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Oracle Startup Parameters Init Initialization PFILE init.ora

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Oracle Startup Parameters Version 11.1.0.7 Documented


Query for documented initialization parameters

s e tp a g e s i z e3 5 s e tl i n e s i z e1 5 0 c o lN A M Ef o r m a ta 3 0 c o lV A L U Ef o r m a ta 2 0 c o lD E S C R I P T I O Nf o r m a ta 6 0 s e tp a u s eo n s e tp a u s e' H i te n t e rt oc o n t i n u e ' S E L E C Tx . k s p p i n mN A M E ,y . k s p p s t v lV A L U E ,k s p p d e s cD E S C R I P T I O N F R O Mx $ k s p p ix ,x $ k s p p c vy W H E R Ex . i n s t _ i d=u s e r e n v ( ' I n s t a n c e ' ) A N Dy . i n s t _ i d=u s e r e n v ( ' I n s t a n c e ' ) A N Dx . i n d x=y . i n d x A N DS U B S T R ( x . k s p p i n m , 1 , 1 )^ =' _ ' O R D E RB Y1 ;

Advanced Queuing (AQ)


AQ_TM_PROCESSES Default: 0 Required for Advanced Queuing. Valid range of vaues is 0 to 10. Zero means Oracle manages the resource.

a q _ t m _ p r o c e s s e s = 0

ANSI Compliance
BLANK_TRIMMING Default: FALSE Specifies the data assignment semantics of character datatypes. Allows the data assignment of a source character string or variable to a destination character column or variable even though the source length is longer than the destination length. In this case, however, the additional length over the destination length is all blanks. Range of values {TRUE | FALSE}.

b l a n k _ t r i m m i n g = T R U E
Free ASM Oracle Magazine ASM_DISKGROUPS Subscriptions and Oracle Default: NULL White Papers ASM_DISKSTRING Default: NULL ASM_POWER_LIMIT Default: 1 ASM_PREFERRED_READ_FAILURE_ GROUPS Default: NULL

Specifies a list of names of disk groups to be mounted by an Automatic Storage Management instance at instance startup or when an ALTER DISKGROUP ALL MOUNT statement is issued. Range of values Comma-separated list of strings, of up to 30 characters in length

a s m _ d i s k g r o u p s = d g r o u p A ,d g r o u p B
An operating system-dependent value used by Automatic Storage Management to limit the set of disks considered for discovery. Value is a comma delimited string of disks.

a s m _ d i s k s t r i n g = ' d e v / r d s k / * s 2 ,/ d e v / r d s k / c 1 * '
Specifies the maximum power on an Automatic Storage Management instance for disk rebalancing. Range of values {1 to 11}.

a s m _ p o w e r _ l i m i t = 5
Specifies the failure groups that contain preferred read disks. Preferred disks are instance specific.

T B D

Archive Logging
ARCHIVE_LAG_TARGET Default: 0 Limits the amount of data that can be lost and effectively increases the availability of the standby database by forcing a log switch after the specified amount of time elapses. The ARCHIVE_LAG_TARGET initialization parameter causes Oracle to examine an instance's current online redo log periodically. If the following conditions are met the instance will switch the log: * The current log was created prior to n seconds ago, and the estimated archival time for the current log is m seconds (proportional to the number of redo blocks used in the current log), where n + m exceeds the value of the ARCHIVE_LAG_TARGET initialization parameter. * The current log contains redo records. In an Oracle Real Application Clusters environment, the instance also kicks other threads into switching and archiving logs if they are falling behind. This can be particularly useful when one instance in the cluster is less active than the other instances.

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The parameter specifies the target of how many seconds of redo the standby could lose in the event of a primary shutdown or crash. It also provides an upper limit of how long (in the number of seconds) the current log of the primary database can span. Because the estimated archival time is also considered, this is not the exact log switch time. Value 0 or any integer in [60, 7200]

a r c h i v e _ l a g _ t a r g e t = 0
LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n Default: NULL LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_[1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10] = { null_string | { LOCATION=path_name | SERVICE=service_name } [ MANDATORY ] [ REOPEN[=seconds] ] [ DELAY[=minutes] ] [ NOREGISTER ] [ TEMPLATE=template ] [ ALTERNATE=destination ] [ DEPENDENCY=destination ] [ MAX_FAILURE=count ] [ SYNC | ASYNC ] [ AFFIRM | NOAFFIRM ] [ NET_TIMEOUT=seconds ] [ VALID_FOR=(redo_log_type,database_role) ] [ DB_UNIQUE_NAME ] [ MAX_CONNECTIONS=count ] [ COMPRESSION={ENABLE|DISABLE} ] } Deprecated in Enterprise Edition in favour of log_archive_dest_n Defines up to 10 (where n = 1, 2, 3, ... 10) destinations, each of which must specify either the LOCATION or the SERVICE attribute to specify where to archive the redo data. All other attributes are optional. Whether specifying the LOCATION or SERVICE attribute, it must be the first attribute supplied in the list of attributes.

l o g _ a r c h i v e _ d e s t _ 1 = ' L O C A T I O N = / a p p / o r a c l e / p r o d u c t / f l a s h _ r e c o v e r y _ a r e a / a r c h v a l i d _ f o r = ( a l l _ l o g f i l e s , a l l _ r o l e s )d b _ u n i q u e _ n a m e = p r o d a ' l o g _ a r c h i v e _ d e s t _ 2 = ' s e r v i c e = p r o d bv a l i d _ f o r = ( o n l i n e _ l o g f i l e , p r i m a r y _ r o l e )d b _ u n i q u e _ n a m e = p r o d b N E T _ T I M E O U T = 3 0R E O P E N = 6 0O P T I O N A LM A X _ C O N N E C T I O N S = 3 '


LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_STATE_n Default: ENABLE LOG_ARCHIVE_DUPLEX_DEST Default: NULL The default setting of a null string ("") or (' ') indicates that a duplex archive destination does not exist. Specifies the state for log_archive_dest_n. Range of values {ENABLE | DEFER | ALTERNATE}.

l o g _ a r c h i v e _ d e s t _ s t a t e _ 1 = ' E N A B L E '
Similar to LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST specifies a second archive destination: the duplex archive destination. This duplex archive destination can be either a must-succeed or a best-effort archive destination, depending on how many archive destinations must succeed (as specified in the LOG_ARCHIVE_MIN_SUCCEED_DEST parameter).

l o g _ a r c h i v e _ d e s t = ' / a p p / o r a c l e / p r o d u c t / f l a s h _ r e c o v e r y _ a r e a / a r c h ' l o g _ a r c h i v e _ d u p l e x _ d e s t = ' / u 0 2 / a r c h '


LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT Default: Operating system dependent Use a text string and variables to specify the default filename format when archiving redo log files. The string generated from this format is appended to the string specified in the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST parameter. The following variables can be used in the format: %s log sequence number %S %t %T %a %d %r log sequence number, zero filled thread number thread number, zero filled activation ID database ID resetlogs ID that ensures unique names are constructed for the archived log files across multiple incarnations of the database

Using uppercase letters for the variables (for example, %S) causes the value to be fixed length and padded to the left with zeros. An example of specifying the archive redo log filename format follows:

l o g _ a r c h i v e _ f o r m a t = % t + % s + % r . a r c
LOG_ARCHIVE_LOCAL_FIRST Default: TRUE LOG_ARCHIVE_MAX_PROCESSES Default: 4 Specifies when the archiver processes (ARCn) transmit redo data to remote standby database destinations. Range of values {TRUE | FALSE}.

l o g _ a r c h i v e _ l o c a l _ f i r s t = T R U E
Specifies the number of archiver background processes (ARC0 through ARCn) Oracle initially invokes. If the LOG_ARCHIVE_START initialization parameter has the value true, then this value is evaluated at instance startup though LOG_ARCHIVE_START initialization parameter was deprecated as of 10gR1. Otherwise, this parameter is evaluated when the archiver process is first invoked by SQL*Plus or SQL syntax. Range of values {1 .. 40}.

l o g _ a r c h i v e _ m a x _ p r o c e s s e s = 6
LOG_ARCHIVE_MIN_SUCCEED_DEST Default: 1 LOG_ARCHIVE_START LOG_ARCHIVE_TRACE Default 0 The minimum number of destinations that must succeed for the online logfile to be available for reuse.

l o g _ a r c h i v e _ m i n _ s u c c e e d _ d e s t = 2
Deprecated Value 0 1 2 4 8 16 32 Disable archivelog tracing Track archival of redo log file Track archival status of each archivelog destination Track archival operational phase Track archivelog destination activity Track detailed archivelog destination activity Track archivelog destination parameter modifications Description

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64 128 256 512 Track ARCn process state activity Track FAL (fetch archived log) server related activities Track RFS Logical Client Track LGWR redo shipping network activity

1024 Track RFS Physical Client 2048 Track RFS/ARCn Ping Heartbeat 4096 Track Real Time Apply 8192 Track Redo Apply (Media Recovery or Physical Standby)

l o g _ a r c h i v e _ t r a c e = 1 2 8 Auditing
AUDIT_FILE_DEST Default: No Entry AUDIT_SYS_OPERATIONS Default: FALSE AUDIT_TRAIL Default: NONE The operating system directory into which the audit trail is written when the AUDIT_TRAIL initialization parameter is set to os. Default value ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/audit

a u d i t _ f i l e _ d e s t = / a p p / o r a c l e / p r o d u c t / a d m i n / o r a b a s e / a d u m p
Enables or disables the auditing of operations issued by user SYS, and users connecting with SYSDBA or SYSOPER privileges. Syntax AUDIT_SYS_OERATIONS = {TRUE | FALSE}

a u d i t _ s y s _ o p e r a t i o n s = T R U E
Enables or disables database auditing. Syntax AUDIT_TRAIL = {DB | OS | NONE | TRUE | FALSE | DB_EXTENDED}

a u d i t _ t r a i l = ' D B '

Backup and Restore


BACKUP_TAPE_IO_SLAVES Default: FALSE Specifies if I/O server processes (also called slaves) are used by Recovery Manager to back up, copy, or restore data to tape. Range of values TRUE | FALSE

b a c k u p _ t a p e _ i o _ s l a v e s = F A L S E

specifies the minimum number of days before a reusable record in the control file can be reused. In the event a new CONTROL_FILE_RECORD_KEEP_TIME record needs to be added to a reusable section and the oldest record has not aged enough, the record section expands. If this parameter is set to 0, then reusable sections never expand, and records are reused as needed. Range of values 0 to 365 (days) Default: 7

c o n t r o l _ f i l e _ r e c o r d _ k e e p _ t i m e = 1 5
FAST_START_IO_TARGET FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET Deprecated in favor of FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET Specify the number of seconds the database takes to perform crash recovery of a single instance. Is overridden by FAST_START_IO_TARGET and LOG_CHECKPOINT_INTERVAL. Range of 0 to 3600 seconds.

