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Atmospheric electricity The earths atmosphere extends to about 300 Km above the earth surface.

The atmosphere is divided in four layers. 300 km 400C d4 = d/1010 Ionosphere Good Conductor Conductivity 80 km Mesosphere 50 Km Stratosphere 12 km Troposphere -90C 10C -50C Poor Conductor Temp = 15C density of air d = 1.29kg/m3 Increases d3 = d/105 d2 = d/1000 d1 = d/10

Electrical properties of the atmosphere: (1) The electrical phenomena in atmosphere take place between the earth surface and top of stratosphere. The 50 Km thick layers is like a blanket enveloping the earth. (2) An electric field 100 V/m is there downwards all over the earth, at ground level. (3) Earth is good conductor so electric field is producing negative surface charge density. = - 0 x E = - 8.85 x 10-12 x 100 = - 10-9 C/m2 total negative charge on earth surface is q = 4R2 x = - 5 x 105 C (4) The electric field between the stratosphere and earth there is a flow of positive ions downwards and negative ions upwards. Hence there is a current per cent Area nearly 3 x 10-12 A/m2 and 1800 C charge is being deposited on the earth per second. This charge is neutralized due to thunder storms and lightning flashes. (5) There is a uniform potential drop of about 400K.V. between the upper layer of stratosphere and earth surface. Thunderstorms and lightning Flashes: The experimental observations regarding this complex phenomenon occurring in nature are as follows: (1) A thunderstorms is caused by a thundercloud. The top of the cloud lies at a height of about 6 km and the bottom at about 2 to 3 km above the surface of earth. By a complex process, there occurs a separation of charged ions; the positive charge collects at the negative charge at its bottom. (2) The amount of negative charge at the bottom of the cloud is about 20 C. This causes a potential difference of about 108 V between the earth and the bottom of the thunder cloud, and consequently an electric field of about 10 4 Vm-1 is set up directed upward. (3) The high electric field between the earth and the bottom of the cloud causes electrical breakdown of the intervening air which is ionized and becomes

conducting. It conducts bursts of negative charge in the form of lightning flashes to the earth. Each flash, which lasts for about 2 x 10 3 second, deposits about 20 C of charge on the earth. After each flash, the cloud is again charged and becomes ready for the next flash. (4) On an average, about 4 x 104 thunderstorms occur per day in the whole world, which means that a storm occurs some where after every two seconds. (Each storm lasts for about one hour.) It has been estimated that these thunderstorms cause, on an average , about 90 flashes per second. That is, the thunderstorms pump about 1800C of charge deposited on earth per second . This exactly counter balances the +1800 C of charge deposited on earth per second due to downward electric field between the stratosphere and the earth.

OHMS LAW Explanation for the flow of charge in conductors (1) In solids, all metals are good conductors of electricity. The Conductivity in solids depends on the free electrons. In metals 10 29per m3 are the free electron which are having random motion with high velocity of the order of 10 5m/s, in the free space between the stationary positive ions. Free electrons are having collision with the positive ions so their direction of motions changes very frequently, hence net charge passing in any direction is zero or no current in the conductor it self (2) As any potential difference is applied across any conductor the free electron get a force in a particular direction so will be moving in a direction. The velocity of the free electron depends on the potential difference applied. The velocity is said to be drift velocity, the velocity does not increases because of the loss of energy due to collision of free electron with the positive ions. This lost energy changes in the form of heat.The drift velocity is of the order of 10-4m/s.
I = n e t

n = no. of electrons passing in time t.

