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BORAL MASONRY

Build something great

BORAL MASONRY Build something great ™ Masonry Design Guide STRUCTURAL, FIRE AND ACOUSTICS QUEENSLAND BOOK 1

Masonry Design Guide

STRUCTURAL, FIRE AND ACOUSTICS

QUEENSLAND

BOOK 1

™ Masonry Design Guide STRUCTURAL, FIRE AND ACOUSTICS QUEENSLAND BOOK 1 www.boral.com.au/masonry Updated February 2008
™ Masonry Design Guide STRUCTURAL, FIRE AND ACOUSTICS QUEENSLAND BOOK 1 www.boral.com.au/masonry Updated February 2008
™ Masonry Design Guide STRUCTURAL, FIRE AND ACOUSTICS QUEENSLAND BOOK 1 www.boral.com.au/masonry Updated February 2008
™ Masonry Design Guide STRUCTURAL, FIRE AND ACOUSTICS QUEENSLAND BOOK 1 www.boral.com.au/masonry Updated February 2008
™ Masonry Design Guide STRUCTURAL, FIRE AND ACOUSTICS QUEENSLAND BOOK 1 www.boral.com.au/masonry Updated February 2008

www.boral.com.au/masonry

Updated February 2008

Queensland

Book 1

A

Queensland Book 1 A A   Introduction   PAGE   PAGE Contents   . . .

A

 

Introduction

 

PAGE

 

PAGE

Contents

 

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A2

Products @

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Glance .

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A4

Fast Find Product and Application Guide

 

A3

About This

 

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A6

B

 

Structural Design

 

Introduction to the Structural Design of Masonry

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B2

Movement (Control Joints)

 

B6

Robustness

 

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B2

Energy

Efficiency.

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B7

Strength

 

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B5

Reinforced Masonry Lintels

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B10

Bending

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B5

Design of Core Filled and Steel Reinforced

 
 

Masonry Retaining Walls

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B11

Shear

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B6

 

Structural Design Guidelines for

 

Durability

 

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B6

Core Filled and Steel Reinforced

 

Masonry Retaining Walls

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B13

C

 

Fire Design

 

Masonry Design for Fire Resistance (FRL)

 

C2

Effect of Chases on Fire Rated Masonry

 

C4

Masonry Design for Structural Adequacy FRL

 

C2

How to Select Boral Masonry Units for

 
 

Fire Rated Walls

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C5

Masonry Design for Integrity

 

C3

 

Structural Adequacy Selection Graphs and Tables

 

C8

Masonry Design for Insulation

 

C4

 

Index to Structural Adequacy Selection Graphs

 

C8

D

 

Acoustic Design

 

Acoustic Performance Ratings (STC and R w )

 

D2

Guidelines for Optimum Performance

 

D4

Designing Masonry Walls for

 

Acoustic Performance On-site

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D5

Acoustic

Performance

 

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D3

 

Home

Cinema

Rooms.

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D6

E

 

Fire and Acoustic Systems

 

Finding Acoustic Systems and

 

Technical Specifications

 

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E2

FireLight (FL)

 

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E4

Standard

Grey

Block

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E6

Concrete-Basalt Bricks (B): Rippa and Speed-E

 

E8

The information presented herein is supplied in good faith and to the best of our knowledge was accurate at the time of preparation. No responsibility can be accepted by Boral or its staff for any errors or omissions. Users are advised to make their own determination as to the suitability of this information in relation to their particular purpose and specific circumstances. Since the information contained in this document may be applied under conditions beyond our control, no responsibility can be accepted by us for any loss or damage caused by any person acting or refraining from action as a result of this information.

A2

February 2008

|

BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE

Queensland

Book 1

A

Queensland Book 1 A The quickest way to find a Boral Masonry Structural, Fire or Acoustic
Queensland Book 1 A The quickest way to find a Boral Masonry Structural, Fire or Acoustic

The quickest way to find a Boral Masonry Structural, Fire or Acoustic Wall Solution. Simply follow the FAST FIND GUIDE on the right hand side of the table.

BORAL MASONRY BLOCK & BRICK PRODUCTS NLB = Non-loadbearing LB = Loadbearing Fast Find a
BORAL
MASONRY
BLOCK &
BRICK
PRODUCTS
NLB = Non-loadbearing
LB = Loadbearing
Fast Find
a Boral
NLB
LB
NLB
LB
NLB
LB
NLB
LB
NLB
LB
Solution
FireLight (FL)
E4
E4
1
Select your application
criteria from the top of
Standard Grey Block
E6
E6
E6
E6
E6
E6
the table
2
Core Filled Block
E6
E6
E6
E6
E6
E6
E6
E6
E6
E6
Go straight to the
section letter and page
number indicated at the
intersection of product
rows and application
Designer Block
– –
columns (e.g. Section E,
Page E6 in this example)
Concrete-Basalt Brick (B)
(Rippa and Speed-E Brick)
Please refer to MDG Book 2,
E8
E8
E8
E8
E8
E8
– –
Boral Masonry Block and Brick Guide
WALL FINISH
Face Masonry
Rendered
Plasterboard
No Lining (Bare Wall)
Retaining Wall

For technical support and sales office details please refer to the outside back cover

BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE

|

February 2008

A3

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BBBBBookooookkkk 111 AA Boral Engineered Blocks for Structural, Fire and Acoustic

Boral Engineered Blocks

for Structural, Fire and Acoustic Wall Systems

• Standard Grey Blocks

Made as hollow, reduced core and solid units for 60, 90 and 120-minute Insulation FRLs. Used for loadbearing and non-loadbearing masonry. 140 and 190mm thick units can be partially reinforced for walls of portal frame buildings and houses in cyclonic areas.

reinforced for walls of portal frame buildings and houses in cyclonic areas. A4 February 2008 |

A4

reinforced for walls of portal frame buildings and houses in cyclonic areas. A4 February 2008 |

February 2008

|

BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE

• Core Fill Block Made with recessed webs to accommodate horizontal steel. Used for cantilever-design

• Core Fill Block

Made with recessed webs to accommodate horizontal steel. Used for cantilever-design retaining walls, basement walls and for large, loadbearing walls requiring 120 or 240-minute Insulation FRLs.