f a s t _ s t a r t _ m t t r _ t a r g e t =0
TAPE_ASYNCH_IO Default: TRUE Controls whether I/O to sequential devices (for example, backup or restore of Oracle data to or from tape) is asynchronous. Range of values {TRUE | FALSE}.

t a p e _ a s y n c h _ i o = F A L S E

BFILEs
SESSION_MAX_OPEN_FILES Default: 10 Specifies the maximum number of BFILEs that can be opened in any session. Once this number is reached, subsequent attempts to open more files in the session by using DBMS_LOB.FILEOPEN() or OCILobFileOpen() will fail.

s e s s i o n _ m a x _ o p e n _ f i l e s = 6

Buffer Cache and I/O


DB_nK_CACHE_SIZE Defaults: 0 DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS Default: 0 Specifies the size of the cache for the nK buffers. You can set this parameter only when DB_BLOCK_SIZE has a value other than nK. Range of values Minimum: 0 (values greater than zero are rounded up to the nearest granule size)

d b _ 4 K _ c a c h e _ s i z e = 8 M
Specifies the number of database buffers in the buffer cache. It is one of several parameters that contribute to the total memory requirements of the SGA of an instance. Range of values 50 to an operating system-specific maximum. DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS cannot be combined with the dynamic DB_CACHE_SIZE parameter.

d b _ b l o c k _ b u f f e r s = 1 0 0 0 0
Specifies (in bytes) the size of Oracle database blocks. For Real Application Clusters, this parameter affects the maximum value of the FREELISTS storage parameter for tables and indexes. Oracle uses one database block for each freelist group. Decision support system (DSS) and data warehouse database environments tend to benefit from larger block size values. Range of values 2048 to 32768, but your operating system may have a narrower range

DB_BLOCK_SIZE

d b _ b l o c k _ s i z e = 8 1 9 2
DB_CACHE_ADVICE Default: ON Enables or disables statistics gathering used for predicting behavior with different cache sizes through the V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE performance view. Syntax DB_CACHE_ADVICE = {ON | READY | OFF}

d b _ c a c h e _ a d v i c e = R E A D Y
DB_CACHE_SIZE Default 0 ... if SGA_TARGET is set.. Specifies the size of the DEFAULT buffer pool for buffers with the primary block size (the block size defined by the DB_BLOCK_SIZE initialization parameter). Syntax DB_CACHE_SIZE = integer [K | M | G]. A value of zero is illegal.

d b _ c a c h e _ s i z e = 4 8 M
One of the parameters you can use to minimize I/O during table scans. It specifies the maximum number of blocks DB_FILE_MULTIBLOCK_READ_COUNT read in one I/O operation during a sequential scan (applies to full table scans and index fast full scans, so non-random I/O.). The total number of I/Os needed to perform a full table scan depends on such factors as the size of the table, the Default: 8 multiblock read count, and whether parallel execution is being utilized for the operation. Online transaction processing (OLTP) and batch environments typically have values in the range of 4 to 16 for this parameter. DSS and data warehouse environments tend to benefit most from maximizing the value of this parameter. The optimizer is more likely to choose a full table scan over an index if the value of this parameter is high.

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The optimizer is more likely to choose a full table scan over an index if the value of this parameter is high. The maximum value is always less than the operating system's maximum I/O size expressed as Oracle blocks ((max I/O size)/DB_BLOCK_SIZE). If you set this parameter to a value greater than the maximum, Oracle uses the maximum. Depending on your exact version and the use of system statistics with version 9+ larger values for the db_file_multiblock_read_count parameter influence the cost based optimizer to favor full table scans over using indexes. Range of values Operating system-dependent.

d b _ f i l e _ m u l t i b l o c k _ r e a d _ c o u n t = 1 2 8
DB_KEEP_CACHE_SIZE Default: 0 Specifies the size of the KEEP buffer pool. The size of the buffers in the KEEP buffer pool is the primary block size (the block size defined by the DB_BLOCK_SIZE initialization parameter). Minimum: 0 (values greater than zero are rounded up to the nearest granule size) Maximum: operating system-dependent.

d b _ k e e p _ c a c h e _ s i z e = 1 2 8 K
Specifies the size of the RECYCLE buffer pool. The size of the buffers in the RECYCLE pool is the primary block size (the block size defined by the DB_BLOCK_SIZE initialization parameter). Minimum: 0 (values greater than zero are rounded up to the nearest granule size) Maximum: operating system-dependent.

DB_RECYCLE_CACHE_SIZE Default: 0

d b _ r e c y c l e _ c a c h e _ s i z e = 6 4 K
Specifies the initial number of database writer processes for an instance. Range of values 1 to 20

DB_WRITER_PROCESSES

T B D
Relevant only on systems with only one database writer process (DBW0). It specifies the number of I/O server processes used by the DBW0 process. The DBW0 process and its server processes always write to disk. By default, the value is 0 and I/O server processes are not used. If you set DBWR_IO_SLAVES to a nonzero value, the number of I/O server processes used by the ARCH and LGWR processes is set to 4. However, the number of I/O server processes used by Recovery Manager is set to 4 only if asynchronous I/O is disabled (either your platform does not support asynchronous I/O or disk_asynch_io is set to false). Typically, I/O server processes are used to simulate asynchronous I/O on platforms that do not support asynchronous I/O or that implement it inefficiently. However, you can use I/O server processes even when asynchronous I/O is being used. In that case the I/O server processes will use asynchronous I/O. I/O server processes are also useful in database environments with very large I/O throughput, even if asynchronous I/O is enabled.

