV. She said she could watch TV. She said she might watch TV. She said she had to watch TV. She said she should watch TV. She said she ought to watch TV. She told someone to watch TV. *

*The imperative changes to the infinitive. Tell is usually used instead of say.
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General Guidelines for Reported Speech


1. This formal sequence of tenses is used both in speaking and writing. 2. However, sometimes in spoken English no change is made if the speaker is reporting something immediately after it was said. Immediate Reporting: Later Reporting: What did the teacher just say? He said he wants us to read Chapter Six. I didnt go to the class yesterday. Did Mr. Jones give any assignments? He said he wanted us to read Chapter Six.

3. If the sentence is a general truth, sometimes the present tense is retained. She said that Alaska is the largest state in the USA. 4. The past simple can stay the same in reported speech or you can change it to the past perfect.

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Away Back Down In Off On Out Over Up

Phrasal Verbs
Example

eClass English

The Main Postpositions / Common Phrasal Verbs


Here are some common phrasal verbs in English.
Preposition Use
Estrangement: to go away Disappearance: to sweep away Backward movement: to stand back Return to point of departure: to bring back Reply: to answer back Downward movement: to go down Writing: to write down Decrease: to turn down Inward movement: to get in Visit: to drop in Averting: to put off Departure: to go off / to take off Start: to turn on / switch on Continuation: to go on Outward movement: to move out Outside: to eat out Distribution: to give out Repetition: to say over Action done with care: to think over Upward movement: to climb up Increased volume: to speak up

A phrasal verb consists of a verb and a preposition or adverb that modifies or changes the meaning.

All evidence of the crime was swept away. The student answered back to the teacher.

Please turn down the radio; it is very loud.

I will drop in later and see how you are doing. I have put off my dental appointment. because I have a class. Can you turn on the fan please? I always eat out on Fridays.

I will have to think over your offer carefully. Speak up, I cant hear you.

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Phrasal Verbs

A phrasal verb is a verb plus a preposition or adverb which creates a meaning different from the original verb. Example: I ran into my teacher at the movies last night. RUN + INTO = MEET He ran away when he was 15. RUN + AWAY = LEAVE HOME Some phrasal verbs are intransitive. An intransitive verb cannot be followed by an object. Example: He suddenly showed up. SHOW UP cannot take an object. Some phrasal verbs are transitive. A transitive verb can be followed by an object. Example: I made up the story. Story is the object of made up. Some transitive phrasal verbs are separable. The object is placed between the verb and the preposition. Example: I talked my mother into letting me borrow the car. TALK INTO = PERSUADE Some transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable. The object is placed after the preposition. Example: I ran into an old friend yesterday. RUN INTO = MEET BY CHANCE Some transitive phrasal verbs can take an object in both places. Example: I looked the number up in the phone book. I looked up the number in the phone book.

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WARNING! Although many phrasal verbs can take an object in both places, you must put the object between the verb and the preposition if the object is a pronoun. Example: I looked the number up in the phone book. CORRECT I looked up the number in the phone book. CORRECT I looked it up in the phone book. CORRECT I looked up it in the phone book. INCORRECT

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Expressions
Some adjectives used with get get hungry get thirsty get tired get ready get serious get wet get better get prepared get dressed get bigger

To get + Adjective

The verb to get has many different To get + adjective : meanings such as: to become, show a change of state

To obtain To receive Examples: To buy It gets dark early in winter. To reach Im getting tired of working To arrive (at a place) such long hours. To become It is getting warmer.

Get dressed

To look forward to

To look forward to = To think of a future event with anticipation Structure Verb to be + look forward to + noun Example: I am looking forward to the vacation. Structure Verb to be + look forward to + gerund Examples: I look forward to hearing from you. He is looking forward to seeing you.

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eClass English

Kind of followed by a noun

kind of (a/an) + noun


When you ask for a more precise definition or description of something. To describe something in an approximate way, not precise. What kind of (a) problem are you having?* What kind of experience do you have? * It is more informal to include a Shes kind of rude. Its a kind of telephone but plays music as well. It looks kind of like an earring, but is much bigger. What sort/type of computer is that? = What kind of computer is that?

Kind of like (/a/an) + noun

To compare one thing to another in an approximate or partial way.

Kind of = sort of / type of

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To be likely

To be likely = high probability of something happening.

Present To be likely + infinitive Past To be (was/were) likely + infinitive Negative To be unlikely + infinitive Related expression It is likely that

He is likely to pass the exam. The meeting is likely to be very long. The meeting was likely to be very long.

He is unlikely to come. Its likely that it will rain. Its unlikely that it is very cold there.

To be likely + to have + past participle = an opinion about a past event.

He is likely to have forgotten about the appointment. They are likely to have finished early.