• Concrete-Basalt Bricks (B):

Speed-E Brick and Rippa Block

Concrete-Basalt is a denseweight, load-bearing material. The 45% basalt content of these bricks allows the use of the higher Slenderness ratios in AS3700, Table 6.1. Its Insulation FRLs are slightly higher than clay units. The material is slightly more dense than clay so acoustic performance is slightly higher for

than clay so acoustic performance is slightly higher for BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE | February 2008

BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE

|

February 2008

QueenslandQuueeeennsllaand
QueenslandQuueeeennsllaand

BookBoookk 111

AA

2008 QueenslandQuueeeennsllaand Book Boook k 1 1 1 A A Boral Engineered Bricks for Structural, Fire

Boral Engineered Bricks

for Structural, Fire and Acoustic Wall Systems

rendered walls (mass law). Acoustic performance with plasterboard is better than clay because resonances are dampened by its higher porosity.

• FireLight Bricks (FL)

FireLight is a lightweight material that has been developed and tested for high fire and acoustic ratings. It is ideal for plasterboard-lined and non-loadbearing walls in high-rise home units and wherever weight minimisation is critical. Acoustic tests have proven the requirements of BCA:2007 can be met with plasterboard-lined walls that are thinner than some “deemed-to-satisfy” options.

of BCA:2007 can be met with plasterboard-lined walls that are thinner than some “deemed-to-satisfy” options. A5

A5

Queensland

Book 1

A

Queensland Book 1 A Boral Masonry Commercial Construction Solutions Boral Masonry Queensland offers a comprehensive

Boral Masonry Commercial Construction Solutions

Boral Masonry Queensland offers a comprehensive range of proven products and systems including Masonry Blocks, Masonry Bricks, Fire and Acoustic Wall Systems, Segmental Block Retaining Walls and Segmental Paving Products.

What’s in this Guide

The Boral Masonry Structural, Fire and Acoustic guide (this book), provides a summary of important design information for structural, fire and acoustic masonry applications and an extensive range of fire and/or acoustic systems to cater for many design scenarios.

Section B — Structural Design

Section B discusses design issues relevant to the selection of Boral Masonry products for structural adequacy, based on appropriate wall design criteria.

Section C — Fire Design

Section C discusses the relevant design processes for the selection of Boral Masonry Products for fire rated applications. This section includes a step-by-step selection guide and a series of selection graphs which can greatly speed up the preliminary selection and comparison of suitable designs and products.

Section D — Acoustic Design

Section D provides a brief overview of acoustic rating methods, relevant considerations for acoustic design and guidelines for good acoustic design and detailing methods.

Section E — Fire and Acoustic Systems

Section E of this guide provides an extensive range of fire and acoustic wall system solutions supported by test results and acoustic performance estimates.

A6

This guide has been prepared as a comprehensive Boral Product Reference Guide. It does not attempt to cover all the requirements of the Codes and Standards which apply to masonry construction for structural, fire or acoustic applications. All structural, fire and acoustic detailing should be checked and approved by appropriately qualified engineers before construction. Boral reserves the right to change the contents of this guide without notice.

Please note that this guide is based on products available at the time of publication from the Boral Masonry Queensland sales region. Different products and specifications may apply to Boral products sourced from other regions.

Additional Assistance and Information

Contact Details: Please refer to the outside back cover of this publication for Boral Masonry contact details.

Colour and Texture Variation: The supply of raw materials can vary over time. In addition, variation can occur between product types and production batches. Also please recognise the printed colours in this brochure are only a guide. Please, always ask to see a sample of your colour/texture choice before specifying or ordering.

Terms and Conditions of Sale: For a full set of Terms and Conditions of Sale please contact your nearest Boral Masonry sales office.

February 2008

|

BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE

BORAL MASONRY

Build something great

BORAL MASONRY Build something great ™ Masonry Design Guide STRUCTURAL, FIRE AND ACOUSTICS B STRUCTURAL DESIGN
Masonry Design Guide
Masonry Design Guide

STRUCTURAL, FIRE AND ACOUSTICS

B STRUCTURAL DESIGN

QUEENSLAND

BOOK 1

Build something great ™ Masonry Design Guide STRUCTURAL, FIRE AND ACOUSTICS B STRUCTURAL DESIGN QUEENSLAND BOOK

1B

Queensland

Book 1

B

Queensland Book 1 B Introduction to the Structural Design of Masonry The following design information is

Introduction to the Structural Design of Masonry

The following design information is based on Australian Standard AS3700:2001 Masonry structures’. Reference to ‘Clauses’ and ‘Formulae’ are those used in AS3700. This information is provided as a guide only to the processes involved in designing masonry. All masonry should be designed by a suitably qualified structural engineer.

Robustness

AS3700, Clause 4.6.1 requires walls to have an adequate degree of ‘Robustness’. Robustness is a minimum design requirement, and may be overridden by Fire, Wind, Snow, Earthquake, Live and Dead Load requirements.