Relation between Electric current and Drift Velocity: Let any conductor having length l area of cross section A and potential difference V is applied across the ends points of conductor. Let E the Electric Field established in the wire. Let d is the drift velocity of free electrons. If n is the number of free electrons per unit volume then number of electrons passing per second through a cross section of wire will be = nx = = nxAx
volume Time n A Length Time

n A d

d. If e is the charge of electrons then current

I= q = n A d e t I J = = n d e A

Current density

(4) Relation between relaxation time and drift velocity: Consider any wire having length l area of cross section A , n is the number of free electrons per unit volume. Let V is potential difference applied between the ends of I = n e A d conductor and d is the drift velocity then current
V Intensity of electric field in the conductor will be E = l

Force exerted on electron due to electric field will be F = e x E = e x

a= F m

If m is the mass of electron when acceleration in the motion of electron will be

V l


As electrons are having collision with the positive ions so electrons are having a component of velocity in opposite direction to electric field in addition to the thermal velocity. If is the time interval between two successive collision of electrons with positive ions. If u is the instant thermal velocity of any electron in the absence of electric field then the velocity of the electron will be u + a x in the absence of electric field. Thus velocity of different electrons will be given u1 + a x 1, u2 + a x 2, u3 + a x 3, .. un + a x n Now average velocity of n electrons will be the drift velocity
u 1 + a 1 + u 2 + a 2 + ... + u n + a n n u 1 + u 2 + ... + u n a ( 1 + 2 + ... + n ) d = + n n d =

e V m l

1 + 2 + ... + n = Average time interval of electrons between two successive n

d =0 + a x

e d = a = ml

Or relaxation time.

Hence current

e I = n e A ml ne 2 A I = m l m l = 2 I ne A m l R = 2 = const. ne A V So I = R = const.

Specific resistance or Resistivity


V v A P = l I = I l A
= R

A l


Specific Conductance()

m ne 2

Effect of temperature on resistivity: (1)


E J J = E J = E

(2) R =

As temperature increases () decreases or say R1/ = mean free path =


ml nl A

l A

Vrms = r.m.s. speed of free electrons. so As Vrms T T = absolute temperature of conductor and decreases as T increases so R increases as T increases
V R rms

Rt R0 Rt R0


Rt R0 = Ro t
Rt = R0 (1 +t )

Rt R 0 R0 t

= temperature coefficient of resistance. =1/273 per degree centigrade for most of metals.

Rt = R0 (1 +

Rt T

t ) 273 273 + t T = R0 ( ) = R0 ( ) 273 273

(2) Resistivity of Alloys increases with decreases of T but increase is mach smaller to pure metals. (3) Resistivity of semiconductors decreases with the increase of temperature.
(S.C. are Silicon, Ge, Celenium, Carbon) In semiconductor n increases with increases of temperature. In semiconductor decreases with increases of temperature.

(4) Resistivity of Electrolyte: PDecreases with increases of temperature because viscosity decreases with increases of temperature and ion get more freedom to move. (5) Resistivity of Super Conductor: The Substance in which Resistance decreases with the decreases of temperature with the normal rate but resistance decrease to zero at certain temperature. The cooled conducted

are said to be super conducted. In super conductor current permits for hours, days or months after removing the source. (6) Non Ohmic Circuit: When electric current is passed through the filament of bulb of trace then the graph between V & I is not exactly straight line .In the beginning ( R = V / I ) resistance remains constant but after words R increase with the increase of V this is because temp of filament increase as the current is increased so resistance increases quit high. So ohms law holds good for small current only. In the case of electrolytes, Vacuum tubes thermostats, thermomic valves, transistor ohms law is not applicable even for small current. Such components or circuit are said to be non ohmic circuits (7) Colour Code Resistors: In the electronic circuits carbon resistors are used and their value vary over a wide range We use colour code to write their valus .There are four different coloured rings or bands on is surface
I ring I significant figure II ring II significant figure III ring power of ten by which significant figure is multiplied. IV ring % reliability called tolerance. For example I ring yellow, II ring violet III ring blue & IV ring gold then R = 47x106r 5% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 B B R O Y (of) Great Britain (has a) Brown Black Orange Red Yellow Green Blue

7 Very Violet

8 9 Good Wife White Gray

Gold 5% Silver 10% No color 20%