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eClass English

To be left / To have left


To be left /to have left = remaining, not used, still there
Structure
to be left Subject + be left to have left This is an active structure. Do you have any rooms left? Yes, we have some rooms left. This is a passive structure.

Example
The weather was bad. Few people were left on the streets.

Subject + have + direct object + left

For the sake of


For the sake of = in the interests of
Structure
For + noun / noun phrase + -s sake For + possessive adjective + sake For the sake of + noun / noun phrase / gerund

Examples

For Johns sake For the childrens sake For his sake For their sake For the sake of the children For the sake of saving

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Expressions with to have

Use

Here are some fixed expressions with the verb to have To have a bath To have lunch To have a rest To have a look To have reason to + infinitive ( to analyze causes and consequences) To have to do with something ( to say what the topic is)

Examples
Did you have a bath yesterday? We will have lunch later. Id like to have a rest before going out. Have a look at this! We have reason to hope for continued success. The report has to do with our financial results for the last quarter.

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eClass English

Baseball Expressions

Baseball is an important part of American culture. Its influence is so strong that it has become the source of many expressions that are used in informal and business contexts.
Expression
Touch base Playing field On the ball Ballpark figure In the ballpark Big league To cover ones bases Home run Play hard ball Right off the bat Its good to touch base with clients regularly. Now that more companies have made offers, were dealing with a bigger playing field. Our new attorney seems to be on the ball. I can only give you a ballpark figure. The offer isnt in the ballpark yet. Well move into the big league if we secure this deal. This is a complicated transaction; make sure to cover your bases. Jenny hit a home run with that deal. Were going to have to play hard ball if we want to get this deal. Dan started criticizing right off the bat.

Example

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To be at stake
To be + at stake To be threatened or endangered. This may be used to talk about threats to someone or somethings well-being or reputation. These expressions are similar in meaning to be at stake: to be in jeopardy, to be on the line, to be at risk

Structure

Use

Example

If we dont respond to this crisis now, our financial stability will be at stake.

The firms reputation is at stake following the recall of its latest product.

Expressions of Increase
Use

There are several different words and expressions to describe increase.


To describe increase in a To rise general way. To climb To talk about slow or gradual increase. To describe sharp and sudden increase.

Expression

Example

Share values rose steadily last quarter.

Next year, productivity should climb sharply. Stocks crept up last quarter. Prices are inching up due to inflation. The company is only two years old, but it has really taken off. Stocks are skyrocketing following economic recovery.

To creep up To edge up To inch up To take off To skyrocket To shoot up To soar To go through the roof

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Other

eClass English

There is / There are

Affirmative

Singular: There is Plural: There are Examples:

Negative

There is not There isnt Theres not There are not There arent

Question

Is there.?

Are there..?

STATION

Theres a man on the roof.

Theres a train in the station.

MT W TFSS
1 8 15 22 29 2 3 9 10 16 17 May 23 24 30 31 4 11 18 25 5 12 19 26 6 13 20 27 7 14 21 28

There are seven days in a week.

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Dates
Ordinal Numbers Days First 1st, Second 2nd, Third 3rd Fourth 4th, Fifth 5th, Sixth 6th, Seventh 7th, Eighth 8th, Ninth 9th, Tenth 10th 20th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd . 30th, 31st, 32nd, 33rd.
Weekly Calendar
Sunday Monday Tuesday Week of_______________ Saturday Wednesday Thursday Friday

Years Up until the year 2000, years are pronounced in two parts: 1925 = 19part1 25part2 = Nineteen1 twenty-five2 Date (written form)

1998 = nineteen ninety-eight 2010 = two thousand (and) ten (twenty ten is also becoming popular)

1: American format = July 2, 2010 month / day / year = 07/02/2010 2: British format = 2 July 2010 day / month / year = 02/07/2010

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eClass English

Time
What time? = what time of day?
What time is it? What time do you get up?

Oclock

The time + oclock = indicates an exact hour. Its six oclock.

British English

To express a time after the hour we use past.

11 10 9 8 7

12

1 2 3 4 9 8 7 10 11

12

1 2 3 4 9 8 10

11

12

1 2 3 4

Its twenty past four.

Its quarter past three

Its half past twelve.

To express a time after the half hour and before the hour we use to.

11 10 9 8 7

12

1 2 3 4 9 8 10

11

12

1 2 3 4

Its ten to two.

Its quarter to five.

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American English

To express a time after the hour we use after. (except for the half hour)

11 10 9 8 7

12

1 2 3 4 9 8 10

11

12

1 2 3 4 9 8 10

11

12

1 2 3 4

Its twenty after four.

Its quarter after three.

Its twelve thirty.

To express a time after the half hour and before the hour we use to.

11 10 9 8 7

12

1 2 3 4 9 8 10

11

12

1 2 3 4

Its ten to two.