In robustness calculations, there are height, length, and panel action formulae. By reworking the standard formulae provided and inserting known data, it is possible to determine whether a chosen design and Boral masonry product will provide adequate robustness. Should the initial product/design chosen not provide a suitable solution, then a thicker Boral masonry product more suited to the application should be evaluated, or alternatively, add extra restraints or reinforcement.

The following section is laid out with AS3700 formulae and explanation in the left hand column, while worked examples can be found in the adjacent right hand column.

B2

Legend to Symbols used in Robustness Calculations:

H

=

the clear height of a member between horizontal lateral supports, in metres;

=

for a member without top horizontal support, the overall height from the bottom lateral support, in metres

t r

=

the minimum thickness of the member, in metres

=

in cavity-wall construction, the minimum thickness of the thicker leaf

or

two thirds the sum or thicknesses of the two leaves, whichever is greater, in metres

or

in diaphragm wall construction, the overall thickness of the wall, in metres

k t

=

a thickness coefficient, values as given in AS3700 Table 7.2 (see the end of this section)

C v ,C h =

robustness coefficient, values as given in AS3700 Table 4.2 (see end of this section) for edge restraints at top, bottom and vertical sides (either separately or in combination)

L r

=

the clear length of the wall between vertical lateral supports, in metres; or

=

for a wall without a vertical support at one end or at a control joint or for walls containing openings, the length to that unsupported end or control joint or edge of opening, in metres.

February 2008

|

BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE

Queensland

Book 1

B

Formulae and Explanation

Isolated Piers

Formula 4.6.2 (1) is used for isolated piers. Masonry with a length less than one fifth of its height and ‘free’ ends, is considered to be an ‘isolated pier’.

Formula (1) is:

H

t

r

C

v

By re-working formula (1), the maximum height for an isolated pier can be determined:

H t r x C v

Where C v is obtained from AS3700 Table 4.2 (Refer to Page B5).

v is obtained from AS3700 Table 4.2 (Refer to Page B5). Worked Examples Aim: To determine

Worked Examples

Aim:

To determine the Maximum Wall Height of an Isolated Pier

Example 1: Minimum wall thickness t r = 230mm

A single leaf structure, unreinforced, then

C v = 13.5

H

0.23 x 13.5

H

3.105m (maximum wall height)

Example 2: Minimum wall thickness, t r = 140mm

A single leaf structure, reinforced, then

C v = 30

H

0.14 x 30

H

4.200m (maximum wall height)

Formulae and Explanation

Worked Examples

Wall with Free Ends

Formula 4.6.2 (2) is used for walls spanning vertically (i.e. wall with free ends).

Formula (2) is:

H

k t x t r

C v

By re-working formula (2), the maximum wall height is:

H k t x t r x C v .

Where k t is obtained from AS3700 Table 7.2 (Refer to Page B5)

or

Aim:

To determine the Maximum Height

Criteria:

of a Wall with Free Ends Minimum wall thickness, t r = 110mm k t = 1 (wall without piers)

Example 1: If wall is freestanding, then C v =6 (must be checked by an engineer for wind loads etc.)

H

1.0 x 0.11 x 6

H

0.660m

Example 2: If wall is laterally restrained along its top, then C v =27

H

1.0 x 0.11 x 27

H

2.970m

By re-working formula (2), the minimum wall thickness is:

Example 3: If wall is laterally restrained along its top and supports a slab, then C v =36

k t x t r

 

H

1.0 x 0.11 x 36

 

H

H

3.960m

C

v

BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE

|

February 2008

B3

Queensland

Book 1

B

Queensland Book 1 B Formulae and Explanation Wall with Restraint at End or Ends Formula 4.6.2

Formulae and Explanation

Wall with Restraint at End or Ends

Formula 4.6.2 (3) is for walls spanning horizontally [i.e. restrained end(s)]. Walls that have one or both ends laterally restrained and

L

t r

C h

i.e. L t r x C h

Where C h is obtained from AS3700 Table 4.2. (Refer to Page B5)

H

t r

=

no limit

NOTE: This means that although the wall height is not limited by its thickness, the wall length is limited. Stair wells and chimneys work to this formula.

Worked Examples

Aim:

To determine the Maximum Length of a Wall with Restraint at End or Ends

Criteria:

Wall thickness t r = 110mm

Example 1: If wall is restrained along one end, then

C

h = 12

L

0.11 x 12

L

1.320m

Example 2: If wall is restrained along both ends, then

C

h = 36

L

0.11 x 36

L

3.960m

NOTE: If the wall exceeds the permitted length, then a thicker wall is required or formula 4.6.2 (4) governs and H will be limited. (See below).

Formulae and Explanation

Worked Examples

Wall with Restraint at Top and End or Ends

Formula 4.6.2 (4) is for walls spanning vertically and horizontally (i.e. with restraint along the top and one or two ends) and length L t r x C h .

Where C h is obtained from AS3700 Table 4.2. (Refer to Page B5)

Formula (4) is:

H

t

r

C

v

+

C

h

L r — C h t r

By reworking formula (4), the maximum wall height is:

H

( C v +

C h L r — C h t r

) t r

NOTE: Control joints, and openings greater than one fifth of wall height are treated as free ends unless specific measures are taken to provide adequate lateral support.

Aim:

To determine the Maximum Height of a Wall with Restraint at Top and End or Ends

Criteria:

Wall thickness t r = 110mm Wall length = 2m

Example 1: If wall supports a slab, then C v = 36, and if restrained along one end, then C h = 12

H

H

( 36 +

5.9m

12

2 — 12 x 0.11

) 0.11

B4

February 2008

|

BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE

Queensland

Book 1

B

Table B1 (Extract from AS3700 : Table 4.2)

 

C

v

Top and bottom edge restraints to wall panels

Vertically

Vertically reinforced

unreinforced

or prestressed

 

Free

   

12

with

SUPPORT
SUPPORT

reinforcement

6

continuous into

support. Otherwise

   

6.

