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CFD analysis of biomass downdraft gasifier using fluent

Prashant sharma1, Amit Dutta1, Prof Veerendra kumar2, Prof Bhupendra Gupta3 1. M.E student, 2. Prof and head, 3.lecturer Dept. of mechanical engg Jec, Jabalpur (M.P)
Abstract--Biomass energy combined with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software has been described in some detail in the following study. The aspect of biomass gasifier has been investigated with regard to the potential of designing future gasifier using simulation in FLUENT software. Analysis of volumetric reaction is done in this simulation. Gas temperature and mass fraction is being calculated on the basis of species transport i.e. eddy dissipation type. In CFD there are two basic viscous model laminar and K-epsilon. Turbulent model is analyzed in this simulation.

Oxygen-------23.2% Zone Temperature Wall1 373 C Wall 800 C Nozzle 737 C Throat 373 C
2. The Generalized Finite-Rate Formulation for

Reaction Modeling The reaction rates that appear as source terms in Equation 1 are computed in FLUENT, for turbulent flows, by one of three models: Laminar finite-rate model: The effect of turbulent fluctuations is ignored, and reaction rates are determined by Arrhenius kinetic expressions. Eddy-dissipation model: Reaction rates are assumed to be controlled by the turbulence, so expensive Arrhenius chemical kinetic calculations can be avoided. The model is computationally cheap, but, for realistic results, only one or two step heat-release mechanisms should be used. Eddy-dissipation-concept (EDC) model: Detailed Arrhenius chemical kinetics can be incorporated in turbulent flames. Note that detailed chemical kinetic calculations are computationally expensive. The generalized finite-rate formulation is suitable for a wide range of applications including laminar or turbulent reaction systems, and combustion systems with premixed, non-premixed, or partially-premixed flames. ( ) (1)

1.

Introduction

Two major issues, namely, the ever widening gap between energy consumption and supply, and the resultant CO2 emission place renewable energy resources in the right perspective. Fortunately India has an abundance of renewable energy sources such as wind energy; small hydropower; solar energy, energy from urban, municipal, and industrial wastes and biomass. Since renewable energy sources and diffused and decentralized, as opposed to concentrated fossil fuels, they are more suitable for decentralized energy systems. The problem consist of a gasifier in which after burning of wood containing 49% of C and air which contain 23.2% of oxygen. As per the volumetric reaction mention in above chapter and reaction data product is formed. There is 2D model of gasifier, in which boundary conditions are mentioned. It has been assumed that internal part is non-porous and combustion is already took place. We are setting different temperature zone in the gasifier. For the model viscous model is assumed to be K-epsilon. Reaction took place in steady state and as per species transport eddy dissipation. Then we obtain all the results. In this simulation we are making model and meshing in GAMBIT .Gambit is a tool for modeling for fluent, polyflow, Ansys. Here quadrilateral mesh is applied. Wood_vol-----20% Carbon----49%

2.

The Eddy-Dissipation Model

Most fuels are fast burning, and the overall rate of reaction is controlled by turbulent mixing. In non-

premixed flames, turbulence slowly convicts/mixes fuel and oxidizer into the reaction zones where they burn quickly. In premixed flames, the turbulence slowly converts/mixes cold reactants and hot products into the reaction zones, where reaction occurs rapidly. In such cases, the combustion is said to be mixing-limited, and the complex and often unknown, chemical kinetic rates can be safely neglected. FLUENT provides a turbulence-chemistry interaction model, based on the work of Magnussen and Hjertager called the eddy-dissipation model. The net rate of production of species i due to reaction r, is given by the smaller (i.e., limiting value) of the two expressions below occurs rapidly. In such cases, the combustion is said to be mixing-limited, and the complex, and often unknown, chemical kinetic rates can be safely neglected. FLUENT provides a turbulence-chemistry interaction model, based on the work of Magnussen and Hjertager called the eddy-dissipation model. The net rate of production of species i due to reaction r, is given by the smaller (i.e., limiting value) of the two expressions below: (

dissipation rate ( ). The model transport equation for k is derived from the exact equation, while the model transport equation for was obtained using physical reasoning and bears little resemblance to its mathematically exact counterpart. In the derivation of the k- model, the assumption is that the flow is fully turbulent, and the effects of molecular viscosity are negligible. The standard k- model is therefore valid only for fully turbulent flows.
5. Transport

Equations for the Standard k- Model

The turbulence kinetic energy, k, and its rate of dissipation, are obtained from the following transport equations: ( ) ( ) [( (4) ( ) ( ( ) )
4. Results

)(

)]

[(

)( (5)

)]

) (3) k- Model

(2)

Basic model of gasifier as from gambit tool.