DBWR_IO_SLAVES

R a n g eo fv a l u e s0t oo p e r a t i n gs y s t e m d e p e n d e n t T B D
DISK_ASYNCH_IO Default: TRUE Controls whether I/O to datafiles, control files, and logfiles is asynchronous (that is, whether parallel server processes can overlap I/O requests with CPU processing during table scans. Oracle recommends that you leave this parameter set to its default value. However, if the asynchronous I/O implementation is not stable, you can set this parameter to false to disable asynchronous I/O. If your platform does not support asynchronous I/O to disk, this parameter has no effect. If you set DISK_ASYNCH_IO to false, then you should also set DBWR_IO_SLAVES to a value other than its default of zero in order to simulate asynchronous I/O.

R a n g eo fv a l u e sT R U E|F A L S E T B D
FILESYSTEMIO_OPTIONS

T B D T B D T B D

READ_ONLY_OPEN_DELAYED

USE_INDIRECT_DATA_BUFFERS

Cursors and Library Cache


CURSOR_SHARING Default: Exact FORCE: Forces statements that may differ in some literals, but are otherwise identical, to share a cursor, unless the literals affect the meaning of the statement. SIMILAR: Causes statements that may differ in some literals, but are otherwise identical, to share a cursor, unless the literals affect either the meaning of the statement or the degree to which the plan is optimized. EXACT: Only allows statements with identical text to share the same cursor.

S y n t a xC U R S O R _ S H A R I N G={ S I M I L A R|E X A C T|F O R C E } T B D


CURSOR_SPACE_FOR_TIME Default: FALSE Deprecated as of 10.2.0.5 and 11.1.0.7 Shared SQL areas are kept pinned in the shared pool. As a result, shared SQL areas are not aged out of the pool as long as an open cursor references them. Because each active cursor's SQL area is present in memory, execution is faster. However, the shared SQL areas never leave memory while they are in use. Therefore, you should set this parameter to TRUE only when the shared pool is large enough to hold all open cursors simultaneously. In addition, a setting of TRUE retains the private SQL area allocated for each cursor between executions instead of discarding it after cursor execution, saving cursor allocation and initialization time. FALSE: Shared SQL areas can be deallocated from the library cache to make room for new SQL statements.

S y n t a xC U R S O R _ S P A C E _ F O R _ T I M E={ T R U E|F A L S E } T B D
OPEN_CURSORS x

T B D
x

SESSION_CACHED_CURSORS

T B D

Data Guard
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DG_BROKER_CONFIG_FILEn

Oracle Startup Parameters Init Initialization PFILE init.ora


Specifies the names for the Data Guard broker configuration files. Every database that is part of a Data Guard broker configuration has two broker configuration files, which contain entries that describe the state and properties of the configuration (such as the sites and databases that are part of the configuration, the roles and properties of each of the databases, and the state of each of the elements of the configuration). Two files are provided so as to always maintain the last known good state of the configuration. If DG_BROKER_CONFIG_FILEn is not explicitly defined, then it is set to an operating system-specific default value at instance startup. The parameter can only be altered when the DMON (Data Guard broker) process is not running.

R a n g eo fv a l u e sO n ef i l e n a m e
DG_BROKER_START Default: FALSE DRS_START Default: FALSE DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT Defalt: NULL LOG_ARCHIVE_CONFIG Default: 'SEND,RECEIVE,NODG_CONFIG' Enables Oracle to determine whether or not the DMON (Data Guard broker) process should be started. Range of values {[TRUE | FALSE}.

T B D
Start DG Broker monitor (DMON process). Range of values {[TRUE | FALSE}.

T B D
Useful for creating a duplicate database for recovery purposes. You can also use DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT to rename the datafiles in the clone controlfile when setting up a clone database during tablespace point-in-time recovery.

S y n t a xD B _ F I L E _ N A M E _ C O N V E R T=' s t r i n g 1 ',' s t r i n g 2 ',' s t r i n g 3 ', ' s t r i n g 4 ',. . .


Enables or disables the sending of redo logs to remote destinations and the receipt of remote redo logs, and specifies the unique database names (DB_UNIQUE_NAME) for each database in the Data Guard configuration. Range of values {DG_CONFIG | NODG_CONFIG | NORECEIVE | NOSEND | RECEIVE | SEND}.

l o g _ a r c h i v e _ c o n f i g = ' D G _ C O N F I G = ( p r o d a , p r o d b ) '

Database / Instance / Identification


DB_DOMAIN Default: NULL In a distributed database system, DB_DOMAIN specifies the logical location of the database within the network structure. Range of values is any legal string of name components, separated by periods and up to 128 characters long (including the periods). This value cannot be NULL.

d b _ d o m a i n = ' P S O U G . O R G '
DB_NAME Specifies a database identifier of up to 8 characters. This parameter must be specified and must correspond to the name specified in the CREATE DATABASE statement.

d b _ n a m e = d a t a b a s e _ n a m e Data Guard
FAL_CLIENT Specifies the FAL (fetch archive log) client name that is used by the FAL service

F A L _ C L I E N T=s t r i n g
Specifies the FAL (fetch archive log) server for a standby database

FAL_SERVER

F A L _ S E R V E R=s t r i n g

Diagnostics / Statistics
BACKGROUND_CORE_DUMP Default: partial BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST CORE_DUMP_DEST Default: {ORACLE_HOME}/dbs DB_BLOCK_CHECKING Default FALSE Specifies whether Oracle includes the SGA in the core file for Oracle background processes.