Load other than concrete slab or no load

   

Lateral

Lateral   27
 

27

Support

   

36

 

SUPPORT

   

Concrete Slab

   
SUPPORT
SUPPORT

Lateral

Support

36

 

48

ISOLATED PIERS

   

Lateral

Support

SUPPORT
SUPPORT

13.5

 

30

Edge restraints on vertical sides of wall panels

C

h

Horizontally

unreinforced

Horizontally

reinforced or

prestressed

SUPPORT
SUPPORT
   

24

with

reinforcement

12

continuous past

support.

Otherwise 16

SUPPORT SUPPORT
SUPPORT
SUPPORT
 

36

 

48

Table B2 (Extract from AS3700 : Table 7.2) Thickness Coefficient (k t ) for Walls Stiffened by Monolithically Engaged Piers

Pier Spacing/Pier Width (Refer to Note 1)

Thickness Coefficient (k t)

Pier Thickness Ratio (t wp /t)

 

1

2

3

6

1.0

1.4

2.0

8

1.0

1.3

1.7

10

1.0

1.2

1.4

15

1.0

1.1

1.2

20 or more

1.0

1.0

1.0

NOTES: 1. Pier spacing is taken as the distance between centrelines of piers. 2. Linear interpolation may be used.

t t wp Wall Leaf Pier Width Pier Spacing BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE | February
t
t wp
Wall Leaf
Pier Width
Pier Spacing
BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE
|
February 2008
Pier Spacing BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE | February 2008 Strength Compressive strength is resistance to load,

Strength

Compressive strength is resistance to load, measured by the amount of pressure to crush a masonry unit. The pressure,

usually measured in megapascals (MPa), is the force in kilonewtons (kN) x 1000, divided by the loaded area in square mm.

Unconfined compressive strength is compressive strength, multiplied by an aspect ratio, K a (see AS4456.4, Table 1). The unit height divided by its thickness is used to determine the aspect ratio.

A solid brick will give a lower compressive strength if

crushed on its end rather than on its flat, as normally laid.

In theory, the aspect ratio will convert both tests to the same

unconfined compressive strength.

The strength of hollow blocks is calculated by dividing the force by the face shells only. A 90mm hollow and 90mm solid block are both 10MPa, but since the area of the face shells on the hollow block is about half the area of the solid block, the hollow will only carry half the load of the solid.

Characteristic Unconfined Compressive Strength of masonry UNITS is ƒ ’ uc.

ƒ ’uc is the average of crushing forces divided by loaded areas, multiplied by the aspect ratio, minus the standard

deviation x 1.65.

Characteristic Compressive Strength of a masonry WALL is ƒ ’ m.

ƒ ’m is the square root of ƒ ’uc, multiplied by K m (a mortar strength factor), multiplied by K h (a factor for the amount of mortar joints) as per AS3700, 3.3.2.

The K m factor is 1.4 for M3 mortar on solid and cored units and is 1.6 for the face shells of hollow units. For the richer M4 mortar it is 1.5 (Table 3.1).

The K h factor is 1 for 76mm high units with 10mm mortar

beds and is 1.3 for 190mm units with 10mm mortar beds.

In other words, a wall of 190mm high units is 30% stronger

than a wall of 76mm high units of the same ƒ ’uc.

Bending

Characteristic Flexural Tensile Strength is ƒ ’mt.

Masonry is good in compression but poor in tension. Mortar

joint strength is generally zero or 0.2MPa for loads from wind, earthquake etc. Higher bending forces may require masonry

to be partially reinforced.

B5

Queensland

Book 1

B

Queensland Book 1 B Shear Characteristic Shear Strength is ƒ ’ms. At damp course, it is

Shear

Characteristic Shear Strength is ƒ ’ms.

At damp course, it is zero unless tested. Elsewhere, mortar joints have ƒ ’ms values of between 0.15 and 0.35MPa.

As with tension, high shear loads may require partially reinforced masonry.

Durability

Masonry designed for ‘Durability’ is deemed to satisfy when it meets the requirements of AS3700 Section 5, which details what areas require Exposure, General Purpose and Protected grades. Assessment of these grades is defined in AS/NZS4456.10 Resistance to Salt Attack.

AS3700 defines the usage of each of these grades as:

Protected Grade (PRO)

Elements above the damp-proof course in non-marine exterior environments. Elements above the damp-proof course in other exterior environments, with a waterproof coating, properly flashed junctions with other building elements and a top covering (roof or coping) protecting the masonry.

General Purpose Grade (GP)

Suitable for use in an external wall excluding severe marine environment.

Exposure Grade (EXP)

Suitable for use in external walls exposed to severe marine environments, i.e. up to 1km from a surf coast or up to 100m from a non surf coast. The distances are specified from mean high water mark.

Mortar mix requirements for durability are detailed in AS3700 Table 10.1. Mortar joints must be ironed.

Salt attack is the most common durability problem. The salt in salt water is in solution. It can be absorbed into masonry or at least, its mortar joints. When the water evaporates, it migrates towards the outside face taking the salt with it until the amount of water left is saturated. It can no longer hold all the salt in solution and salt crystals begin to form.

The salt crystals then take up space, sometimes more than the texture of the masonry will allow. The crystal then ‘pops’ a piece of the outer surface off to make room and salt attack begins.