4. STANDARD

The simplest complete models of turbulence are the two-equation models in which the solution of two separate transport equations allows the turbulent velocity and length Scales to be independently determined. The standard k- model in ANSYS FLUENT falls within this class of models and has become the workhorse of practical engineering flow calculations in the time since it was proposed by Launder and Spalding [180]. Robustness, economy, and reasonable accuracy for a wide range of turbulent flows explain its popularity in industrial flow and heat transfer simulations. It is a semi-empirical model, and the derivation of the model equations relies on phenomenological considerations and empiricism. As the strengths and weaknesses of the standard kmodel have become known, improvements have been made to the model to improve its performance. Two of these variants are available in ANSYS FLUENT: the RNG k- model and the realizable k- model. The standard k- model is a semi-empirical model based on model transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy (k) and its

Viscous model-K-epsilon, species transport - Eddy dissipation Graph 1 shows the mass fraction of carbon dioxide in gasifier. There is no input of carbon dioxide. At wall1 region CO2 is produced. At wall region mass fraction is increased. Nozzle region there shows some decrement. At outlet mass fraction is remain constant.

Graph 2 shows the mass fraction of methane gas in gasifier. There is no input of methane. At wall1 region CH4 is produced vigorously. At wall region mass fraction is decreased. Nozzle region there shows some increment. At outlet mass fraction is remain constant. Graph 3 shows the mass fraction of CO gas in gasifier. There is no input of carbon monoxide. At wall1 region co is produced vigorously. At wall region mass fraction is decreased. Nozzle region there shows some increment. At outlet mass fraction is remain constant. Graph 4 shows the temperature distribution in gasifier. Upto wall 1 there is constant temperature. Then temperature is rising vigorously. At wall and nozzle region temperature remain constant but different. At outlet temperature decreases.

Gas C CH4 CO2 CO H2 H2O N2 O2 Air

Mass fraction at inlet 0.49 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.232 .0070

Mass fraction at outlet 0 0.003-.0054 0.15 0.115-0.23 0.15 0.000034 0.4 0 .006

Table 1:- Gas composition as per fluent simulation

Graph 4

Graph 1

Figure 1:-temperature contour

Graph 2 Figure 2:- contour CO

Graph 3 Figure 3:- contour H2 Conclusion

5.

In this case viscous model is turbulent i.e. K-epsilon with eddy dissipation chemistry, which results in

decrease CO percentage i.e. 11.5 to 23% and H2 15% and maximum temperature is obtained at wall region, and minimum is at inlet region.

6. References

1. 2. 3. 4.

Ansys tutorials by ansys corp. Anderson, J. D (1995), Computational Fluid Dynamics, The Basic With Application, McGraw-Hill. International Editions,

Brink, A et al. (2001), IFRF Combustion Journal, Modelling Nitrogen Chemistry in the Freeboard of Biomass-FBC, pp 1-14. Babu P (2008) , modeling Kinetic analysis of biomass gasifier. Dogru, M. and et al (2002), The International Journal, Gasification of hazelnut shells in a downdraft gasifier Vol. 27 pp 415-427. Dogru, M et al. (2002), Fuel Processing Technology, Gasification of sewage sludge using throated downdraft gasifier and uncertainty analysis, Vol. 75, pp. 55-82 Dumbleton, F. (2001), Standardisation of Solid Biofuels in the UK , AEA Technology Environment, Report 1, ESTA 32192001. Eastop, T.D and McConkey, A. (1998), Applied Thermodynamics for Engineering Technologist, 5th ed, Addison Wesly Longman Limited.

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10. Fluent user data book.