B A C K G R O U N D _ C O R E _ D U M P={ P A R T I A L|F U L L } b a c k g r o u n d _ c o r e _ d u m p = p a r t i a l
Deprecated and ignored in 11g

S y n t a x

Primarily a UNIX parameter not supported on all platforms. Specifies the directory for core file dumps

c o r e _ d u m p _ d e s t = ' / a p p / o r a c l e / p r o d u c t / d i a g / r d b m s / o r a b a s e / o r a b a s e / c d u m p '
Controls whether Oracle performs block checking for data blocks. When this parameter is set to TRUE, Oracle performs block checking for all data blocks. When it is set to false, Oracle does not perform block checking for blocks in the user tablespaces. However, block checking for the SYSTEM tablespace is always turned on.

R a n g eo fv a l u e sT R U E|F A L S E
Determines whether DBWn and the direct loader will calculate a checksum (a number calculated from all the bytes stored in the block) and store it in the cache header of every data block when writing it to disk. Checksums are verified when a block is read-only if this parameter is TRUE and the last write of the block stored a checksum. In addition, Oracle gives every log block a checksum before writing it to the current log.

DB_BLOCK_CHECKSUM Default: TRUE

R a n g eo fv a l u e sT R U E|F A L S E
SHADOW_CORE_DUMP Specifies whether Oracle includes the SGA in the core file for foreground (client) processes. Valid values are: PARTIAL, FULL, NONE

T B D Distributed Replication
COMMIT_POINT_STRENGTH Default: 1 DISTRIBUTED_LOCK_TIMEOUT Default: 60 GLOBAL_NAMES relevant only in distributed database systems. Specifies a value that determines the commit point site in a distributed transaction. The node in the transaction with the highest value for COMMIT_POINT_STRENGTH will be the commit point site. Range of values 0 to 255.

T B D
Specifies the amount of time (in seconds) for distributed transactions to wait for locked resources. Range of values unlimited.

T B D T B D T B D
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OPEN_LINKS

Oracle Startup Parameters Init Initialization PFILE init.ora

T B D

OPEN_LINKS_PER_INSTANCE REPLICATION_DEPENDENCY _TRACKING

T B D T B D

Exadata Storage Server (new in 11.1.0.7)


CELL_OFFLOAD_COMPACTION Default: ADAPTIVE CELL_OFFLOAD_PARAMETERS CELL_OFFLOAD_PLAN_DISPLAY Default: AUTO CELL_OFFLOAD_PROCESSING Default: TRUE CELL_PARTITION_LARGE_EXTENTS Default: DEFAULT

T B D T B D T B D T B D T B D

File Locations, Names, and Sizes


Control file names list [file_path,file_path..] CONTROL_FILES

* . c o n t r o l _ f i l e s = ' c : \ o r a c l e \ p r o d u c t \ o r a d a t a \ o r a b a s e \ c o n t r o l 0 1 . c t l ' , ' c : \ o r a c l e \ p r o d u c t \ o r a d a t a \ o r a b a s e \ c o n t r o l 0 2 . c t l ' , ' c : \ o r a c l e \ p r o d u c t \ o r a d a t a \ o r a b a s e \ c o n t r o l 0 3 . c t l '


Specifies the default location for Oracle-Managed datafiles (OMF).

DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST Default: NULL DB_CREATE_ONLINE_LOG_DEST_n Default: NULL DB_FILES Default: 200

d b _ c r e a t e _ f i l e _ d e s t=d i r e c t o r y|d i s kg r o u p d b _ c r e a t e _ f i l e _ d e s t = ' / u 0 1 / o r a d a t a / o r a b a s e '


Specifies the default location for Oracle-managed control files and online redo logs.

S y n t a xD B _ C R E A T E _ O N L I N E _ L O G _ D E S T _ [ 1|2|3|4|5 ]=d i r e c t o r y| d i s kg r o u p
Minimum: the largest among the absolute file numbers of the datafiles in the database Maximum: operating system-dependent

S p e c i f i e st h em a x i m u mn u m b e ro fd a t a b a s ef i l e st h a tc a nb eo p e n e df o r t h i sd a t a b a s e .
Specifies the default location for the flash recovery area.

DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST

S y n t a xD B _ R E C O V E R Y _ F I L E _ D E S T={ D I R E C T O R Y|D I S KG R O U P }
Specifies (in bytes) the hard limit on the total space to be used by target database recovery files created in the flash recovery area.

DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE

S y n t a xD B _ R E C O V E R Y _ F I L E _ D E S T _ S I Z E=i n t e g e r[ K|M|G ] x
FILE_MAPPING

T B D
Include the file into the init.ora as it is read.

IFILE

i f i l e = ? / d b s / p r o d a _ d g . o r a s p f i l e = / a p p / o r a c l e / p r o d u c t / 1 1 . 1 . 0 / d b _ 1 / d b s / s p f i l e o r a b a s e . o r a

SPFILE

Flashback
DB_FLASHBACK_RETENTION_TARGET Specifies the upper limit (in minutes) on how far back in time the database may be flashed back. Default: 1440 RECYCLEBIN Default: ON 3 2-1( R a n g eo fv a l u e s0t o2 m a xv a l u er e p r e s e n t e db y3 2b i t s ) Specifies if the recyclebin holds dropped tables and associated indexes. Range of values {ON | OFF}

r e c y c l e b i n = O N

Instance Managment
INSTANCE_GROUPS

T B D T B D T B D i n s t a n c e _ t y p e = R D B M S
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INSTANCE_NAME

INSTANCE_NUMBER

INSTANCE_TYPE

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Oracle Startup Parameters Init Initialization PFILE init.ora