Walls below damp course also require greater durability. Even if they are well away from the coast, they may be subjected to acidic or alkaline soils. In any case, moisture in the ground is absorbed into the masonry, creating an

B6

environment ideal for bacteria, which feeds lichens and algae which can eventually be detrimental.

AS/NZS4456.10 gives methods of testing and definitions for durability (salt tests). An alternative to testing is a history of survival in a marine environment. Concrete masonry has been used for Surf Club construction around Australia for decades.

Movement

In general, concrete units contract as they cure while clay units will expand. They both expand as they take up water and contract as they dry. They both expand as they get hot and contract as they cool.

Curing Movement in Concrete Units

AS/NZS4456.12 gives methods for determining coefficients of curing contraction and coefficients of drying contraction for concrete units.

Drying Contraction

The drying contraction test on masonry units is an indication of their maximum amount of movement from totally saturated to ambient dry. A typical result is 0.5mm/m but can be as high as 1mm/m for lightweight units that are more absorptive. For example, a drying contraction of 0.5mm/m, in an 8m panel of masonry, has the potential to shrink 4mm from saturated condition to dry.

External Control Joints

AS3700, Clause 4.8 requires control joint spacing to limit panel movement to:

• 10mm maximum for opening of control joints,

• 15mm maximum for closing of control joints, and

• 5mm minimum when closed.

The Australian Masonry Manual recommends control joints at 8m centres for concrete units, 6m centres for lightweight (<1600kg/m 3 ) units and at potential points of cracking such as at openings and at steps in the masonry.

The Concrete Masonry Association of Australia Design Manual permits 16m spacing for bond beams and for panels with horizontal and vertical reinforcement.

Spacing should be measured around corners, not from corners. Ideally, the control joint is located near the corner, concealed behind a down pipe.

External control joints should be finished with a flexible sealant.

February 2008

|

BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE

Queensland

Book 1

B

Control joints create a ‘free end’ in terms of ‘robustness’ and FRLs for structural adequacy, so their positioning is critical to the overall design of the structure.

In portal frame construction, the control joint is positioned at

a column so that both ends can be tied to the column flanges.

The mason and renderer must keep the control joint clean, otherwise, bridging mortar or render will induce cracks from those points as the masonry moves. If ties are used over control joints, they must be sleeved to allow movement.

Adding extra cement to mortar or render causes more

shrinkage. Lightweight units are only 5MPa, so are susceptible

to cracking if laid in rich mortar or rendered with a cement-

rich mix.

Internal Control Joints

The Australian Masonry Manual specifies the spacing

of internal control joints for concrete units at 12m

maximum.

Energy Efficiency for Class 2 to 9 Buildings - Queensland

The Building Code of Australia (BCA) 2007, Volume 1, Clause J1.5 requires the walls of Class 2, 3, 4 and 9c buildings

in Queensland to have a “Total R-Value” of 1.4 or

a wall mass 220kg/m 2 in Climate Zone 5

(Great Dividing Range, west of Brisbane), or “Shading” in Climate Zones 1, 2 and 3 (the rest of Queensland).

Walls of Class 5 and 6 buildings and Class 7 to 9b buildings with conditioned spaces require a “Total R-Value” of 1.8 or

a wall mass 220kg/m 2 and various other conditions described in Table J1.5b.

Where 220kg/m 2 and “thermal conductivity of less than

0.8” is mentioned in Table J1.5b, it can be taken as 2 leaves

of 10.01 masonry [see BCA:2007, Vol 1, Specification J1.2,

Table 2a, Item 3 (e)(iii)].

Total R-Value” means the sum of thermal resistances (m 2 .K/W) of wall components including air spaces and associated surface resistances.

Specification J1.5 “Wall Construction”, gives R-values for wall types (A) (B) and (C) without insulation. Details are

on the following page.

BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE

|

February 2008

following page. BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE | February 2008 R-value of Insulation to be Added to

R-value of Insulation to be Added to Wall Types for Required Total R-value

 

Class 2, 3, 4 and 9c

Class 5 to 9b

Wall

Type

Zones 1, 2, 3 and 5

Zones 1, 2, 3 and 5

A 1.0

1.4

B 0.7

1.1

C 0.9

1.3

Masonry R-values without air films added (BCA:2007, Vol 1, Specification J1.5, Figure 2, Notes) are:

90mm hollow (10.01)

= 0.09

110mm bricks

= 0.12

140mm hollow (15.01)

= 0.15

190mm hollow (20.01)

= 0.20

10mm render adds 0.02

A wall mass 220kg/m 2 is defined in BCA Volume 2 as:

Two leaves of 90mm concrete masonry or

140mm concrete blocks with a reinforced bond beam and reinforced cores at 1m maximum spacing and 10mm plasterboard or render or

190mm concrete blocks with a bond beam and reinforced cores at 1.8m maximum spacing.

Shading, from a balcony, eaves or similar:

Each storey needs to have a minimum horizontal projection from the outside face equal to 0.27 times the wall height measured from floor level to the underside of the projection.

The “Total R-value”, the 220kg/m 2 and Shading options do not apply to south-facing walls (south-south-east to south-south- west) of Class 2, 3 and 4 buildings south of latitude 20°.

Alternative verification for Class 2 and 4 buildings can be achieved through a minimum 3 star assessment for each sole-occupancy unit and an average of 3.5 stars in Zone 1, 2 or 3, and 4 stars in Zone 5, using calculations defined in Clause JV1. For Class 3 and 5 to 9 buildings, verification can be achieved by calculating energy consumption to meet values as per Clause JV2 or by comparison with a reference building as per Clause JV3.