Its quarter to five. In both British and American English


You can also tell the time by reading the hour and then the minutes. 6:05 6:10 6:15 6:20 6:30 6:45 6:55 Its six o five. Its six ten. Its six fifteen. Its six twenty. Its six thirty. Its six forty-five. Its six fifty-five.

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eClass English

Have or Make without to


Use
To cause someone to do something

Structure

to have or make + I had him service my car. direct object + infinitive without to He made me laugh so much.

Example

To cause something to be done

to have + direct object + past participle

He had his car repaired. She had her hair cut.

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To Let

Let means the same as to allow or to permit but is more informal.

Let + object + infinitive without to Example: Please allow me to buy you a drink. Please let me buy you a drink. Example: My parents dont allow me to go out at night. My parents dont let me go out at night. Remember, in the third person present we use lets but in the past simple we use let. Conjugation of to let The present I You He/She/It We They let let lets let let The past simple I You He/She/It We They let let let let let

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eClass English

When / While + present


Structure

With conjunctions of time, like when and while, we use the present tense.
Will + verb, conjunction of time + present simple Examples: They will eat when they arrive. While I am in Santiago, Ill call you.

after as soon as as long as as much as before while

Conjunctions

of time

once until when whenever wherever

How + Adjective or Adverb


Structure
How + adjective or adverb

Use

Forms an open question. (you cant answer yes or no)

Examples

How tall are you? I am very tall. / Im 1.60m How high is Mt Everest? It is extremely high. / Its 8848m How often do you go to the cinema? I hardly ever go.

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Had better / Would rather


Structure
Subject + had better + infinitive -A firm suggestion without to Subject + had better + not -An order + infinitive without to

Had better

Use

Examples
You had better tell her the bad news. You had better not finish the cake!

Would rather
Subject + would rather + infinitive without to Subject + would rather + not + infinitive without to Would + subject + rather + infinitive without to -To show preference I would rather go for a swim. I would rather not go for a swim. Would you rather go for a swim?

Expression of Preference
Structure

These expressions are used to talk about preference. Would prefer


Subject + would prefer + infinitive with to (d) Id prefer to talk to someone else. Would you prefer to stay at home?

Examples

Subject + would rather + infinitive without to (d) Used mainly in speech.

Would rather

Hed rather be on the beach. Would you rather stay here or go away?

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Words ending in ever

The words whoever, whatever, whichever, however, whenever, wherever mean it doesnt matter who/ what / which etc. (any person who, any thing that etc. or the unknown person who, the unknown thing that)

Word ending in ever Examples


Whoever Whatever Whichever However Whenever Wherever

Whoever comes to the door, tell them Im out.

Whatever you do, Ill always love you. Choose whichever book you like. However you travel, it will take you at least 3 days. Whenever I go to London, I try to see Vicky. Wherever you go, youll find Coca- Cola.

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Whether
Whether = to talk about choices or alternatives. Like if it expresses uncertainty.

The differences between whether and if:


If

For situations with only one condition.


You can have dessert if you eat your vegetables. (the son having dessert depends on consumption of dessert, so this is conditional)

To discuss two or more alternatives.


I dont know whether we should invest right now or not.

Whether

Use whether after prepositions.


I am uncertain whether we should go to the dinner party.

Use whether with infinitives that come after to.


Jenny doesnt know whether to study for her test or go to a movie with friends.

Answer yes or no questions with whether or if. Sally asks: Can you go shopping with me tonight? Im not sure if I can go shopping with you tonight. OR Im not sure whether I can go shopping with you tonight. Its becoming increasingly popular to use whether and if interchangeably in certain situations. Although this might be acceptable in casual conversation, it is not considered grammatically correct to interchange them.
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Emphatic do
Use

For emphasis we can put do in an affirmative clause.


Insistence on speakers point of view. Confirmation of what precedes. Contradiction Persuasion using the imperative She does look pretty. He said it would rain and it did rain. He didnt come to the party yesterday. He did come, but he didnt stay long. I cant do it! Its too difficult! Do try again!

Examples

Verbs expressing impressions and feelings


They may be followed by:
Structure
the preposition like

Verbs that express impressions and feelings are: to look, to sound, to smell, to taste, to feel etc.
Examples

He looks like his father. It sounds like youre angry.

as if / as though an adjective

You look as if you dont understand me. It sounds as though you arent listening to me. He looks happy. This ice cream tastes good.

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I am told

The present sometimes stands in for the present perfect, as in: I am told (= I understand ) Instead of Ive been told I forget (= I cant remember) Instead of Ive forgotten I hear Instead of Ive heard

Structure

I am told that you are in charge of the sales department. What time is the match tonight? I forget. I hear you have been promoted.

Examples

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