I/O
FILEIO_NETWORK_ADAPTERS

T B D T B D

FILESYSTEMIO_OPTIONS

Java
JAVA_JIT_ENABLED

T B D T B D T B D T B D

java_max_sessionspace_size

JAVA_POOL_SIZE

java_soft_sessionspace_limit

Memory Allocation Sizing and Usage


BITMAP_MERGE_AREA_SIZE Default: 1048576 for W2K & Linux For systems containing bitmap indexes: Specifies the amount of memory Oracle uses to merge bitmaps retrieved from a range scan of the index. The default value is 1 MB. A larger value usually improves performance, because the bitmap segments must be sorted before being merged into a single bitmap. Range of values Operating system-dependent

b i t m a p _ m e r g e _ a r e a _ s i z e = 1 0 4 8 5 7 6
BUFFER_POOL_KEEP Default: NULL BUFFER_POOL_RECYCLE Default: NULL CREATE_BITMAP_AREA_SIZE Default: 8388608 GLOBAL_CONTEXT_POOL_SIZE Number of database blocks/latches in keep buffer pool [CHAR: (buffers:n, latches:m)]

b u f f e r _ p o o l _ k e e p = T R U E
Number of database blocks/latches in recycle buffer pool [CHAR: (buffers:n, latches:m)]

b u f f e r _ p o o l _ r e c y c l e = T R U E
Relevant only for systems containing bitmap indexes. It specifies the amount of memory (in bytes) allocated for bitmap creation. The default value is 8 MB. A larger value may speed up index creation.

R a n g eo fv a l u e sO p e r a t i n gs y s t e m d e p e n d e n t . T B D T B D T B D T B D T B D T B D

HASH_AREA_SIZE

HI_SHARED_MEMORY_ADDRESS

LARGE_POOL_SIZE

MEMORY_MAX_TARGET

MEMORY_TARGET

NLS Parameters
NLS_CALENDAR

T B D T B D T B D T B D

NLS_COMP

NLS_CURRENCY

NLS_DATE_FORMAT

NLS_DATE_LANGUAGE

T B D
NLS_DUAL_CURRENCY

T B D T B D

NLS_ISO_CURRENCY

NLS_LANGUAGE

T B D
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NLS_LENGTH_SEMANTICS

Oracle Startup Parameters Init Initialization PFILE init.ora

T B D T B D T B D T B D T B D T B D T B D T B D T B D

NLS_NCHAR_CONV_EXCP

NLS_NUMERIC_CHARACTERS

NLS_SORT

NLS_TERRITORY

NLS_TIME_FORMAT

NLS_TIME_TZ_FORMAT

NLS_TIMESTAMP_FORMAT

NLS_TIMESTAMP_TZ_FORMAT

Optimizer
CREATE_STORED_OUTLINES Default: NULL Enables automatic outline creation for subsequent queries in the same session. These outlines receive a unique system-generated name and are stored in the DEFAULT category. If a particular query already has an outline defined for it in the DEFAULT category, then that outline will remain and a new outline will not be created.

S y n t a xC R E A T E _ S T O R E D _ O U T L I N E S={ T R U E|F A L S E|C A T E G O R Y _ N A M E }


A point that is often overlooked with optimizer_index_caching is that it supposed to apply only for index costs during nested loops (although it does seem to be applied for inlist iterators). Consequently it is not really a measure of what fraction of an index is cached, it is a measure of how many rows I select from a driving table that require me to collect the same data from the inner table repeatedly. For example: If I select 5 rows from table A and then join to table B, it is possible that I will do a physical read for the index blocks for tableB after reading the first row from table A - but then use the same index blocks for the join to the next 4 rows from table A. In this case, an optimizer_index_caching value of 80% would be the representative value. by: Jonathan Lewis / 4 Nov 2004 A relevant metalink note (62286.1) would suggest that Oracle intend the value to be considered for in-list as well as NL. by: Niall Litchfield

OPTIMIZER_INDEX_CACHING

T B D Real Application Clusters


ACTIVE_INSTANCE_COUNT Default: NULL Designate one instance in a two-instance cluster as the primary instance and the other instance as the secondary instance. This parameter has no functionality in a cluster with more than two instances. Range of values 1 or >= the number of instances in the cluster. (Values other than 1 have no effect on the active or standby status of any instances.)

T B D
CLUSTER_DATABASE Default: FALSE CLUSTER_DATABASE_INSTANCES Default: 1 CLUSTER_INTERCONNECTS Default: NULL Specifies whether or not Real Application Clusters is enabled. Range of values TRUE | FALSE

c l u s t e r _ d a t a b a s e = T R U E
Specifies the number of instances that are configured as part of a RAC database. Range of values Any nonzero value

c l u s t e r _ d a t a b a s e _ i n s t a n c e s = 4
Range of values One or more IP addresses, separated by colons. Provides information about additional cluster interconnects available for use in a RAC environments.

T B D

Result Cache
CLIENT_RESULT_CACHE_LAG ?

c l i e n t _ r e s u l t _ c a c h e _ l a g = 3 0 0 0
?