B7

Queensland

Queensland Book 1 B R-Values for Typical Wall Construction
Queensland Book 1 B R-Values for Typical Wall Construction
Queensland Book 1 B R-Values for Typical Wall Construction

Book 1

B

Queensland Book 1 B R-Values for Typical Wall Construction

R-Values for Typical Wall Construction

External wall construction description Item Item Description R-Value Masonry veneer — 25mm to 50mm cavity
External wall construction description
Item
Item Description
R-Value
Masonry veneer — 25mm to 50mm cavity space, 10mm
internal plaster on 90mm stud frame
1. Outdoor air film (7m/s)
0.03
(A)
2. Masonry 90mm thick denseweight block
0.09
1
3. Cavity air space (115 to 140mm, made up of
90mm stud + 25mm to 50mm air space non-reflective)
0.17
2
4. Plasterboard, gypsum (10mm, 880kg/m 3 )
0.06
3
5. Indoor air film (still air)
0.12
Total R-Value
0.47
4
5
(B)
Cavity masonry — 20mm to 50mm cavity space, 10mm
internal plaster on battens or furring channels
1. Outdoor air film (7m/s)
0.03
2. Masonry 90mm denseweight block
0.09
1
3. Brick cavity air space (20mm to 50mm, non-reflective)
0.17
2
4. Masonry 90mm denseweight block
0.09
5. Cavity air space (20mm to 35mm, non-reflective)
0.17
3
6. Plasterboard, gypsum (10mm, 880kg/m 3 )
0.06
4
7. Indoor air film (still air)
0.12
Total R-Value
0.73
5
6
7
Denseweight hollow concrete block with internal plaster
on battens or furring channels
1. Outdoor air film (7m/s)
0.03
(C)
2. Denseweight 140mm hollow concrete block
0.15
1
3. Cavity air space (20mm to 35mm non-reflective)
0.17
4. Plasterboard, gypsum (10mm, 880kg/m 3 )
0.06
2
5. Indoor air film (still air)
0.12
Total R-Value
0.53
3
4
5

B8

Concrete masonry R-values without air films added (BCA:2007, Specification J1.5, Figure 2, Notes) are:

90mm hollow (10.01)

= 0.09

110mm bricks

= 0.12

140mm hollow (15.01)

= 0.15

190mm hollow (20.01) 10mm render adds 0.02

= 0.20

February 2008

|

BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE

Queensland

Book 1

B

Energy Efficiency Queensland Houses

In the Building Code of Australia (BCA) 2007, Volume 2, Part 3.12, Queensland has retained the BCA:2005 requirements which, for walls are:

Total R-Values” or

in Zone 5 (Great Dividing Range, west of Brisbane), a Mass 220kg/m 2 (details below) or

in Zones 1, 2 and 3 (the rest of Qld), Shading of walls. South-facing walls (between south-east and south-west) below Latitude 20° are not required to satisfy the Total R- value or Shading option.

Total R-Value” means the sum of thermal resistances (m 2 .K/W) of wall components including air spaces and associated surface resistances.

Single-Leaf Walls:

For Zones 1, 2 and 3, the required Total R-Value is 1.

Single-leaf walls are deemed to be satisfied by 15.01 or 20.01 masonry with plasterboard on battens and insulation having an R-value 0.5 between battens.

In Zone 5, the wall above, with bond beam and some core- filling achieves the 220kg/m 2 requirement (see below). Without the 220kg/m 2 wall mass, insulation with an R-value 0.9 is required to reach a Total R-Value of 1.4.

Where insulation is on the external face of the masonry, behind cladding, and the internal face is rendered or lined with daub-fixed plasterboard, the R-value of the insulation is 0.52 in Zones 1, 2 and 3 and R 0.92 for Zone 5.

For 2 storey dwellings in Zone 1, 2 and 3, insulation is not required for the lower storey walls where they are 15.01 or 20.01 masonry.

Block Veneer Walls:

The R-values of 90mm block veneer and cavity block walls without insulation added are on Page B8 (from BCA:2007, Volume 1, Specification J1.5). Block veneer in Zone 1, 2 and 3, requires insulation with an R-value 0.53 to reach the Total R-value of 1. In Zone 5 it is R 0.93 for the Total R-value of 1.4.

Cavity Walls in Zone 1, 2 and 3 require insulation with an R-value 0.27 to reach the Total R-value of 1. In Zone 5, 90mm cavity walls satisfy the wall mass 220kg/m 2 requirement.

BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE

|

February 2008

2 requirement. BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE | February 2008 Wall mass 220kg/m 2 is defined (in

Wall mass 220kg/m 2 is defined (in BCA, Volume 2, Explanation of Fig. 3.12.1.3) as:

Two leaves of 90mm concrete masonry or

140mm concrete block with a bond beam and reinforced cores at 1m maximum spacing and 10mm plasterboard or render or

190mm concrete block with a bond beam and reinforced cores at 1.8m maximum spacing.

Shading (Zone 1, 2 and 3 only): The eaves, balcony, carport or similar is required to project 0.25 times the dimension measured from floor level to the underside of the projection.

2 Storey Dwellings:

Shading is not required for the lower storey walls where they are 15.01 or 20.01 masonry.

If both storeys have walls of lightweight construction, they must both satisfy the Total R-Value or the Shading requirement.

B9

Queensland

Book 1

B

Queensland Book 1 B Reinforced Masonry Lintels Moment and Shear Capacities for Series 150 Blocks (140mm

Reinforced Masonry Lintels

Moment and Shear Capacities for Series 150 Blocks (140mm leaf)

Vertical Bars V c M c N12 5.1 2.6 N16 6.3 2.6 100 15.12 70
Vertical
Bars
V c
M c
N12
5.1
2.6
N16
6.3
2.6
100
15.12
70
Horizontal Bars V c M c N12 5.1 2.0 N16 6.3 2.9
Horizontal
Bars
V c
M c
N12
5.1
2.0
N16
6.3
2.9

NOTES

V c = Shear capacity (kN)

M c = Moment capacity (kNm)

Mortar type, M3

Block characteristic compressive strength, ƒ ’uc = 15MPa

Grout compressive strength, ƒ c = 20MPa

Cement content min. (Grout) = 300kg/m 3

Vertical Bars V c M c N12 12.5 9.3 N16 13.7 16.0
Vertical
Bars
V c
M c
N12
12.5
9.3
N16
13.7
16.0
3 Vertical Bars V c M c N12 12.5 9.3 N16 13.7 16.0 70 300 15.12
70
70

300

15.12

Cut on-site

Horizontal Bars V c M c N12 10.2 4.0 N16 12.6 4.7
Horizontal
Bars
V c
M c
N12
10.2
4.0
N16
12.6
4.7

Moment and Shear Capacities for Series 200 Blocks (190mm leaf)

Vertical

Bars V c M c N12 7.9 3.6 N16 10.2 3.6 N20 13.1 3.6 Horizontal
Bars
V c
M c
N12
7.9
3.6
N16
10.2
3.6
N20
13.1
3.6
Horizontal
Bars
V c
M c
100
N12
8.2
4.0
N16
9.3
6.9
N20
10.6
9.9
20.12
129
(N12 bars)
127
(N16 bars)
125
(N20 bars)
Vertical Bars V c M c N12 6.4 2.9 N16 7.6 3.6 N20 9.1 3.6
Vertical
Bars
V c
M c
N12
6.4
2.9
N16
7.6
3.6
N20
9.1
3.6
100 20.12 95
100
20.12
95
Horizontal Bars V c M c N12 6.4 2.9 N16 7.6 5.0 N20 9.1 6.5
Horizontal
Bars
V c
M c
N12
6.4
2.9
N16
7.6
5.0
N20
9.1
6.5
Vertical Bars V c M c N12 17.9 18.0 N16 20.2 30.2 N20 23.1 32.2
Vertical
Bars
V c
M c
N12
17.9
18.0
N16
20.2
30.2
N20
23.1
32.2
Vertical Bars V c M c N12 16.4 9.5 N16 17.6 16.6 N20 19.0 24.4
Vertical
Bars
V c
M c
N12
16.4
9.5
N16
17.6
16.6
N20
19.0
24.4
300 20.12 129 127
300
20.12
129
127
300 20.12 95
300
20.12
95

20.20

20.01

on-site

or

cut

20.20

20.01

on-site

or

cut

Horizontal Bars V c M c N12 16.4 8.0 N16 18.6 13.4 N20 21.3 17.2
Horizontal
Bars
V c
M c
N12
16.4
8.0
N16
18.6
13.4
N20
21.3
17.2
Horizontal Bars V c M c N12 12.9 5.7 N16 15.2 9.5 N20 18.1 9.9
Horizontal
Bars
V c
M c
N12
12.9
5.7
N16
15.2
9.5
N20
18.1
9.9

(Y12 bars)

(Y16 bars)

125 (Y20 bars)

B10

February 2008

|

BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE

Queensland

Book 1

B

Design of Core Filled and Steel Reinforced Masonry Retaining Walls

Introduction

The information presented here is supplied in good faith and to the best of our knowledge was accurate at the time of preparation. However, from time to time, additional or modified data may be released by the CMAA. Any such information will supersede the information presented in this guide.

This section provides specifications, design tables and typical details for a range of reinforced concrete masonry retaining walls and their associated reinforced concrete bases. It is intended as a general guide for suitably qualified and experienced professional engineers, who for any particular proposed retaining wall, must accept the responsibility for carrying out a comprehensive site investigation, determining the soil characteristics and other design parameters of the particular site, and for designing and detailing the structures.

It is important for the professional engineer to determine the strength and stability of the foundation material and the drainage system required to ensure there will not be a build up of hydrostatic pressure behind the wall.

All designs are based on:

• Reinforced Concrete Masonry Structures — AS3700 :

2001 SA Masonry Code.

• Reinforced Concrete Base — AS3600 :

1988 Concrete Structures.

• Reinforcement — AS1302 :

1982 Steel Reinforcing Bars for Concrete.

• Concrete Blocks — AS4455 :

1997 Concrete Masonry Units.

Wall Types

Design tables in this section are given for walls up to 3.4 metres high and for two base types:

Loading Conditions

These tables cover:

Sloping backfill (up to 1 in 4) without any surcharge

or

Level backfill with a 5kPa surcharge

Since typical cases only are presented, these tables may not provide an ideal solution for a particular application.

BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE

|

February 2008

Boundary Backfill Ground level Base Type 1 Foundation
Boundary
Backfill
Ground level
Base Type 1
Foundation
Fig B1 — Typical Wall Layout for Base Type 1 Boundary Backfill Ground level Base
Fig B1 — Typical Wall Layout for Base Type 1
Boundary
Backfill
Ground level
Base Type 2
Foundation

Fig B2 — Typical Wall Layout for Base Type 2

Construction Recommendations

General

Recommendations specifically applicable to reinforced masonry retaining walls include:

• The provision of clean-out openings in the bottom course to permit removal of mortar droppings and other debris and to allow vertical reinforcement to be positioned and tied. These openings should be closed (generally done with formwork) before grouting.