CLIENT_RESULT_CACHE_SIZE

c l i e n t _ r e s u l t _ c a c h e _ s i z e = 0

Security
O7_DICTIONARY_ACCESSIBILITY Default: FALSE DB_SECUREFILE Version 7 Dictionary Accessibility support. Range of values TRUE or FALSE

0 7 _ d i c t i o n a r y _ a c c e s s i b i l i t y = F A L S E
x Requires the tablespace is created with SEGMENT SPACE MANAGEMENT = AUTO

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DB_SECUREFILE Default: PERMITTED

Oracle Startup Parameters Init Initialization PFILE init.ora


Requires the tablespace is created with SEGMENT SPACE MANAGEMENT = AUTO

T B D T B D T B D T B D

LDAP_DIRECTORY_ACCESS

LDAP_DIRECTORY_SYSAUTH

MAX_ENABLED_ROLES

Statistics and Tracing


COMMIT_LOGGING x

T B D
Replacement for BDUMP and UDUMP related parameters. Points to ADR_BASE

DIAGNOSTIC_DEST

c o ln a m e _ c o l _ p l u s _ s h o w _ p a r a mf o r m a ta 3 0 c o lt y p ef o r m a ta 1 0 c o lv a l u e _ c o l _ p l u s _ s h o w _ p a r a mf o r m a ta 3 0 s h o wp a r a m e t e rd i a g

ENABLE_DDL_LOGGING Default: FALSE EVENT

e n a b l e _ d d l _ l o g g i n g = T R U E
Debug event control - default null string [CHAR]

D on o ta l t e rt h ev a l u eo ft h i sp a r a m e t e re x c e p tu n d e rt h es u p e r v i s i o n o fO r a c l eS u p p o r tS e r v i c e ss t a f f
Specifies the maximum size of trace files (excluding the alert file).

MAX_DUMP_FILE_SIZE

Valid values are: 0 to unlimited

T B D
STATISTICS LEVEL Specifies the level of collection for database and operating system statistics. The Oracle Database collects these statistics for a variety of purposes, including making self-management decisions. Valid values are: ALL, TYPICAL, BASIC

T B D
TIMED_OS_STATISTICS When TRUE statistics are collected and stored in trace files or displayed in the V$SESSTATS and V$SYSSTATS dynamic performance views

T B D
TRACE_ENABLED Controls tracing of the execution history, or code path, of Oracle. Oracle Support Services uses this information for debugging.

T B D
TRACEFILE_IDENTIFIER USER_DUMP_DEST Specifies a custom identifier that becomes part of the Oracle Trace file name. A custom identifier is used to identify a trace file simply from its name and without having to open it or view its contents.

T B D
Deprecated and Ignored in 11g

Transactions
COMMIT_WAIT ?

T B D
?

COMMIT_WRITE DDL_WAIT_FOR_LOCKS Default: FALSE

T B D
Specifies whether DDL statements (such as ALTER TABLE ... ADD COLUMN) wait and complete instead of timing out if the statement is not able to acquire all required locks.

R a n g eo fv a l u e sT R U E|F A L S E
Default value Derived: 4 * TRANSACTIONS. Specifies the maximum number of DML locks one for each table modified in a transaction. The value should equal the grand total of locks on tables currently referenced by all users. For

DML_LOCKS

example, if three users are modifying data in one table, then three entries would be required. If three users are modifying data in two tables, then six entries would be required.

R a n g eo fv a l u e s2 0t ou n l i m i t e d ;as e t t i n go f0d i s a b l e se n q u e u e s
FAST_START_PARALLEL_ROLLBACK Determines the maximum number of processes that can exist for performing parallel rollback. This parameter is useful on systems in which some or all of the transactions are long running

R a n g eo fv a l u e s{ H I|L O|F A L S E }
GLOBAL_TXN_PROCESSES x

T B D

CIRCUITS

Specifies the total number of virtual circuits that are available for inbound and outbound network sessions. It is one of several parameters that contribute to the total SGA requirements of an instance. No default value.

T B D
COMPATIBLE Allows you to use a new release of Oracle, while at the same time guaranteeing backward compatibility with an earlier release. This is not TRUE with 10g so be sure to read the documentation carefully.

R a n g eo fv a l u e sf o r1 0 g :9 . 2 . 0t od e f a u l tr e l e a s ev a l u e
CPU_COUNT Specifies the number of CPUs available to Oracle. Range of values 0 to unlimited.

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CPU_COUNT

Oracle Startup Parameters Init Initialization PFILE init.ora

c p u _ c o u n t = 1
Specifies a globally unique name for the database. Databases with the same DB_NAME within the same DB_DOMAIN. Every database's DB_UNIQUE_NAME must be unique within the enterprise.

DB_UNIQUE_NAME

S y n t a xD B _ U N I Q U E _ N A M E=d a t a b a s e _ u n i q u e _ n a m e
DISPATCHERS

T B D
Resources for enqueues [NUMBER]

ENQUEUE_RESOURCES

N o tm o d i f i a b l e .D e r i v e df r o mt h eS E S S I O N Sp a r a m e t e r T B D T B D T B D T B D T B D T B D T B D

FIXED_DATE

GC_FILES_TO_LOCKS

gcs_server_processes

job_queue_processes

LICENSE_MAX_SESIONS

LICENSE_MAX_USERS

LICENSE_SESSIONS_WARNING CONTROL_MANAGEMENT_PACK _ACCESS

T B D
DB_CACHE_ADVISE

T B D T B D T B D

DB_LOST_WRITE_PROTECT

DB_ULTRA_SAFE

DDL_LOCK_TIMEOUT

T B D T B D T B D T B D T B D T B D T B D T B D T B D T B D T B D T B D

LOCAL_LISTENER

LOCK_NAME_SPACE

LOCK_SGA

LOG_BUFFER

LOG_CHECKPOINT_INTERVAL

LOG_CHECKPOINT_TIMEOUT

LOG_CHECKPOINTS_TO_ALERT

LOG_FILE_NAME_CONVERT

MAX_COMMIT_PROPAGATION_DELAY

MAX_DISPLATCHERS

MAX_SHARED_SERVERS

Undocumented
Query for undocumented initialization parameters

s e tp a g e s i z e3 5 s e tl i n e s i z e1 5 0 c o lN A M Ef o r m a ta 4 0 c o lV A L U Ef o r m a ta 2 0 c o lD E S C R I P T I O Nf o r m a ta 6 0
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Oracle Startup Parameters Init Initialization PFILE init.ora