B11

Queensland

Book 1

B

Queensland Book 1 B • The use of H blocks above the first course. These blocks

• The use of H blocks above the first course. These blocks are easier to fill with grout which provides the required continuous protection to the reinforcement. If rebated flush- ended blocks are used in lieu of H blocks, they should be laid with alternate courses inverted to provide grout cover to horizontal reinforcement, which should be supported 20mm clear of the webs of flush-ended blocks.

• The forming of weepholes by leaving out mortar in the vertical joints at the required locations. Where H blocks are used, and weepholes are required, they may be provided by placing 25mm diameter PVC pipes through the vertical joint at the required locations. Alternatively, flush-ended blocks may be placed on either side of the required weephole location so a mortar-free joint may be formed.

• The accurate positioning of reinforcement to give a minimum of 55mm of cover to the face of the bar and its secure tying before placing concrete or grout.

• The removal of mortar dags protruding into cores before grouting.

• The use, whenever available, of ready-mixed grout to workability specifications given in AS3700 should be used. Site-mixed grout, if used, should be mixed thoroughly in a tilting-drum mixer to the same specification as ready-mixed grout.

• The filling of all cores with grout, whether reinforced or not. This is essential to bond and protect horizontal reinforcement, to provide a full barrier against water penetration and to give maximum weight for stability.

• The thorough compaction of the grout so voids are not left. Compaction may be achieved with a high- frequency pencil vibrator, used carefully. (The main vertical reinforcing bars should not be used to compact the grout). Control joints should be built into the masonry at all points of potential cracking.

Backfill Drainage

It is essential that steps be taken to prevent the backfill behind

the wall from becoming saturated. These steps should include:

Sealing Backfill Surface

To prevent saturation of backfill by surface run-off, the

surface of the backfill should be sealed by covering it with

a compacted layer of low permeability material. The surface should be sloped towards an open drain.

Continuous Drainage Within the Backfill

This can be achieved by placing free-draining gravel or crushed stone to a width of approximately 300mm immediately behind the wall with a continuous agricultural pipe located

B12

Impermeable

layer sloping

to drain Drain Backfill
to drain
Drain
Backfill

Fig B3 — Sealing Backfill Surface

at the base of the wall. The outlets of the pipe must be beyond the ends of the wall unless the pipe is connected to a proper stormwater drainage system.

For higher walls, or in cases where excessive groundwater exists, it may be necessary to provide another agricultural pipe drain at mid-height of the wall.

Vertical layer of granular material

Continuous agricultural pipe drain surrounded by free-draining gravel or crushed stone To prevent clay or
Continuous
agricultural pipe
drain surrounded
by free-draining
gravel or crushed
stone
To prevent clay or
silt infiltrating the
drainage system a
geofabric material
may be wrapped
around the gravel
and/or the pipe

Fig B4 — Continuous Drainage Within the Backfill Walls with Base Type 1

Care must be taken to ensure that clay and silt do not infiltrate the drainage material or agricultural pipe. The use of a geofabric envelope around the gravel and/or a geofabric sock over the pipe will assist.

February 2008

|

BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE

Queensland

Book 1

B

Backfill Free draining granular material Locate the continuous drain at the bottom of the base
Backfill
Free draining
granular material
Locate the
continuous drain
at the bottom of
the base
Fig B5 — Continuous Drainage Within the Backfill Walls with Base Type 2 Extra agricultural
Fig B5 — Continuous Drainage Within the Backfill
Walls with Base Type 2
Extra
agricultural
pipe drain

Fig B6 — Continuous Drainage for High Walls and/or Excessive Groundwater

Weepholes

Weepholes should be provided above the finished ground level. A drain should be provided in front of the wall to prevent saturation of the ground.

The horizontal spacing of the weepholes depends on the provisions made for directing water towards the holes. The simplest, but most effective, method is to place one or two buckets of free-draining gravel or crushed stone around the intake end of each hole. In this case, the horizontal spacing should not exceed 1.5 metres. If the layers of draining material are continuous for the full length of the wall, weephole spacing may be increased to an extent depending on the quantity of water expected.

Note: For walls higher than 2200mm, a second row of weepholes may be required. However, staining of the wall could result.

BORAL MASONRY DESIGN GUIDE

|

February 2008

Free-draining gravel or stone Weepholes between blocks Drain
Free-draining
gravel or stone
Weepholes
between
blocks
Drain

Fig B7 — Continuous Drainage Within the Backfill Walls with Base Type 1

Water Penetration

If it is considered necessary to reduce the passage of moisture through the wall, for aesthetic or other reasons such as aggressive groundwater, the earth face of the wall should be treated with an appropriate sealer such as water- resistant render or water-resistant paint, or by tanking with bituminous materials.

Structural Design Guidelines

Acceptable Soil Combinations

• For retaining walls founded on sand (Type A soil), the retained material must be similar and with a friction angle of 38° or greater, eg Type A soil — clean sand or gravel.

• For retaining walls founded on other soils, the retained material must be a free
• For retaining walls founded on other soils, the retained
material must be a free draining material with a friction
angle of 27° or greater, eg Type A soil — clean sand or gravel,
Type B soil — coarse grained with silt or some clay.
55mm cover to
wall reinforcement
Clean-out
course
30mm
50mm cover to all
base reinforcement

Fig B8 — Typical Set-out Detail

B13

Queensland

Book 1

B

Queensland Book 1 B Sloping 190 backfill or surcharge Optional capping Longitudinal reinforcement: N12 in

Sloping