s e tp a u s eo n s e tp a u s e' H i te n t e rt oc o n t i n u e ' S E L E C Tx . k s p p i n mN A M E , y . k s p p s t v lV A L U E , k s p p d e s cD E S C R I P T I O N F R O Mx $ k s p p ix ,x $ k s p p c vy W H E R Ex . i n s t _ i d=u s e r e n v ( ' I n s t a n c e ' ) A N Dy . i n s t _ i d=u s e r e n v ( ' I n s t a n c e ' ) A N Dx . i n d x=y . i n d x A N DS U B S T R ( x . k s p p i n m , 1 , 1 )=' _ ' O R D E RB Y1 ;
_CORRUPTED_ROLLBACK_SEGMENTS

M a r k sa nu n d os e g m e n ta sc o r r u p ts oi tc a nb ed r o p p e d S Q L >s e l e c ts e g m e n t _ n a m e ,t a b l e s p a c e _ n a m e ,s t a t u sf r o m d b a _ r o l l b a c k _ s e g s ; S E G M E N T _ N A M E T A B L E S P A C E _ N A M E S T A T U S --S Y S T E M S Y S T E M O N L I N E _ S Y S S M U 1 _ 1 2 2 2 8 6 7 0 8 5 $ U N D O T B S 1 N E E D S R E C O V E R Y _ S Y S S M U 2 0 _ 1 2 3 5 0 3 8 1 3 9 $ U N D O T B S 2 O N L I N E _ S Y S S M U 1 9 _ 1 2 3 5 0 3 8 1 3 9 $ U N D O T B S 2 O N L I N E _ S Y S S M U 1 8 _ 1 2 3 5 0 3 8 1 3 9 $ U N D O T B S 2 O N L I N E _ S Y S S M U 1 7 _ 1 2 3 5 0 3 8 1 3 9 $ U N D O T B S 2 O N L I N E _ S Y S S M U 1 6 _ 1 2 3 5 0 3 8 1 3 9 $ U N D O T B S 2 O N L I N E _ S Y S S M U 1 5 _ 1 2 3 5 0 3 8 1 3 9 $ U N D O T B S 2 O N L I N E _ S Y S S M U 1 4 _ 1 2 3 5 0 3 8 1 3 9 $ U N D O T B S 2 O N L I N E _ S Y S S M U 1 3 _ 1 2 3 5 0 3 8 1 3 9 $ U N D O T B S 2 O N L I N E _ S Y S S M U 1 2 _ 1 2 3 5 0 3 8 1 3 9 $ U N D O T B S 2 O N L I N E _ S Y S S M U 1 1 _ 1 2 3 5 0 3 8 1 3 9 $ U N D O T B S 2 O N L I N E S Q L >c r e a t ep f i l ef r o ms p f i l e ; S Q L >s h u t d o w na b o r t -e d i tp f i l ea n da d d _ c o r r u p t e d _ r o l l b a c k _ s e g m e n t s = ( ' _ S Y S S M U 1 _ 1 2 2 2 8 6 7 0 8 5 $ ' ) S Q L >c r e a t es p f i l ef r o mp f i l e S Q L >s t a r t u p S Q L >d r o pr o l l b a c ks e g m e n t" _ S Y S S M U 1 _ 1 2 2 2 8 6 7 0 8 5 $ " ;

Default: TRUE

_NEWSORT_ENABLED Default: TRUE

A c t i v a t e sn e ws o r t i n ga l g o r i t h mi n1 0 g R 2 R a n g eo fv a l u e sT R U E|F A L S E a l t e rs e s s i o ns e t" _ n e w s o r t _ e n a b l e d " = F A L S E ; I fs e tt oF A L S Es y s t e mt r i g g e r sw i l ln o tf i r e R a n g eo fv a l u e sT R U E|F A L S E a l t e rs e s s i o ns e t" _ s y s t e m _ t r i g _ e n a b l e d " = F A L S E ; S e t st h ef i l ep r o t e c t i o nm a s kt o6 4 4 R a n g eo fv a l u e sT R U E|F A L S E a l t e rs e s s i o ns e t" _ t r a c e _ f i l e s _ p u b l i c " = T R U E ; _ u n n e s t _ s u b q u e r y=F A L S E R a n g eo fv a l u e sT R U E|F A L S E E X P L A I NP L A NF O R S E L E C Ts r v r _ i d F R O Ms e r v e r s W H E R Es r v r _ i dI N( S E L E C Ts r v r _ i d F R O Ms e r v _ i n s t ) ; S E L E C T*F R O MT A B L E ( d b m s _ x p l a n . d i s p l a y ) ; a l t e rs e s s i o ns e t" _ u n n e s t _ s u b q u e r y " = F A L S E ; E X P L A I NP L A NF O R S E L E C Ts r v r _ i d F R O Ms e r v e r s W H E R Es r v r _ i dI N( S E L E C Ts r v r _ i d F R O Ms e r v _ i n s t ) ; S E L E C T*F R O MT A B L E ( d b m s _ x p l a n . d i s p l a y ) ;

_SYSTEM_TRIG_ENABLED Default: TRUE

_TRACE_FILES_PUBLIC Default: FALSE

_UNNEST_SUBQUERY Default: TRUE

Other Related Topics


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Init.ora & SPFILE
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